Group Title: Climatological report for Range Cattle Experiment Station, University of Florida
Title: Climatological report.
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 Material Information
Title: Climatological report.
Series Title: Climatological report.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Range Cattle Station,
Publication Date: 2002
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075797
Volume ID: VID00021
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 143383408

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center
Research Report RC-2003-1
February 2003



CLIMATOLOGICAL REPORT 2002


Range Cattle Research and Education Center


R. S. Kalmbacher
Professor, IFAS, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, Ona, Florida.


Weather conditions strongly influence agricultural operations from planting through harvesting. Knowledge of
annual rainfall and temperature cycles along with their extremes help producers determine optimum times to
prepare and plant seedbeds, fertilize pastures, apply herbicides, control water, and to supplement cattle on
pasture or range. Weather conditions influence germination, forage growth, palatability, and nutritive value. A
knowledge of weather cycles and extremes is helpful to a successful cattle operation.

This research report presents a summary of rainfall, air temperature, evapotranspiration, and solar radiation for
2002 obtained at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (REC) Ona, Florida. The center is located 820
55' W and 270 26' N in south central Florida approximately 45 miles (72 km) east of the Gulf of Mexico and 100
miles (160 km) west of the Atlantic Ocean.

Weather observations were collected with a Weather Watch 2000 (Campbell Scientific, Inc). Accuracy of
rainfall as measured by the Weather Watch 2000 was checked by comparing with rainfall measured by a US
Weather Service standard gauge.

Rainfall:

Annual rainfall for 2002 was 69.15 inches, which was 15.53 inches (29%) greater than the 61-year average of
53.62 inches (standard deviation 11.09 inches) (Table 1). The driest year had been 2000 when 32.02 inches were
measured, and the year with the greatest rainfall was 1959 when 78.82 inches were recorded.

Table 1. Summary of rainfall by months. Range Cattle REC, 2002.
1942 to 2002 2002
Maximum Minimum 61-yr Diference
month month Average l from
Total
60-yr
average
I-----------------inches*----------------
[January 8.45 0.03 2.23 11.86 -0.37





February 9.59 0.02 2.57 6.20 +3.63
March 12.34 0.13 3.20 0.42 -2.78
IApril 11.91 0.00 2.50 2.56 +0.06
May 10.58 0.00 3.68 1.28 -2.40
June 18.99 2.79 8.46 13.85 +5.39
IJuly 19.74 1.87 8.57 11.05 +2.48
IAugust 15.72 3.13 8.07 12.25 +4.18
September 20.11 1.14 7.28 5.46 -1.82
1October 11.23 0.04 3.14 2.42 -0.72
]November 11.22 0.07 1.94 4.74 +2.80
December 8.61 0.16 1.98 7.06 +5.08
Year total 53.62 69.15 +15.53
*Inches x 2.54 = cm.


Table 2. Weather at Range Cattle REC, 2002. (Following four pages)
I


January
Max Min Rain MJ/
F oF inches m2
62 43 0.02 4.32
70 49 0.00 13.82
67 51 0.37 2.59
53 31 0.00 4.32
53 31 0.00 16.42
68 45 0.01 12.10
72 45 0.11 8.64
64 34 0.00 8.64
56 28 0.00 16.42
65 32 0.00 16.42
72 40 0.00 16.42
74 43 0.00 13.82
76 54 0.11 13.82
73 55 0.17 15.55
71 63 1.06 2.59
70 49 0.00 10.37
77 55 0.00 15.55
78 56 0.00 12.10
75 49 0.00 16.42


February
Max Min Rain MJ/
OF OF inches m2
85 59 0.00 15.55
85 59 0.00 14.69
81 55 0.00 12.10
80 50 0.00 14.69
70 41 0.00 17.28
73 50 0.00 18.14
78 63 0.00 15.55
78 43 0.51 6.05
67 48 0.00 18.14
76 58 0.01 9.50
75 56 0.48 6.91
73 49 0.00 13.82
76 51 0.00 14.69
70 50 0.25 12.10
70 48 0.00 11.23
80 59 0.00 15.55
74 51 0.00 13.82
72 38 0.00 20.74
74 45 0.00 20.74


March
Max Min Rain MJ/


oF
63
72
85
84
54
65
74
72
85
84
85
84
84
79
81
89
89
87
89


OF inches m2
43 0.00 20.74
57 0.00 9.50
67 0.00 16.42
53 0.01 17.28
40 0.00 7.78
46 0.00 19.01
55 0.01 11.23
56 0.00 7.78
57 0.00 20.74
56 0.00 21.60
54 0.00 20.74
61 0.00 21.60
67 0.00 18.14
51 0.00 19.01
57 0.00 19.87
61 0.00 22.46
61 0.00 21.60
60 0.00 23.33
62 0.00 21.60


Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19




17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31


77 55 0.00 15.55
78 56 0.00 12.10
75 49 0.00 16.42
82 62 0.00 14.69
84 60 0.00 12.96
83 67 0.00 13.82
79 66 0.01 6.91
85 63 0.00 14.69
85 57 0.00 16.42
83 61 0.00 13.82
86 64 0.00 13.82
81 65 0.00 10.37
84 63 0.00 12.96
84 62 0.00 12.96
86 64 0.00 12.96


74 51 0.00 13.82
72 38 0.00 20.74
74 45 0.00 20.74
75 54 0.00 18.14
82 60 0.00 16.42
81 65 1.61 13.82
68 63 2.80 1.73
65 47 0.54 3.46
71 47 0.00 21.60
76 53 0.00 19.01
76 53 0.00 18.14
57 34 0.00 21.60


Avg 74 52 12.15 75 52 14.47 81 58 19.20
Max 86 67 1.06 16.42 85 65 2.80 21.60 89 67 0.38 25.06
Min 53 28 0 2.59 57 34 0 1.73 54 40 0 7.78
Total 1.86 376.71 6.20 405.21 0.42 595.32


- Y


April
Max Min Rain MJ/
"F F inches m2
85 63 0.00 21.60
85 61 0.00 20.74
86 62 0.00 19.01
85 57 0.26 14.69
83 61 0.00 22.46
82 58 0.00 23.33
78 52 0.00 25.92
79 55 0.00 22.46
83 61 0.00 24.19
86 60 0.00 23.33
84 64 0.00 18.14
84 59 0.00 21.60
85 63 2.15 16.42
82 62 0.00 19.01
82 59 0.11 15.55
88 66 0.01 25.92


May
Max
oF
90
88
90
95
95
93
92
93
93
95
93
92
93
91
91
86


Min Rain


MJ/


"F inches m2
63 0.00 24.19
61 0.00 25.92
65 0.00 25.06
67 0.00 26.78
64 0.00 24.19
70 0.00 22.46
69 0.00 20.74
68 0.00 24.19
61 0.00 25.06
65 0.00 27.65
66 0.00 25.92
66 0.00 25.06
63 0.00 25.92
66 0.00 23.33
65 0.00 24.19
66 0.00 23.33


June
Max Min Rain MJ/
"F F inches m2
91 68 1.18 17.28
91 68 0.00 25.06
94 69 0.00 24.19
95 71 0.00 24.19
88 73 0.00 13.82
91 72 0.00 15.55
93 70 0.06 21.60
91 71 0.90 15.55
88 68 0.95 18.14
90 66 0.08 25.06
91 71 0.02 22.46
90 70 1.05 19.87
92 71 0.77 20.74
90 72 0.01 20.74
86 73 0.53 15.55
89 72 0.29 19.87


89 61 0.00 21.60
87 60 0.00 23.33
89 62 0.00 21.60
85 62 0.00 23.33
86 60 0.00 19.87
84 61 0.00 17.28
79 52 0.00 25.06
81 58 0.00 23.33
83 60 0.00 20.74
88 63 0.00 18.14
88 60 0.01 18.14
84 51 0.01 20.74
86 60 0.00 25.06
86 62 0.00 22.46
88 64 0.38 20.74


Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16




82 62 0.00 19.01
82 59 0.11 15.55
88 66 0.01 25.92
89 64 0.00 22.46
87 64 0.00 20.74
88 63 0.03 25.92
88 60 0.00 24.19
89 63 0.00 25.92
90 63 0.00 24.19
91 61 0.00 24.19
88 66 0.00 20.74
88 65 0.00 23.33
90 66 0.00 25.06
90 67 0.00 24.19
90 62 0.00 25.92
90 64 0.00 26.78
87 62 0.00 24.19


66 0.00 23.33
65 0.00 24.19
66 0.00 23.33
69 0.05 14.69
68 0.00 26.78
68 1.04 21.60
66 0.19 10.37
63 0.00 22.46
63 0.00 25.92
63 0.00 25.06
61 0.00 26.78
58 0.00 27.65
61 0.00 25.92
67 0.00 20.74
67 0.00 20.74
59 0.00 25.92
68 0.00 25.06
63 0.00 22.46


90 72
86 73
89 72
87 73
85 69
87 72
90 71
85 71
86 71
79 71
87 72
88 72
86 74
88 73
90 71
89 72
90 73


0.01 20.74
0.53 15.55
0.29 19.87
0.31 18.14
1.47 12.10
0.09 15.55
0.29 17.28
0.14 12.10
2.29 15.55
0.17 7.78
0.99 12.96
0.39 12.96
0.85 16.42
0.06 16.42
0.79 15.55
0.17 17.28
0.00 20.74


Avg 86 62 22.41 90 65 23.75 89 71 17.68
Max 91 67 2.15 26.78 95 70 1.04 27.65 95 74 2.29 25.06
Min 78 52 0 14.69 75 58 0 10.37 79 66 0 7.78
Total 2.56 672.19 1.28 736.14 13.85 530.50




I


July
Max Min Rain MJ/
F F inches m2
89 71 0.32 14.69
86 70 1.41 12.96
87 72 1.46 17.28
91 73 0.00 25.06
90 71 0.01 19.01
88 71 0.48 19.55
91 72 0.07 21.60
86 72 0.02 15.55
86 71 0.58 19.01
83 72 0.06 11.23
86 71 0.00 19.01
87 74 1.04 16.42
84 73 1.67 9.50


August
Max Min Rain MJ/
F F inches m2
94 74 0.00 23.33
92 68 2.79 22.46
85 73 2.59 11.23
85 72 0.28 13.82
93 73 0.28 20.74
93 74 0.00 23.33
90 74 0.15 15.55
86 71 1.37 8.64
91 71 0.00 25.92
89 70 0.01 19.01
90 73 0.00 24.19
88 73 0.02 17.28
90 73 0.00 17.28


September
Max Min
oF oF
92 75
93 74
92 74
90 73
91 74
87 72
90 73
90 74
91 73
92 73
91 72
84 71
81 73


Rain
inches
0.22
0.00
0.01
0.03
0.00
0.07
0.18
0.05
0.00
0.00
1.73
0.29
0.00


MJ/
m2
17.28
21.60
15.55
17.28
22.46
9.50
19.01
19.01
19.01
16.42
14.69
6.05
8.64


Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13




11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31


86 71 0.00 19.01
87 74 1.04 16.42
84 73 1.67 9.50
85 73 0.06 15.55
90 74 0.00 24.19
93 75 0.00 22.46
95 77 0.00 23.33
95 76 0.00 23.33
97 74 0.00 22.46
92 75 0.00 17.28
92 73 0.00 20.74
92 71 1.99 17.28
91 74 0.00 19.87
92 76 0.01 21.60
92 76 0.16 24.19
93 74 0.30 20.74
94 72 1.35 22.46
93 74 0.00 19.87
95 73 0.00 25.92
92 72 0.06 18.14
91 72 0.00 19.01


73 0.00 24.19
73 0.02 17.28
73 0.00 17.28
72 0.11 15.55
74 0.07 15.55
74 0.00 23.33
75 0.00 20.74
72 0.37 22.46
72 0.21 19.87
72 0.00 22.46
71 0.11 23.33
71 1.06 19.87
73 0.00 21.60
72 0.00 20.74
72 0.00 22.46
74 0.24 19.87
73 0.40 15.55
71 0.44 14.69
72 0.04 16.42
72 1.04 19.87
72 0.67 15.55


1.73
0.29
0.00
0.01
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.17
0.00
1.04
0.16
0.09
0.68
0.18
0.00
0.00
0.52


Avg 90 73 19.20 90 72 19.11 90 74 16.56
Max 97 77 1.99 25.92 95 75 2.79 25.92 93 76 1.73 22.46
Min 83 70 0 9.50 84 68 0 8.64 81 71 0 6.05
Total 11.05 595.29 12.25 592.69 5.46 496.8


Rain MJ/
inches m2
0.00 11.23
0.23 8.64
0.00 16.42
0.00 14.69
0.00 16.42
0.02 11.23
0.09 12.10
0.00 18.14
0.00 15.55
0.00 16.42
Ann i C cc


1I


December
Max Min Rain MJ/
F F inches m2
71 52 0.00 12.96
69 44 0.00 7.78
74 44 0.00 15.55
73 53 0.00 15.55
80 65 0.00 9.50
84 66 0.66 8.64
67 49 0.04 2.59
74 54 0.00 12.96
77 62 0.03 8.64
70 63 2.48 2.59
'7f L n 0 KA


14.69
6.05
8.64
11.23
13.82
19.01
19.01
20.74
21.60
16.42
16.42
18.14
19.87
15.55
12.96
13.82
15.55
19.01
19.01
18.14


October
Max Min
OF OF
88 75
90 74
90 71
90 68
90 70
89 68
89 68
89 70
89 70
90 72
nn In"


Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11


Rain
inches
0.09
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.18
0.01
0.00
SAnn


MJ/
m2
16.42
16.42
17.28
17.28
16.42
17.28
19.87
18.14
16.42
17.28
1i A'


November
Max Min
oF oF
82 67
80 62
81 59
81 63
85 65
87 73
86 49
71 52
82 60
85 65
0O7 CO




0 0o /I V./10 1.1i I ,L U.UU 1I.1 I P/ Y4 U.UU IL.YO
9 89 70 0.01 16.42 82 60 0.00 15.55 77 62 0.03 8.64
10 90 72 0.00 17.28 85 65 0.00 16.42 70 63 2.48 2.59
11 90 70 0.00 16.42 87 68 0.00 15.55 79 66 0.09 8.64
12 93 72 0.00 18.14 88 66 0.00 14.69 74 57 0.00 12.10
13 92 73 0.15 19.01 86 60 0.02 13.82 74 61 0.55 4.32
14 91 69 1.68 17.28 73 50 0.00 17.28 71 57 0.34 3.46
15 87 70 0.00 13.82 77 59 0.00 14.69 63 46 0.00 8.64
16 86 71 0.26 15.55 78 68 1.51 7.78 61 38 0.00 12.96
17 81 60 0.01 15.55 70 58 2.85 0.86 65 40 0.00 15.55
18 80 57 0.00 20.74 65 43 0.00 11.23 70 52 0.00 12.10
19 83 60 0.00 19.01 66 49 0.00 17.28 77 56 0.00 12.10
20 86 65 0.00 17.28 74 57 0.00 15.55 81 63 1.17 12.96
21 87 67 0.00 13.82 80 63 0.00 12.10 72 44 0.01 10.37
22 87 68 0.00 15.55 76 61 0.02 6.05 64 45 0.00 15.55
23 89 69 0.03 12.96 72 43 0.00 13.82 71 51 0.00 12.96
24 89 68 0.00 13.82 65 44 0.00 16.42 76 59 0.00 13.82
25 89 67 0.00 17.28 76 51 0.00 15.55 73 49 1.69 6.91
26 89 69 0.00 16.42 80 57 0.00 14.69 75 45 0.00 12.96
27 88 71 0.00 17.28 73 52 0.00 10.37 64 48 0.00 14.69
28 89 72 0.00 17.28 74 54 0.00 13.82 63 47 0.00 8.64
29 89 68 0.00 17.28 73 39 0.00 12.10 63 36 0.00 15.55
30 89 72 0.00 15.55 66 37 0.00 16.42 71 40 0.00 16.42
31 87 68 0.00 12.10 75 53 0.00 14.69
Avg 88 69 16.61 77 56 13.36 72 52 11.04
Max 93 75 1.68 20.74 88 73 2.85 18.14 84 66 2.48 16.42
Min 80 57 0 12.10 65 37 0 0.86 61 36 0 2.59
Total 2.42 514.95 4.74 400.91 7.06 342.15





18-
17-
16 m current yr
15 ~61 yr
14
13
12
11
8 10

8
7
6


2

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month



Figure 1. Monthly 2002 rainfall at the Range Cattle REC compared to the 61-year mean rainfall at Range
Cattle REC.


There were 28 occurrences during 2002 when daily rain equaled or exceeded 1 inch and seven events that
exceeded 2 inches (Table 2). The single greatest daily rain event was on 17 November when 2.85 inches
were recorded. This is noteworthy because November is historically the month with the least rainfall at
the Range Cattle REC. Eleven (39%) of the > 1 inch events occurred outside of the June to September
rainy season. Above average rain in June to August and November to December resulted in typical
flooding of pastures at Ona (Fig.l).

Evapo-transpiration

Rainfall exceeded evapo-transpiration in 7 months during 2002 (Figure 2). Only in March through May,
the typical dry season, did evapo-transpiration exceed rainfall. For the year, rainfall exceeded evapo-
transpiration by 31.83 inches. Historically, pan evaporation and evapo-transpiration have exceed rainfall
at the Range Cattle REC.






18 -
17 -- Rain totaled 69.15"
16 1 Evapotranspiration totaled 37.32"
15
14
13
12

S10-
9
8
7

5
4
3

1
0:
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month



Figure 2. Monthly rainfall compared with evapo-transpiration during 2002.


Temperature:

There were four and six days when daily low-shelter and daily low ground-temperatures, respectively,
were at or below 32 OF (Table 2). The extreme low temperature for 2002 occurred on 9 January when
shelter and ground temperature reached 28 and 25 OF, respectively. Scattered frost occurs when ground
temperature reaches 34 OF. Based on this observation, there were nine incidences of frost (data not
shown). In spite of a few cold days, only November had a mean-montly low shelter-temperature near the
59-year mean for that month (Table 3). Mean minimum shelter shelter temperatures for all other months
in 2002 exceeded the respective 59-year mean. Overall, mean temperature for 2002 was 2 OF higher than
the 59-year mean.



Table 3. Summary of minimum temperature (oF)* by months, Range Cattle REC, 2002.
Shelter Temperature Ground Temperature
1944-02 2002 1944-02 2002 2002
Avg. Avg. Extreme Ye Extreme Avg. Extreme
Low Low Low Low Low Low
January 49.4 51.8 18 1981 28 49.8 25
February 50.6 51.8 26 1976 34 49.4 30
SMarch 54.4 57.6 26 1980 40 55.1 39
SApril 58.2 61.8 34 1971 52 59.1 48





May 63.3 64.8 43 1945 58 62.3 55
June 68.9 71.0 52 1984 66 69.1 64
July 71.1 73 62 several 70 71.6 68
August 71.7 72.4 61 1977 68 70.7 68
September 71.0 73.9 56 1962 71 72.3 70
October 64.7 68.8 42 several 57 66.3 54
November 56.8 56.5 25 1970 37 54.0 34
December 51.2 51.8 20 1962 36 50.0 34
Avg. 60.9 62.9 51.4 60.8 49.1
OC =( F 32 )x 0.555


Solar Radiation:

Daily solar radiation is shown in Table 2, and 2002 total monthly solar radiation can be seen graphically
in Figure 3. For interpretation of solar radiation as it pertains to plant growth, 1 MJ results in about 14.3
lb/A of plant dry matter if soil water, temperature, and fertility are not limiting and vegetative cover is
complete. Theoretically, enough solar radiation was received in May 2002 (746 MJ) to produce 10,670 lb/
A of plant dry matter. Total solar radiation for 2002 was 6259 MJ.


700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0


2002 total-6259 MJ


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month


Figure 3. Total monthly solar radiation for 2002.


Freeze hazard:







The fall and spring freeze hazards for the Range Cattle REC are shown in Figures 4 and 5, respectively.
The fall freeze hazard shows the chance of experiencing the first attainment of a critical temperature
before a selected date, while the spring freeze hazard shows the chance of the last attainment of a critical
temperature before a critical date. Based on records from 1944 to 1991, these data will not predict what
will occur in a given year, but what can be expected over a period of years. In an example using the
spring freeze hazard, a frost susceptible crop (assuming 320F) planted before the 1st of February would
stand a 50% chance of survival (Figure 4). A grower would probably lose five crops over 10 years by
planting before the st of February.


a 4iWM
OINOV


OIDEC OIJAN


o FE


Date


Figure 4. Fall freeze hazard showing the chance of the first attainment of a given temperature before a
selected date.









90















20 ct dte
70-" 32J"






S
*2 S













[ Cf _o mn ---- a U-- U-- -.... -a _


Figure 5. Spring freeze hazard showing the chance of the last attainment of a given temperature before a
selected date.

Acknowledgments:
We gratefully acknowledge data collections by Shirley Searcy, as well as data preparation by Andrea
Dunlap.



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