Group Title: Climatological report for Range Cattle Experiment Station, University of Florida
Title: Climatological report.
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 Material Information
Title: Climatological report.
Series Title: Climatological report.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Range Cattle Station,
Publication Date: 2001
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075797
Volume ID: VID00020
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 143383408

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center
Research Report RC-2002-1
February 2002



CLIMATOLOGICAL REPORT 2001


Range Cattle Research and Education Center


R. S. Kalmbacher
Professor, IFAS, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, Ona, Florida.


Weather conditions strongly influence agricultural operations from planting through harvesting. Knowledge of annual
rainfall and temperature cycles along with their extremes help producers determine optimum times to prepare and plant
seedbeds, fertilize pastures, apply herbicides, control water, and to supplement cattle on pasture or range. Weather
conditions influence germination, forage growth, palatability, and nutritive value. A knowledge of weather cycles and
extremes is helpful to a successful cattle operation.

This research report presents a summary of rainfall, air temperature, evapotranspiration, and solar radiation for 2001
obtained at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (REC) Ona, Florida. The center is located 820 55' W and 270
26' N in south central Florida approximately 45 miles (72 km) east of the Gulf of Mexico and 100 miles (160 km) west of
the Atlantic Ocean.

Weather observations were collected with a Weather Watch 2000 (Campbell Scientific, Inc). Accuracy of rainfall as
measured by the Weather Watch 2000 was checked by comparing with rainfall measured by a US Weather Service standard
gauge.

Rainfall:

Annual rainfall for 2001 was 64.67 inches, which was 11.31 inches (21%) greater than the 60-year average of 53.36 inches
(standard deviation 10.99 inches) (Table 1). The driest year had been 2000 when 32.02 inches were measured, and the year
with the greatest rainfall was 1959 when 78.82 inches were recorded.

Table 1.Summary of rainfall by months. Range Cattle REC, 2001.
1942 to 2000 2001
Maximum Minimum 60-yr Diference
month month Average Total from
60-yr average
S--- ----------------inches*------------- ---
January 8.45 0.03 2.23 0.34 -1.89
February 9.59 0.02 2.51 0.02 -2.49
March 12.34 0.13 3.25 6.33 +3.08
April 11.91 0.00 2.50 0.96 -1.54
May 10.58 0.00 3.72 1.30 -2.42





June 18.99 2.79 8.37 10.58 +2.21
July 19.74 1.87 8.53 14.26 +5.73
August 15.72 3.13 8.00 10.11 +2.11
September 20.11 1.14 7.31 17.76 +10.45
October 11.23 0.04 3.15 2.38 -0.77
November 11.22 0.07 1.90 0.16 -1.74
December 8.61 0.16 1.89 0.47 -1.42
Year total 53.36 64.67 +11.31
*Inches x 2.54 = cm.




Table 2. Weather at Range Cattle REC, 2001.(Following four pages)
January February March
Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/
Day "F F inches m2 OF OF inches m2 OF F inches m2
1 51 27 0.00 16.42 84 64 0.00 13.82 84 57 0.00 18.14
2 60 37 0.00 15.55 82 64 0.00 12.96 84 59 0.00 17.28
3 58 36 0.00 11.23 77 55 0.00 6.91 85 61 0.00 18.14
4 63 31 0.00 14.69 63 57 0.02 6.05 87 67 0.00 19.87
5 56 23 0.00 16.42 73 53 0.00 10.37 84 49 1.08 8.64
6 63 40 0.00 15.55 70 28 0.00 14.69 67 44 0.00 23.33
7 70 28 0.00 15.55 78 41 0.00 19.01 64 44 0.00 24.19
8 71 45 0.00 15.55 80 51 0.00- 17.28 68 37 0.00 25.06
9 77 42 0.16 9.50 81 54 0.00 18.14 73 35 0.00 24.19
10 56 30 0.00 16.42 83 55 0.00 18.14 76 56 0.05 20.74
11 63 41 0.00 14.69 86 61 0.00 14.69 77 47 0.00 19.01
12 74 47 0.00 14.69 87 65 0.00 16.42 80 55 0.00 21.60
13 76 41 0.00 12.10 87 62 0.00 15.55 89 70 0.00 19.01
14 66 45 0.00 14.69 86 60 0.00 16.42 80 60 0.19 5.18
15 76 46 0.00 12.10 86 57 0.00 15.55 80 61 0.01 11.23
16 80 55 0.00 13.82 86 57 0.00 15.55 85 67 0.00 15.55
17 80 59 0.00 12.10 85 62 0.00 19.01 82 66 0.00 9.50
18 82 58 0.00 12.10 84 55 0.00 15.55 84 60 0.00 16.42
19 83 56 0.00 12.96 79 52 0.00 19.01 79 63 0.00 16.42
20 87 63 0.17 13.82 81 54 0.00 17.28 75 66 0.35 6.91
21 64 31 0.01 4.32 81 62 0.00 13.82 75 53 0.01 15.55
22 55 38 0.00 16.42 81 50 0.00 11.23 66 52 0.00 12.10
23 65 39 0.00 7.78 84 55 0.00 18.14 70 41 0.00 25.06
24 61 33 0.00 17.28 84 60 0.00 14.69 80 47 0.00 25.06
25 66 32 0.00 17.28 87 61 0.00 18.14 83 49 0.00 24.19
26 66 29 0.00 18.14 86 59 0.00 13.82 82 48 0.00 23.33
27 69 36 0.00 16.42 86 56 0.00 16.42 76 49 0.00 17.28
28 67 39 0.00 10.37 89 58 0.00 19.87 78 53 0.00 25.06
29 76 50 0.00 15.55 83 67 0.00 21.60
2IN 179 Qo n nN 11 nV OA c A 4A o0 A




69 36 0.00 16.42
67 39 0.00 10.37
76 50 0.00 15.55
78 58 0.00 12.96
81 64 0.00 12.96


86 56 0.00 16.42
89 58 0.00 19.87


76 49 0.00 17.28
78 53 0.00 25.06
83 67 0.00 21.60
84 62 4.64 8.64
77 65 0.00 11.23


Avg 69 42 13.85 82 56 15.30 79 55 17.73
Max 87 64 0.17 18.14 89 65 0.02 19.87 89 70 4.64 25.06
Min 51 23 0 4.32 63 28 0 6.05 64 35 0 5.18
Total 0.34 429.43 0.02 428.53 6.33 549.51


Max Mpril Rain M
Max Min Rain MJ/


OF OF inches m2 F
-


83 59 0.66
78 48 0.00
82 53 0.00
86 58 0.00
85 60 0.00
85 63 0.14
84 60 0.00
85 65 0.02
88 64 0.13
90 63 0.00
87 62 0.00
89 65 0.00
91 65 0.00
90 65 0.00
90 64 0.00
88 63 0.00
85 51 0.00
83 51 0.00
70 37 0.00
78 50 0.00
83 53 0.00
84 58 0.00
87 60 0.00
89 62 0.00
88 61 0.00
82 64 0.00
80 51 0.00
84 54 0.00
82 64 0.00
76 65 0.01


84 59
91 65 0.66
70 37 0


16.42
26.78
26.78
25.92
19.87
23.33
19.87
17.28
24.19
22.46
22.46
26.78
24.19
22.46
25.92
25.92
25.92
27.65
30.24
28.51
27.65
25.92
23.33
24.19
24.19
15.55
25.92
28.51
19.01
12.96


23.67
30.24
12.96


May
Max Min Rain MJ/


inches m2
0.00 13.82
0.00 19.87
0.00 24.19
0.06 15.55
0.00 25.92
0.00 26.78
0.00 28.51
0.00 25.92
0.00 23.33
0.00 22.46
0.00 26.78
0.00 25.06
0.00 28.51
0.00 25.06
0.00 24.19
0.00 25.06
0.00 28.51
0.00 26.78
0.00 25.92
0.00 28.51
0.00 27.65
0.07 24.19
0.63 19.87
0.00 22.46
0.00 25.92
0.00 23.33
0.00 25.92
0.00 22.46
0.51 15.55
0.03 22.46
0.00 25.92


4 4


24.08
0.63 28.51
0 13.82


June
Max Min Rain MJ/
F F inches m2
93 68 0.00 19.87
86 69 0.25 13.82
91 69 0.00 24.19
92 68 0.28 21.60
93 70 0.12 24.19
92 70 0.24 20.74
92 71 0.25 20.74
92 70 0.09 19.01
89 71 0.06 19.87
91 71 3.36 20.74
93 69 0.01 25.92
92 70 0.00 25.92
91 71 0.00 25.06
93 69 0.01 19.87
94 70 0.00 25.92
94 65 0.07 21.60
93 66 0.00 24.19
94 68 1.76 25.92
93 69 0.14 25.06
91 70 0.92 18.14
92 69 0.63 23.33
91 69 0.15 23.33
82 70 0.31 10.37
82 69 0.61 6.91
85 68 0.45 19.87
88 68 0.00 20.74
91 70 0.64 20.74
88 71 0.00 21.60
86 72 0.13 15.55
90 72 0.10 19.87


90 69 20.82
94 72 3.36 25.92
82 65 0 6.91
















Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31


August
Max Min Rain MJ/


ul
Max Min
OF oF
91 72
92 70
93 72
93 71
93 71
89 71
91 69
93 70
90 69
85 72
89 71
94 74
85 75
86 75
87 72
86 73
90 73
84 73
88 73
87 74
90 74
83 73
84 74
80 70
91 73
92 72
90 74
89 73
94 71
93 75
95 75


Rain MJ/
inches m2
0.11 17.28
0.00 23.33
0.00 25.06
0.00 25.06
0.01 21.60
0.00 19.87
2.79 15.55
0.00 22.46
0.18 15.55
0.23 10.37
2.06 12.96
1.09 12.10
0.31 16.42
0.53 12.10
1.62 11.23
0.04 19.87
0.25 15.55
0.00 8.64
1.00 17.28
0.40 16.42
0.00 17.28
1.03 10.37
0.61 18.14
0.43 10.37
0.02 20.74
1.55 19.01
0.00 20.74
0.00 17.28
0.00 22.46
0.00 25.92
0.00 22.46


September
Max Min Rain


inches
0.30
0.19
0.51
0.00
0.32
0.00
3.99
0.00
0.01
0.00
1.43
0.00
2.04
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.30
0.00
0.01
0.13
0.00
0.74
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.14


m2
12.10
12.10
3.46
12.96
12.10
18.14
19.01
18.14
19.87
17.28
23.33
23.33
24.19
22.46
23.33
19.87
19.87
25.06
19.01
17.28
24.19
17.28
23.33
21.60
25.06
24.19
22.46
21.60
20.74
22.46
21.60


Avg 89 72 17.53 91 73 19.59 87 71 16.16
Max 95 75 2.79 25.92 95 77 3.99 25.06 95 74 5.21 23.33
Min 80 69 0 8.64 76 68 0 3.46 76 51 0 4.32
Total 14.26 543.47 10.11 607.40 17.76 484.73


Avg 84 59 23.67 88 61 24.08 90 69 20.82
Max 91 65 0.66 30.24 95 71 0.63 28.51 94 72 3.36 25.92
Min 70 37 0 12.96 77 53 0 13.82 82 65 0 6.91
Total 0.96 710.18 1.30 746.46 10.58 624.68


-w -


oF OF
89 72
94 73
93 67
95 73
93 51
92 73
93 72
89 71
85 72
85 73
86 74
90 74
87 72
77 72
76 69
78 68
85 67
89 70
89 71
91 73
90 72
91 73
90 71
91 73
89 72
87 73
82 73
77 70
81 71
81 64


inches m2
0.48 10.37
0.67 21.60
1.43 22.46
0.00 23.33
1.74 20.74
0.02 19.87
0.05 16.42
2.78 15.55
1.08 16.42
0.08 16.42
0.69 14.69
0.27 16.42
0.48 12.10
5.21 4.32
1.34 6.91
0.00 19.01
0.00 22.46
0.00 20.74
0.00 17.28
0.00 22.46
0.09 16.42
0.00 19.87
0.15 17.28
0.00 20.74
0.36 17.28
0.02 17.28
0.09 6.91
0.15 6.05
0.33 8.64
0.25 14.69








- w -


Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31


October
Max Min
oF oF
84 61
79 58
83 63
85 66
88 68
90 73
88 71
88 72
88 70
86 67
87 68
87 66
86 66
88 72
88 72
85 69
84 61
75 59
81 66
87 70
87 73
85 71
84 71
83 73
88 76
88 66
75 55
67 48
72 56
77 60
80 62


Rain
inches
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.21
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.70
0.00
0.92
0.00
0.52
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00


Avg 84 66 15.33 80 60 13.34 78 57 11.82
Max 90 76 0.92 22.46 85 70 0.09 17.28 86 67 0.18 15.55
Min 67 48 0 6.05 72 53 0 6.05 57 37 0 2.59
Total 2.38 475.18 0.16 400.05 0.47 366.32


MJ/
m2
20.74
22.46
21.60
22.46
19.01
17.28
15.55
12.96
14.69
18.14
19.01
18.14
17.28
18.14
12.96
13.82
12.96
14.69
13.82
13.82
13.82
6.05
10.37
9.50
12.96
10.37
9.50
17.28
16.42
14.69
14.69


November
Max Min
OF F
79 66
83 67
85 68
84 70
78 68
73 57
79 54
79 56
79 56
79 54
81 53
82 59
78 56
80 63
75 63
72 57
80 60
83 63
82 63
79 56
79 56
79 55
82 61
82 62
85 62
84 61
81 59
82 59
82 60
82 57


Rain M J
inches m2
0.03 10.37
0.00 12.10
0.03 13.82
0.01 12.96
0.09 6.05
0.00 7.78
0.00 17.28
0.00 17.28
0.00 14.69
0.00 16.42
0.00 16.42
0.00 14.69
0.00 15.55
0.00 14.69
0.00 9.50
0.00 6.91
0.00 16.42
0.00 14.69
0.00 12.10
0.00 12.96
0.00 13.82
0.00 14.69
0.00 15.55
0.00 12.10
0.00 13.82
0.00 14.69
0.00 11.23
0.00 14.69
0.00 12.96
0.00 13.82


December
Max Min Rain MJ/
F F inches m2
83 56 0.00 13.82
82 57 0.00 14.69
82 57 0.00 13.82
81 65 0.00 12.10
82 62 0.00 12.96
81 64 0.00 9.50
82 67 0.00 10.37
83 67 0.02 10.37
84 65 0.05 11.23
85 67 0.04 11.23
84 61 0.00 10.37
85 66 0.01 13.82
84 61 0.00 12.10
84 67 0.00 13.82
86 64 0.00 12.10
85 67 0.00 12.96
85 67 0.00 11.23
84 61 0.16 11.23
76 46 0.01 14.69
73 52 0.00 13.82
70 42 0.00 15.55
74 47 0.00 14.69
76 52 0.00 13.82
78 62 0.00 9.50
77 52 0.00 10.37
58 45 0.18 2.59
59 37 0.00 12.96
57 43 0.00 8.64
73 54 0.00 12.10
76 51 0.00 11.23
72 57 0.00 8.64











S current yr
I:S^ 60 yr


Ir :~s ~t
5
~ n
~ Is

1 IB I5~f Ets d 1


Jan Feb Mar Apr


May Jun


Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Month


Total 2001 rainfall=64.67 vs. 60-yr average=53.36



Figure 1.Monthly 2001 rainfall at the Range Cattle REC compared to the 60-year mean rainfall at Range Cattle REC.


February 2001 set a new record for low rainfall with 0.02 inches (Tables 1 and 2, Fig.1). There were 19 occurrences during
2001 when daily rain equaled or exceeded 1 inch. The single greatest daily rain event was on September 14 (tropical storm
Gabrielle) when 5.21 inches were recorded (8.1% of annual rainfall). There were seven rain events that exceeded 2 inches,
four events exceeding 3 inches, and two events exceeding 4 inches of rain. Above average rain in June to September resulted
in typical flooding of pastures at Ona.


Evapo-transpiration


Evapo-transpiration exceeded rainfall in 7 months during 2001 (Figure 2). Only in March and in the July to September
period did rainfall exceed evapo-transpiration. For the year, rainfall exceeded evapo-transpiration by 10.8 inches.


Jill:


- '"" -"" -" --


F


E


~~u


51
:

iiiiii
:~
:~:::
~

~
.sr


~
:::~
..s
:~~






18-
17 Rain totaled 64.67"
16 Evapotranspiration totaled 39.22"
15
14
13
12-
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 0..
0- a


a
I
&;


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug

Month


"


Sep Oct Nov Dec


Figure 2. Monthly rainfall compared with evapo-transpiration during 2001.


Temperature:

There were eight and nine days when daily low shelter and daily low ground temperatures, respectively, were at or below 32
F (Table 2). There were about 13 incidences of frost (data not shown), and frost occurred as late as April 19. In spite of
numerous cold days, only January and September had mean-monthly low shelter-temperatures below the respective 58-year
mean for that month (Table 3). The extreme low temperature for 2001 occurred on January 5 when shelter and ground
temperature reached 23 and 19 F, respectively.


Table 3. Summary of minimum temperature (OF)* by months, Range Cattle REC.
Shelter Temperature Ground Temperature
1944-01 2001 1944-01 2001 2001
Avg. Avg. Extreme Extreme Avg. Extreme
Low Low Low Low Low Low
January 49.5 41.9 18 1981 23 40.0 19
February 50.6 56.0 26 1976 28 53.2 25
March 54.3 55.2 26 1980 35 53.0 33
April 58.1 58.6 34 1971 37 55.5 33
May 63.2 61.4 43 1945 53 58.7 50


"" ''"" "


L


:~ I~2 ILCC~


I


gliZ


X*
X.





June 68.8 69.4 52 11984 65 67.2 63
July 71.1 72.4 62 several 69 70.5 67
August 71.7 72.8 61 1977 68 71.2 65
September 71.0 70.6 56 1962 51 70.1 63
October 64.6 66.1 42 several 48 64.3 44
November 56.8 60.0 25 1970 53 57.4 50
December 51.2 57.5 20 1962 37 55.0 34
Avg. 60.9 61.8 47.3 59.7 45.5
OC =( F 32) x 0.555


Solar Radiation:

Daily solar radiation is shown in Table 1, and 2000 total monthly solar radiation can be seen graphically in Figure 3. For
interpretation of solar radiation as it pertains to plant growth, 1 MJ results in about 14.3 lb/A of plant dry matter if soil water,
temperature, and fertility are not limiting and vegetative cover is complete. Theoretically, enough solar radiation was
received in May 2000 (750 MJ) to produce 10,725 lb/A of plant dry matter. Total solar radiation for 2000 was 6579 MJ.


800 -


700


600


500


400


300 -


200


100 a


0


2001 total=6366 MJ


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun


Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov


Dec


Month



Figure 3. Total monthly solar radiation for 2001.


Freeze hazard:


i
-r






The fall and spring freeze hazards for the Range Cattle REC are shown in Figures 4 and 5, respectively. The fall freeze
hazard shows the chance of experiencing the first attainment of a critical temperature before a selected date, while the spring
freeze hazard shows the chance of the last attainment of a critical temperature before a critical date. Based on records from
1944 to 1991, these data will not predict what will occur in a given year, but what can be expected over a period of years. In
an example using the spring freeze hazard, a frost susceptible crop (assuming 320F) planted before the 1st of February would
stand a 50% chance of survival (Figure 4). A grower would probably lose five crops over 10 years by planting before the 1st
of February.

100 -,a0


/ 55 F .-


7 /45 F

/ 35 F/

I---- 132 --28
i^ / / / 28
I _______


OSNOV


OIDEC QiJAN DIOED


Daft
r cr" -&-mMMOUU ..... W a


Figure 4. Fall freeze hazard showing the chance of the first attainment of a given temperature before a selected date.














0 28. 3 2 p.' /
70








SMA /A






-," -.

OJnF tEfSa QIMAR UIAPR

[ C oiaic r t plm uraum -- a ---...m .- --- _


Figure 5.Spring freeze hazard showing the chance of the last attainment of a given temperature before a selected date.

Acknowledgments:
We gratefully acknowledge data collections by Shirley Searcy, as well as data preparation by Andrea Dunlap.



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