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Group Title: Cool season legume production in South Central Florida.
Title: Cool season legume production in South Central Florida. 1983-84
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075794/00007
 Material Information
Title: Cool season legume production in South Central Florida. 1983-84
Series Title: Cool season legume production in South Central Florida.
Translated Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; 1984-10 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Mislvey, P.
Quesenberry, K. H.
Martin, F. G.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Research Center
Publication Date: 1984
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075794
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143660028

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Full Text







Agricultural Research and Education Center, Ona

Research Report RC-1984-10 October, 1984


COOL SEASON LEGUME PRODUCTION IN SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA, 1983-84
1/
P. Mislevy, K. H, Quesenberry and F. G. Martin-

Red, white, and crimson clover, and alfalfa, can provide a source of
high-quality forage when permanent pastures are semi-dormant and producing
very little. Production can begin in February and continue through May, June
or even July, depending on plant species and environmental conditions. These
legumes may be rotationally grazed, harvested as green chop, or made into
hay. Red and crimson clover and alfalfa are upright, bunch-type plants that
can attain a height of 18 to 24 inches. These species are well adapted for
hay which can be made during the dry months of March, April and May. White
clover is strongly stoloniferous, generally-attaining a height of 6 to 12
inches. Its prostrate habit of growth makes this plant most adapted to
grazing.

Regardless of intended use, the production of high y34elding high
quality legume forage depends on the selection o iet '1ARy
fertilization and water control practices.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate cool saon ae &euis for orage
production and persistence in south-central Fl rida. Where trade names are
used, no endorsement is intended. J.F.A.S. -Univ. of Florida

Experimental Procedure

Two legume studies (alfalfa and clover) were initiated during the
1983-84 growing season at the Ona Agricultural Research and Education Center
(AREC). Both experiments were seeded on November 10, 1983. .Te field-plot
layout was a randomized complete block with four replications.

Seeding rates were as follows: red clover 8, white clover 4, alfalfa 8
and crimson clover 10 lb/A. All-legume seed was inoculated with the proper
strain of Rhizobium bacteria.

All alfalfa, crimson clover and selected varieties of red clover were
drilled with a Planet Jr. (R) seeder in rows 7 inches apart to a depth of 0.5
inches and double cultipacked. The white clover and 5 Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station (AES) breeding lines were broadcast seeded and cultipacked
twice.

The experiment was irrigated immediately after seeding and when needed
throughout the growing season with an overhead system applying a total of 9.7
inches of water.


1/ Professor, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Ona; Associate
Professor, Department of Agronomy, Gainesville; and Professor
(Statistician), University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.












Calcium and magnesium contents were adequate in both experiments.
Fertiization practices were 510 lb/A of 0-10-20 (N-P205-K20) + 32 Ib/A TEM
300 at seeding.

Both experiments were harvested four times during the spring-summer
period to a 2-inch stubble, unless plants died prior to harvest 4.

Results and Discussion

Significant (P<0.05) differences in total dry matter yield were obtained
between clover entries, during the 1983-84 cool season (Table 1). Average
tptal yield was 2.9 t/A dry matter. Cycle 0 (3.6 t/A) and cycle 1 (3.7 t/A)
red clover produced the highest dry matter yield. Generally, the Florida AES
red clover entries (cycle 0, 1, 2, 4 and'5) and Nolins red clover, produced
significantly higher total yields than commercial red, white or crimson
clover entries.

Harvest 1 of all clover entries was removed about 4 months after seeding
averaging 1.2 t/A dry matter (Table 1). Again the Fla AES red clover
varieties were the highest yielders averaging 1.6 t/A. This trend continued
into harvest 2 again with Fla AES cycles 0, 1, and Nolins averaging 1.5 t/A.
This consistent forage production of 1.5 t/A/harvest during the spring season
may serve as a valuable hay crop especially for dairy producers. Harvest 3
dry matter yields decreased about 60% from the previous harvest, depending on
clover entry. This decrease may be due to higher ambient temperatures found
in central Florida during May.

The Fla AES varieties demonstrated excellent seedling vigor, established
rapidly, and maintained a 7 to 8 inch height advantage over other red clover
entries (Table 2).

Total seasonal yield of alfalfa averaged 1.7 t/A, with no significant
difference between entries (Table 3). Individual harvests of alfalfa yielded
only about half the dry matter obtained from red clover averaging 0.7, 0.5,
0.4 and 0.2 t/A for harvest 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Total seasonal dry
matter yields of alfalfa were about 1.5 t/A less than clovers especially the
red clover entries. Lower yields may be partly due to reduced seeding rate
(8 lb/A) of alfalfa. Regardless of the reason, a yield of 1.7 t/A may not be
economically feasible, when all cultural practices are considered.

To determine the true performance of a cool season legume under specific
environmental (temperature and rainfall), soil (normal and waterlogged), and
biological conditions, testing must be conducted over a period of at least
three or more years. Dry matter yields of red clover, white clover and
alfalfa averaged 2.7, 2.0 and 3.4 t/A, respectively, over a three to six year
period (Table 4). When these legumes were seeded into soil that was well
drained, without an organic pan, and in soil where the legume had not been
grown for more than 2 years the alfalfa always produced higher yields.
However, if the soil contains an organic pan and 3 to 5 inches of rainfall
was received over a 2-4 day period, the alfalfa will usually die, but the red
and white clover will survive. When there is a disease like Pythium present
in the soil, white clover tends to persist better than red clover. However,
both white and red-clover are quite susceptible to nematodes. Seeding white
or red clover for more than two consecutive years on the same land could
result in crop failure due to nematodes.











Conclusion

The Florida AES red clover (experimental) entries along with Nolins red
clover (commercial variety) produced the highest forage yield during the
1983-84 cool season. These established rapidly, and maintained a 7 to 8 inch
height advantage over other red clover entries.

The tall growing ladino type white clover Osceola, consistently out
yielded La S-1 at each harvest, and about 20 to 30% of the Osceola plants
lived over the summer period, allowing for more rapid white clover production
during the fall and winter, compared with plants started from seed.












Table 1. Dry matter yields of white and red clover varieties grown at the
AREC-Ona, 1983-84.


Harvest Number.and Date
1 2 .3 4
Brand Variety 3-5 4-23 5-30 7-23 Total

--.-----t/A----------Z.---
Crimson clover
Funks Tibbee .8 1.1 --- -- 1.9 e

Red clover
NKT Florie .7 1.1 0.7 -- 2.5 d
NK YKYC+ .8 1.2 0.7 --- 2.7 d
Nolins 1.1 1.5 0.5 -- 3.1 c
Fla AES Cycle 0* 1.7 1.5 0.4 -- 3.6 a
Fla AES Cycle 1 1.6 1.5 0.6 -- 3.7 a
Fla AES Cycle '2 1.6 1.4 0.5 -- 3.5 ab
Fla AES Cycle 4 1.5 1.4 0.5 -- 3.4 a-c
Fla AES Cycle 54 1.4 1.2 0.5 -- 3.2 bc

White clover
Pioneer Osceola 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.1 2.5 d
La S-1 1.0 0.5 0.3 '-- 1.8 d
Avg. 1.2 1.2 0.5 0.1 2.9


Means within the column followed by the same letters are not significantly
(P<0.05) different according to Duncans Multiple Range Test.
tNK Northrup King; Fla AES Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
*Experimental entry, seed not available for commercial use.

Soil type: Ona fine sand
Herbicide: Eptam applied preplant, incorporated at 2 qts/A commercial product
Date seeded: November 10, 1983
Seeding rate: Crimson clover, 10 lb/A; red clover, 8 Ib/A; white clover, 4
lb/A
Fertilization rate: 510 lb/A 0-10-20 + 32 lb/A TEM 300. Dolomite applied at
1 t/A 8 months earlier.
Irrigation: Applied 9.7 inches of water via overhead sprinklers, mainly
during late April and early May, 1984.


.-**












Table 2. Plant height of clover and alfalfa varieties at three harvests
during 1984.


Harvest
Brand Variety 1 2 3

----.-Inches--------
Crimson clover
Funks Tibbee 6 17 dead

Red clover
NK Florie 8 15 11
NK YKYC (Exp.) 9 14 11
Nolins 12 22 14
Fla AES Cycle 0 18 22 16
Fla AES Cycle 1 18 23 13
Fla AES Cycle 2 19 23 16
Fla AES Cycle 4 18 23 12
Fla AES Cycle 5 17 24 12

White clover
Pioneer Osceola 10 12 7
La S-1 7 7 5

Alfalfa
Pioneer Fla 77 14 19 22
NK Matador 15 22 23
NK Pierce 13 24 24
NK Valador 15 21 22
NK Maxidor 16 22 23











Table 3. Dry matter yields of alfalfa varieties grown at the AREC-Ona,
1983-84.


Harvest Number and Date
1 2 3 4
Brand Variety 3-7 4-24 5-30 7-23 Total
---------------t/A-----------------
Pioneer Fla 77 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.3 1.7 a
NK1 Matador 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.2 1.8 a
NK Pierce 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.1 1.5 a
NK Valador 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.2 1.7 a
NK Maxidor 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.2 1.9 a
Avg. 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.2 1.7


No significant (P>0.05) difference was obtained in total yield between
alfalfa varieties in 1983-84.

tNK Northrup King

Soil type: Ona fine sand

Herbicide: Eptam applied preplant, incorporated at 2 qts/A commercial product

Date seeded: November 10, 1983

Seeding rate: 8 lb/A

Fertilization rate: 510 Ib/A 0-10-20 + 32 lb/A TEM 300. Dolomite applied at
1 t/A 8 months earlier.

Irrigation: Applied 9.7 inches of water through overhead sprinklers, mainly
during late April and early May, 1984.










Table 4. Total seasonal dry matter yields of some
varieties seeded at the AREC, Ona during


commercial red clover, white clover and alfalfa
a 3 to 6 year period.


Year
Brand Variety 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 Avg.
--------------------t/A---------------------

Red clover
NAPB Redland II 2.8 1.9 -2.7 3.2 t 2.7
NK Florie 2.9 1.9 2.7 5 2.5 2.5
Nolins 3.6 2.1 3.0 t 2.9 3.1 2.9
Avg. 3.1 2.0 2.8 3.1 2.8 2.7

White clover
Pioneer Osceola 2.3 t t 1.1 t 2.5 2.0
La S-1 2.1 1.5 2.5 0.5 2.2 1.8 1.8
NK Arcadia 2.3 1.5 2.5 1.2 2.8 t 2.1
Avg. 2.2 1.5 2.5 0.9 2.5 2.2 2.0

Alfalfa
Pioneer Fla. 77 5.3 1.8 4.6 + 1.7 3.4
Hairy Peruvian 4.8 1.4 4.9 + t 3.7
NAPB Apallo 3.5 1.6 4.3 f t 3.1
NAPB Vangard 3.6 1.7 4.2 t t t 3.2
WL WL 600 4.3 1.5 4.5 t t 3.4
Avg. 4.3 1.6 4.5 1.7 3.4


t
Entry not seeded that year.
Entry died due to excessive moisture and waterlogged soil for about a week.
Seedlings destroyed due to disease (Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Fusarium).









HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
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Agricultural Sciences and should be
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