Historic note

Group Title: Cool season legume production in South Central Florida.
Title: Cool season legume production in South Central Florida 1982-83
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075794/00006
 Material Information
Title: Cool season legume production in South Central Florida 1982-83
Series Title: Cool season legume production in South Central Florida.
Translated Title: Research Report - Ona ARC ; RC-1987-7 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Mislevy, P.
Martin, F. G.
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1983
Subject: Cool Season
Legume Production
South Central Florida
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States -- Florida -- Ona
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075794
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143660028

Table of Contents
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    Historic note
        Historic note
Full Text

Agricultural Research Center

Research Report RC-1983-7 November, 1983

P. Mislevy and F. G. Martin -

The legumes, red, white, and crimson clover, and alfalfa, can provide a

source of high-quality forage when permanent pastures are semi-dormant and

producing very little. Production can begin in late January and continue

through May, June or even July, depending on plant species and envirnomental

conditions. These legumes may be rotationally grazed, harvested as green

chop, or made into hay. Red and crimson clover and alfalfa are upright,

bunch-type plants that can attain a height of 18 to 24 inches. These species

are well adapted for hay which can be made during the d months of March,

April and May. White clover is strongly stoloniferous, ge 14-a

height of 6 to 12 inches. Its prostrate habit of growth make~ULhisgp4&5 most

adapted to grazing. SF A
I .d to Univ. of Florida

Regardless of intended use, the production of high yielding, ig

legume forage depends on the selection of varieties seeded, soil drainage,

fertilization and water control practices. Recent research appears to

indicate that cool season legume production is seriously hampered by nematodes

and diseases when these species are grown more than two consecutive years on

the same land.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate cool season legumes for forage

production and persistence in south-central Florida. Where trade names are

used, no endorsement is intended.

1/ Professor, Agricultural Research Center, Ona; and Associate statistician,

University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.


Experimental Procedure

Two legume studies (alfalfa and clover) were initiated during the 1982-83

growing season at the Agricultural Research Center Ona, However, excessive

rainfall and saturated soil destroyed the alfalfa experiment and killed the

crimson clover.

The red and white clover experiment was seeded November 24, 1982. The

field-plot layout was a randomized complete block with four replications.

Seeding rate of red and white diover was 8 and 4 Ib/A, respectively. All

legume seed was inociuated with proper strain of Rhizobium bacteria.

All varieties except the white clover were drilled with a Planet Jr. (R)

seeder in rows 7 inches apart to a depth of 0.5 inches and double cultipacked.

The white cidVer was broadcast seeded and cultipaiked twice.

The experiment was irrigated immediately after seeding and when needed

throughout the growkig season .'ith an overhead system applying a total of 7.3


Calcium and magnesium contents were adequate in both experiments.

Fertilization practices were 525 1b/A of 0-10-20 (N-P205-K20) at seeding.

The red and white clover experiment was harvested when the forage

attained a height of 9 to 12 inches. Both legumes were harvested to a 2-inch


Results and Discussion

The red and white clover varieties grown during the 1982-83 winter-spring

season were harvested up to f6ur times. Dry matter yields averaged 0.7 t/A

for both red and ihite clover for harvest one (Table 1). This harvest, taken

on April 14, 1983, developed about 45 days late when compared with previous

years. This delay in maturity of the first harvest may have been

partially due to the extremely wet and cool spring averaging 3.5 times more

rainfall and 50 F lower temperatures for February and 2.6 times more rainfall

and 60 F lower temperatures in March. Harvest two along with a more favorable

environment produced the highest dry matter yield averaging 1.1 and 1.2 t/A

for red clover and white clover varieties, respectively. Forage at this

harvest was allowed 34 days of regrowth, with white clover averaging a height

of 7 inches and red clover 15 inches (Table 2). Harvest three, removed on

June 20, produced dry matter yields of 0.9 t/A for red clover and 0.7 t/A for

white clover.

Winter annual legumes like red clover grown during the months of April,

May and June can be harvested for hay because of favorable weather conditions.

This plant grows in an upright position and will attain a height of about 15

inches every 30 days. However, care should be taken not to seed red clover on

the same land area for more than two consecutive years because of a buildup of

root knot nematode. This nematode attacks young red clover seedlings

completely destroying the crop.

Total seasonal dry matter'yield for red clover ranged from a high of 3.2

t/A for "Nolins" to a low of 2.5 t/A for Northrup King "NK-78122". White

clover dry matter yields ranged from 2.8 to 2.2 t/A for "NK Arcadia" and "La

S-1", respectively. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences

between clover varieties for harvest 1, 2, 3 or total yield.

Crimson clover and alfalfa varieties were also seeded in the fall of

1982. Plants developed normally and attained heights of about 12 inches by

mid February. However, following the wettest February in 40 years (8.4

inches rainfall) both alfalfa and crimson clover plants died due to excessive

soil moisture.



During the 1982-83 growing season no significant differences in dry

matter yield were obtained between red and white clover varieties. "Redland

II" red clover and Arcadia white clover produced highest dry matter yields

averaging 3.2 and 2.8 t/A, respectively. These two species were able to

withstand excessive moisture in February and March without plant decimation.

However, alfalfa and crimson clover growing in the same experimental area were

destroyed by the excessive soil moisture.

Table 1. Dry matter yields of white and red clover varieties grown at the
ARC-Ona during 1982-83.

1 2 3 4
Brand Variety 4-14-83 5-18-83 6-20-83 8-3-83 Total


Red clover
NAPBT Redland II 0.8 1.3 0.8 0.3 3.2
Nolins 0.9 1.0 1.0 --- 2.9
NK NK-78122* 0.4 1.0 0.8 0.3 2.5
Avg. 0.7 1.1 0.9 0.2

White clover
NK Arcadia 0.9 1.2 0.7 --- 2.8
La S-1 0.5 1.1 0.6 --- 2.2
Avg. 0.7 1.2 0.7

* No significant (P<0.05) difference was obtained between varieties of red or
white clover in 1983-84.

t NAPB = North American Plant Breeders, NK = Northrup King.

SExperimental entry, seed not commercially available.

Soil type: Ona fine sand

Herbicide: Eptam applied preplant, incorporated at 4 pints/A commercial

Date seeded: 11-24-82

Fertilization rate: 525 lb/A 0-10-20 N-P205-K20

Irrigation: Applied 7.35 inches of water through overhead sprinklers.

1 *

Table 2. Agronomic characteristics of red and white clover grown at the ARC-
Ona, 1982-83.

1 2 3
Brand Variety Height Stage Height Height

inches ------inches------
Red clover
NAPB Redland II 9 V 15 19
Nolins 15 F 17 24
NK NK-78122 6 V 14 22

White clover
NK 'Arcadia 9 V 7 13
La S-1. 9 F 7 10

Harvest 1 = 4-14-83; Harvest 2 = 5-18-83; Harvest 3 = 6-20-83

V = vegetative stage of growth; F = flower stage


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