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Group Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee.
Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee. 1981-82
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075788/00007
 Material Information
Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee. 1981-82
Series Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee.
Translated Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; 1982-4 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S.
Mislevy, P.
Everett, P. H.
Martin, F. G.
Prine, G. M.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Research Center
Publication Date: 1982
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075788
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143646831

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








Agricultural Research Center
Research Report RC- 1982-4 September 1982


RYEGRASS FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA AND IMMOKALEE: 1981-82
R. S. Kalmbacher, P. Mislevy, P.H. Everett, F.G. Martin
and G.M. Prine 1

Annual ryegrass (LoZiwn multiflorum Lam.) can be important during the cooler
winter months in south-central Florida as a source of very high quality grazing.
Ryegrass, seeded alone after a vegetable crop, used in a pasture renovation program
or in a perennial grass sod, can provide high quality forage which is quick to
establish. Cultivated areas seeded to pure stands of ryegrass can be grazed
within 2 months after seeding and grazing may extend for 120 days or more.
Ryegrass responds well to nitrogen fertilization, which leads to more rapid growth,
higher crude protein and improved digestibility.


Since new ryegrass varieties are continually being released from public and
private sources, it is important that varieties be tested under south-central
Florida conditions. In this investigation several ryegrass varieties were evaluated
for dry matter yield, seasonal forage distribution, disease resistance, and persistence
at the Ona and Immokalee Agricultural Research Centers.

HUMiE LIBRARY
Experimental Procedure
JUL 18 i19D
Ten ryegrass varieties were seeded at the Ona Agric iltural Research Center
(ARC), and nine were seeded at the Immokalee ARC. Th& Allryqo6 Fdaj d
of four replications of a randomized complete block design.


Ryegrass was sown on November 13, 1981 at the Ona ARC, and November 17,
at the Immokalee ARC. Seeding rates at both locations for ryegrass was 20 lb/A.
Prior to seeding, plots at Ona were fertilized with 500 lb/A of 0-10-20 (N-P205-K20)
fertilizer, respectively, and after seedling emergence 44 lb/A of N was applied.


1/ Associate Professor and Professor, Agricultural Research Center (ARC) Ona;
Professor, Immokalee, ARC; Associate Professor, Department of Statistics,
Gainesville; Professor, Department of Agronomy, Gainesville, Florida.











At Immokalee 35 lblA of N plus 500 Ib/A of 0-10-20 fertilizer along with 10
lb/A of fritted micronutrients FTE 503(R)2/ were disked into the seedbed.
After harvest 1 and 3, 300 lb/A of 16-8-8 was applied, and after harvest 2 and 4,
50 lb/A of N was applied. At Ona an average of 38 lb/A of N was applied after
each harvest.
The experiment at Ona received 11.5 inches of water applied with an overhead
irrigation system. At Immokalee a seepage irrigation system with laterals on
40 ft. centers was used.
All entries were harvested six times at Ona and five times at Immokalee with
rotary plot harvesters which cut plants to a 3 inch stubble. Each harvest was made
when the grass attained a height of about 12 inches. The initial harvests at
Ona and Immokalee were 55 and 50 days after seeding, respectively.


Results and Discussion


Ona ARC


Significant differences in total dry matter yield were observed between
ryegrass entries grown during the 1981-82 cool season (Table 1). 'Marshall',
'Florida 80' and 'Gatorploid' were the top yielders averaging 3.6 T/A dry matter.
However, from the practical standpoint these values were not significantly
different from 'NK Tetrablend 444', 3.2 T/A and 'Meritra', 3.1 T/A.
Harvest 1 was removed on January 7, 1982 about 55 days after seeding, with
varieties averaging 0.4 T/A dry matter. Following the initial cutting all
harvests were made approximately every 26 days, terminating on May 25. The
highest ryegrass yields were obtained during the second and third harvest
when they averaged 0.7 and 0.8 T/A, respectively. These two harvests
produced about 50% of the total seasonal dry matter yield.



2/ Contains the following elemental content: iron, 18%; zinc, 7.0%; manganese, 7.5%;
copper, 3.0%; boron, 3.0%; molybdenum, 0.2%.








3.

Rust (Puccinia spp) was not a serious problem on ryegrass until the
April 27 harvest. Then rust ranged from 0 to 1% for Florida 80 and NK
Tetrablend 444, to as much as 40% for Exalta, Shannon and 50% for Marshall.
On January 11 and 12 the temperatures dropped to lows of 190F and remained
below 270F for 11 hours. These low temperatures did not appear to affect
yields or stand persistence of any ryegrass entries tested.
Dry matter yields of ryegrass entries grown at the ARC,Ona over a 3
to 5 year period averaged 3.3 T/A dry matter (Table 2). These data
indicate that ryegrass will average slightly more than 3.0 T/A dry matter
when grown in irrigated, cultivated soil in South Central Florida, and harvested
at approximately 30 day intervals.


Imnokalee ARC

There were no significant differences in the dry matter yields of the nine
varieties tested (Table 3). Yield averaged 2.8 T/A and ranged from 2.6 to
3.1 T/A. Forage production during the growing season was distributed in a
typical fashion with peak yields at late February, followed by a tapering off
in the warm March and. April.
The January freeze (January 11-12) had little effect anryegrass at Immokalee,
other than to slow growth. Disease was not a limiting factor, and rust was
negligible.
Names and yields of ryegrass varieties that have been tested for three
or more years are presented in Table 4. Although there are very slight
differences in yields among most of the varieties, some are higher yielding.
Ranchers should consider seriously the cost of pure, live seed, and determine
if possible greater seed cost warrants selection of one variety over another.


Conclusions

Results indicated little practical differences in yields of ryegrasses tested
in 1981-82. The best criterion for well managed ryegrass in south Florida
may be the cost of pure, live seed.






4-


4.

Table 1. Ryegrass forage production: Ona ARC 1981-82


Harvest

1 2 3 4 5 6
1-7 2-8 3-9 4-1 4-27 5-25


Total


Miss.AE S Marshall
Fla. AESt Florida 80
Fla Feed & Seed Gatorploid
NKt Tetrablend 444
NAPB + Sunbelt
NAPB Meritra
Mom Lm Z
Exalta
Shannon
Gulf
Average


---------dry

0.5 0.9
0.4 0.9
0.5 0.9
0.4 0.7
0.4 0.8
0.5 0.7
0.5 0.6
0.3 0.6
0.4 0.6
0.5 0.6
0.4 0.7


matter
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.8


yield
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5


T/A---------


0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.5


0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1


t Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different. (DLSD, K=100).
Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Agric. Exp. Sta., Northrup
King, North American Plant Breeders, Shannon is from Gascoyne Seed Co., Ltd.
SVarieties from Holland through Peterson Forage Seed Div. of Pioneer Hi-bred
International, Inc.
Date seeded: November 13, 1981.
Seeding rate: 20 lb/A (drilled in 6" rows).
Fertilization 1) at seeding 500 lb/A 0-10-20, N-P205-K20.
2) after emergence 44 lb/A N
3) after harvest 38 lb/A Naverage of 5 harvests.
Irrigation: overhead with 11.5 inches applied in 11 applications from November thru
May.


Entry


3.6 at
3.6 a
3.6 a
3.2 ab
3.0 bc
3.1 at
2.9 bc
3.0 bc
2.8 c
2.8 c
3.2












Table 2. Ryegrass forage production from selected varieties at the Ona ARC 1978-82.


Year

Entry 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 Average

-------------dry matter yields, T/A-----

MissO AES Marshall t 4.0 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.6
Fla. AES Florida 80 2.9 3.8 3.7 2.9 3.6 3.4
NAPB Sunbelt t t 3.5 3.3 3.0 3.3
Gulf 3.0 3.7 3.5 3.2 2.8 3.2
NKO Tetrablend 444 t 3.5 3.0 3.2 3.2
NAPB Meritra + t 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.0
Average 3.0 3.8 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.3


t Entry not seeded this year.
Mississippi Agric. Exp. Sta.;North American Plant Breeders; Florida Agric.
Exp. Sta.; Northrup King.












Table 3. Ryegrass forage production: Immokalee ARC 1981-82.


Harvest
Entry 1 2 3 4 5 Total
1-6-82 2-3-82 2-24-82 3-17-82 4-14-82

------------dry matter yield T/A-------------------

Miss.AES Marshall 0.5 0.7 1.2 0.4 0.3 3.1 at
Fla AES + Florida 80 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.4 0.3 3.0 a
NAPB Meritra 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.4 0.2 2.9 a
NK Tetrablend 444 0.6 0.7 0.9 0.4 0.3 2.9 a
NAPB Sunbelt 0.5 0.6 1.1 0.4 0.3 2.9 a
Mom in Z 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.4 0.2 2.8 a
Shannon 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.3 0.2 2.7 a
Fla Feed & Seed Gatorploid 0.5 0.7 1.0 0.3 0.2 2.7 a
Gulf 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.4 0.2 2.6 a
Average 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.4 0.3 2.8


means followed by the same letter are not different (DLSD, K=100).
Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station; Florida Agric. Exp. Sta;
North American Plant Breeders; Northrup King.
Varieties from Holland through Peterson Forage Seed Div. of Pioneer Hi-Bred
International, Inc.
Date seeded: November 17, 1981.
Seeding rate: 20 lb/A (drilled in 6" rows).
Fertilization 1) at seeding 500 Ib/A 0-10-20 (N-P205-K20) plus 10 Ib/A of FTE 503
plus 35 lb/A of N.
2) after harvest 1 and 3 300 lb/A of 16-8-8 and after harvest
2 and 4, 50 Ib/A of N was applied.
Irrigation: seepage with laterals on 40' centers.













Table 4. Ryegrass forage
Immokalee ARC.


production from selected varieties at the
1978-82.


Year
Entry 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 Average


------------------dry matter yield T/A-------
Miss AESI Marshall t t 2.9 4.5 3.1 3.5
NAPBt Sunbelt t t 2.7 4.3 2.9 3.3
Ni Tetrablend 444 t t 2.8 4.2 2.9 3.3
Fla AESt Florida 80 t 2.7 2.4 3.5 3.0 2.9
NAPB Meritra 1.8 t 2.9 4.1 2.9 2.9
Gulf 2.5 2.3 2.3 4.0 2.6 2.7

Average 2.2 2.5 2.7 4.1 2.9 3.1


t Variety not seeded in this year.
North American Plant Breeders; Northrup King; Mississippi Agric. Exp. Sta.;
Florida Agricultural Exp. Sta.


I




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