Group Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee.
Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee. 1980-81
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075788/00006
 Material Information
Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee. 1980-81
Series Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee.
Translated Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; 1981-7 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S.
Mislevy, P.
Everett, P. H.
Martin, F. G.
Prine, G. M.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Research Center
Publication Date: 1981
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075788
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143646831

Table of Contents
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Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

Agricultural Research Center
Research Report RC-1981-7 September 1981

R.S. Kalmbacher, P. Yislevy, P.H. Everett, F.G. Martin
and G.M. Prine

Annual ryegrass (LoZliw multiflcr:w Lam.) is of economic importance
during the cooler winter months in south-central Florida. Ryegrass, seeded
alone after a vegetable crop, used in a pasture renovation program or in
a perennial grass sod, can provide high quality forage which is quick to
establish. Cultivated areas seeded to pure stands of ryegrass can be
grazed within 2 months after seeding and grazing may extend for 120 days
or more. Ryegrass responds well to nitrogen fertilization, which leads
to more rapid growth, higher crude protein and improved digestibility.

Since new ryegrass varieties are continually being released from
public and private sources, it is important that varieties be tested under
south-central Florida conditions. In this investigation several ryegrass
varieties were evaluated for dry matter yield, seasonal forage distribution,
disease resistance, and persistence at the Ona and Immokalee Agricultural
Research Centers.

Experimental Procedure U1U. -

Eleven ryegrass varieties were seeded at the Agri uur1al Research
Center (ARC) and nine were seeded at the Immokalee C. The fieldlorida
layout consisted of four replications of a randomiz 6'n-esign.

Ryegrass was sown on November 14, 1980 at the Ona ARC, and November 18
at the Imnokalee ARC. Seeding rates at both locations for ryegrass was 20
Ib/A. Prior to seeding, plots at Ona were fertilized with 440 lb/A of
0-10-20 (N-P205-K20) fertilizer, respectively, and after seedling emergence

1/ Associate Professors, Agricultural Research Center (ARC) Ona;
Professor, Inmokalee, ARC; Associate Professor, Department of Statistics
Gainesville; Professor, Department of Agronomy, Gainesville, Florida.


33 lb/A of N was applied. At Imokalee 50 Ib/A of N plus 400 Ib/A of 2/
0-10-20 fertilizer along with 20 lb/A of fritted micronutrients FTE 503( )
were disked into the seedbed. After harvest 1, 3 and 5, 400 lb/A of 12-6-6
was applied, and after harvest 2 and 4, 50 Ib/A of N was applied. At Ona
an average of 34 lb/A of N was applied after each harvest.

The experiment at Ona received 13.7 inches of water applied with an
overhead irrigation system. At Immokalee a seepage irrigation system with
laterals on 40 ft centers was used.

All entries were harvest five times at Ona and six times at Imnokalee
with rotary plot harvesters which cut plants to a 3 inch stubble. Each
harvest was made when the grass attained a height of about 12 inches. The
initial harvest at Ona and Imnokalee were 74 and 55 days after seeding,

Results and Discussion

ARC, Ona

Little differences in total dry matter yield were obtained among
ryegrass grown during the 1980-81 cool season (Table 1). 'Marshall'
ryegrass produced the highest dry matter yield totaling 3.4 T/A. However,
from the practical standpoint this yield was not different from any other
variety grown at Ona.

Dry matter yields for harvest 1 were removed on January 27, 1981
and averaged only 0.3 T/A. This initial harvest yield was very low, in
addition to being delayed by some 25 days. One reason for the initial
harvest delay and low dry matter yields on January 27 may have been due
to the root knot nematode (lMeloidogyne spp.).

2/ Contains the following elemental content: iron, 18%; zinc, 7.0%;
manganese, 7.5%; copper, 3.0%; boron, 3.0%; molybdenum, 0.2%.

t -<

After seeding in mid-November plants developed normally, were dark
green and made a dense turf, however, top growth remained relatively short
from early December until mid-February, at which time 5 inches of rainfall
was received within a 5-day period and appeared to remedy the problem.

Ryegrass forage production appeared to be at its peak from early
February through late April, producing 87% of its 1980-81 totals during
that period. Most ryegrass varieties tend to go into the reproductive
stage and produce seed heads between late March and late April. However,
'Gatorploid', 'Shannon', 'Yultimo', and 'Caramba' remained vegetative
through out the spring season.

Rust (Puccinia spp.) was not a problem among ryegrass entries in the
spring of 1981. However, slight amounts of rust were found on Marshall,
Shannon, Multimo, Caramba and 'NK Tetrablend 444' on the 4-27-81 harvest.

Commercial producers should be careful when utilizing variety testing
results obtained during one growing season because of differences in
temperature, rainfall, soil, diseases, insects, etc. that occur from year
to year. Data in Table 2 represents a 3 to 5 year average of seven selected
ryegrasses which have performed well at Ona producing an average of 3.5 T/A
total dry matter. Comnerical growers seeding any of these varieties should
obtain good production if all desirable cultural practices are followed.

Imnokalee ARC

The varieties, 'Marshall' and 'Sunbelt' were significantly higher in
dry matter yield than 'Florida Reseeding'. All other entries were intermediate
and not different in yield from each other or the former. (Table 3). Dry
matter yield averaged 4.1 T/A and ranged from 4.5 to 3.5 T/A.

All ryegrass varieties were in the vegetative stage until harvest 4
(March 17), then 'Fla Reseeding' was beginning to joint. At harvest 5
(April 10)'NK K7-20', 'Gatorploid', 'Sunbelt', 'Meritra', and 'Shannon'
were vegetative while all others were in reproductive phases. At harvest
6 (May 5) all entries were in the reproductive phase, except

'Gatorploid' which is apparently a very late variety.

No disease was found until harvest 5 (April 10). Rust (Puccinia spp.)
was very light, and 'Fla Reseeding', 'Marshall', 'Sunbelt' and 'Meritra'
were rated slightly higher. By the final harvest (May 11) rust was found
on all entries but 'Shannon' had the highest rating of 8 (on a scale of
1 to 10) while other entries averaged 1.5.

Ryegrass varieties in 1981 produced almost twice the dry matter when
compared with the past 4 years (Table 4). Perhaps the climate was more
favorable in the 1980-81 season, but it is believed that the major reason
was moving the experiment to a different site where ryegrass had not been
grown. Late seeding to avoid weeds and ample use of potassium in the
top-dressing fertilizer are believed to be contributing factors to higher
yield. Reduction in pests, especially nematodes, is believed to be
another reason for better 1980-81 yields.

Comparison of total yield from five varieties grown during the
past 5 years indicates little differences (Table 4). Yields have
averaged 2.9 T/A annually, and varieties have ranged from 2.7 to 3.1 T/A.
There were always significant differences among varieties within years,
but these were small and may not be of practical importance. Difference
in the cost/pound of pure, live-seed may be the best criterion for
selecting a variety in south Florida.



Results indicate little practical difference in dry matter yield
between ryegrasses tested during the 1980-81 cool season. Yields ranged
from a high of 3.4 T/A for Marshall to a low of 2.8 T/A of Multimo. All
varieties produced an average of 87% of their total seasonal yield between
February 1 and May 1. Ryegrass as opposed to small grains will produce
forage for an extended period of time in the spring.


Immokalee ARC

There were differences in the yields of ryegrass varieties tested,
but the differences were slight. When ryegrass is well managed, cost/
pound of pure-live seed may be the best criterion for selection in the
Inmokalee area.

Table 1. Ryegrass forage production: Ona ARC 1980-81.

1 2 3 4 5
Entry 1-27 2-27 3-30 4-27 5-18 Total
--------dry matter yield, T/A-------------------------
Miss, AES Marshall 0.3 0.8 1.2 1.0 0.1 3.4 at
NAPB' Sunbelt 0.3 0.9 1.3 0.6 0.2 3.3 ab
Gulf 0.4 0.9 1.3 0.5 0.1 3.2 ab
NK+ K7-20 0.2 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.2 3.2 ab
NK Tetrablend 444 0.3 0.9 1.1 0.6 0.1 3.0 ab
Fla Feed & Seed Gatorploid 0.3 0.9 1.0 0.6 0.2 3.0 ab
NAPB Meritra 0.2 0.9 1.1 0.6 0.2 2.9 ab
Flat Reseeding 0.2 0.9 1.3 0.4 0.1 2.9 ab
Caramba 0.3 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.1 2.9 ab
Shannon 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.2 2.9 ab
MIltimo 0.2 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.2 2.8 b
Average 0.3 0.9 1.1 0.7 0.2 3.1

'Means followed by the same letter are not different (DLSD, K=100).

tMississippi Agricultural Exp. Stat.; Northrup King; North American Plant Breeders;
Florida Agricultural Exp. Stat.

Varieties from Holland through Peterson Forage Seed Division of Pioneer Hi-Bred
International, Inc.
Date seeded: November 14, 1980
Seeding rate: 20 Ib/A (Broadcast)
Fertilization: 1) at seeding 440 lb/A of 0-10-20 (N-P205-K20)
2) after seedling emergence and after each harvest an average
of 34 Ib/A of N was applied.
Irrigation: overhead, 13.7 inches applied.

Table 2. Ryegrass forage production from selected varieties at the Ona ARC


Entry _1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 Average
--------------dry matter yields, T/A----------------------
Marshall t t 4.0 3.5 3.4 3.6
NKI Tetrablend 444 4.4 t 3.5 3.0 3.1
Fla.' Reseeding 4.7 2.9 3.8 3.7 2.9 3.6
NAPBT Asso 4.3 2.8 3.8 t 3.6
Billion 4.3 2.8 3.3 + 3.5
NAPB Meritra 4.6 t 3.1 2.9 3.5
Gulf 3.4 3.0 3.7 3.5 3.2 3.4
NK K7-20 i t 3.1 3.2 3.2


3.8 3.4


entry not seeded

SNorth American Plant Breeders; Florida Agric. Exp. Sta; Northrup King.

Table 3. Ryegrass forage production: Immokalee ARC 1980-81.





-------------------dry matter yield T/A--------------

Miss AES- Marshall
NAPB+ Sunbelt
NK$ Tetrablend 444
Fla Feed & Seed Gatorploid
NAPB Meritra
NK K7-20
Fla AES- Reseeding

tMeans followed by the same





0.6 0.7




letter are not different (DLSD, K=100).

sMissisippi Agricultural Exp. Stat.; North American
King, Florida Agricultural Exp. Stat.
Date seeded: November 18, 1980
Seeding rate: 20 Ib/A (drilled 6" rows)

Fertilization: 1) at seeding 400 lb/A 0-10-20 plus 20 lb/A FTE 503(R)
2) after harvest 1, 3 and 5, 400 Ib/A of 12-6-6 was applied
and after harvest 2 and 4, 50 Ib/A of N was applied.
Irrigation: seepage with laterals on 40' centers.




Plant Breeders; Northrup

Entry- -- --

Table 4. Ryegrass forage production from selected varieties at the
Immokalee ARC. 1980-81.
Entry 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 Average
-----------------dry matter yield, T/A---------------
NKt Tetrablend 444 2.2 t + 2.8 4.2 3.1
NK K7-20 t t 2.2 2.6 4.0 3.1
Fla AES4 Reseeding + t 2.7 2.4 3.5 2.9
NAPB- Meritra 2.3 1.8 + 2.9 4.1 2.8
Gulf 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.3 4.0 2.7
Average 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.6 4.0 2.9

Variety not seeded

INorth American Plant Breeders; Northrup King; Florida Agric. Exp. Sta.

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