• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Main














Group Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee.
Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee. 1978-79
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075788/00004
 Material Information
Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee. 1978-79
Series Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee.
Translated Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; 1979-7 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S.
Mislevy, P.
Everett, P. H.
Martin, F. G.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Research Center
Publication Date: 1979
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075788
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143646831

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





SAgricultural Research Center C/ *
Research Report RC-1979-7 September 1979






RYEGRASS FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA AND IMMOKALEE: 1978-79
HUME LIBRARY
R. S. Kalmbacher, P. Mislevy, P. H. Everett, F. G. Martin
1/ Or 16 197a
and G. M. Prine-I
I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) is of economic importance
during the cooler winter months in south-central Florida. Ryegrass,
seeded alone or in a perennial grass sod, can provide high quality forage
which is quick to establish. Cultivated areas seeded to pure stands of
ryegrass can be grazed within 2 months after seeding, and grazing may extend
for 120 days or more. Ryegrass responds well to nitrogen fertilization,
which leads to more rapid growth, higher crude protein and improved digesti-
bility.

Since new ryegrass varieties are continually being released from public
and private sources, it is important that varieties be tested under south-
central Florida conditions. In this investigation several ryegrass varieties
were evaluated for dry matter yield, seasonal forage distribution, disease
*^ resistance, and persistence at the Ona and Immokalee Agricultural Research
Centers.


Experimental Procedure

Ten ryegrass varieties were seeded at the Ona Agricultural Research
Center (ARC) and seven were seeded at the Immokalee ARC. The field plot
layout consisted of four replications of a rancomized complete block design.
In addition a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) entry and a ryegrass-alfalfa
and ryegrass-red clover mixture were evaluated at Ona. At both locations
one field bromegrass variety was also evaluated.

Ryegrass was sown on November 7, 1978 at the Ona ARC, and November 2
at the Immokalee ARC. Seeding rates at both locations for ryegrass was
20 Ib/A, 12 lb/A for tall fescue, and 15 and 20 lb/A for field bromegrass
at Ona and Immokalee, respectively. Prior to seeding, plots at Ona were
fertilized with 475 Ib/A of 0-10-20 analysis fertilizer. At Immokalee 40 lb/A


I/ Assistant and Associate Professors, Agricultural Research Center (ARC)
Ona; Professor, Immokalee, ARC, Associate Professor, Department of
Statistics, Gainesville; Professor, Department of Agronomy, Gainesville,
Florida.











2/
of N and 300 Ib/A of 0-10-20 was applied, with 15 Ib/A FTE 503- Forty
pounds of nitrogen (N) was applied 10 days after seeding on all plots at Ona
and 14 days after seeding at Immokalee. An average of 47 Ib/A N was applied
at Ona after each harvest. However, after harvest 2 no additional N was
applied to plots containing legumes. In Immokalee 50 Ib/A N was applied
after each harvest, except harvest 1 which received 300 Ib/A of 18-0-25 to
supplement the initial K application.

The experiment at Ona received 4.5 inches of water applied with an
over-head irrigation system. At Immokalee seepage irrigation was used.

Ryegrasses were harvested six times at Ona and five times at Immokalee.
The initial and subsequent harvests were made when the grass attained 9 to
12 inches. The initial harvest at Ona occurred 42 days after seeding. At
Immokalee the first harvest occurred 76 days after seeding or 35 days after
plots were mowed (December 13, 1978) to control summer annual weeds.



Results and Discussion

Ona ARC

Significant differences in total dry matter production were obtained
among the ryegrass entries and other cool season forages grown alone and
in mixtures at Ona (Table 1). Average total dry matter production for all
14 entries was 3.3 T/A, with 'Mississippi Reseeding' (4.0 T/A), 'Fla. Reseeding"
(3.8 T/A), 'Gulf', 'Asso' and 'Ninak' (3.7 T/A) ryegrasses among the top
yielders. All the above entries demonstrated good seedling vigor and averaged
0.4 T/A in the first harvest which was 42 days after seeding. Forage produc-
tion for these entries after the initial harvest remained fairly consistent,
averaging 0.7, 0.9, 0.8, 0.5 and 0.6 T/A for harvests 2 through 6.

'Clarine' tall fescue, 'Sleipner' field bromegrass, in addition to the
ryegrass-legume mixtures were the lowest yielding averaging 2.6 T/A. Both
the tall fescue and field bromegrass developed very slowly and produced only
0.2 T/A dry matter during the first 83 days after seeding. The other two
low yielding entries (Gulf ryegrass and 'Dekalb 185' alfalfa mixture, and
Gulf ryegrass and 'Florie' red clover mixture) produced better than average
yields in the first harvest because nitrogen was applied after seedling emer-
gence and after the first harvest. Since legumes (alfalfa and red clover)
develop more slowly than ryegrasses, more time for regrowth is required
between legume harvests. If grass-legume combinations are harvested as
frequently as stands of pure ryegrass within the first 80 to 100 days after
seeding, legumes will generally die. Grass-legume combinations involving

2/ FTE 503= 18.0% iron; 7.0% zinc; 7.5% manganese; 3.0% copper; 3.0% boron;
0.2% molybdenum.


_ _











the above mixtures may be grown, however, seeding rate of the grass must
be minimized, in addition to increasing the stubble height of the combina-
tion to reduce legume plant removal. Generally forage utilization of
grass-legume combinations will be delayed by about 50 days compared with
ryegrass alone with nitrogen (Table 1).

Slight rust (Puccinia spp.) infection was first evident in mid-April
(harvest 5). However, following that harvest, rust developed on all ryegrass
varieties. In mid-May little rust was evident on Fla. Reseeding, NAPB-R-150
and Gulf, but a severe infection was observed on Tetragulf, Ninak, Billion,
NAPB Blend and Mississippi Reseeding. Since this was the last harvest of
the season, rust had little effect on yield.

Utilizing variety testing research results obtained during a single
season is cautioned, since this information can be misleading due to
environmental conditions, location of varieties in the field, etc. Therefore,
table 2 contains the performance of ryegrass varieties grown at Ona for 3 to
5 years. Average dry matter production ranged from a high of 3.6 T/A for
Asso to 3.3 tons for Tetrablend 444. Since all varieties have performed
equally well, the best selection of an entry from table 2 probably depends
on the price of pure live seed.

Immokalee ARC

The seven ryegrass entries averaged 2.4 tons of dry matter, and there
were significant differences among the entries (Table 3). The higher
yielding entries were 'Fla. Reseeding' (2.7 T/A), NAPB 'Asso' (2.6 T/A),
'Ninak' (2.5 T/A) and 'Billion' (2.4 T/A).

Forage production from 'Sleipner' field bromegrass was significantly
lower (1.8 T/A) than all ryegrass entries except Northrup King's 'K7-20'
which produced 2.2 T/A. The field bromegrass tested was later in maturity
and produced little forage early in the season. In addition it was very
decumbent with many leaves close to the soil surface. Cutting at a 3"
stubble left much of the forage on the plant as compared with the more
up-right ryegrass varieties.

Ryegrasses were probably seeded 2 to 3 weeks too early in Immokalee.
The winter of 1978-79 was quite warm in Immokalee, and there was no frost.
Maximum and minimum November and December daily temperatures averaged 81
and 60, respectively, which was quite favorable for warm season grass
weeds, especially goosegrass. As a result ryegrass-weed mixtures were
mowed on December 13, 1978 to reduce competition. Thirty five days later
(January 17) the first yield-harvest was taken. Ryegrass yields did not reach
their normal peak production in late February and early March as they have
done in cooler years. However, average ryegrass yield was fairly consistent
at each harvest (Table 3).












All entries were in the vegetative state until early April. Fla.
Reseeding was the earliest maturing entry, and approximately 30% of the
plants were in the reproductive phase at this time, with 10% of the Gulf
plants heading. By late April (harvest 5) all ryegrass entries had some
reproductive growth. Sleipner field bromegrass never initiated reproductive
growth at Immokalee.

Rust (Puccinia spp.) first appeared in early April. Billion and
Tetragulf had a greater incidence of rust than other varieties, but it
was not severe. Traces of rust could also be found on plants of the Gulf
and Ninak, Fla. Reseeding and Asso. Only Northrup King's K7-20 was rust
free in early April. All ryegrass entries had some rust by late April,
but the field bromegrass remained uninfected.

Based on the results of several years testing, several ryegrass
entries appear adapted for the Immokalee area (Table 4). There are no
practical yield differences among the four entries shown in table 4, there-
fore cost per pound of pure-live seed perhaps is the best criterion for
selection.

When ryegrass dry matter yields from Ona are compared with those
from Immokalee (Table 2 and 4), substantial differences are found. Ona
yields are consistently one ton higher than Immokalee. This difference
can be attributed to the following: soils with less organic matter and
lower inherent fertility at Immokalee, shorter growing season (Ryegrass
should be seeded two weeks later at Immokalee and will normally die 2 to
3 weeks earlier at Immokalee) and differences in irrigation systems.



Conclusions

Ona ARC

There were significant differences in the yielding ability of ryegrasses
at Ona. Since the cost to grow an acre of ryegrass is the same regardless
of variety, one should select the highest yielding variety, at the least
cost per pound of pure-live seed. However, one should avoid paying a premium
for ryegrass seed, especially those tested in this paper.

Results indicate that tall fescue and field bromegrass varieties tested
at Ona, establish slowly and should be avoided if forage during December,
January and February is desired.

Ryegrass-legume mixtures tested in 1978-79 produced about 60% of the
total forage obtained from ryegrass and nitrogen.






5





Immokalee ARC

There were significant differences in yield among the seven ryegrass
entries tested. Sleipner field bromegrass was lower in yield than most
ryegrass entries and therefore should not be substituted for a good rye-
grass variety. Test results for the past five years indicated that there
are little practical differences in the yield of Gulf, Asso, Magnolia,
Billion and Tetrablend 444 ryegrass. Cost/lb of pure-live seed may be
the best criterion for selection.













Table 1. Ryegrass and other cool season forages produced at the
Ona ARC, 1979.


Entry


Mississippi Reseedingt
Fla. Reseeding t
Gulf
NAPB Asso
Ninak
NAPB Blend
NAPB-R-150
NKS annual ryegrass
Billion
Tetragulf
Clarine tall fescue


1 2
12/19 1/29


0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.1


0.8
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.1


Harvest
3 4 5 6
2/22 3/13 4/13 5/15
- -tons/acre- -


0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.8,
0.3


0.8
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7


0.5
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.1


0.7
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.1


Gulf ryegrass +
Dekalb 185 alfalfa 0.4
Sleipner field bromegrass 0.1
Gulf ryegrass +
Florie red clover 0.4
Average 0.3


0.0 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.5 2.5f
0.1 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.6 2.4f


0.0
0.4


0.6
0.8


0.3
0.7


0.4
0.5


0.6
0.6


2.3f
3.3


tExperimental entry seed not available


tMeans followed by the same letter are not
(DLSD, K=100).
ONK is Northrup King


significantly different


Date seeded: November 7, 1978
Seeding rate: Ryegrass, 20 Ib/A; tall fescue, 12 Ib/A; and field
bromegrass 15 Ib/A.
Fertilization: At seeding 475 lb/A 0-10-20, N-P205-K20 respectively,
40 Ib/A N, 10 days after seedling emergence and 47 Ib/A
N after each harvest, with exception of the ryegrass-legume
mixtures which did not receive N after harvest 2.


Total


4.0a
3.8ab
3.7abc
3.7abc
3.7abc
3.6bcd
3.6bcd
3.4cde
3.3de
3.3de
3.2e


-- --












Table 2. Forage production from selected ryegrass varieties: 1975-79
Ona ARC.


Entry


NAPB Asso

Billion

Fla. Reseeding

Gulf

NKt Tetrablend 444

Average


Year
1975 1976 1977
- - -yield

t t 4.3

t t 4.3

t 2.7 4.7

3.4 2.9 3.4

2.8 2.7 4.4

3.1 2.8 4.2


1978 1979
tons/acre- -

2.8 3.8

2.8 3.3

2.9 3.8

3.0 3.7

t t

2.9 3.6


tEntry not seeded.

INK is Northrup King


Average


3.6

3.5

3.5

3.3

3.3

3.4







8






Table 3. Ryegrass and other cool season forages produced at
Immokalee ARC, 1979.


1
1/17


Harvest
2 3 4
2/8 3/8 4/5
- tons/acre- -


5
4/27


Total


Fla. Reseedingt
NAPB Asso
Ninak
Billion
Tetragulf
Gulf
NKO-K7-20
NK Sleipner field
bromegrass

Average


0.4
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.3

0.3

0.4


0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.2

0.2

0.4


0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4


0.7
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.7


0.6
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6


0.4 0.4 0.5

0.5 0.5 0.5


Experimental entry, seed not available.

tMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different
(Duncans LSD, K=100).

INK is Northrup King
Date seeded: November 2, 1978
Seeding rate: ryegrass, 20 Ib/A; field bromegrass, 20 Ib/A.
Fertilization: At seeding: 300 Ib/A 0-10-20, 40 Ib/A N and 15 Ib/A
FTE 503. At harvest 1 300 Ib/A 18-0-25. At harvest 2,
3, 4 50 Ib/A N.


Entry


2.7at
2.6a
2.5ab
2.4ab
2.3bc
2.3bc
2.2cd

1.8d

2.4





A


9






Table 4. Forage production from selected ryegrass varieties:
1975-1979. Immokalee ARC.


Entry


Gulf
NAPB Asso
Magnolia
Billion
NK* Tetrablend 444

Average


Year
1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Average
- - T/A- - -
2.7 2.6 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.5
+ + 2.5 2.2 2.6 2.4


2.6 2.3 2.4
t t 2.5
2.3 2.5 2.2

2.5 2.5 2.4


t
2.2

t

2.3


t
2.4
t

2.4


tEntry not seeded.

+NK is Northrup King




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs