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Group Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee.
Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee. 1977-78
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 Material Information
Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee. 1977-78
Series Title: Ryegrass forage production at Ona and Immokalee.
Translated Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; 1978-10 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S.
Mislevy, P.
Prine, G.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Research Center
Publication Date: 1978
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075788
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143646831

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









Agricultural Research Center
Research Report RC-1978-8


August 1978


RYEGRASS FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA AND IMMOKALEE: 1977-78


R. S. Kalmbacher, P. Mislevy, P. H. Everett and G. Prine






HUME LIBRARY

OCT 23 1978

I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida








Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Research Center
Ona, Florida 33865


ri ~











RYEGRASS FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA AND IMMOKALEE: 1977-78

1/
R. S. Kalmbacher, P. Mislevy, P. H. Everett and G. Prine-


Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) is of economic importance
during the cooler winter months in south-central Florida. Ryegrass, seed-
ed alone or in a perennial grass sod, can provide high quality forage
which is quick to establish. Cultivated areas seeded to pure stands of
ryegrass can be grazed within 2 months after seeding, and grazing may
extend for 120 days or more. Ryegrass responds well to nitrogen fertilization,
which leads to more rapid growth, higher crude protein and improved
digestibility.

Since new ryegrass varieties are continually being released from
public and private sources, it is important that varieties be tested under
south-central Florida conditions. In this investigation several ryegrass
varieties were evaluated for dry matter yield, seasonal forage distribution,
disease resistance, and persistence at the Ona and Immokalee Agricultural
Research Centers.

Experimental Procedure

Ten ryegrass varieties were seeded at the Ona Agricultural Research
Center (ARC) and eight were seeded at the Immokalee ARC. The field plot
layout consisted of four replications of a randomized complete block design.
An additional two experimental tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) entries
were evaluated at Ona.

Ryegrasses were sown on November 10, 1977 at the Ona ARC, and November
14 at the Immokalee ARC. Seeding rates for ryegrass was 20 Ib/A at both
locations and 12 Ib/A for tall fescue. Prior to seeding, plots at Ona
were fertilized with 550 Ib/A of 0-10-20 analysis fertilizer with 29 lbs/
acre FTE 503- At Immokalee 500 Ib/A of 0-10-20 was applied. Fifty
pounds of nitrogen (N) was applied 12 days after seeding at Ona and 14
days after seeding at Immokalee. Fifty Ibs N/A was applied after each
harvest.

The experiment at Ona received 6.7 inches of water applied with an
over-head irrigation system. At Immokalee seepage irrigation was available,
but due to unusual rainfall the experiment was not watered until late
March and early April.



1/
Assistant and Associate Professors, Agricultural Research Center (ARC)
Ona; Professor, Immokalee, ARC; Professor, Department of Agronomy,
Gainesville.

/FTE 503 = 18.0% Iron; 7.0% Zinc; 7.5% Manganese; 3.0% Copper; 3.0% Boron;
0.2% Molybdenum.










Ryegrasses were harvested six times at Ona and five times at
Immokalee. The initial and subsequent harvests were made when the grass
attained 9-12". The initial harvest Ona occurred 63 days after seeding,
and at Immokalee first harvest was 70 days after seeding. Subsequent
harvests were made at 21 to 30 day intervals.

Results and Discussion

Ona ARC

Significant differences in total dry matter production were obtained
among the twelve entries (ten ryegrasses and two tall fescues) grown at Ona,
Table 1. Dry matter yield ranged from a high of 3.3 T/A for NAPB 'Blend'
(Asso + Meritra) to a low of 2.3 T/A for NAPB 'Cricket'.

The initial harvest of these entries was removed on January 12, 1978,
when dry matter yields averaged 0.5 T/A for most entries. The perennial
ryegrass, 'Reveille', and the two tall fescue entries, K5-30 and K5-27,
produced the lowest yield due to low seedling vigor. However, the other
perennial ryegrass entry, 'Tetralite', produced higher initial harvest
yields of 0.5 T/A and ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 T/A at each additional
harvest. This entry appeared to produce uniform dry matter yields through-
out the cool season and averaged as much dry matter at the June as at the
January harvest. Most annual ryegrass entries produced uniform forage
yields for about 120 days (January thru April) after which yields
decreased by 50%.

The two experimental tall fescue entries produced very little forage
until early April. Then a 100% yield increase resulted between the May
and June harvest.

Rust (Puccinia spp.) was not observed on any ryegrass entry until
early April. All entries contained a very low incidence, excepti'Meritra'
which contained more than 35% rust. By early May rust increased on 'Meritra',
'Tetragulf' and 'Billion', however, 'Gulf' and Fla Exp. 1977 (B)' contained
no rust. Rust intensity was high on all entries by early June except
the two perennial ryegrasses Tetralite and Reveille.

Close observation of ryegrass entries indicated that varieties such
as Gulf and Fla Exp. 1977 (B) which produced inflorescences early (April 1)
generally had a lower incidence of rust, however forage quality may have
been lower.

The two perennial ryegrasses (Tetralite and Reveille) and the two tall
fescue entries (K5-30 and K5-27) contained a very low incidence of rust
in the spring, in addition to expressing considerable drought tolerance.

Generally, very little difference has existed between ryegrass
varieties adapted to south-central Florida growing conditions (Table 2).
Varieties tested at Ona for 3 to 5 years have ranged from 2.7 to 3.2 T/A
of dry matter for 'Aubade' and Northrup-King 'Tetrablend 444', respectively
with an overall average of 3.0 T/A.










Immokalee ARC

There were significant differences in dry matter yield of ryegrass
varieties grown at Immokalee, Table 3. Yield ranged from 2.5 T/A (Gulf)
to 1.6 T/A (Reveille). Many entries (Billion, Tetralite, Tetragulf,
Cricket and Meritra) were not significantly different in yield, and
these respective varieties varied from 2.2 to 1.8 T/A.

All entries were slower to establish in 1978 than in previous years.
Normally, ryegrass planted in prepared seedbeds requires 50-55 days for
establishment, but 70 days lapsed from time of seeding until harvest 1.
Yields at the first harvest were quite low for all varieties. It is not
known why tillering and general development was depressed.

Reveille, one of the lowest yielding entries, differed in morphology
or general form. It was very decumbent or generally shorter than other
entries. Leaves grew close to the soil and less vegetation was sampled
by harvest machinery. This entry would perhaps be better suited for
home lawns or golf courses than pastures. Its normal dark green, fine
leaves and persistence may be an asset for the former use.

All entries were essentially vegetative through the entire 164-day
trial. Gulf and Tetragulf were the only entries in the reproductive
stage at the final harvest.

Rust (Puccinia spp.) was not prevalent. Gulf, Meritra, and Cricket
were the only entries with notable infestations, and of these, Cricket
had the greatest incidence, averaging approximately 12% of the leaf
area infected.

Using the results from a single year of testing as a criterion for
selecting a variety is not recommended. Table 4 contains four ryegrass
varieties that have been tested at Immokalee in a minimum of 3 of the
past 5 years. These are all entries that have consistently produced
good stands of quality forage. Because yields of these varieties are
so similar, the cost per pound of pure-live seed perhaps is the best
selection criterion.

Conclusions

Ona ARC

1. After several years of ryegrass variety testing, yields of approximately
0.5 T/A can be realized every 30 days. Production extends over a 120 day
period when grown on cultivated soil with proper cultural practices.
An additional 30 days of grazing can be obtained many years in May,
with proper varieties, adequate moisture, fertility and management.

2. The 1978 results indicated little difference between the eight
varieties tested at Ona, with total seasonal yields ranging from 2.8 to
3.3 T/A.














Immokalee ARC

1. There were significant differences in yield among 8 ryegrass varieties
tested at Immokalee. Yield ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 T/A. Gulf and Asso
were two of the highest yielding in 1978.

2. Five-year average yields indicated that Fla. Rust Resistant, Gulf,
Magnolia and Tetrablend 444 were consistently high yielding varieties and
are recommended for the Immokalee area.




Table 1. Ryegrass forage production at the Ona ARC, 1978.


Harvest
Entry 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total
Dry matter yield T/Acre- -
NAPB Asso + Meritra 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 3.3 a@
Gulf 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.2 3.0 ab
Tetragulf 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 3.0 ab
Tetralite 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 3.0 ab
Fla Exp. 1977 (B) 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.3 2.9 abc
NAPB Meritra 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.3 2.9 abc
NAPB Asso 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 2.8 abcd
Helena Billion 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 2.8 abcd
K5-30t 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.5 1.1 2.7 bcd
K5-27+ 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.6 1.0 2.5 bcd
NAPB Reveille 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 2.4 cd
NAPB Cricket 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3 2.3 d
Average 2.8

not ryegrass, but tall fescue (F. arundinacea)
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different,
(Duncan's LSD, K=100.).

Date seeded: November 10, 1977
Seeding rate: Ryegrass 20 lb/A; Tall fescue 12 lb/A.
Fertilization: 550 lb/A of 0-10-20 plus 29 Ib/A of FTE 503.
50 Ib N/A applied after emergence and 50 Ib N/A
after each harvest.
Harvest date: 1= 1-12-78; 2= 2-8-78; 3= 3-8-78; 4= 4-5-78;
5= 5-1-78; 6= 6-1-78.


I








5

Table 2. Ryegrass forage production: 1974-78 Ona ARC.

Year


Variety_


Tetrablend 444
Gulf
Fla. Rust Resistant
Magnolia
Aubade
Average


1974


3.0
2.8
2.7
2.9
2.6


1975 1976 1977 1978
- Dry matter yield tons/acre -
2.8 2.7 4.4 +
3.4 2.9 3.4 3.0
3.3 2.8 + +
3.2 2.7 + 1
2.7 2.7 t +


entry not seeded.


Table 3. Ryegrass forage production at


the Immokalee ARC,


Harvest
3 4---


Entry

Gulf
NAPB Asso
Helena Billion
Tetralite
Tetragulf
NAPB Cricket
NAPB Meritra
Reveille
Average


1


0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2

0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2


2
- Dry
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.2


3 4
matter tons/acre
0.8 0.7
0.6 0.4
0.7 0.3
0.6 0.4
0.6 0.5
0.6 0.4
0.6 0.4
0.6 0.3


--


Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different,
(Duncan's LSD, K=100.).
Date seeded: November 14, 1977.
Seeding rate: 20 lb/A
Fertilization: 500 Ib/A of 0-10-20. 50 lb N/A after emergence and 50 Ib
N/A after each harvest.
Harvest dates: 1= 1-23-78; 2= 2-15-78; 3= 3-13-78; 4= 4-6-78; 5= 4-27-78.


Av.


3.2
3.1
2.9
2.9
2.7
3.0


1978.


5

0.3
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3


Total

2.5 a+
2.2 ab
2.0 bc
2.0 bcd

1.9 bcd
1.8 cd
1.8 cd
1.6 d
2.0


------`--


--












6






Table 4. Ryegrass forage production 1973 and 1975-78 Immokalee ARC.

Year


Variety


Fla. Rust Resistant

Gulf

Magnolia

Tetrablend 444

Average


1973


3.8

3.7

3.7

3.4


1975 1976 1977 1978
Dry matter yield tons/acre-
2.7 2.5 + +

2.7 2.6 2.4 2.5

2.6 2.3 2.4 +

2.3 2.5 2.2 +


entry not seeded.


Av.
- -

3.0

2.8

2.8

2.6

2.8


I




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