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Group Title: Evaluation of commercial grain sorgum hybrids at Ona, Immokalee and Dade County.
Title: Evaluation of commercial grain sorgum hybrids at Ona, Immokalee and Dade County. 1978
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 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of commercial grain sorgum hybrids at Ona, Immokalee and Dade County. 1978
Series Title: Evaluation of commercial grain sorgum hybrids at Ona, Immokalee and Dade County.
Translated Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; 1978 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S.
Chambliss, C.
Everett, P. H.
Green Jr., V. E.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Research Center
Publication Date: 1978
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075787
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143647401

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    Historic note
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Full Text

HUME LIBRARY
Agricultural Research Center *
S Research Report RC-1978-13 JN 2 Dece er 1978
1 JAN 9er 1978


I.F.A.S.- Univ. of Florida
EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL GRAIN SORGHIAIHYBRIDS-

AT ONA, IMMOKALEE AND DADE COUNTY, 1978

R. S. Kalmbacher, C. Chambliss, P. H. Everett and V. E. Green, Jr./


Grain sorghums (milo) have the potential of producing 2 to 4 tons of
grain per acre in south-central Florida. This grain may be harvested 110-120
days after seeding. When comparing corn grown for grain with grain sorghums,
research has indicated that grain sorghums may be better suited for grain
production because wet weather in late June and early July increases corn
lodging, whereas lodging would be less of a problem with the short, dwarf
grain-sorghum hybrids. Grain sorghums can tolerate lower soil moisture levels,
and they require less fertilization than corn.

In order to determine adaptability and productivity of new grain sorghum
hybrids, which are constantly being released, it is necessary that these hybrids
be tested under south central Florida conditions. The purpose of this public-
ation is to present comparative data on the various hybrids tested at Ona,
Immokalee and Dade County. Where trade names are used no discrimination
or endorsement is intended.

Methods of Procedure

S At the Ona Agricultural Research Center (ARC), 28 commercial grain sorghum
hybrids were seeded at 16 Ib/A in 18" row spacings on March 8, 1978, but due
to excessive rains they were reseeded on March 20, 1978. At the Immokalee
ARC, 27 hybrids were seeded at 16 Ib/A on 30" row spacings on February 28,
1978. In Dade county on the Warren Woods farm, sorghums were seeded at 7.5 Ib/A
in 36" rows on April 3, 1978. Dade county sorghums followed a spring crop of
potatoes. The design of all experiments was a randomized, complete block,
which contained 4 replications.

Fertilization practices at Ona consisted of the application of 0-130-260
Ib/A of2^-P205-K20, respectively, with 26 Ibs/A of fritted micronutrients,
FTE 503- which was broadcast and disked into the seedbed. After the March 20
seeding of 76 lb nitrogen (N) was applied per acre. When plants were 16-18"


1/
Assistant Agronomist, Agricultural Research Center, Ona; Extension Agronomist,
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Bradenton; Professor, Agricultural
Research Center, Immokalee; Professor Department of Agronomy, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
2/
FTE 503 micronutrients have the following elemental content: iron, 18.0%,
zinc, 7.0%; manganese, 7.5%; boron, 3.0%; copper 3.0%; molybdenum, 0.2%.







-2-


tall, 100 lbsA N was applied. At Immokalee 50-100-200 Ib/A + 20 lbs/A
FTE 503 was applied and disked into the seedbed. Nitrogen at the rate of
100 Ibe/A was applied when plants were 16-18" tall. In Dade county 225 IbsA
of superphosphate was applied according to soil test. All other fertilizer
elements were obtained from the residual fertilizer of the previous potato
crop.

Weed control at Ona and Immokalee consisted of the application of
AAtrex(R) at 2.5 lbsA (commercial product) pre-emergence applied. No
herbicides were applied at the Dade county site, but the experiment was
cultivated once.

To control soil-born insects at Ona and Immokalee, Furidan 10 G(R) was
applied in the row at seeding at the rate of 20 Ibs'A (commercial product).
Sorghum at Ona was sprayed once with 2.5 Ib A of Sevin (R) to contrW sorghum
midge (Contarinia sorghicola), and three times with I Ib/A Lannate at
Immokalee. Diazinon 4EkK) at 0.5 pints/A was applied once at Dade county
for midge control. At all locations insecticides for midge control were
applied at anthesis (pollen shed). Diazinon 4E was applied when plants were
in the late milk stage at 1 pint/A at Dade county to control sap beetles
(family, Nitidulidae).

The Ona experiment was irrigated with an overhead system and 4.2 inches
was applied in six applications. Irrigation was provided at Immokalee through
a seepage system with laterals on 40 foot centers. The Dade county site was
not irrigated.
Results and Discussion

Ona ARC

Grain sorghum was harvested on July 7, 1978 which was 109 days after
seeding. There were significant differences in grain yields, which ranged
from 5920 to 1480 lb'A (Table 1). Dekalb 'D-55' variety and Young 'Oro-T-Xtra'
variety were among the best yielding with 5920 and 5880 IbdA. The average
grain yield of all 28 hybrids was 4210 lbs/A.

The selection of a hybrid based on the results of one year's evaluation
is not recommended. Hybrids tested for 2, 3, 4 or 5 years are presented in
table 2. Several proven hybrids at the Ona ARC are: Funks 'G-516-BR' variety,
Asgrow 'Dorado M' variety, Dekalb 'D-60' variety, Northrup King 'Savanna 5'
variety.

Damage from birds at grain maturity was not a problem, and there was
little loss due to midge. Southern leaf blight (Helminthosporium spp.) and
anthracnose (Colletotricum spp.) damage was fairly uniform through all entries,
but some earlier maturing, lower yielding entries such as Growers 'GSA 54060'
variety, Acco 'D-1029A' variety and Youngs 'Oro Recio' variety received high
disease ratings (Table 3).







-3-


Immokalee ARC

Grain was harvested on June 21, 1978 which was 113 days after seeding.
There were significant differences in the yields which ranged from 7310 to
5000 Ibs/A and averaged 6370 Ibs/A (Table 4). Higher yielding entries were
Young 'Oro-T-Xtra' variety (7310 Ibs/A), followed by Young 'Oro 4390' variety
(7170 Ibs/A, Dekalb 'D-46' variety (7100 lbs/A),and Young 'Oro-T' variety
(7100 Ibs/A). At both Ona ARC and Immokalee the lowest yielding entry was
Young 'Oro Recio' variety which yielded 1480 and 5000 Ibs/A, respectively.

Bird damage was a greater problem at Immokalee than at Ona. Those
entries which received the greatest percentage bird loss were Young 'Oro-T-Xtra'
variety (6.5% loss), Fla Feed and Seed 'Gator Grain A' variety (6.0% loss)
and Acco varieties'R-1029A', '1090' and 'D-2912' (8.8, 6.0 and 6.0%) (Table 5).
Varieties bred for bird resistance appeared to suffer similar losses as
non-resistant hybrids.

The diseases caused by Helminthosporium spp. and the disease anthracnose
were greater at Immokalee (Table 5). At harvest 50 to 60% of the leaf area
of many entries (such as: Acco 'BR Y93' variety, Northrup King '2778' variety,
Acco 'D-1029A' variety or Dekalb 'D-55' variety was covered with lesions of
these two diseases. There was little practical difference in disease resis-
tance among hybrids tested.

Dade county

Grain sorghum was harvested on July 10, 1978 which was 98 days after
seeding. Significant differences in yield were found among the 25 hybrids
tested (Table 6). Yields ranged from 5320 to 2480 and averaged 4040 lbs/A.
Among the higher yielding entries were: Coker '7723' variety, Young 'Early
Oro' variety, Fla Feed and Seed 'Gator Grain A' variety and Young 'Oro T'
variety.

There were no visual symptoms of N or K deficiency in the sorghum at
harvest in spite of the fact that these elements were supplied by residual
fertilizer from the previous potato crop. This demonstrates a tremendous
potential to maximize returns from "fallow" vegetable lands through an
agronomic crop.

Observations at harvest indicated that there was little or no damage
from midge and losses due to the sap beetle were small. As at other loca-
tions, anthracnose was wide-spread among entries, but no ratings were made.

Conclusion

There were significant differences in the grain yields of sorghums
tested at Ona, Immokalee and Dade county. Grain yields at these respective
locations were 4210, 6370 and 4040.










0


Table 1. Yield of grain sorghum hybrids grown at Ona ARC, 1978.


Grain yield
Ib/A


Dekalb
Young
Northrup King
Pioneer
Northrup King
Young
Fla Feed & Seed
Dekalb
Funks
Funks
Ring Around
Acco
Acco
Young
Northrup King
Ring Around
Young
Growers
Ring Around
Acco
Growers
Dekalb
Dekalb
Growers
McCurdy
Acco
Dekalb
Young
Average


D-55
Oro-T-Xtra
Savanna 5
8225
NK 2650
Oro-T
Gator Grain A
D-60
BR-79
G-516 BR
811-A
R-1090A
D-2912
Oro 4390
2778
RA 810
Oro-DR 11
GSA 1334
808
BR-Y-93
ML-135
E-59
D-46
GSA 54060
Birds-off 91A YG
R-1029A
BR-45+
Oro Recio


Brand


Hybrid


5920
5880
5400
5310
5190
5190
5080
5010
4790
4790
4700
4490
4320
4180
4140
4140
4000
3920
3920
3790
3790
3740
3514
3480
2990
2870
1780
1480
4210


at
a
ab
ab
abc
abc
abc
abcd
abcde
abcde
abcde
bcdef
bcdef
bcdefg
bcdefgh
bcdefgh
cdefgh
cdefgh
cdefgh
defgh
defgh
defgh
efgh
fgh
ghi
hi
ij
J


t Grain yield reported at 100% dry matter
SMeans within columns followed by the same letter are not
significantly different. DLSD, K=100.













Table 2. Average grain yields of
ARC Ona, 1974 to 1978.


Brand

Grown for
Funks
Grown for
Asgrow
Dekalb


Hybrid

5 years 1974-1978
G-516-BR
4 years 1974-1978
Dorado M
E-59


grain sorghum hybrids grown at the



1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 Av.
- dry yield Ib/A- -

5260 4940 5230 5330 4790 5110


5120 5530 6070 5410
5390 5900 5310


-- 5530
3740 5090


Grown for 3 years 1974-1978
Dekalb D-60
Young Oro-T
Acco BR-Y-93
Funks BR-79
Taylor-Evans Y-101-R
Ring Around Bird-Go-68
Grown for 2 years 1974-1978
Northrup King Savanna 5
Dekalb D-55
Dekalb BR 64
Pioneer 8225
Acco R-1090A
Funks G589
Growers GSA 1334 BR
Taylor-Evans Hondo
Dekalb F-67
Northrup King 2778
Growers ML-135
Acco D-2912
Funks 722 DR
Dekalb D-46
Acco R-1029A
Young Oro
Young Oro-Y
Average


m--



4920
4480


--
m--

4000
4330


6640
5730
5900


5150


.-- m-- --

-- 4550 -

-- -- --62
6120

-- 5020 --
-- 5190



4560


4490
-- 3470 -
4950 4640 5590


6220
5590
5160
5660
5190
4770

6840
4990
5910
5080
5860
3860
5920
4570
4050
4830
5240
4550
4130
4960
5230
3650
4360
5100


5960
5300
4950
4820
4810
4800


6120
5460
5230
5200
5180
4990
4920
4800
4620
4490
4520
4440
4350
4240
4050
4070
3920


5010
5190
3790
4790




5400
5920

5310
4490

3920


4140
3790
4320

3510
2870



4440













Table 3. Agronomic characteristics of
at the Ona ARC 1978.


grain sorghum hybrids grown


Brand
Dekalb
Young
Northrup King
Pioneer
Northrup King
Young
Fla Feed & Seed
Dekalb
Funks
Funks
Ring Around
Acco
Acco
Young
Northrup King
Ring Around
Young
Growers
Ring Around
Acco
Growers
Dekalb
Dekalb
Growers
McCurdy
Acco
Dekalb
Young


Hybrid
D-55
Oro-T-Xtra
Savanna 5
8225
NK 2650
Oro-T
Gator Grain A
D-60
BR-79
G-516-BR
811-A
R-1090A
D-2912
Oro 4390
2778
RA 810
Oro-DR 11
GSA 1334
808
BR-Y-93
ML-135
E-59
D-46
GSA 54060
Birds off 91A
R1029A
BR-45+
Oro Recio


Height Diseaset
60 2.3
63 3.5
55 2.0
61 2.3
57 2.0
60 3.3
62 2.3
59 2.0
62 2.3
50 3.0
57 3.8
53 2.3
51 2.5
57 2.8
55 3.8
55 2.5
53 2.0
53 3.3
51 2.5
52 3.8
51 2.3
55 3.8
55 3.8
48 5.3
YG 52 3.0
50 4.5
46 3.0
46 4.5


Infloresence type


compact
semi-open
compact
compact
compact
open
open
semi-open
open
open
semi-open
open
semi-open
semi-open
semi-open
semi-open
compact
open
semi-open
open
open
semi-open
compact
compact
open
open
semi-open
semi-open


rated on a scale 1 to 10,


with l=none and 10= 100% loss.


to compact













Table 4. Yield of grain sorghum hybridsgronaeA


Brand

Young
Young
Dekalb
Young
Ring Around
Pioneer
Acco
Fla Feed & Seed
Northrup King
Northrup King
Acco
Ring Around
Acco
Funks
Dekalb
Northrup King
Acco
Dekalb
Growers
Growers
Growers
Dekalb
Ring Around
Dekalb
Funks
McCurdy
Young
Average


Hybrid

Oro-T-Xtra
Oro 4390
D-46
Oro-T
811-A
8225
BR-Y-93
Gator Grain A
NK 2650
2770
R-1029A
RA 810
R-1090A
G-516 BR
E-59
Savanna 5
D-2912
D-55
GSA 54060
ML-135
GSA-1334
D-60
808
BR-45+
BR-79
Birds off 91A YG
Oro Recio


Grain yield
lb/A


7310
7170
7100
7100
6870
6820
6790
6700
6700
6650
6580
6510
6510
6440
6400
6400
6260
6260
6120
5920
5880
5830
5830
5710
5570
5480
5000
6370


at
ab
abc
abc
abcd
abcde
abcde
abcdef
abcdef
abcdef
abcdef
abcdef
abcdef
abcdef
abcdef
abcdef
abcdefg
abcdefg
abcdefg
bcdefg
bcdefg
cdefg
cdefg
defg
efg
fg
g


t Grain yields reported at 100% dry matter
t Means within columns followed by the same letter are not
significantly different. DLSD, K=100.


Immokalee ARC, 1978.


Table 4. Yield of grain sorghum hy-brid~_g~_~nl~t















Table 5. Agronomic characteristics of
Immokalee ARC 1978.


grain sorghum hybrids grown at


Height Disease+ Bird Damage
inches %


Infloresence
type


Young
Young
Dekalb
Young
Ring Around
Pioneer
Acco
Fla Feed & Seed
Northrup King
Northrup King
Acco
Ring Around
Acco
Funk
Dekalb
Northrup King
Acco
Dekalb
Growers
Growers
Growers
Dekalb
Ring Around
Dekalb
Funks
McCurdy
Young


Oro-T-Xtra 63
Oro 4390 58
D-46 56
Oro-T 62
811-A 56
8225 59
BR-Y-93 56
Gator Grain A 59
NK 2650 61
2778 58
R-1029A 53
RA 810 57
R-1090A 51
G-516 BR 54
E-59 57
Savanna 5 53
D-2912 54
D-55 59
GSA 54060 49
ML-135 48
GSA-1334 56
D-60 58
808 57
BR-45+ 51
BR-79 61
Birds off 91AYG 54
Oro Recio 47


3.8
5.5
4.5
5.5
5.0
3.3
6.0
4.8
4.3
6.8
6.0
5.3
4.0
6.3
3.5
3.0
2.8
3.8
6.0
4.5
6.0
3.4
5.3
2.0
4.8
6.8
5.8


6.5
2.8
2.3
4.8
3.0
3.3
2.3
6.0
3.0
3.8
8.8
3.0
6.0
2.8
5.5
2.5
6.3
2.8
3.3
3.3
2.3
2.3
3.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.8


semi-open
semi-open
compact
open
open
compact
open
open
compact
semi-open
open
semi-open
open
open
semi-open
compact
semi-open
compact
compact
open
open
semi-open
semi-open
semi-open
open
open
semi-open


rated on a scale of 1 to 10 with l=none and 10=100% loss.


Brand


0


Hybrid


0


--














Table 6. Yield of grain sorghum grown


Grain yield
Ib/A


Coker
Young
Fla Feed & Seed
Young
Dekalb
Northrup King
Growers
Dekalb
Funks
Growers
Young
Young
Young
Northrup King
Northrup King
Asgrow
Funks
Dekalb
Northrup King
McCurdy
Growers
Ring Around
Acco
Dekalb
Dekalb


7723
Early Oro
Gator Grain A
Oro-T
BR-64
X-4156
ML-135
F-67
G-516 BR
Exp 73022
Oro
Oro-Y
Oro-DR
Savanna 5
2778
Bug-off-M
G-522 DR
E-59
2779
M-51 YG
GSA 1334
RA 807
DR 1085
D-46+
D-60


Average


t Grain yields reported at 100% dry matter.


t Means within columns followed
significantly different. DLSD,


by the same letter are not
K=100.


Brand


Hybrid


at
ab
abc
abcd
abcde
abcdef
bcdef
cdef
cdef
cdef
cdef
cdef
cdef
def
def
defg
defg
defg
defg
efg
efg
efg
fgh
gh
h


5320
5280
5040
4920
4360
4260
4220
4200
4160
4060
4000
4000
3980
3960
3920
3900
3880
3880
3860
3800
3720
3660
3200
2840
2480
4040


at Dade county 1978.









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