• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Main














Group Title: Evaluation of commercial forage sorgum hybrids at ARC, Ona and Immokalee.
Title: Evaluation of commercial forage sorgum hybrids at ARC, Ona and Immokalee. 1979
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075786/00003
 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of commercial forage sorgum hybrids at ARC, Ona and Immokalee. 1979
Series Title: Evaluation of commercial forage sorgum hybrids at ARC, Ona and Immokalee.
Translated Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1980-1 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S.
Everett, P. H.
Wright, D. L.
Martin, F. G.
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1979
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075786
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143647250

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




agricultural Research Center *

research Report RC-1980-1 January 1980



EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL FORAGE SORGHUM HYBRIDS

AT ARC, ONA AND IMMOKALEE 1979.
1/
R. S. Kalmbacher, P. H. Everett, D. L. Wright and F. G. Martin-

Forage sorghums may provide a valuable supplement to perennial grasses
during periods of feed shortages when harvested and fed as green chop or stored
as silage. Some forage sorghum hybrids may produce more dry matter per acre
than corn, however digestible energy is usually lower in sorghum than in corn.

Forage sorghums that are seeded in late February are ready for harvesting
90 to 100 days later. They may be cut 2 or perhaps 3 times during the growing
season. Generally, the best animal performance is obtained when plants are
ensiled at physiological maturity, which maximizes grain content.

In order to determine adaptability and productivity of forage sorghum
hybrids, which are constantly being released by public and private plant breeders,
it is necessary that these hybrids be tested under south-central Florida conditions.
The purpose of this publication is to present comparative data on the various
hybrids tested at Ona and Immokalee. Where trade names are used no discrimination
or endorsement is intended.

Methods of Procedure

At the Ona Agricultural Research Center (ARC) and the Immokalee ARC, 16
commercial forage sorghum hybrids were seeded at 16 Ib/A in 30" row spacings
on March 6, and March 9, 1979, respectively. The experimental e were
randomized complete blocks with 4 replications. /I 0 4,i--.L

Fertilization practices at Ona consisted of 80-110-240 1 /A of P205,
K20, respectively, which was applied and disked into the seed bed. o ,
Immokalee 40-125-250 Ib/A was disked into the seedbed, prepl ti When plLnte85
were 12 and 24 inches tall at Ona, 70 and 50 Ib/A of N was a ,IA rpectively.
At Immokalee, 50 and 100 Ib/A of N was applied when plants were n '4. In s
tall, respectively. After harvest 1 at both locations, 60 and 100 lb O1rd/ a
was applied when regenerative buds were just showing and when plants were 25
inches tall, respectively. After harvest 2, 50 lb/A of N was applied to both
experiments.

Weed control at both locations consisted of the pre-emergence application
Of 2.0 Ib/A of AAtrex(R) active. Furidan(R) 10 G was applied in the row at
seeding at 2 lb/A active. Mesurol(R) was applied at 1 lb/100 Ib of seed to act
as a bird repellent.


1/ Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist), ARC, Ona; Professor, ARC,
Immokalee; Extension Agronomist, Quincy AREC; Associate Professor, Dept.
of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.












The Ona experiment was irrigated with an overhead system, and 4.2 inches
was applied in 6 applications from March to May. A seepage irrigation system
with laterals on 40 foot centers supplied water at Immokalee.

Results and Discussion

Ona ARC

Sorghums were harvested three times during the 273-day growing season, and
significant differences in dry matter production were found (Table 1). Yield
ranged from 17.8 to 7.1 tons/acre of dry matter, and averaged 12.5 T/A. The
five highest yielding hybrids were: Pioneer 911 (17.8 T/A); Asgrow Beefbuilder
T (17.4 T/A); Pioneer 947 (15.6 T/A); McNair 3135 (14.7 T/A); and Pennington
Pennsilage A (14.1 T/A).

All hybrids provided the greatest percentage of their total yield at
harvest 1. Harvest 2 yields were lower than the first harvest, and yields at
harvest 3 were the lowest of all. In past years, harvest 3 yields were equal
or better than those of harvest 2, but heavy rains throughout September 1979
depressed the yield of the last harvest.

Selecting a hybrid on the basis of one year's results is not recommended,
due to the variation in growing conditions from year to year. Average yields
of hybrids grown between 1975 and 1979 are presented in Table 2. Some of the
better yielding hybrids at Ona are: Dekalb FS25A, Pioneer 947, Pioneer 923,
and McNair 3135.

Most entries were in the dough stage at harvest 1 except Pioneer 911
(Table 3). Even though Pioneer 911 was the highest yielding entry it is too late
in maturity to fit into a multiple harvest system in south Florida. Lodging
was a serious problem at harvest 1 and 2. Entries with poor standability were:
Asgrow Titan M; McNair Energy Plus; McNair 3135; McNair HO-K; Taylor Evans
Milkmaker and Taylor Evans Silomaker.

Disease (Anthracnose, Colletotrichum and leaf blight, Helminthosporium
were not severe at harvest 1 and 3, but were bad at harvest 2 when 60 to 75%
of the leaves were dead from these diseases.

Immokalee ARC

There were significant differences in yield among the 16 entries tested
at Immokalee where yields ranged from 16.0 to 6.9 T/A and averaged 10.5 T/A
(Table 4). The five top yielding hybrids were: Dekalb FS25A (16.0 T/A); Pioneer
911 (12.7 T/A); McNair HO-K (12.6 T/A); Pioneer 947 (12.2 T/A) and McNair 3135
(12.1 T/A).

All entries persisted through harvest 3, but like the sorghums at Ona,
the greatest percentage of total yield came from harvest 1. Those entries
which tended to produce more total dry matter are usually higher yielding at
harvest 1.











Forage sorghum hybrids have been tested for 4 years at Immokalee, and the
averages are presented in Table 5. Although these hybrids are consistently
lower yielding at Immokalee as compared with Ona, essentially the same group of
hybrids perform well at both locations. The better hybrids are Dekalb FS25A;
Pioneer 947; McCurdy F75; Pioneer 923 and McNair 3135.

Lodging was not a problem at Immokalee in 1979 (Table 6). However, the
same diseases that were problems at Ona were very bad on the hybrids produced
during harvest 2 at Inmmokalee. Disease at harvests 1 and 3 was not too
severe.

Conclusions

1. There were significant differences in the yields of the 16 hybrids
tested at Ona. Yields ranged from 17.8 to 7.1 tons/A and averaged
12.5 T/A over three harvests.

2. Lodging was a severe problem at harvest 1 and 2 at Ona where several
hybrids (Asgrow Titan M, McNair Energy Plus, McNair 3135, McNair HO-K,
Taylor Evans Milkmaker, Taylor Evans Silomaker) were identified as
being prone to fall with high wind.

3. There were significant differences in the yield of the 16 entries tested
at Immokalee where yields ranged from 16.0 to 6.9 T/A and averaged 10.5
T/A over three harvests.

4. Recommended hybrids for the Ona area are: Dekalb FS25A, Pioneer 947, and
Pioneer 923.

5. Recommended hybrids for Immokalee are: Dekalb FS25A, Pioneer 947, Pioneer
923, McCurdy F75 and McNair 3135.












Table 1. Dry matter yield of forage sorghum hybrids grown at the Ona ARC, 1979.


Harvest


Brand


Hybrid


Pioneer
Asgrow
Pioneer
McNair
Pennington
Dekalb
McCurdy
McNair
Pioneer
Taylor Evans
Taylor Evans
McNair
Funks
Growers
Asgrow
Dekalb
Average


911
Beefbuilder T
947
3135
Pennsilage A
FS25A
F 75
HO-K
923
Milkmaker
Silomaker
Energy Plus
102F
30F
Titan M
FS16


1 2 3 Total
6-21-79 9-20-79 12-5-79
-----------------tons/A----------------


11.2
9.0
10.5
8.9
11.4
8.3
7.2
8.5
7.5
5.8
6.5
5.5
5.6
6.3
4.9
3.5
7.5


5.5
7.2
4.3
5.2
2.7
4.3
4.5
3.4
3.7
5.0
4.3
5.0
3.5
2.8
3.9
2.8
3.9


1.1
1.2
0.8
0.6

1.1
0.8
0.4
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.4
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.8


17.8
17.4
15.6
14.7
14.1
13.7
12.5
12.3
12.0
11.6
11.5
10.9
9.8
9.7
9.4
7.1
12.5


+
a
a
ab
abc
a-d
a-e
b-e
b-e
b-e
b-e
b-f
c-f
def
def
ef
f


tMeans followed by the same letter
(Duncans LSD, K=100).


are not significantly different.


*Entry died.

Seeding date: March 6, 1979.
Row spacing: 30".
Seeding rate: 16 Ib/A.
Fertilization: 80-110-240 Ibs/A of N, P205, K20 at seeding. When plants
were 12" tall, 70 Ibs N/A, and when plants were 24" tall,
50 Ibs N/A. After Harvest 1, 60 Ib/A was applied when buds
were forming, followed by 100 Ib N/A when plants were 24"
tall. After harvest 2, 50 Ib N/A was applied.

Herbicide: AAtrex(R) 2.0 Ib/A (active) pre-emergence.

Insecticide: Furidan(R) 10 G was applied in the row at seeding at 2 Ib/A active.

Irrigation: Overhead (total of 4.2 inches applied March to May).


0











Table 2. Dry matter yields
to 1979.


of forage sorghum hybrids grown at Ona ARC. 1975


Brand


Hybrid


Grown for 5 years
McNair Energy Plus

Grown for 4 years
Dekalb FS25A
Growers 30F
Taylor Evans Silomaker
Funks 102-F
Taylor Evans TDN

Grown for 3 years
Pioneer 947
Pioneer 923
McCurdy F75
Ring Around Silofill 35
Funks 103S
Acco 531-R

Grown for 2 years
McNair 3135
Pioneer 942
Northrup King Silomilo
Average


1975t 1976* 19 1978* 19799 Average
------------------tons/acre--------------------


8.8 16.9 14.1 13.8 10.9 12.9


10.3







6.4


20.5
15.2
14.8
13.7
11.3





12.7
12.7


19.4
18.0
15.3
14.8
13.8


19.5
19.4
15.3
14.2
12.8
17.9


16.2
--- 13.1
8.5 14.7 16.0


19.1
16.6
14.2
13.9
11.9


17.1
19.3
17.3
17.5
18.2
18.3


18.8
17.0
15.7
16.6


13.7
9.7
11.5
9.8



15.6
12.0
12.5





14.7


12.3


18.2
14.9
14.0
13.1
11.8


17.4
16.9
15.0
14.8
14.4
14.2


16.8
16.6
14.4
15.0


tSeeded in 36" rows.
*Seeded in 18" rows.
ISeeded in 30" rows.
Seeding dates: 1975, 3-14; 1976, 3-10; 1977, 3-3; 1978, 3-20; 1979, 3-6.


__ __ ~1~1_1_











Table3 Agronomic characteristics of forage sorghums grown at Ona ARC, 1979.


Harvest 1 Harvest 2 Harvest 3


W-- W- 4-o W -W --
W 0 >4i 41 W 4W
W4J M -V 0 W 4HI
B0 y *o 3 0 (>I 0 -H 0 4 *- <
Brand Hybrid Q Q aV- a n- S
004 10W 0 0 0


Pioneer
Asgrow
Pioneer
McNair
Pennington
Dekalb
McCurdy
McNair
Pioneer
Taylor Evans
Taylor Evans
McNair
Funks
Growers
Asgrow
Dekalb


911
Beefbuilder T
947
3135
Pennsilage A
FS25A
F75
HO-K
923
Milkmaker
Silomaker
Energy Plus
102F
30F
Titan M
FS16


10.1
8.6
9.0
8.4
9.9
8.6
7.9
9.5
8.7
7.8
7.3
7.4
7.2
7.8
7.3
6.2


31.5
34.3
41.5
35.2
35.4
32.2
32.8
27.5
44.4
38.6
38.8
33.5
31.9
34.4
43.1
28.0


9.0
9.0
8.8
8.7
7.8
8.0
8.6

8.8
8.8
8.0
8.5
7.2
8.0
8.2
6.4


29.6
29.6
37.7
29.8
29.0
30.0
27.3
36.5
37.1
30.4
28.9
45.4
30.2
30.0
28.0
29.2


4.6 27.9
4.6 27.9
3.5 25.8
4.5 26.0
---I ---
3.8 25.1
4.1 25.3
4.2 24.4
4.3 28.4
4.5 25.8
4.2 26.8
3.8 25.5
4.2 23.2
3.9 26.0
3.8 25.9
4.1 23.3


0 3
0 3
0 3
0 3

03
0 3
0 3
0 3
0 3
0 3
0 3
0 3
0 3
0 3
0 3


tHeight in feet.

TDM = dry matter 0/o at harvest.

ILodging /o.

9 Disease rated on a scale 1 to 10. 1 = none, 10 = 100% leaf and stem
area affected.

#Maturity; B = boot stage; A = anthesis; M = grain in milk stage; D = grain in
dough stage.


0


--


I I


1











Table 4. Dry matter yield of forage sorghum hybrids grown at the Immokalee
ARC, 1979.


Harvest


Hybrid


1
6-14-79


2 3
9-7-79 11-29-79 Total
-----tons/A-----------------------


Dekalb
Pioneer
McNair
Pioneer
McNair
Pennington
Growers
McNair
Asgrow
Taylor Evans
Taylor Evans
Pioneer
Asgrow
McCurdy
Funks
Dekalb
Average


FS25A
911
HO-K
947
3135
Pennsilage A
30F
Energy Plus
Beefbuilder T
Silomaker
Milkmaker
923
Titan M
F75
102F
FS16


+Means Followed by the same letter are
(Duncan's LSD, K = 100).


not significantly different.


Seeding date: March 9, 1979.

Seeding rate: 16 Ibs/A.

Row spacing: 30".


Fertilization: 40-125-250 lb/A of N, P,05- K20, respectively at seeding.
When plants 12" tall, 56 Ib/A of N, and when plants were
24" tall, plants were fertilized with 100 Ib/A N. After
harvest 1, 60 Ib/A of N was applied when plants were forming
buds, followed by 100 lbs/A of N when plants were 24" tall.
After harvest 2, 50 Ib/A of N was applied.

Herbicide: AAtrex(R) at 2 Ib/A active pre-emergence. Mesurol(R) was applied
as a bird-repellent at the rate of 1 lb/100 Ib seed.

Insecticide: Furidan(R) 10G was applied in the row at seeding at 2 lb/A active.


Irrigation: Seepage with ditches on 40 foot centers.


Brand


7.9
6.9
6.7
6.2
5.4
6.8
5.4
5.7
6.0
5.2
4.8
5.0
4.5
4.7
5.0
3.4
5.6


5.8
3.2
3.5
4.1
4.3
3.0
3.0
2.8
2.3
2.4
2.3
2.6
2.3
2.4
2.0
2.0
3.0


2.3
2.6
2.4
1.9
2.4
1.1.
2.0
1.7
1.6
1.7
2.2
1.6
2.2
1.8
1.7
1.5
1.9


16.0
12.7
12.6
12.2
12.1
10.9
10.4
10.2
9.9
9.3
9.3
9.2
9.0
8.9
8.7
6.9
10.5











Dry matter yields of
ARC, 1976 to 1979.


0


forage sorghum hybrids grown at Immokalee,


Brand


Hybrid


Grown for 4 years
Dekalb FS25A
McNair Energy Plus
Funks 102F
Taylor Evans Silomaker

Grown for 3 years
Pioneer 947
McCurdy F75
Pioneer 923
Taylor Evans TDN
Growers 30F
Dekalb FS24

Grown for 2 years
McNair 3135
Acco FS531-R
Funks 103 S
Northrup King Silomilo
PiOneer 942
McNair HO-K
Acco FS 401-R
Funks 650-S
Average


1976t


6.3
7.3
6.1







7.3
5.7
5.0
6.8


1977f 19781 19791
----------tons/A------------


11.0
10.5
10.4
10.6


14.1
10.8
12.1
9.5
10.6
11.0



10.3
10.4
11.9
9.5

11.9
10.3
10.9


14.2
11.9
11.9
10.2


13.7
15.3
11.8
13.5

10.7


15.1
14.0
13.8
12.1
12.8



12.9


16.0
10.2
8.7
9.3


12.2
8.9
9.2

10.4



12.1




12.6


11.0


tGrown with 18" rows.

--Grown with 30" rows.


Seeding dates: 1976, 3-4; 1977, 3-2; 1978, 2-28; 1979, 3-9.


Table 5.


Average


11.9
10.3
9.7
9.9


13.3
11.7
11.0
9.8
9.4
9.3


13.7
12.2
12.1
12.0
11.2
10.0
8.8
7.7
10.8








Table 6. Agronomic characteristics of forage sorghum hybrids grown at
Immokalee ARC, 1979.


Brand


Dekalb
Pioneer
McNair
Pioneer
McNair
Pennington
Growers
McNair
Asgrow
Taylor Evans
Taylor Evans
Pioneer
Asgrow
r McCurdy
Funks
Dekalb


Hybrid


FS25A
911
HO-K
947
3135
Pennsilage A
30F
Energy Plus
Beefbuilder T
Silomaker
Milkmaker
923
Titan M
F75
102 F
FS16


Harvest 1


28.8
26.9
29.4
31.4
32.2
31.1
32.0
28.3
31.2
34.3
29.8
36.5
33.4
32.3
29.3
26.0


Harvest 2


5.6
6.4
6.1
6.8
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.1
5.7
5.6
5.1
8.3
4.6
4.6


20.1
18.7
18.8
25.9
22.8
17.9
20.1
25.6
17.6
18.1
17.8
20.0
18.6
17.9
18.6
19.0


Harvest 3


V 4J 00 W)I
a -l| C w I
4 M 00 Q. o
I n W 0o I
12 *d a)3i-


5.9
6.7
6.8
6.1
7.1
6.6
6.3
5.7
6.3
5.9
6.5
6.4
6.4
6.8
6.2
5.8


33.9
35.7
34.9
40.3
34.7
31.4
34.9
33.6
33.4
35.4
35.2
37.7
35.1
33.7
38.8
32.9


3 M
3 B
3 M
3 A
3 A
5 B
3 M
4 D
3 D
3 M
3 M
3 D
3 D
3 M
3 M
3 D


+Height in feet.

tDM = dry matter /0 at harvest.

gLodgingo/,.


SDisease rated on a scale 1 to 10. 1 = none,
area affected.

#Maturity: V = vegetative; B = boot stage; A
stage; D = grain in dough stage.


10 100% of leaf and stem


= anthesis; M = grain in milk


----




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs