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Title: Evaluation of commercial forage sorgum hybrids at ARC, Ona and Immokalee.
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 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of commercial forage sorgum hybrids at ARC, Ona and Immokalee.
Series Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1979-3
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S.
Everett, P. H.
Green Jr., V. E.
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1978
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075786
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143647250

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Agricultural Research Center ",-* *
Research Report RC-1979-3 F b



EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL FORAGE SORGHUM HYBRID

AT ARC, ONA AND IMMOKALEE 1978.

R. S. Kalmbacher, P. H. Everett, and V. E. Green, Jr. /


Forage sorghums may provide a valuable supplement to perennial grasses
during periods of feed shortages when harvested and fed as green chop or
stored as silage. Some forage sorghum hybrids may produce more dry matter
per acre than corn, however digestible energy is usually lower in sorghum
than in corn.

Forage sorghums that are seeded in late February are ready for harvesting
90 to 100 days later. They may be cut 2 or perhaps 3 times during the entire
growing season. Generally, the best animal performance is obtained when plants
are ensiled at physiological maturity, which maximizes grain content.

In order to determine adaptability and productivity of forage sorghum
hybrids, which are constantly being released, it is necessary that these
hybrids be tested under south-central Florida conditions. The purpose of
this publication is to present comparative data on the various hybrids tested
at Ona and Immokalee. Where trade names are used no discrimination or endorse-
ment is intended.

Methods of Procedure

At the Ona Agricultural Research Center (ARC), 17 commercial forage
sorghum hybrids were seeded at 16 lb/A in 18" row spacings on March 8, 1978,
but due to excessive rains were reseeded on March 20. At the Immokalee
ARC 17 hybrids were seeded at 16 Ib/A on 30" row spacings on February 28,
1978. The experimental designs were randomized complete blocks with 4
replications.

Fertilization practices at Ona consisted of 0-130-260 lb/A o/ N-P205-
K20, respectively with 26 Ib/A of fritted micronutrients, FTE 503-, which
was applied and disked into the seedbed prior to the March 8 seeding. At the
March 20 reseeding 75 Ib/A of N was applied. At Immokalee 50-100-200 plus
20 Ib/A FTE 503 were applied and disked into the seedbed. When plants were
16 to 18" tall, 100 Ibs/A and 50 lbs/A of N was applied at Ona and Immokalee.


1T Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist), ARC, Ona; Professor, ARC,
Immokalee; Professor (Agronomist) Agronomy Department, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

2/ FTE 503 micronutrients have the following elemental composition: iron,
18.0%, zinc, 7.0%; manganese, 7.5%; boron, 3.0%; copper, 3.0%; molybdenum,
0.2%.






2


An additional 100 lbs/A of N was applied to 20 to 24" tall plants at Immokalee.
This application was applied in a band 4 to 6" from the row, and fertilizer
was covered with soil by a rolling coulter. After the initial harvest, 200 lbs/
A and 50 Ibs/A of N was applied to 6 to 8" plants at Ona and Immokalee, respec-
tively. Later at Immokalee, when plants were 20 to 24" tall, an additional
50 Ibs/A was applied. After the second harvest, 58-0-80 and 54-0-75 lbs/A of
N-P 0 -K 0 was applied at Ona and Immokalee, respectively, then when plants were
16 0o 18 tall an additional 100 and 60 Ibs/A of N was applied at these respec-
tive locations.

Weed control at oth locations consisted of the pre-emergence application
of 2.0 Ibs/A AAtrex (active). After each harvest paraquat at the rate of
0.25 Ib/A (active) was broadcast over the stubble. When paraquat is applied
over the stubble, it is essential to do so within 2 or 3 days after harvest
before new buds and tillers have formed. Furidan 10G was applied in the row
at seeding at the rate of 20 Ib/A (commercial product). Diazinon field-bait
was applied at 25 Ib/A to control mole crickets. Immokalee experiments were
sprayed twice with Lannate at 1 Ib/A in 100 gallons of water to control bud-
worms.

The Ona experiment was irrigated with an over-head system. A total of
7.9 inches was applied: 4.2 inches during April and May and 3.7 inches from
October to December. Irrigation at Immokalee was provided through a seepage
system with laterals on 40 foot centers.

Results and Discussion

Ona ARC

Sorghums were harvested three times during the 262-day growing season,
and there were significant (P<0.01) differences among the 17 entries tested.
Yields ranged from 19.3 to 11.4 T/A of dry matter and averaged 16.0 T/A.
Better yielding entries were Pioneer variety 923 (19.3 T/A), Dekalb variety
FS25A (19.1 T/A), McNair variety 3135 (18.8 T/A), Acco variety 531-R (18.3 T/A)
and Funks variety G103-S (18.2 T/A).

Yields of all entries at harvest 1 averaged 7.1 T/A, but dropped to 4.2
T/A at harvest 2, which was produced during the hot, wet summer conditions.
Yieltd improved at harvest 3 when the average was 4.7 T/A. Higher fall yields
are a reflection of cooler temperatures and drier soils.

Selecting a hybrid on the basis of one year's results is not recommended.
Table 2 contains the results of 2 to 4 years testing at Ona. Some better hybrids
are Acco 531-R, Funks 102-F, Dekalb FS 25A, Pioneer 923, Pioneer 947, Pioneer
942. McNair Energy Plus is a good yielding, high grain producing, early
maturing variety, but experience has indicated that lodging from weak stalks is
a problem in south Florida.

The dry matter percentage at harvest 1 was too low for ensiling purposes
(Table 3). Although most entries were in the dough stage of maturity, the
dry matter values ranged from 21.7 to 33.9%. For ensiling a range of 30 to 35%
is more desirable.

Disease anthracnosee, Colletotrichum and leaf blight, Helminthosporium)
were not severe at harvest 1, but as the season progressed, the hot, humid












summer conditions favored higher disease incidence (Table 3). Disease was
less of a problem at harvest 3, because of cooler, drier conditions.

Immokalee ARC

There were significant (P40.01) differences in the yields of entries
tested (Table 4). Yields ranged from 15.3 to 9.7 T/A and averaged 12.6 T/A.
Better yielding hybrids were McCurdy variety F75 (15.3 T/A), McNair 3155
(15.1 T/A), Dekalb FS 25A (14.2 T/A), Acco 531-R (14.0 T/A) and Funks G103-S
(13.8 T/A).

Yields at the first harvest averaged 5.8 T/A and dropped to an average
of 3.7 T/A at harvest 2. Average yields remained low at the third harvest
(3.1 T/A).

There are twelve entries in table 5 that have been tested for 2 or 3
years at Immokalee. Some better hybrids are Pioneer 947, McCurdy F75, Acco
531-R, Pioneer 923, and Northrup King Silomilo. When selecting any hybrid,
mid-summer production should be evaluated. Ranchers should chose those
varieties which do not drop drastically in yield when soil moisture is
excessive.

Dry matter percent at harvest 1 was too low for ensiling most of the
hybrids (Table 6). Although hybrids may be in the dough stage, dry matter
may still be too low. Ranchers should wait until the dry matter values are
greater than 30%. Most of the hybrids at harvest 2 or 3 would have ensiled
better than at harvest 1.


Conclusions

1. There were significant differences in the dry matter yieldsof the 17
hybrids tested at Ona or Immokalee ARC.

2. Results of more than 2 years testing have indicated that Acco 531-R,
Dekalb FS25A, McCurdy F75, Pioneer 923 or Pioneer 947 are reliable hybrids
at either location.

3. Ranchers should select those hybrids which hold-up under the high moisture
conditions of mid-summer. These consistent yielding entries that produce
Swell throughout a 275 day+ growing season may be most profitable.










Table 1. Dry matter yield of forage sorghum hybrids grown at the Ona ARC, 1978.


Harvest


Brand


Hybrid


Pioneer
Dekalb
McNair
Acco
Funks
Ring Around
McCurdy
Pioneer
Pioneer
Northrup King
Youngs
Taylor Evans
Dekalb
Funks
McNair
Taylor Evans
Northrup King
Average


923
FS25A
3135
531-R
G103-S
Silo fill 35
F-75
947
942
Silomilo
Red-Top-Kandy
Silomaker
FS24
102-F
Energy Plus
TDN
300


Means followed by the same letter
(Duncan's LSD, K=100).


are not significantly different.


Harvest dates: 1=6-16; 2=9-11; 3=12-7.
Seeding date: March 20, 1978.
Row spacing: 18"
Fertilization: 75-130-260 Ib/A of N-P205-K20 + 26 lb/A FTE 503 at seeding.
100 Ib/A of nitrogen when plants 16-18". After harvest 1,
200 lbs N/A. After harvest 2, 58-0-80 Ib/A of N-P205-K20
when plants 16-18" tall 100 lbs N/A.

Herbicide: AAtrex(R) 2.0 lb/A (active) pre-emergence. Paraquat at 0.25
Ib/A (active) broadcast over stubble immediately after harvest.

Irrigation: Overhead (4.2" in spring and 3.7" in fall-winter).


Total


1


7.6
8.7
6.9
9.9
7.5
7.8
6.9
7.4
8.2
6.7
8.4
5.1
5.8
5.8
6.2
6.7
5.3
7.1


2
- -


tons/A-


6.4
4.2
5.7
3.5
5.6
5.2
5.0
5.4
4.4
2.8
4.4
4.2
3.8
3.1
3.1
2.6
2.9
4.2


3


5.3
6.2
6.2
4.9
5.1
4.5
5.4
4.3
4.4
6.2
2.6
4.9
4.6
5.0
4.5
2.6
3.2
4.7


19.3
19.1
18.8
18.3
18.2
17.5
17.3
17.1
17.0
15.7
15.4
14.2
14.2
13.9
13.8
11.9
11.4
16.0


a
a
a
ab
ab
abc
abc
abc
abc
bcd
bcd
bcde
bcde
cde
cde
de
e










Table 2. Dry matter yields of forage sorghum hybrids grown at Ona ARC
1974 to 1978.

Year


Brand


Hybrid


Grown for 4 years
McNair Energy Plus
Acco 531-R
Funks 102-F
Taylor Evans TDN
Dekalb FS 24

Grown for 2 or 3 years
Dekalb FS25A
Pioneer 923
Pioneer 947
Pioneer 942
Growers 30F
McCurdy F75
Taylor Evans Silomaker
Ring Around Silofill 35
Northrup King Silomilo
Funks 103S
Average


1974+


8.9
6.1

4.5


1975+


8.8
6.4

10.3


1976 1977 1978
- tons/acre- -


16.9

13.7
11.3
13.8


20.5



15.2

14.8
12.7

12.7


14.1
17.9
14.8
13.8
13.6


19.4
19.4
19.5
16.2
18.0
15.3
15.3
14.2
13.1
12.8


13.8
18.3
13.9
11.9
14.2


19.1
19.3
17.1
17.0
16.6
17.3
14.2
17.5
15.7
18.2


Average


13.4
12.9
12.1
11.8
11.4


19.7
19.4
18.3
18.3
16.6
16.3
14.8
14.8
14.4
14.4
15.1


seeded in 36" rows.

Seeding dates: 1974, 3-6; 1975, 3-14; 1976, 3-10; 1977, 3-3; 1978, 3-20.











Table 3. Agronomic characteristics of forage sorghums grown at Ona ARC, 1978.
I I-I


Brand


Pioneer
Dekalb
McNair
Acco
Funks
Ring Around
McCurdy
Pioneer
Pioneer
Northrup King
Youngs
Taylor Evans
Dekalb
Funks
McNair
Taylor Evans
Northrup King


Hybrid


923
FS25A
3135
531-R
G103-S
Silofill 35
F75
947
942
Silomilo
Red-Top Kandy
Silomaker
FS24
102-F
Energy Plus
TDN
300


Harvest 1


Harvest 2


Harvest 3


*X >*>>1 >1
4 4 ) 441 G) 4-
44 1 *rW 444 W *r4 .' (4 *p-
CU P4 c ai tg ,E W P1
0) 0) 3 0< ) t0(
.- Hf- uW 4: *1 W 4W *H z2 _4
V4 Q V4 m Q


8.8
9.0
8.5
L0.3
8.0
6.8
8.2
9.3
9.5
7.8
9.3
7.6
8.1
7.8
8.0
8.0
6.3


31.5
25.2
22.4
24.7
29.2
30.9
24.6
28.3
33.9
27.7
21.7
20.6
22.9
23.9
24.5
23.3
30.0


5.0
5.0
5.0
3.8
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.0
4.3
5.0
4.5
5.0
4.0
5.0
5.0
4.8
5.0


9.0
8.1
9.4
7.5
8.1
8.3
8.6
8.1
8.1
7.8
8.3
8.6
7.1
8.1
7.8
6.3
7.2


33.0
25.8
26.4
23.9
27.1
32.7
26.5
36.8
34.0
29.5
29.0
26.4
30.3
26.7
27.2
26.8
28.2


3.0
3.2
3.0
1.3
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.5
3.8
3.3
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.3
3.5
3.0


4.5 39.4
3.1 27.4
3.1 28.9
2.9 31.2
4.6 35.1
2.9 32.0
4.5 28.5
2.7 31.7
2.7 32.7
2.9 35.8
2.8 27.0
4.4 36.6
3.3 30.8
3.1 30.3
3.0 32.2
4.9 28.6
4.8 33.8


3.2
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.8
2.3
3.8
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.8
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.8
3.8


Height in feet

DM= dry matter %
disease rated on a scale 1 to 10. 1=none, 10= 100% leaf area affected.
** Maturity: 1= vegetative; 2=boot stage; 3=anthesis (pollen); 4= milk stage;
5= dough stage.










Table 4. Dry matter yield of forage
ARC, 1978.


sorghum hybrids grown at the Immokalee


Harvest


2 3
- -tons/A- -


McCurdy
McNair
Dekalb
Acco
Funks
Pioneer
Youngs
Taylor Evans
Pioneer
Northrup King
McNair
Funks
Pioneer
Dekalb
Taylor Evans
Ring Around
Northrup King
Average


F-75
3135
FS25A
531-R
G103-S
947
Red-Top-Kandy
TDN
942
Silomilo
Energy Plus
102-F
923
FS24
Silomaker
Silofill 35
300


Means followed by the same
LSD, K=100).


letter are not significantly different.


Harvest dates: 1=6-7; 2=9-12; 3=12-8.
Seeding date: February 28, 1978.
Row width: 30".
Fertilization: 50-100-200 Ib/A of N-P20 -K20 plus 20 lb/A FTE 503. 50 lb/A N
when plants 16 to 18" taIl, 100 lbs/A N when plants 20 to 24"
tall. After harvest 1, 50 Ib/A N broadcast over stubble, 50
Ib/A when plants 16 to 18" tall; after harvest 2, 54-0-75 lb/A
N-P205-K0, broadcast over stubble with 60 lb/A N applied when
plants 18-24" tall.

Herbicides: AAtrex(R) 2.0 Ib/A (active) pre-emergence applied. Paraquat 0.25
Ib/A (active) broadcast over stubble immediately after harvest.


Irrigation: Seepage, with ditches on 40' centers.


Brand


Hybrid


1


Total


5.4
6.6
6.2
7.3
5.6
7.2
6.4
5.7
6.3
5.6
5.5
6.0
5.8
4.9
4.6
4.5
4.6
5.8


4.7
4.2
4.2
3.7
4.5
3.5
3.9
5.3
3.3
3.7
3.9
3.5
3.1
3.1
2.4
3.3
3.4
3.7


5.2
4.3
3.8
3.0
3.7
3.0
3.2
2.5
3.2
2.8
2.5
2.4
2.9
2.7
3.3
2.4
1.7
3.1


15.3
15.1
14.2
14.0
13.8
13.7
13.5
13.5
12.8
12.1
11.9
11.9
11.8
10.7
10.2
10.2
9.7
12.6


a+
ab
abc
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcde
bcde
bcdef
cdefg
cdefg
cdefg
defg
efg
fg
g


(Duncan's












Table 5. Dry matter yield of forage sorghums tested at the Immokalee
ARC, 1976 to 1978.


Hybrid


1976 1977 1978
-- -Tons/A- -


Average


Pioneer
McCurdy
Acco
Pioneer
Northrup King
Pioneer
Dekalb
McNair
Funks
Taylor Evans
Taylor Evans
Dekalb
Average


947
F75
531 R
923
Silomilo
942
FS25A
Energy Plus
102-F
TDN
Silomaker
FS24


Seeding dates: 1976, 3-4; 1977, 3-2;


Brand


14.1
10.8
10.3
12.1
11.9
9.5
11.0
10.5
10.4
9.5
10.6
11.0


13.7
15.3
14.0
11.8
12.1
12.8
14.2
11.9
11.9
13.5
10.3
10.7


6.5
8.7
7.7
6.3
7.2
6.1


13.9
13.1
12.2
12.0
12.0
11.7
10.6
10.4
10.0
9.8
9.4
9.3
11.2


1978, 2-28.












Table 6. Agronomic characteristics of forage sorghums grown at Immokalee ARC, 1978.


Harvest 1 Harvest 2 Harvest 3


W $4DW 41
+0 0 0 *.
V1 0 U *r4 ) 4 ,a C
0 5 .34 0 "5 04
Brand Hybrid w
McCurdy F-75 8.5 27.8 2.0 4.8 8.0 34.1 3.0 7.4 28.0 5.0
McNair 3135 8.8 28.0 2.3 3.5 8.0 38.1 3.3 6.5 39.9 5.0
Dekalb FS25A 7.8 24.1 1.8 4.5 7.4 32.6 3.0 7.2 28.3 5.0
Acco 531-R 8.1 25.6 1.8 4.5 7.9 32.4 1.5 7.2 30.3 5.0
Funks G103-S 8.9 25.4 1.8 4.3 8.5 34.1 3.5 6.8 30.5 5.0
Pioneer 947 8.0 29.7 2.0 4.5 7.4 36.1 4.0 7.6 30.7 4.5
Youngs Red-Top-Kandy 6.1 23.6 1.3 3.0 8.4 33.5 v 3.3 7.6 28.3 5.0
Taylor Evans TDN 6.0 22.6 1.0 3.5 7.8 36.7 3.3 6.3 27.8 8 4.3
Pioneer 942 8.0 30.4 1.8 3.8 7.3 32.2 i 4.2 8.4 34.8 w 4.5
Northrup King Silomilo 8.5 30.4 2.0 4.3 7.9 31.2 3.5 6.0 35.1 0 5.0
McNair Energy Plus 6.0 25.1 1.5 3.5 8.1 34.0 bo 3.0 7.0 30.5 w 4.5
Funks 102-F 8.3 25.2 1.8 4.3 7.8 31.5 .0 3.0 6.8 28.7 5.0
Pioneer 923 7.8 31.5 1.8 4.8 8.7 33.3 W 3.5 7.4 37.8 2 5.0
Dekalb FS 24 7.4 25.8 2.0 4.8 6.6 34.1 4 4.0 5.7 30.7 4 5.0
Taylor Evans Silomaker 7.6 25.6 2.0 5.0 7.3 30.6 3.5 6.7 31.4 5.0
Ring Around Silofill 35 8.9 28.4 1.8 3.8 7.6 32.8 3.3 6.5 31.5 5.0
Northrup King 300 8.3 31.7 2.0 3.0 8.5 32.5 2.8 5.7 32.8 5.0


SHefght in feet
DM=dry matter %
* disease rated on a scale 1 to 10.


l=none, 10= 100% leaf area affected.


** Maturity: l=vegetative; 2=boot stage; 3=anthesis (pollen); 4= milk stage;
5=dough stage.




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