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Group Title: Evaluation of commercial forage sorgum hybrids at ARC, Ona and Immokalee.
Title: Evaluation of commercial forage sorgum hybrids at ARC, Ona and Immokalee. 1977
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Title: Evaluation of commercial forage sorgum hybrids at ARC, Ona and Immokalee. 1977
Series Title: Evaluation of commercial forage sorgum hybrids at ARC, Ona and Immokalee.
Translated Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1978-2 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S.
Everett, P. H.
Green Jr., V. E.
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1978
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075786
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143647250

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







1Z eAgricultural Research Center *
Research Report RC-1978-2 January 1978


EVALUATION: OF COMMERCIAL FORAGE SORGHUM HYBRIDS

AT ARC, ONA AND I4MM ALEE 1977.

Ri S. SKalmbacher, P. H. Everett, and V. E. Green, Jr.-


When harvested and fed as green chop or stored as silage, forage or silage
sorghums may provide a valuable supplement to perennial grasses during periods
of feed shortages. Some; forage sorghum hybrids may produce more dry matter
per acre than corn, however digestible energy is usually lower in sorghum than
in corn.

Forage sorghums that are seeded in late February are ready for ensiling
90-100 days later. They may be harvested 2 or perhaps 3 times during the
entire growing season. Generally, the best animal performance is obtained
:7hen plants are ensiled at physiological maturity, which maximizes grain
content.

In order to determine adaptability and productivity, of forage sorghum
hybrids, which are constantly being released, it is necessary that these
hybridss, be tested under south-central Florida conditions. The purpose of this
publication is to present comparative data on the various hybrids tested at
Ona and Immokalee. Where trade names are used no discrimination or endorse-
ment is intended.

Methods of Procedure

At the Ona Agricultural Research Center (ARC), 17 commercial forage sorghum
hybrids were seeded at 16 lb/A in 18" row spacings on March 3, 1977. At
the Immokalee ARC 16 hybrids were seeded at 16 Ib/A on 30" row spacings on
March 2, 1977. The experimental designs were randomized complete blocks with
4 replications.

Fertilization practices at Ona consisted of 0-92-184 Ib/A of N-P205-K 0,
resp., which was broadcast and disked into the seedbed. At Immokalee 0-100-
200 Ibs/A of N-P 0 -K20 was applied. After seedling emergence 50 lb/A N was
applied. When plants were 16-18" tall, 100 lb/A N was applied. After both
the first and second harvests 100 lb/A N.was applied.

Weed control at both locations consisted of the pre-emergence applica-
tion of AAtrex(R) at 2 Ib/A active ingredient. Paraquat(R) was applied as
a post-directed spray at a rate of -' Ib acid/A when sorghum was 18-24" tall.


SAssistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist), ARC, Ona; Professor, ARC,
Immokalee; Professor (Agronomist) Agronomy Department, -Unirty nf
Florida, Gainesville, Florida HUME LIBRARY

* JUL 1 0 1978

T.F.A.S.. Univ. of Florida











Immediately after each harvest Paraquat at L- lb acid/A was broadcast sprayed
over the stubble.

The Ona experiment was irrigated with an overhead system and 10.6 inches
was applied during the March to November growing season. At Immokalee a
seepage irrigation system was used.

Results and Discussion

Forage sorghums were harvested 3 times. Harvest 1 and 3 were taken in late
anthesis (pollen:shedding), and harvest 2 was cut in the dough stage, which
was the ideal. There were significant differences in dry matter yield at each
harvest and for total dry matter yield (Table 1). Total yield among hybrids
ranged from a high of 19.5 to 11.4 T/A and averaged 15.3. Among the highest
yielding entries were Pioneer 947 and Dekalb FS 25A, producing 19.5 and 19.4
T/A, respectively.

Sorghums produced well into the summer season. Normally the yields
at harvest 2 are curtailed due to excessive moisture. In 1977 harvest 1 and
2 both averaged 6.6 T/A. Yields at harvest 3 were lower (2.1 T/A) due to
heavy rain in late August and September.

Forage sorghum yields from the years 1973 to 1977 are presented in
Table 2, Dekalb FS 25A, Growers 30F, Taylor Evans Silomaker, and McNair
Energy Plus appear to be superior entries. Seldom should the results of a
single years' test be used to select hybrids.

The diseases anthracnose and leaf blight (Helminthosporium spp.) were
usually prominent on the forages at harvest 1, and all entries were equally
affected (Table 3). At harvest 2 and 3 infestations of these diseases were
greatest. Some hybrids such as McNair Energy Plus, Acco FS 531-R, Pioneer
942, etc. were more susceptible than others.

Lodging was not a problem during the 1977 season (Table 3). Lodging
from high winds can be more of a problem with sorghums than with corn,
especially at maturity when tall, thin-stalked sorghum plants are top-heavy
with grain.

The percent dry matter is presented in Table 3. At harvest 1 forages
averaged 28% dry matter; at harvest 2, 27%; and at harvest 3, 19%. Silage
or green matter yields of individual entries can be calculated from the DM
yields in Table 1 and % DM in table 3.

Immokalee, ARC

There were significant differences in dry matter yield among hybrids at
each of the three harvests and total yield (Table 4). The total yields ranged
from 14.1 (Pioneer 947) to 9.5 T/A (Pioneer 942). Yields at harvest 1 were












severdy limited by lack of water in late spring due to the failure of the
irrigation well. Normally the first spring harvest produced the highest
yields because growing conditions are most -ideal at that time.

Lodging was not a problem in the 1977 forage sorghums (Table 5). The
incidence of the diseases, anthracnose and Helminthosporium spp., was slight
at harvest 1, but intensified in late summer and fall harvests. Hybrids
such as T.E. Silomaker, McNair Energy Plus and Funks 102 F appeared to have
greater infestations. Because these disease organisms infect leaves, plant
yield and quality may be lowered.

Percent dry matter at each of the harvests ranged from 25 to 34 percent.
Silage yields can be calculated from the dry matter values in table 4 and
the percent dry matter values in table 5.

Summary

Forage sorghums at Ona.

There were significant differences in dry matter yield among entries
tested. Yield ranged from 19.5 to 11.4 T/A and averaged 15.3. High
yielding entries were Pioneer 947 (19.5 T/A) and Dekalb FS 25A (19.4 T/A).
The diseases anthracnose and Helminthosporium spp. were not a severe
* problem at harvest 1, but at harvest 2 and 3 their incidence increased.
At harvest 2 some entries were more susceptable.

Forage sorghums at Immokalee.

Significant differences in yield existed among entries tested. Total
yield ranged from 14.1 T/A to 9.5 T/A and averaged 11.0. Pioneer 947
(14.1 T/A) was one of the highest yielding entries. Disease was not a problem
at the first harvest, but perhaps was a yield-limiting factor at harvest
2, particularly with some hybrids.










0


Table 1. Dry matter yield (in T/A) of forage sorghum hybrids tested at
the Ona ARC, 1977.


Brand

Pioneer
Dekalb
Pioneer
Growers
Acco
Pioneer
McCurdy
T.E.
Funks
R.A.
.ciair
T.E.
rekalb
N.K.
Funks
Funks
Acco
Average


Hybrid

947
FS 25A
923
30F
FS-531-R
942
F75
Silomaker
102F
Silofill 35
Energy Plus
TDN
FS 24
Silomilo
G 650 S
G 103-S
FS-401-R


1
6/2/77

7.2 abc+
7.1 abc
7.5 ab
6.3 abc
8.2 a
8.2 a
6.8 abc
7.1 abc
7.2 abc
5.1 c
6.6 abc
6.9 abc
6.2 abc
5.9 bc
5.1 c
5.6 bc.
5.0 c
6.6


Harvest
2
8/26/77
Tons/A- -
9.7 ab
10.3 a
7.5 cde
9.4 abc
8.2 bcd
6.0 ef
5.9 ef
5.7 ef
5.3 c
6.0 ef
6.2 def
5.7 ef
5.4 c
5.5 ef
5.6 ef
4.8 c
4.9 c
6.6


Means within columns followed by the same letter are not
different. Duncan's LSD, K=100.


significantly


Date Seeded: March 3, 1977.

Row Spacing: 18"


Fertilization: 0-92-184 lbs/A N-PnO.5-K20, resp.; 50 Ibs N/A after emergence;
100 lbs N/A when plants 16 to 18" tall; 100 Ibs/A applied
after harvest 1 and 2.

Herbicide: AAtrex @ 2 Ibs a.i./acre, pre-emergence. Paraquat @ 4 Ib acid/acre
post-directed when plants were 18-24". Paraquat @ W Ib acid/acre
broadcast over stubble after harvest 1 and 2.


Irrigation: Overhead (10.6").


3
11/6/77

2.6 bc
2.0 c-f
3.4 a
2.3 cde
1.5 fg
2.0 c-f
2.6 bcd
2.5 cd
2.3 cde
3.2 ab
1.3 fg
1.2 g
2.0 c-f
1.7 efg
1.9 def
2.0 c-f
1.5 fg
2.1


Total

19.5 a
19.4 a
18.4 ab
18.0 abc
17.9 abc
16.2 bcd
15.3 cde
15.3 cde
14.8 def
14.3 def
14.1 d-g
13.8 d-g
13.6 d-g
13.1 efg
12.6 efg
12.4 fg
11.4 g
15.3












Table 2. Dry matter yields (in T/A) of forage sorghum hybrids tested at the
Ona, ARC, 1973 to 1977.


Brand Hybrid
Grown any four years 1973-77
Funks 102 F
T.E. Milkmaker
Dekalb FS 24
Grown any three years 1973-77
McNair Energy Plus
T.E. TDN
Acco FS 531-R
Funks G 650S
Penn Pennsilage


Gro
Penn
Dekal
Pione
SPione
10 Growe
Pione
T.E.
McCur
R.A.
N.K.
Funks


Aver


Dry matter yield (Ton/acre)
1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 Ave.


10.1:.
9.3
7.5






9.1-
9.1


wn any one or two years 1973-77
Pennsilage A --
b FS 25A --
ier 947 --
eer 923
ers 30F
eer 942
Silomaker --
*dy F 75
Silofill 35
Silomilo
G 103 S --
age 9.0


6.1
5.9
4.5


-- -

8.9
4.3


--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--

5.9


-- 13.7
9.8 15.3
-- 13.4


8.8
10.3
6.4

8.4















8.7


16.9
11.3

13.3
11.5


20.6
20.5


15.2

14.8

12.7

12.7
14.8


14.8

13.6


14.1
13.8
17.9
12.6




19.4
19.5
19.4
18.0
16.2
15.3
15.3
14.2
13.1
12.4
15.6


11.2
10.1
9.8


13.3
11.8
11.1
10.1
9.6


20.6
20.0
19.5
19.4
16.6
16.2
15.1
15.3
13.5
13.1
12.6


Seeding Dates: 1973, 3-13; 1974, 3-6; 1975, 3-14; 1976, 3-10; 1977, 3-3.










0


Table 3. Agronomic characteristics of forage sorghums.grown at the Ona
ARC, 1977.
,, ,, ....II


Hybrid
947
FS 25A
923
30F
FS-531-R
942
F 75
Silomaker -
102 F
Silofill 35
Energy Plus
TDN
FS 24
Silomilo
G.650LS
G 103-S
FS 401-R


1
6/2/77

o *-i


m ,> c *i-


7.1
7.0
7.3
6.8
6.9
7.3
6.4
6.4
6.2
6.4
6.3
6.1
6.4
6.4
6.3
6.4
5.9


28
27
34
26
27
30
28
30
28
30
25
26
26
29
26
31
27


Harvest.
S2
8/26/77
t4. 70


3
11/6/77


0
.v-4
'Q) *-
EC t! B^ &


- -4,


8,5
8.9
9.5
8.8
9.9
8.9
9.3
8.6
8.6
8.5
7.8
7.0
7.0
7.6
7.3
8.0
8.5


7.3
5.5
7.1
5.5
5.8
6.8
6.8
6.4
5.6
6.8
5.4
5.5
5.5
4.0
5.1
4.9
5.8


20
18
24
19
16
24
20
21
18
20
19
19
19
14
19
20
18


Disease rated on a scale from 1 to 10. l=none.


10=100% of leaf area affected.


Disease primarily anthracnose and Helminthosporium spp.


Brand
Pioneer
Dekalb
Pioneer
Growers
Acco
Pioneer
McCurdy
T.E.
Funks
R.A.
McNair
T.E.
Dekalb
N.K.
Funks
Funks
Acco














Table 4. Dry matter yield
ARC, 1977.


(T/A) of forage sorghums tested.at the Immokalee


Hybrid

947
923
FS-401-R
Silomilo
FS 24
FS 25A
F 75
Silomaker
30F
Energy Plus
102 F
G 103-S
G :650-S
FS.531-R
TDN
942


1
6/1/77

4.7 abc&
3.9 a-d
3.8 b-e
5.1 a
4.8 abc
3.8 b-e
3.2 de
2.9 e
3.8 a-d
2.7 c
3.2 de
3.2 de
3.6 cde
4.8 ab
3.0 de
3.7 b-e
3.8


.2 3
9/1/77 11/15/77 Total
- -Tons/A- - -
5..7 ab 3.7 a 14.1
5.8 a 2.4 a-d 12.1
6.1 a 2.0 bcd 11.9
5.0 abc 1.8 cde 11.9
4.7 abc 2.2 abc 11.0
4.5 abc 2.7 abc 11.0
5.8 a 1.8 cd& 10.8
4.6 abc 3.1 ab 10.6
4.0 bc 2.8 abc 10.6
4.6 abc 3.2 ab 10.5
5.8 a 1.4 de 10.4
4,5 abc 2.7 a-d 10.4
4.6 abc 2.1 bcd 10.3
4.8 abc 0.7 e 10.3
4.6 abc 1.9 cd 9.51
3.4 c 2.4 a-d 9.5


Brand

Pioneer
Pioneer
Acco
N.K.
Dekalb
Dekalb
McCurdy
T.E.
Growers
McNair
Funks
Funks
Funks
Acco
T.E.
Pioneer
Average


11.0


Means within columns followed by the same letter are not
different. Duncan's LSD, K=100.


significantly


Date Seeded: March 2, 1977

Row Spacing: 30"
Fertilization: 0-100-200 Ibs/A of N-P20 -K20, resp., 50 Ib N/A after
emergence; 100 Ibs N/A when plants 16-18" tall; 100 lbs N/A
after harvest 1 and 2.
Herbicide: AAtrex @ 2 lbs a.i./acre, pre-emergence. Paraquat @ k Ib acid/acre,
post-directed when plants 16-18" tall. Paraquat @ 1 Ib acid/A
broadcast over stubble after harvest 1 and 2.


Irrigation: Seepage.


4.9


a
ab
ab
ab
ab
ab
ab
ab
ab
ab
ab
ab
ab
ab
b
b










0


8



Table 5. Agronomic characteristics of forage sorghums grown at
the Immokalee ARC, 1977.


Brand
Pioneer
Pioneer
Acco
N.K.
Dekalb
Dekalb
McCurdy
T.E.
Growers
McNair
Funks
Funks
Funks
Acco
T.E.
Pioneer


+ Disease


Hybrid
947
923
FS-401-R
Silomilo
FS 24
FS 25A
F 75
Silomaker
30 F
Energy Plus
102 F
G 103-S
G 650-S
FS 531-R
TDN
942


1
6/1/77


Harvest

2
9/1/77


3
(15/77


_ .... --- .. I --, --
W to 4J jo KI

I 0 b Wo0 W 0I
v4 C OT 3l

*iZ4. m 2.1 Q O JI:CI Q. -
) i- l *r r
'.-, !o : =' !=- a -u =r a u B^


6.3
6.3
6.3
6.1
6.0
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.7
6.0
5.8
5.6
5.5
5.8
5.7
5.8


29
28
31
30
30
28
29
31
30
29
26
30
27
27
29
28


7.6
7.8
6.8
6.6
6.6
7.8
7.9
7.7
6.5
7.0
7.0
6.5
5.5
7.8
6.6
7.3


7.1
6.9
6.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
6.4
6.4
5.9
5.7
5.9
5.8
5.2
6.0
5.8
5.4


infected. Diseases primarily anthracnose and Helminthosporium spp.


32
31
27
30
32
32
30
31
31
29
25
30
30
26
29
32


rated on a scale 1 to 10. 1= none; 10= 100% of leaf area




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