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Group Title: Evaluation of commercial grain sorghum hybrids at Ona and Immokalee.
Title: Evaluation of commercial grain sorghum hybrids at Ona and Immokalee. 1976.
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Title: Evaluation of commercial grain sorghum hybrids at Ona and Immokalee. 1976.
Series Title: Evaluation of commercial grain sorghum hybrids at Ona and Immokalee.
Translated Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; 1977-1 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S.
Everett, P. H.
Green Jr., V. E.
Overman, A. J.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Research Center
Publication Date: 1977
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075781
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 143662438

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Agricultural Research CenterOna *
-Research Report RC-1977-1 V' January 1977



EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL GRAI SORGHUM HYBRIIR \

AT ONA AND IMKOKALEE\. i7

R.S. Kalmbacher, P.H; Everett, V.E. Green, Jr. and A.J. Overman


Grain sorghums have the potential of producing.3-4 tons of grain per acre
in south central Florida. This grain may be harvested 110-120 days after
seeding. When comparing' corn grown for grain with grain sorghums, research
indicates that grain sorghums may be better suited for grain production be-
cause wet weather in late June'and early July increases corn lodging, whereas
lodging would be less of a problem with the short dwarf grain sorghum hybrids.
Grain sorghums can tolerate lower soil moisture levels, and they require less
fertilization.

In order to determine adaptability and productivity of new grain sorghum
hybrids which are constantly being released, it is necessary that these hybrids
be tested under south central Florida conditions. The purpose of this publication
is to present comparative data on the various hybrids tested at Ona and Immokalee.
Where trade names are used no discrimination or endorsement is intended.

Methods of Procedure

At the Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Ona 17 commercial grain
sorghum hybrids were seeded at 16 lb/A in 18" row spacings on March 12, 1976.
At the ARC, Immokalee 14 hybrids were seeded at 16 lb/A on 18" row spacings
on March 5, 1976. The experimental designs were randomized complete blocks,
which contained 4 and 3 reps at Ona and Immokalee, respectively.

Fertilization practices at Ona consisted of 0-112-224 lb/A of N-P205-K20,
resp., which was broadcast and disked into the seedbed. After seedling emergence
50 lb N was applied per acre. WJhen plants were 16-18" tall, 100 lb N/A was
applied. After the first harvest 100 lb/A N was applied.





Assistant Agronomist, Agricultural Research Center, Ona; Professor -
Director, Agricultural Research Center, Immokalee; Professor, Department
6f Agronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville; Professor, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Bradenton.










Ramrod (R) at 3 Ib/A active ingredient plus AAtrex (R) at 1.2 Ibs/A
active ingredient was applied immediately after seeding. On June 4 Mala-
thion (95%) was applied at the rate of 8 oz. of commercial product/acre
to control armyworms.

At Immokalee 2000 lbs domomite' 0-60-120 lb/A of N-P 05-K,0 plus
9On 1, V Wn 2/ was broadcast and Aisked into the seedbed. A2starter
rertliIr 0o-30-10 at 200 lb/A, was banded in the row at seeding. At
seedling emergence 50 Ib N/A plus 50 Ib/A 0-0-60 (muriate of potash)
was applied. When plants we e 16-18" tall 100 lb N/A plus 50 Ib/A
0-0-60 was applied. AAtrex R) was applied at seeding at the rate of
2 Ib/A active ingredient.

Both experiments were irrigated during the months of March, April,
and May. At Ona 4.7" of water were applied with an over-head system.
At Immokalee the experiment was irrigated with a seepage system with
laterals on 50 foot centers.

Results and Discussion

ARC, Ona
Grain sorghums were harvested on June 22, 1976 at the ARC, Ona.
Infloresences or heads were cut, dried, thrashed, and the grain was
weighed. Dry grain yields are shown in Table 1. Grain yields ranged
from 6640 lb/A (Dekalb 'D-60') to 4560 lb/A (Funk 'G 722 DR'), and
the yield averaged 5620 Ib/A dry grain.

S-ains produced during the 1976 growing season are compared with
those gs-own in 1972-75 (Table 2). In the years 1972-75 grain sorghums
were teEted on 36" rows but in 1976, 18" rows were used. Several
hybrids have been tested 3, and in one case, 4 years. It is recommended
that selection of a hybrid be based not on a single year, but several if
possible. Dekalb 'BR-64', 'E-59', and Asgrow 'Dorado-M' appear to be
consistently high producing hybrids.

Agronomic characteristics of the hybrids produced in 1976 are shown
in Table 3. Bird damage was beginning to become very apparent on Acco
'BR Y-93', 'R 1029-A' (a very early hybrid), Asgrow 'Dorado-M'. and
McNair '650'. Head disease (primarily mildew) was not a problem due to
dryer conditions.



2/
Fritted micronutrients having the following elemental content: Iron 18.0%;
Manganese 7.5%; Zinc 7.0%; Copper 3.5%; Boron 3.5% and Molybdenum 0.2%.








Grain sorghums may be combined for grain and the ratoon or second
growth can be grazed. Table 4 presents the total dry matter yields (head
plus stover) of 2 harvests grown at Ona. High grain producers (Table 1)
are rather consistently, high yielding in terms of total dry matter.
Dekalb 'D-60' produced 10.4 ton/A dry matter: McNair '650' produced 6.1 T/A.
The 17 hybrids averaged 8.4 T/A.

ARC, Immokalee
The grain yields of the 14 grain sorghums tested at Immokalee are
shown in Table 5. Dry grain yields ranged from 4810 Ib/A (Taylor Evans
'TE Hondo') to 2760 lb/A (Dekalb 'BR-64'). Grain yields from the same
hybrids were quite variable over the different replication, making large
differences in yield necessary in order to detect significant differences
among hybrids. Most of the hybrids were not significantly different from
each other.

Total plant dry matter yield is also shown in Table 5. The forage
yields like the grain yields, are considerably lower at the ARC, Immokalee.
Total plant yield ranged from 5.5 to 3.5 T/A and averaged 4.2 T/A. There
were no significant differences among entries.

The agronomic characteristics of the Immokalee grain sorghums are
presented in Table 6. Bird damage was slight; a maximum of 2% loss on
some hybrids. Head disease was also slight with a maximum of 3% on the
early hybrid, Acco 'R 1029-A'.

Regrowth from the grain sorghums after the 6-22-76 harvest was very
poor. Plants exhibited weakened root systems and were easily pulled from
the ground at harvest. Nematodes were suspected as one of the possible
causes.

Plant root and adjacent soil samples were assayed for nematodes at
the AREC, Bradenton. Samples were collected July 20, 1976. Three genera
of nematodes were found in numbers that drew suspicion (Table 7). The
genera were-Hemicycliophora or sheath nematodes, Trichodorus or stubby
root nematodes, and Pratylenchus or lesion nematode. Stubby root and
lesion nematode were found in particularly large numbers.

None of the hybrids contained a significantly greater number of any
one genera. Nematode numbers of the same genera were extremely variable
among hybrids. However, the fact still remains that nematodes may be a
problem on grain sorghums, or other sorghums, corn, or millets, where
these summer annuals are grown in rotation with vegetable crops.











Conclusions


Seventeen grain sorghums were grown at the
6640 to 4560 Ib/A and averaged 5620 Ib/A.
hybrids were grown, and yields ranged from
lb/A.


ARC Ona. Grain yields ranged
At the ARC Immokalee four-
4810 to 2760 Ib/A and averaged


Bird damage and head diseases were not important factors during the
1976 season at either location.

Total dry matter yield of the grain sorghums ranged from 10.4 to 6.1 T/A.
Second harvest (ratoon) forage, which could be available for grazing, ranged
from 3.4 to 1.5 T/A.

Three genera of nematodes: stubby root, lesion, and sheath nematodes
were found to be present in rather large numbers in the soil and roots of
grain sorghums grown at Immokalee. The nematode/summer annual association
warrants further research, particularly where vegetables are grown in
rotation with these annual grasses.


from
teen
3880








Table 1, Grain yields (Ibs/acre-dry) of grain sorghum hybrids grown at
ARC, Ona. 1976.


Brand

Dekalb
McNair
Funk
Asgrow
Taylor Evans
Dekalb
Acco
Pennington
Pioneer
Acco
Dekalb
Funk
Acco
Dekalb
Ring Around
McNair
Funk


Hybrid

D-60
656 BR
G-589
Dorado-M
T-E Bird-A-Boo II
E-59
BR Y-93
Penngrain-YE
8311
X-0912
BR-64
G-516 BR
R 1029 A
F-67
RA BirJ Go 68
650
G 722 DR


Grain Yield (lb/A)

6640 a t
6240 ab
6120 abc
6070 abc
6000 abc
5900 abcd
5900 abcd
5860 abcd
5780 abed
5520 abed
5440 abed
5230 bed
5190 bcd
5190 bed
5150 bcd
4770 cd
4560 d


SMea d-ijferent (K=100. Dunc.n'" iLeast. Significant difference test).

Date seeded: March 12, 17/u.
Seeding Rate: 16 Ib/A.
Row Spacing: 18"
Fertilization: 0-112-224#/A (N-P205-K20); 50# N/A at emergence; 100# N/A
when plants were 16-18" tall.
Herbicide: Ramrod @ 3# active/A + AAtrex @1.2# active/A. Results: good to
excellent.
Insecticide: June 4- Malathion (95%) @8oz. material in 50 g. H20/A to
control armyworm.
Irrigation: Over-head (4.7" applied).
Date Harvested: June 29, 1976.









Table 2. Average yields of grain sorghum hybrids grown at the ARC, Ona.
1972-1976.

Grain production lb/A, dry weight
Brand Hybrid 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 Av.


Grown for four years 1972-1976
As8row Dorado M -- 5110


5120 5530


6070 5460


Grown any three years 1972-1976
Dekalb BR-64 6450
Dekalb E 59
Excel Bird-Go-68
Funk G-516 BR

Grown any one or two years 1972-1976
Excel Bird-Go 7020
Excel Bird-Go A
Dekalb D-60
Ga. 615 6580
McNair 656 BR
Funk G-589
Taylor Evans TE Bird-A-Boo II --
Acco BR Y-93
FMC Oro-T
Pennington Penngrain-YE
Acco R1093 6000
Pioneer 828 5810
Pio:.".-: 8311
Acco BR Y-93 -
Northrup King 222 G 5320
Acco R 1029 A --
Dekalb F-67
Funk BR-79
AKS 614 5080
Taylor Evans Bird-A-Boo 5080
Funk G 459
Acco R--.102 --
Dekalb F- 64 --
Taylor Evans Houdo -
Northrup King Savanna-3
Asgrow Bravis R 4890
ARK-AES ARK 663
Dorman BR-100 5230
Pennington Penngrain BR
McNair 650
Taylor Evans Y-101
Funk G 722 DR
Dekalb BR-54
FMC Oro
McNair 654
FMC Oro-Y --
AVERAGE: Within years 5740


Seeding Date: 1972, 3-16; 1973, 3-13; 1974, 3-6; 1975, 3-13; 1976, 3-12.


5500
5400
5830

w--


6710






6670

5700






6260



5830


4910












5790


.,-

4480
5260























5060
4230
5020



4870
4500
5200

4920



4000

4790


5390

4940










5130








4000





5020




4440

4330

4550
4490
4700
3470
4670


5440
5900
5150
5230




6640

6240
6120
6000
5900

5860


5780
5520

5190
5190













4770

4560




5620


5800
5560
5150
5140


7020
6710
6640
6580
6240
6120
6000
5900
5900
5860
5850
5810
5780
5520
5320
5190
5190
5130
5080
5080
5060
5030
5020
5020
4910
4890
4870
4870
4820
4770
4630
4560
4550
4490
4350
3470
5350








Table 3. Agronomic characteristics of grain sorghum hybrids grown at the
ARC, Ona and harvested June 29, 1976.
Plant Bird Head Head
Brand Hybrid Height Damage : Type Disease
-inches- --%--- --%---

Dekalb D-60 55 0 semi-open 0
McNair 656 BR 46 0 semi-open 2
Funk G-589 52 0 compact 0
Asgrow Dorado-M 49 2 semi-open 2
Taylor Evans T-E Bird-A-Boo II 47 0 semi-open 0
Dc.kalb E-59 47 0 semi-open 0
Acco BR Y-93 50 3 semi-open 0
Pennington Penngrain-YE 45 0 semi-open 2
Pioneer 8311 47 1 semi-open 2
Acco X-0912 48 0 semi-open 3
Dekalb BR-64 52 0 open 0
Funk G 516 BR 47 0 semi-open 0
Acco R 1029-A 4 2 semi-open 0
Dekalb F-67 44 0 semi-open 0
Ring Around RA Bird-Go-68 '7 0 semi-open 0
McNair 650 50 2 semi-open 0
Funk G 722 DR 50 0 compact 0

Date Seeded: March 12, 1976.
Seecdi.a P.ate: 16 lb/A.
RoIw pacing: 18".
Fertilization: 0-112-224#/A (N-P205-K20); 50# N/A at emergence; 100#
N/A when plants were 16-18" tall.
Herbicide: Ramrod @ 3# active/A + AAtrex @1.2# active/A. Results: Good
to excellent.
Insecticide: June 4- Malathion (95%) @8oz. material,in 50 g.,H20/A to
control armyworm.
Irrigation: Over-head (4.7" applied).
Date Harvested: June 29, 1976.











Table 4. Total plant yield (dry matter in T/A) of grain sorghum hybrids
grown at the ARC, Ona. 1976.


Dekalb
Funk
Dekalb
Funk
Acco
Asgrow
McNair
Acco
Dekalb
Acco
PRug Around
Pennington
Taylor Evans
Dekalb
Pioneer
Funk
McNair


D-60
G-516 BR
E-59
G-589
BR Y-93
Dorado-M
656 BR
R 1029 A
E-59
X-0912
RA Bird-Go-68
Penngrain-YE
T-E Bird-A-Boo II
F-67
8311
G 722 DR
650


t Means within columns followed by the same letter are not
different. (K=100. Duncan's least significant difference
------------------- --- ----- -- -- -- -- -- ---


significantly
test.)


Date Seeded: March 12, 1976.
Seeding Rate: 16 Ib/A.
Row Spacing: 18"
Fertilization: 0-112-224#/A (N-P205-K20); 50# N/A at emergence; 100# N/A
when plants were 16-18" tall. 100# N/A was applied after
harvest 1.

Herbicide: Ramrod @ 3# active/A + AAtrex @1,2# active/A. Results: good to
excellent.

Insecticide: June 4- Malathion (95%) @8oz. material in 50 g. H20/A to
control armyworm.

Irrigation: Over-head (4.7" applied).


Harvest


2
9/17/76
3.4 a


Total


,R"MTA u-11H d


tlvhrd f


Brand


1
6/29/76
7.0 at
7.0 a
6.5 abe
6,7 ab
6.1 abcd
6.6 *be
6.1 abcd
5.6 abcd
6.0 abcd
5.3 bcd
5.9 abcd
5.8 abcd
5.8 abcd
5.5 abcd
5.2 cd
5.6 abcd
4.6 d


a
ab
abc
abc
abcd
abcde
bcde
bcde
bcde
bcde
cde
cde
cde
def
ef
ef
f


I


Harvest


2.7
2.8
2.6
2.9
2.2
2.4
2.8
2,4
3.0
2.2
2.3
2.3
1.9
2.1
1.7
1.5


abc
*bc
abcd
*bes
bedef
bcde
abc
bcde
ab
bcdef
bcdef
bcde
def
cdef
ef
f


10.4
9.7
9.3
9.3
9.0
8.8
8.5
8.4
8.4
8.3
8.1
8.1
8.1
7.5
7.3
7.3
6.1









Table 5. Grain yield (Ibs/acre-dry) and total plant dry matter yield
of grain sorghum hybrids grown at ARC, Immokalee. 1976,

Brand Hybrid Grain yield lb/A Plant yield T/A

Taylor Evans T-E Hondo 4810 a 4.9 a
McNair 650-D 4400 ab 3.9 a
Asgrow Dorado-M 4300 abc 4.4 a
Acco R-1029 A 4280 abc 3.5 a
Asgrow Bugeff 4190 abc 3.7 a
Ring Around RA 808 4160 abc 4.7 a
Asgrow Capitan 3900 abc 4.0 a
Acco R-1090 3890 abc 4.1 a
Dekalb E-59 3840 abc 3.8 a
McNair 695 3790 abc 5.5 a
Ring Around RA-Bird Go 68 3570 abc 4.5 a
Funk G-516 BR 3440 abc 3.8 a
Growers GSA 1334 BR 2920 bc 4.2 a
Dekalb BR-64 2760 c 4.6 a


SMeans within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly
different (K=100, Duncan's least significant difference test).


Dat-% :;Jed: March 5, 1976.
Seeding Rate: 16 lb/A.
Row Width: 18"
Fertilization: Broadcast: 2000# Dolomite/A; 0-60-120/A (N-P205-K20); 20#/A
FTE 503; 50#/A N at emergence + 80#/A 0-0-60. 100#/A N +
80#/A 0-0-60 when plants were 16-18" tall. Starter fertilizer:
200#/A 10-30-10 in row.
Herbicide: AAtrex @ 2# active/A. Results: good to excellent.
Irrigation: Seepage.
Date Harvested: June 22, 1976.













Table 6. Agronomic characteristics of
ARC. Immokalee and harvested


grain sorghum hybrids grown at the
June 22, 1976.


Brand

Taylor
McNair
Asgrow
Acco
Asgrow
Ring Ar
Asgrow
Acco
Dekalb
YcNair
Ring Ar
Funk
Growers
Dekalb


Hybrid


I

-I
-i


Evans T-E Hondo
650-D
Dorado-M
R-1029 A
Bugoff
,ound RA 808
Capitan
R-1090
E-59
695
'ound R-A Bird-Go 68
G-516 BR
GSA 1334 BR
BR-64


slant
[eight
Lnches-
45
45
44
46
42
47
41
47
46
47
44
48
44
45


Bird
Damage
--%---
2
1
2
2
2
0
1
1
0
1
2
1
1
0


Head
Type

compact
semi-open
semi-open
open
semi-open
semi-open
compact
semi-open
semi-open
semi-open
open
semi-open
open
semi-open


Dqte Seeded: March 5, 1976.
Seeding Rate: 16 Ib/A.
Row Width: 18"
Fertilization: Broadcast: 2000# Dolomite/A; 0-60-120/A (N-P205-K 0); 20#/A
FTE 503; 50#/A N at emergence + 80#/A 0-0-60. 1O0O/A N +
80#/A 0-0-60 when plants were 16-18" tall. Starter fertilizer
200#/A 10-30-10 in row.
Herbicide: AAtrex @ 2# active/A. Results: G6od to excellent,
Irrigation: Seepage.
Date Harvested: June 22, 1976.


Head
Disease
--%---
1
0
2
3
0
0
1
1
1
1
0

0
0
0










Table 7. Relative numbers of three nematode species and total nematode counts from grain sorghum-
hybrid roots and soil samples extracted with 150 ml. water. Sampled July 20, 1976.
ARC, Immokalee.


Nematode Species Per 150 ml. H20


Brand
Acco
Acco
Asgrow
Asgrow
Asgrow
Dekalb
Dekalb
Funk
Growers
McNair
McNair
Ring Around


Hybrid
R-1029 A
R-1090
Bugoff
Capitan
Dorado-M
BR-64
E-59
G-516 BR
GSA 1334 BR
650-D
695
RA Bird-Go 68


Ring Around RA 808
Taylor Evans TE Hondo
Average


Hemicycliophora
10 a +
45 a
34 a
71 a
16 a
17 a
11 a
45 a
52 a
21 a
15 a


9 a

18 a
17 a
27


Trichodorus
97 a
27 a
100 a
160 a
5a
131 a
31 a
74 a
96 a
41 a
77 a


10 a

99 a
78 a


Pratylenchus
170 a
185 a
19 a
82 a
77 a
170 a
178 a
126 a
151 a
127 a
92 a
47 a


)22
280
130


Means within columns followed by the same letter are
least significant difference test).
Previous cropping history: 10 years fallow.
Soil Type: Immokalee fine sand.
Irrigation: Seepage.


not significantly different. (K=100.


Duncan's


Total
277 a
257 a
153 a
313 a
98 a
318 a
220 a
245 a
299 a
189 a
184 a
66 a


239
375
230


I I I


I ,=


I









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