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Group Title: Field day outline, Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Florida
Title: Field day outline. August 28, 1964.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075778/00009
 Material Information
Title: Field day outline. August 28, 1964.
Series Title: Field day outline.
Alternate Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida Range Cattle Experiment Station ; 64-1
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: University of Florida Range Cattle Experiment Station.
Publication Date: 1964
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075778
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143655040

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    Historic note
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Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








I Range Cattle Station
S\ Mimeo Report 64-1


S 17th FI DAY OUTLINE
.RANGE CATT PERIMENT STATION
FLORIDA
~Ngust 28, 1964
STAFF
Dr. W. G. Kirk, Vice Director in Charge
Dr. E. M. Hodges, Agronomist
Mr. F. M. Peacock, Assoc. Animal Husbandman
Dr. J. E. McCaleb, Assoc. Agronomist
Dr. C. L. Dantzman, Asst. Soils Chemist
Mr. W. C. Hines, Farm Foreman
Mrs. J. C. Moye, Secretary
Mrs. M. A. Kazen, Typist

The Range Cattle Station is a part of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station and University of Florida.
OUTLINE OF WORK

I. Why Poor Results from Grass Fertilization? E. M. Hodges. 2
II. Cattle Breeding Program . F. M. Peacock 3
III. Annual Winter Crops for Grazing . J.E. McCaleb 4
IV. Minor Elements in Forage Growth . C. L. Dantzman 5
V. New Lines of Research . . .. W. G. Kirk 6
VI. Grazing Trials . . * 7
VII. Pasture Legumes . . * * * *
VIII. Phosphorus Source Pastures .. 9
IX. Introduced and Native Plant Species forForage . .10
X. Fall Mechanical Practices on Growth of Whiteclover 10
XI. Pangolagrass Management . 11
XII. Hay and Silage . . 12
XIII. Annual Grain and Forage Crops . 13
XIV. Fertilizer Ratios on Pangolagrass and Pensacola Bahiagrass .13
XV. Fertilizer Movement in Soil Solution . . .13
XVI. Accumulation of Fertilizer Elements in Pastures . 14
XVII. Control of Pasture Insects . .14
XVIII. Herbicides . . 15
XIX. Weather Records for 1963 ....... 16
XX. Cattle Program . . . * 16
XXI. Effect of Breeding and Nutrition on Production . .17
XXII. Charolais Crosses for Beef Production . . .18
XXIII. Mineral Consumption . . . . 18
XXIV. Fattening Cattle: Brahman-Shorthorn Calves . . 19
Steers versus Heifers . . 19
Effect of Shade . . . .20
Vitamin A in Ration. . . .. .20
Shrimp Meal . . . 20
Grade Improvement of Steers . .. 21








I. WHY POOR RESULTS FROM GRASS FERTILIZATION?
E. M. Hodges

Fertilization of pastures with complete fertilizers and
nitrogen topdress frequently gives disappointing results.
The seller and user of fertilizers both want to know why
recommended treatments fail. Let's start with a 20-acre
block of pangolagrass, sodded several years ago and still clean
except for spots of invading grasses and a few weeds. We will
assume it is March 15, all pastures are short, and 400 pounds
per acre of 12-6-6 all chemical fertilizer, no minors, is
spread. This is a substantial treatment and should produce
much grass. In our problem case, however, May finds only
6 to 8 inches of lightgreen, yellowish growth with a few tall,
dark green spots and streaks. What has happened? Where does
the blame lie?

The trouble may result from one or more causes: 1,
heavy rains 2 to 4 inches coming within one to five days
following fertilization; 2, low temperatures; 3, drouth;
4, intensive grazing continued two-three weeks after treatment;
5, extensive removal of grass by harvest and grazing in the
six months before spring fertilization.
Torrential rainfall can carry off so much nitrogen that
grass growth is severely limited. There are slowly available
forms of fertilizer on sale but their costs are too high for
pasture. Fertilization of different pastures at alternate
dates reduces the rain risk. A maximum of 50 pounds per
acre of nitrogen should be spread at one time.
Cold and dry weather both delay growth but do not
cause much loss of fertilizer elements. Supplemental feeding
of either hay, silage or concentrates is often needed on
heavily stocked improved pastures.
Fertilization of pangolagrass pasture while it is
kept grazed to the ground is a waste of money. Short grass
absorbs fertilizer nitrogen rapidly and cattle remove or
concentrate most of the supply. A 30-day growth period is
needed to realize reasonable feed production.
A heavy crop of hay harvested last November followed
by grazing until the March fertilization may remove up to 100
pounds of nitrogen per acre. This can represent more than was
put on last year and creates a shortage that must be replaced
before rap1W spring growth will occur. This may require an
additional 50 pounds per acre of nitrogen for correction.
Other factors often blamed, but less likely to be important
are minor element deficiencies, low fertilizer quality and lack
of lime.

-2-






II. CATTLE BREEDING PROGRAM
F. M. Peacock
The beef cattle breeding program at the Range Station
is designed to evaluate the genetic potential of the Charolais,
Brahman, Shorthorn and Angus breeds in various combinations
and also as straightbreds. The research programs underway
are straightbreeding, two-way crosses, three-way crosses and
Fl Angus-Brahman X Fl Charolais-Shorthorn. Crossing Fl
animals is to determine their ability to fix the characteristics
of the four breeds and maintain the growth resulting from the
first cross.

Crossbreeding has been emphasized as the British and
Brahman breeds have not performed satisfactorily when bred
straight. Limited work with the Charolais has indicated an
exception as the breed appears to perform well when straight-
bred as well as when crossed with other breeds. Results from
crossbreeding, when using British and Brahman breeds, for the
best performance blood of either breed should not exceed 3/4
in the animal. This has given rise to the criss-cross program
where the heifers from one breed of sire are mated to a bull
of the second breed. With replacement females coming from
within the herd these matings give a 2:1 ratio of blood of
the two breeds and have resulted in maintaining optimum
production.

Straightbreeding is not only designed for the purebreds
but also for the crossbreds that have the desired traits and
are enough superior to warrant breeding inter-se. This
program has possibilities under rigid selection with standards
strictly adhered to. Straightbreeding with purebreds is being
conducted with emphasis on nutrition, selection of females
and introducing new genetic material through sires. This
program has merit; however, it might take a long time to
obtain the desired results. In the final analysis it will be
worth the time, effort and finances required.

The influence of breeding when bred to calve at two-
years of age.as related to conception, calving behavior,
production and reproduction is being studied in an attempt to
increase production and lower costs. Limited results have
indicated this practice to be of value if heifers are of suffi-
cient size and proper nutrition and management conditions are met.

Studies on reproduction of the various breed groups are
being conducted. Observations thus far have indicated the
Brahman should be given one miss while the other breed groups,
including the crossbreds, should not be allowed that miss unless
they are bred to calve first at two years of age. It is
probable that culling on the crossbreds can be practiced on
their first exposure as yearlings provided they have reached
sexual maturity and size with proper nutritional and management
practices.


-3-







III. ANNUAL WINTER CROPS FOR GRAZING
J. E. McCaleb

Four grazing trials with long-yearling steers to compare
oats with rye (Circ. S-152), and three studies to determine
performance of cattle grazing oats supplemented with 4 pounds
ground snapped corn daily have been completed at Range Station
since 1956 with the results summarized below. Observations
were made of the effect on a breeding herd grazing oats two
winters and ryegrass one winter for limited periods daily.

Forage alone Forage and corn
Oats + gr.
Oats Rye Oats sn. corn
Av. daily gain 1.46 .96 1.70 1.96
Gain/Acre 185 74 171 219
Gross return/Acre $38.84 $15.36 -- --

1. Oats were more productive than rye as shown by
daily gain.and gain per acre.

2. Steers on oats returned a profit over costs of seed
and fertilizer and helped defray renovation costs.

3. Smutgrass and weed control was not as complete on
fields planted to winter'crops as winter-fallowed
areas.

4. Supplemental feeding of steers grazing oats with 4
pounds of ground snapped corn daily was not an economical
practice in three trials.
5. Oats furnished grazing from December 15 to March 15
and ryegrass from January 15 to April 15.
6. Cows with calves wintered in good condition on winter
pangola and bahiagrass forage plus grazing either
oats or ryegrass from 30 to 60 minutes daily.

7. Ryegrass is particularly susceptible to rust and
other diseases due to its late spring growth. Gulf
and Florida Rust Resistant varieties are recommended.
(Section IX, page 10.)
Oats and ryegrass are high-cost crops, requiring ample
soil moisture, adequate fertilizer and good management.
Controlled grazing of annual winter crops with nursing cows
may prove to be the best program but hardest to evaluate
because of effect on milk production and calf gain, thriftiness
of herd and rebreeding.


-4-






IV. MINOR ELEMENTS IN FORAGE GROWTH
C. L. Dantzman

Green plants require at least 16 elements for growth, of
which seven are known as minor elements. Minor elements can-
not be available in large quantities or toxic conditions occur in
plants -- copper and boron have each been used as weed killers.
Most soils contain minor elements but frequently not in suffic-
ient amounts to meet plant needs. Although the quantity required
is small, the role in the.plant is important.
Copper aids in the utilization of protein for plant growth
and as an enzyme activator. A large portion is fixed in the
soil' by organic matter and clay which prevents leaching.
The soil holding power is increased as pH approaches the neutral
point. Total copper content of soil at the Range Station varies
from 2 to 7 ppm. Boron is used in metabolism and as a regulator
for other elements. Plants prefer a constant supply throughout
the season. Boron is subject to leaching in acid, sandy soils
but less is needed to reach toxic amounts. It can be fixed
by soil minerals, and is less available at high pH values.
Clovers require more than grasses. Tests to determine toxic
amounts on clover showed leaf-tip burn at 1/2 unit of B203 per
acre. Zinc is used in growth formation substances and water
relations in the plant. The need for this element by clover
is greater than grasses. Soils usually have zinc present but
not all is available. Amount of zinc in soil decreases with
depth. Total zinc ranges from under 1 ppm in new land to 6
ppm in old fields. Manganese, along with iron, aid in chloro-
phyll formation, and probably plays a roll in movement of iron
in plants. Soil pH below 6 favors reduction of manganese to
available form making it more subject to leaching, while a higher
pH favors the opposite conditions. Pastures contained from 2
to 5 total manganese with most being 5 ppm. Soil has abundant
iron but little is available. Organic matter aids in making
it available in acid but not in alkaline soils. Soils vary in
total iron from 0.05 to 0.50 percent. Molybdenium is needed in
very small quantities. When present in a slightly greater amount,
it produces toxic conditions in cattle, although the toxic
level of plants may be higher. It is used by plants in nitrogen
fixation systems. Most soils have abundant chlorine to meet
plant needs. It is applied in fertilizer and by other means,
and is not fixed by soil colloidal material.
Research is currently underway at the Range Station on
clover-grass pastures measuring the effects of minor elements
-- both alone and in combination at several levels, on new land
and on retreatment of older pastures. Also being determined is
the toxic effects of boron on whiteclover and the time needed
to deplete excess amounts by natural leaching. Recommendations
of minor element treatments consist in pounds per acre every
four years of 15-CuSO0, 10-ZnSO4 and 10-MnSO4 for grass plus
10-Borax where whiteclover is grown.


-5-







V. NEW LINES OF RESEARCH
W. G. Kirk

Research covers wide and various fields but my topic
today is beef, one of the important food products of Florida
agriculture. Essential areas of research that contribute
to the final product, beef, are Soils, Agronomy, Animal
Science, Veterinary Science, Entomology, Engineering,
Economics, Marketing and Library; but there are many others
that bear less directly on the subject. Animal Science, for
instance, can be divided into Animal Husbandry, Nutrition,
Animal Breeding, Physiology, Biochemistry and Meats and all
other fields likewise can be broken down into many parts.

Research goes on in all of these areas, and to get beef,
especially good beef, all of us must be in the business
together. A cattleman keeping a herd record on reproduction,
growth, forage varieties, soil fertility, animal behavior
and marketing, is doing practical research. The combination
of practical and scientific research is important in the
advancement of new ideas.

Present research is based on past accomplishments.
Studies at the Range Station have shown the value of: 1,
Fertilizer in pasture improvement; 2, grass-legume combinations;
3, renovation of pastures; 4, pangolagrass for grazing, hay
and silage; 5, value of Florida by-product feeds; 6, calf
returns per acre from pastures supplying low, medium and
high level of nutrition; 7, crossbreeding and beef production;
8, mineral supplements; 9, feeding Florida raised cattle.

The agriculturist and research worker will combine
the results of the past and present, and with long range
imaginative planning prepare for the future. There must be
a constant search for superior materials and methods. The
cattle industry, at the same time, will be adapting to greater
population, fewer acres for cattle, more conservation measures
and continuing economic change, which will necessitate a more
efficient operation based on complete records and the use
of every valuable research finding.

Research will need: to supply more productive forage
varieties; provide greater knowledge of the effect of ferti-
lizers to improve forage quality; procedures to furnish
favorable soil moisture; studies on insecticides and herbicides
indicating their value and danger; to produce more beef
through breeding, nutrition and management and control of
parasites and diseases; better machines for all types of
ranch work. These and other factors all add up to a future
that holds great possibilities for beef production in Florida.


-6-








VI. GRAZING TRIALS


Grasses Five grasses including two standard varieties
were tested in 1963. All were fertilized four times,
alternating 10-10-10 and ammonium nitrate to supply
200, 100 and 100 pounds per acre of N, P205 and K20
respectively.

Av. Daily Av. Beef Gain
Variety Gain, Ibs. per acre, Ibs.

Pensacola bahiagrass 0.86 389
Tifhi#l bahiagrass 0.92 418
PI 224,152 Starr bermudagrass 1.36 349
Slender Digitaria (Slender
pangolagrass) 1.58 409
Pangolagrass 1.36 547

Beef production on the bahiagrass was higher in
1963 than in 1962. The Tifhi #1 bahiagrass continued to
produce greater beef gain per acre than Pensacola but the
advantage was less than in 1963. Pangolagrass continues
to be the top producer. The Starr bermudagrass made
very slow growth in the spring and Slender Digitaria
suffered extensive winterkill in 1962-63.
Supplemental Feeding on Pasture -- All supplementation
was at 4 172pounds per day of a 3:1 citrus pulp-cotton-
seed meal mixture. Yearling steers of mixed Brahman-
English breeding were grazed on Pensacola bahiagrass
and Pangolagrass fertilized in the same way as in the
variety trials. All lots were put on pastures without
supplement for a period in early spring and supplemented
for different periods of times as shown in the following
table.
Av. Daily Slaughter
Grass Supplement Period Gain, lbs. Grade

Pangola No supplement 1.36 Standard
Pangola Aug. 31-Oct. 14 1.52 H. Standard
Pangola June 4-Oct. 14 1.59 H. Standard
Pensacola bahia June 4-Oct. 14 1.31 Standard


The 1963 data repeat the results of other years to
the effect that supplemental feeding at the level used
increases daily gains substantially but does not make
much difference in grade.


-7-








VII. PASTURE LEGUMES


Whiteclover remains the most widely useful cool season
pasture legume available for central and south Florida.
Whiteclover is a late.. winter and spring producer with
value as early as January in favorable seasons. It is
frost-resistant but may be damaged by sub-freezing
temperatures frequent since 1957-58. More serious is the
slow growth made when night temperatures drop to the
500F level. It has high water requirements and needs
irrigation to be a reliable crop. The Louisiana S-1
and Nolin's varieties are vigorous, free blooming varieties
with more uniform growth than commercial Louisiana white.
Ladino whiteclover has more vigor and heat tolerance than
the Louisiana types but does not bloom in central and
south Florida. It is suggested that a 1:1 to 3:1 mixture
of Ladino and Louisiana types be planted.

Sweetclover a tall and coarse stemmed annual legume -
actually is more closely related to alfalfa than to true
clovers. Floranna sweet clover was selected in Florida
and tests indicate some superiority over Hubam. However,
Hubam is most widely used. The sweetclovers have a higher
lime requirement than whiteclover and almost no excess
water tolerance. It makes more growth than whiteclover
during cool, midwinter periods and seems due for increased
use as pasture quality becomes more and more important.
Cattle do not graze this legume readily at first contact
but use it well as soon as they become accustomed to it.
Seed is produced abundantly by sweetclover but annual
October reseeding in chopped or cultivated land is
recommended.

Alflffa Hairy Peruvian and African varieties grow well
on moist, well drained soils in fall and winter seasons
having moderate temperatures. Alfalfa is a tricky crop
with promise for special conditions and intensive mana-
gement. Poisonous nightshade has become an increasingly
troublesome weed in alfalfa and other cool-season legumes.
Special attention is presently being given to this weed
problem.

Other Cool Season Legumes A new persianclover named
Abon has been released recently by the Texas Experiment
Station and the U.S.D.A. It grows rapidly from fall
seeding and makes vigorous recovery following harvest.
Cattle grazed it readily in the spring of 1964 and more
extensive pasture trials are planned at the Range Station.
A selected variety of Berseem or Egyptian clover is re-
garded as a crop of promise. The old varieties of this
crop did poorly but new selections now available may








become important on intensively managed flatwoods
pastures. Grazing of a planting at the Range Station
in 1963-64 was stopped because of invasion of night-
shade.

Hairy Indigo is a useful warm season forage legume for
pastures on flatwoods soils with moderately good surface
drainage. It requires lime, phosphate and potash for
growth. Indigo is not readily palatable to cattle but
they learn to eat it. It should be allowed to reseed
in October and then grazed heavily-frost reduces its
feeding value to zero. Grass growth is greatly stimulated
in the winter and spring following Indigo. Hairy Indigo-
bahiagrass pastures at the Range Station are grazed closely
until June 15 when seedlings appear. June drouth is the
greatest hazard to this legume. Sixty to ninety days
are required for Indigo to make 2-3 feet of growth and
be ready for grazing.
Aeschynomene or Jointvetch is a native summer legume
with growth habits similar to Indigo. Found commonly on
roadsides, it produces a seedpod similar to Beggarweed.
Cattle graze Jointvetch readily; insects may attack it
severely in late summer. Difficulty of seed harvest may
prove to be the greatest disadvantage of this legume.

VIII. PHOSPHORUS SOURCE PASTURES

These pastures were planted to pangolagrass in
1947-49 period. All phosphate fertilizers were applied
annually through 1958 except rock which was last applied
in 1953 and colloidal which was completed in 1957. All
treatments excepting one with superphosphate were limed.
Nitrogen and potash (K20) were applied at 100 and 50
pounds per acre annually since 1955. Cows in the breeding
herd on each treatment received a cottonseed hulls-
citrus molasses-urea supplement because of winterkilling
of pangolagrass in the spring of 1963. Weight gain per
acre and weaned calving percentage for 1963 are summarized
below.

Weight Calving
Treatment Gain, lbs. Percentage

No phosphate 105 60
Superphosphate (no lime) 167 83
Superphosphate plus lime 217--_ _7
Rock phosphate 168 43
Colloidal phosphate 204 100
Triplesuperphosphate 134 71
Basic slag 252 100


-9-









Percent calf production on the no phosphate treatment
has averaged approximately the same as on phosphated
pastures. Carrying capacity and per acre production on
the phosphated pastures has been consistently superior.

IX. INTRODUCED AND NATIVE PLANT
SPECIES FOR FORAGE

Introductions in 1963 totalled 248 warm and 63 cool
season grasses and 59 warm and 228 cool season legumes.
Five grasses were planted in replicated plots and nine
in increase blocks which are subject to grazing. Paraguay
22 bahiagrass is being used in a 1964 grazing trial.
Eleven ryegrasses and three Reeds canarygrasses were
grown in winter 1963-64 in cooperation with Southern
Regional Grass Trials. Yield in tons of air dry forage
per acre for five most productive was: Gulf, 2.13;
Stoneville #3, 1.93; Mississippi Blend, 1.83; Stoneville
#1, 1.81; and Florida Rust Resistant, 1.70. Florida
Rust Resistant and Gulf were most resistant to leaf
diseases.

Yield in tons of air dry forage harvested from
comparative trials of bahiagrass varieties under two
levels of fertilization at South Florida Field Labora-
tory (Immokalee) and Range Station follows:

South Florida
Field Laboratory Range Station
Bahiagrass High Low High Low
Tifhi-1 2.41 2.04 2.56 1.91
Pensacola 1.89 1.66 2.12 1.51
Paraguay 22 2.75 1.47 2.27 1.76
Argentine 2.33 1.57 2.47 1.72
1.i High 900 0--OT and Low5 10-10-10 in
both spring and fall.

X. FALL MECHANICAL PRACTICES ON
GROWTH OF WHITECLOVER

The effect of sod treatments on growth of white-
clover and associated pangolagrass and Pensacola bahia-
grass consisted of retreatment September 9, 1963, on one-
half of areas used in 1962. The two most effective
treatments were the roto-tiller and twice over with a








two-section medium weight Marden chopper. Whiteclover in
pangolagrass sod showed greater response to all treatments
than in Pensacola bahiagrass turf,

XI. PANGOLAGRASS MANAGEMENT

Winterkill Pangolagrass has been subject to winter
thinning since the early years of planting in Florida.
It is most severe in north Florida and decreases south-
ward toward the relatively cold-free zones. The first
severe damage was recorded at Range Station in 1957-58;
however, small spots were observed in previous years.
At first this was thought to result from excess water
plus freezing temperatures but the causes appear to be
more complicated. Heavy nitrogen fertilization in the
fall was observed to increase winterkilling at the
Main Station, Gainesville.

There have been repeated moderate to severe losses
at the Range Station yearly since 1957-58. This seemed to
be related to a cycle of colder winters; however, the
severe damage in 1963-64 makes an exception to even this
factor. No extensive damage has been observed on pangola-
grass less than a year old. Fields rotovated in June
1963 had little loss of stand while adjoining untilled
pastures were 99 percent killed. The killing is never
100 percent and the grass has the potential to recover
its stand if left undisturbed. Regular burning or
cultivation should be avoided on damaged fields that
had a complete cover of pangolagrass. This type of
damage favors weeds and low quality grasses and complete
renovation may later be needed with such pasture.
Planting Methods Stand of pangolagrass planted on
well prepared, limed and fertilized soil, were measured
in five weeks in average number of plants touched per
100 feet.


-11-









Treatment
planting material


Planting rate
per acre


Treatment after Number
planting plants


Fresh grass scattered 1/2 ton

Fresh grass scattered 1/2 ton

Baled and kept 8 days 1/2 ton


Cut flail harvester

Crown sections in
4-foot rows
Crown sections in
2-foot rows


1/2 ton

not
weighed

not
weighed


Fresh grass scattered* 1/2 ton


disked & packed

dull bladed
roller & packed

disked & packed

disked & packed


packed

packed


disked & packed


* Not fertilized.

XII. HAY AND SILAGE

Hay Most hay has been made at the Range Station in
June but increased tonnage needs encouraged making hay
in October and November. Weather and labor efficiency
also favor fall harvesting of hay. Commercial hay condit-
ioners have been improved so that some types speed the
drying of pangolagrass. Using a standard model high-
clearance, rotary mower to condition sickle-cut grass
has increased rate of curing by at least one day. This
rotary mower is excellent for drying hay wet in the
swath' or window.

Silage should be considered when grass is plentiful
and weather is too wet for curing hay. Ensiling of tall
pangolagrass, liable to spittlebug attack is a means
of saving forage and reducing the insect problem. Water
should be added whenever the loads of cut grass do not
drain as they are hauled to the silo. Additional water
as the grass is packed in the silo improves its keeping
quality. Stack silos seen at Range Station are covered
with six mil plastic. These were filled in August 1963
and not needed in the 1963-64 winter.


-12-








XIII. ANNUAL GRAIN AND FORAGE CROPS


Thirty varieties of grain and 34 forage sorghums
were planted in April 1963. Irrigation water was applied
by overhead sprinklers when required. Fertilization
was 500 pounds of 10-10-10 at planting, and 50 pounds
of N in mid-June. Varieties were harvested July 10, 1963.
Grain production ranged from 4879 pounds to 1045 pounds
of seed. The five highest grain producers were: 1)
Northrup-King 282; 2) Ranger; 3) Double T; 4) KS 701;
and 5) Amak R-12. Forage varieties ranged from 30.9
to 6.8 tons of green material per acre. Highest producers
were: 1) Ga-hi millet 30.9; 2) S-211 30.8; 3) Haygrazer
27.9; 4) Beefbuilder T 26.4; and 5) PAG 25.4.

XIV. FERTILIZER RATIOS ON PANGOLAGRASS
AND PENSACOLA BAHIAGRASS

The first trial was initiated in 1962 to determine
the response of pangolagrass and Pensacola bahiagrass to
49 ratios of N-P-K with four replications on each grass.
Each treatment received 120 pounds N per year, 60 pounds
both spring and fall. Ph, CaO and secondary and minor
elements were in adequate supply. Average highest yield
in 1963 in tons of air-dry forage per acre for seven
fertilizer ratios for both grasses are given below.

Pangolagrass Pensacola Bahia
Ratios Tons/A Ratios Tons/A
60-30-120 3.15 60-30-150 1.53
60-60-300 2.84 60-60-300 1.52
60-60-240 2.68 60-20-100 1.51
60-60-120 2.63 60-30-90 1.47
60-60-180 2.51 60-15-75 1.46
60-30-90 2.45 60-12-60 1.46
60-30-150 2.42 60-60-240 1.45


XV. FERTILIZER MOVEMENT IN SOIL SOLUTION

In August 1962 a project was started to determine
movement of fertilizer elements above the hardpan -
24 to 26 inches below the surface in undisturbed
native Leon fine sand. Fertilizer at the rate of 2000
pounds of 10-10-10 plus 200 pounds magnesium sulfate
per acre was applied to an area 20 feet in diameter.


-13-








Fertilizer movement of surface run-off was prevented by
an earth mound.
Soil solution samples were taken at depths of 6
inches below the surface and 3 inches above the hardpan
at each sampling station when sufficient ground water
was present. Seven sampling stations were located in
the fertilized circle. The 18 surrounding stations were
3,9, and 15 feet from the edge of the fertilized area
radiating outward in six directions. Rainfall during the
summer of 1963 was relatively light allowing for one com-
plete and one incomplete soil solution collection. Chemical
analysis indicated downward and some outward movement
above the hardpan of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium.

XVI. ACCUMULATION OF FERTILIZER
ELEMENTS IN PASTURES

Soil samples from pastures at the Range Station
were taken to a depth of 6 inches for the fourth year
during March and April 1963. These were analyzed and
data grouped according to forage variety and previous
fertilizer treatment. The pasture treatment and analy-
tical results are summarized below.
Available Elements
Pasture Repli- lbs/A
Treatment cations CaO MgO K20 P

Native 5 538 227 49 14
Native + one ton rock
P in 1947 4 819 193 62 23
Improved less than 10 years 7 1400 245 98 43
Improved more than 10 years 5 1870 197 113 48
Hairy indigo-grass 3 1810 185 146 28
Whiteclover-grass 4 2810 263 211 28


XVII. CONTROL OF PASTURE INSECTS

The spittlebug (Prosapia bicinta) was the most serious
insect attacking forage plants at Range Station in 1963.
The prompt removal of vegetation when browning of tops
became noticeable, was an effective method of control.
Use of the vegetation for hay or silage was preferable
to grazing for controlling the spittlebug. Application
of parathion or toxaphene granules to equal 2 pounds of
active ingredient per acre in July did not materially
affect insect numbers. Trials to determine value of


-14-









mowing or burning in spring (March) before growth began
were started in 1964. No changes in insecticides, or
pounds of active ingredient per acre, from previous
years for common pasture insects are recommended.

XVIII. HERBICIDES

Herbicides were applied on several plants considered
of sufficient economic importance to warrant further
individual study in 1963. Warning when using chemicals
- READ the LABEL.

Smutgrass Dowpon (dalapon) at 5 pounds active ingredient
per 100 gallons of water:

1. Hand spraying to thoroughly wet foliage controlled
85 percent of treated plants.

2. Boom spraying, complete coverage of all vegetation
using 5 pounds dalapon per acre, gave + 90 percent
control.

3. Ten acres, field heavily infested, was sprayed by
airplane on July 29, 1964 with 5 pounds dalapon
per acre.

4. Pangolagrass in field sprayed with dalapon in
June 1963 had apparently recovered by the next
November.
Storksbill (Geranium carolinianum) is an unpalatable
invader in whiteclover in February and March. 2(2,4-DB)
(Butyrac) gave control at 1 pound active ingredient per
acre with some top kill of clover. Clover had recovered
by April.

Sedge (Juncus and Cyperus spp.) -

1. Establishment of pangolagrass. Two and 4 pounds
active ingredients of 2,4-D (20 percent granules)
mixed with 400 pounds 10-10-10 fertilizer applied
per acre at time of planting increased first
cutting of hay from 11 bales, check, to 15 bales
for treated area.

2. 2,4-D boomsprayed at 2 and 4 pounds active ingred-
ient per acre to a pangolagrass area controlled
broadleaf weeds at both rates but treatment was
three to four weeks late in season to retard
stolon growth of bermudagrass. Bales of hay
harvested June 17 from same sized area were:


-15-








4 pounds per active ingredient per acre, 54;
2 pounds, 53; untreated, 47.
Saw Palmetto -

1. 2,4,5-T and dicamba (Banvel D) at 4 and 8 pounds
active ingredient per 100 gallons water resulted
in comparable control at each rate of 80 percent
and 95 percent bud kill respectively.
2. Treatment of palmetto in May 1963 which had
been burned December 1962 with 10 different
herbicides, including 2,4,5-T and dicamba,
confirmed that young saw palmetto is highly
resistant to herbicides.

XIX. WEATHER RECORDS FOR 1963

Total rainfall was 59.22 inches, 2.14 above the
average for the last 20 years. Sixty-four percent fell
from June through September. There were 159 days in
which rainfall of 0.01 or more was measured. The
highest temperature was 96F occurring in June and August
while the lowest was 320F in January. There were six
frosts in January and seven in December.

XX. CATTLE PROGRAM

There were 1110 cattle in the Station herd on June
30, 1964, with individual record for each animal. There
are many producing cows 16 to 19 years old.
Breeding Breeds represented are Brahman, Shorthorn,
Angus and Charolais. Commercial beef production, with
emphasis on straight and crossbreeding, is the major
cattle research program. There are nine different cross-
bred groups with numerous second and third generation
crosses. Crisscrossing in three herds of Brahman and
Shorthorn cows and their crosses was started in 1961.
A project designed to evaluate the Charolais, Angus and
Brahman in a reciprocal crossbreeding project was initiated
in 1963. A study to use performance of heifers bred to
calve at two years of age was started in 1964.

Management Practices Constant selection; controlled
breeding season of 105 days, starting in March; calves
marked, castrated and dehorned shortly after birth; calves
weaned from 5.5 to 8 months of age; all calves inoculated
against blackleg; all heifer and bull calves vaccinated


-16-








for Bangs when six to eight months old; complete mineral
available at all times; control of horn flies by regular
spraying; different classes of cattle kept separate;
regular attention given; supplemental feeding when required;
limited number of bull calves fed with superior animals
kept for herd bulls; rotational grazing.
Records Birthdate, breeding, weaning weight and slaughter
grade on all calves; cattle are weighed at regular intervals;
selected heifers are used for herd replacements; all
steers and surplus heifers are used in feeding and grazing
trials; gains and feed consumption for gains on all cattle
fed in dry lot and on pasture; carcass yield and grade on
experimental cattle.
Beef Quality Factors influencing carcass yield and
quality are studied in cooperation with Animal Science
Department, Gainesville.

XXI. EFFECT OF BREEDING AND
NUTRITION ON PRODUCTION

Three herds of 60 cows each consisted of 10 Brahman,
10 3/4 Br-1/4 Sh, 20 1/2Sh-1/2 Br, 10 3/4 Sh-1/4 Br and
10 Shorthorn. Herd 1 grazed native range; Herd 2, a
combination of native and improved pasture; Herd 3,
improved pasture containing clover. The Brahman, 3/4
Brahman and 10 1/2 Sh-1/2 Br cows were bred to Shorthorn
bulls; and the Shorthorn, 3/4 Shorthorn and 10 1/2 Sh-
1/2 Br cows to Brahman bulls in the 1962 breeding season.
Average weight of 1963 calves at 205 days of age are
given below:

Breeding of Herd 1 Herd 2 Herd 3
Calves Native Combination Improved Mean

3/4 Sh-1/4 Br 407 468 502 452
5/8 Sh-3/8 Br 411 462 477 445
1/2 Br-1l2 Sh 329 391 4414 389
1/2 Sh-1/2 Br 424 449 525 455
5/8 Br-3/8 Sh 405 475 481 460
3/4 Br-1/8 Sh 452 448 517 469
Weighted average 407 450 487 446


-17-








XXII. CHAROLAIS CROSSES FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

Average 205-day and weaning weights and slaughter
grade of calves from cows maintained on pasture are
summarized below:


Breeding
of Calves


Weaning Weight
weight 205-days


Adjusted
Slaughter daily
grade gain


15/16 Ch-1/16 Br
7/8 Ch-1/8 Br
3/4 Ch-1/4 Br
1/2 Ch-1l2 Br
1/2 Ch-1l4 Sh-1/4 Br
1/2 Ch-1/2 Sh


562
561
685
485
613
463


533
571
585
518
501
438


H. Good
Good
H. Good
Good
L. Choice
H. Good


2.48
2.48
2.67
2.25
2.57
1.94


XXIII. MINERAL CONSUMPTION

Minerals fed to cattle at the Range Station for the
past several years are as follows:


Ingredients


Ona Range Modified Salt
Station Mineral Sick Mineral


Steamed bonemeal
Defluorinated phosphate
Common salt
Red oxide of iron
Copper sulfate
Cobalt chloride or sulfate
Cane molasses
Cottonseed meal


28.00
28.00
31.21
3.12
0.63
0.04
7.00
2.00


pounds
II
n
"i

U


100 pounds
10 "
2 "
2 ounces


Ona Range Station mineral contains 14.5 percent
calcium, 8 percent phosphorus and 31 percent common salt.
Common salt, in addition to being an essential ingredient,
prevents spoilage of bonemeal, molasses and cottonseed
meal if mixture becomes wet. Salt sick mineral and
common salt are given cattle in Phosphorus Source pastures,
(Section VIII, page 9). The average yearly cow consumption
of Ona Range Station mineral in an 8-year period for
three groups of 60 cows each described in Section XXI,
page 17 is given on the following page:








Native
range
18
38
44
47
43
54
43
35
40


Combination
pasture
26
41
42
35
37
25
30
23
32


XXIV. FATTENING CATTLE

Brahman-Shorthorn Calves Five lots of steer calves
each were fed for 189 days. The ration consisted of
hay and a concentrate mixture of 16 parts cottonseed
meal, 34 parts citrus pulp, 35 parts ground snapped
corn, 9 parts corn meal and 5 parts alfalfa meal. The
results are summarized below:


Breeding of calves

Av. initial weight
Av. daily gain
TDN/100 pounds gain
Dressing percent
Carcass grade


3/4 Sh- 5/8 Sh-
1/4 Br 3/8 Br


556
2.16
625
60.85
Choice


573
2.24
600
60.24
L.Choice


1/2 Sh- 5/8 Br-
1/2 Br 3/8 Sh


562
2.36
595
60.81
Choice


529
2.17
634
61.22
L.Choice


3/4 Br-
1/4 Sh
509
2.08
603
61.50
Good


Steers Versus Heifers (Sh-Br Crosses) Twelve heifer and
12 steer calves were fed separately in dry lot for 168
days the ration given above.


Av. initial weight
Av. daily gain
TDN/100 pounds gain
Dressing percent
Carcass grade


Steers

426
1.91
631
59.43
H.Good


Heifers

444
1.87
641
60.49
H.Good


-19-


Year
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
Average


Improved
pasture
15
16
18
15
24
21
31
19
20


----I- -- -I








Effect of Shade Thirty-two yearling steers were divided
into four lots of eight animals each and fed for 157 days
in summer of 1963. Two lots were fed in dry lot and two
on pastures. One lot had access to shade and one lot
was without shade, both in dry lot and on pasture. The
concentrate ration consisted of 17 parts cottonseed meal,
41 parts of both ground snapped corn and dried citrus pulp
and 1 part mineral. The results are given below:

Steers, dry lot Steers, pasture
Shade No Shade Shade No Shade
Average daily gain 1.93 2.02 2.11 2.01
TDN/100 pounds gain 651 689 554* 567*
Dressing percent 59.44 59.67 58.24 59.32
Carcass grade H.Good H.Good Good Good
* Pasture not included.

Vitamin A in Ration Two trials of 154 and 182 days
using yearling steers in first trial and weanling calves
in the second trial were completed during the past year.
Lot 1 was fullfed the standard ration of cottonseed hulls,
cottonseed meal, citrus pulp and mineral and Lot 2 received
30,000 units vitamin A daily per animal in addition.
Lot 1 had an average daily gain of 1.46 pounds and Lot 2,
1.60 pounds. Lot 1 required 616 pound and Lot 2, 557
pounds TDN per 100 pounds gain. There were no apparent
gross symptoms of vitamin A deficiency in any of the animals.
The vitamin A supplemented cattle had over five times as
much vitamin A in the liver and nearly twice as much
in the blood plasma as did the control cattle.

Steers and bull calves fed a standard ration, which
included corn and alfalfa pellets but without vitamin A
supplement, had about 1/2 the vitamin A content in their
livers as did the cattle fed vitamin A. Cows 19 years
old, on pasture all their lives, had over 12 times as much
vitamin A in their livers as did Lot 2 above.
Shrimp Meal Shrimp meal, a by-product supplied by
Treasure Isle Ocean Products, Inc., Tampa, was compared
with cottonseed meal for fattening cattle. The ration
in a 140-day trial fed two lots of steers was the same
except Lot 1 received cottonseed meal and Lot 2, shrimp
meal. Lot 1 had an average daily gain of 1.90 pounds and
Lot 2, 2.19 pounds with TDN consumption of 614 and 545
pounds per 100 pounds gain, respectively. Average
slaughter grade was Low Good for both lots and shrunk
dressing percent of 60.74 for Lot 1 and 58.34 for Lot 2.


-20-








Grade Improvement of Steers Fed on Pastures Thirty-six
yearling steers with an average weight of 803 pounds were
fed on Pensacola bahiagrass pasture for 56 days. Their
average daily gain was 1.80 pounds and grade improvement
was from High Standard to Good. Shrunk dressing percent
was 60.26.

Fifty-seven yearling steers with an average weight
of 738 pounds, full-fed for 99 days on pasture, had a
daily gain of 1.86 pounds. Slaughter grade improved from
Low Standard to Low Good with a shrunk dressing percent
of 60.88.

This was not a profitable trial because: 1, low gains
for feed consumed; 2, rate of gain affected amount of
marbling in rib eye with corresponding lower carcass grade;
3, high feed costs.


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