The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Range Cattle Station
Mimeo Report 63-1
16th FIELD DAY OUTLINE
RANGE CATTLE EXPERIMENT STATION
April 5, 1963
Dr. W. G. Kirk, Vice Director in Charge
Dr. E. M. Hodges, Agronomist
Mr. F. M. Peacock, Asst. Animal Husbandman
Dr. J. E. McCaleb, Asst. Agronomist
Dr. C. L. Dantzman, Asst. Soils Chemist
Mr. W. C. Hines, Farm Foreman
Mrs. J. C. Moye, Stenographer
Mrs. D. M. Bryan, Typist
The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station is celebrating its Diamond
Jubilee, 1888 to 1963, 75 years of service to Florida Agriculture.
OUTLINE OF WORK
I. Pasture Fertilizer Program . . E. M. Hodges .2
II. Factors Affecting Calf Crop . F. M. Peacock .3
III. Smutgrass Control ..... .. J. E. McCaleb .4
IV. Accumulation of Fertilizer Items in Pasture C.L.Dantzman .5
V. Grazing Trials . .... .6
VI. Phosphorus Source Pasture. . . . 6
VII. Temporary Winter Pasture ... . . .7
VIII. Fall Mechanical Practices on Permanent Pasture . .7
IX. Control of Pasture Insects . . . .8
X. Pasture Legumes . . . . . .
XI. Forage Crop Nursery . ... 9
XII. Preservation and Feeding Value of Pangolagrass Silage .10
XIII. Hay and Silage . . . . . 10
XIV. Fertilizer Ratios on Pangola and Pensacola Bahiagrass 11
XV. Minor Element Treatments on Whiteclover . .12
XVI. Fertilizer Movement in Soil Solution . .. .. 12
XVII. Herbicides . . . .. .13
XVIII. Weather Records ... . . . . .. 13
XIX. Cattle Program . . .. . . 13
XX. Wintering Calves . .. . 14
XXI. Effect of Breeding and Nutriti'on on Production . 15
XXII. Charolais-Brahman-ShothorthorCrosses . .16
XXIII. Mineral Consumption .' . . .16
XXIV. Supplemental Winter Feeding-.-. 0.1 . 17
XXV. Fattening Cattle: Charolais "Croe ". . 18
SteersVversus Heifers/. . 19
Shade versus no shade . . 19
XXVI. Florida Agricultural ExperimentfiStation Publications 21
I. PASTURE FERTILIZATION
E. M. Hodges
An ideal pasture fertilization program would combine with other
production factors to yield just enough feed each day throughout
the year. This perfection is not currently possible but feed of
higher quality over more months is within reach. The outlines of
an orderly fertilizer program can be presented briefly although
many adjustments are required. There can be no successful fertilizer
program for overstocked pastures. Continued close grazing encourages
weeds and poor grasses by weakening the desirable plants. The value
of fertilizer nitrogen is dissipated by close grazing immediately
after treatment; growth is reduced and feed costs increased.
Grass pastures producing at a moderate level should have a minimum
of once-a-year treatment with 40 to 50 pounds per acre of nitrogen
in a 12-6-6 or similar mixture. Twice-annual fertilization may
include either a repetition of the 12-6-6 treatment or 500 pounds
10-10-10 supplemented with 125 to 150 pounds per acre of ammonium
nitrate or equivalent. Lime should be added at 1 ton per acre
each 4 to 5 years. Minor element retreatment needs are variable
but should be used sparingly. The use of 0.1 unit of copper every
second year is suggested on sandy pastures.
Winter clovers require little or no nitrogen but fall application of
20-25 pounds per acre P205 (superphosphate) and 2 to 3 times this
amount of K20 are needed. High production and intensive grazing
of irrigated clover call for retreatment with 250 pounds per acre
of 0-8-24 or 60 pounds KO2 in the February-April period. Heavy
rains increase the need for supplemental treatment. Very low annual,
0.1 unit per acre, application of borax are recommended, with
copper added every-other-year. Slowly available forms of minor
elements may be used. Clovers need an initial pH of 6.0 with lime
added at 3-year intervals.
Hairy Indigo requires a moderate lime level on flatwoods soils and
grows well with a single application of 0-8-24 at 250 pounds per
acre in late June. Minor element treatments suitable for grass is
adequate for Hairy Indigo.
Many special conditions need consideration in a pasture fertility
program. Heavy rains immediately following tre ,tment reduce benefits,
calling for retreatment if quick growth is important. Sometimes
overlooked is the fact that no fertilizer treatment will force
growth during cold or dry weather. Climatic conditions must be
taken into account and this is where supplemental feed is needed
to fill in the gap until weather becomes favorable for plant growth.
Time of fertilization deserves increased consideration. Pasture
quality is high within 30 to 60 days after treatment and all the
best grazing comes at once when all fertilizer is put out at one
date. The spring months give the greatest opportunity to space
fertilization, thus providing good grazing over a longer period.
Summer and fall treatments should be spaced but application after
September 15 at RCS is not dependable.
II. FACTORS AFFECTING CALF CROP
F. M. Peacock
A high rate of reproduction is essential in a beef cattle operation.
Many factors influence reproduction and a thorough knowledge of them
should enable the cattle producer to increase calf crop and have
a more profitable operation.
Adequate nutrition is necessary for a high rate of reproduction.
The quality of feed will vary during the year according to the
animals production cycle. After weaning calves, cows can be main-
tained on roughage with a protein supplement and just before and
during the breeding season these animals should have an abundance
of quality feed to raise a calf and go through the physiological
changes necessary for showing estrus. Heifers calving at 2 years
should be given special care. Their feed should be of the quality
and quantity to take care of maintenance, lacaation, growth and for
Bulls should be given special attention due to their responsibility
of half the herd reproduction. They should be in good breeding
condition not fat when put with the herd. Supplemental feeding
during the breeding season partially insures their breeding effici-
ency. Their semen should be examined before the breeding season
for high concentration of motile sperm. They should also be checked
about the middle of the season for temporary sterility. Bulls
should be observed frequently for physical mishaps such as crippling,
broken penis and lack of vigor. The bull should be removed and
replaced if there is any doubt thout his reproductive ability. Young
bulls service 10 to 15 cows and mature bulls 25 to 35 cows under
There is no substitute for sound beef cattle management. Non-
producing cows should be culled and replacement heifers selected
from cows that calve regularly. It has been reported that most
cows culled for reproduction trouble showed estrus and were bred
shortly after their calves were weaned. A strict culling procedure
will eliminate these cows, resulting in more animals with the
potential of calving each year. This culling also improves health
conditions as poor reproduction might be from disease, such as
Bangs, or paratite problems.
A controlled breeding season between 90-120 days and weaning calves
at 6-8 months of age are generally recommended. In any event, the
breeding season should be during the time when sufficient feed is
available for reproduction. Calves should be weaned before seasonal
influences inhibit the growth of forages; keeping calves on cows
after this time may result in conditions where the cows do not
breed the next season.
Yearling heifers should be exposed to the bull for the first 45
days during breeding season if expected to breed next year. This
is due to the drain on their system from calving, lactation and
their needed requirements for maintenance, growth and condition
for estrus. Cull Bangs reactors from the breeding herd. Vaccination
of replacements should be routine at 4-8 months of age.
III. SMUTGRASS CONTROL
J. E. McCaleb
Smutgrass (Sporobolus poiretii) is a perennial unpalatable grass
that grows on upland, well-drained sites in the U. S. south of
a general line drawn from Virginia to Oklahoma. It also occurs
through Central America into Argentina. Smutgrass is a serious
invader in improved pastures on sandy soils of peninsular Florida
and the Coastal Plains of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and
Louisiana. This plant is perennial and with favorable weather
will seed year-long in peninsular Florida. Seed is spread by
water and by sticking to animals.
Trials to control Smutgrass at RCS started in fall 1955 and have
continued to date. Methods of treatment and resi.ls are summarized
(1) Mowing: Mowing continued to February 1, 1956, and observations
May 16 showed that plants were as vigorous as at the start.
Cutting vegetation to 2-3 inches at 1 to 4 week intervals
for 13 weeks in fall 1955 resulted in reduction of plant size
and seed production when mowed at weekly intervals. There is
little possibility of eradicating Smutgrass by mowing,
although bunch size was reduced and seed production greatly
(2) Cultivation: Studies on improved pastures considered too
heavily infested to warrant herbicidal treatment were
started in fall 1956. Complete renovation with and without
temporary pasture gave variable and unsatisfactory results
without supplementary spot treatment with herbicides. Late
spring plowing distributes plants and seeds and should be
(3) Chemical: Studies to determine the effect of herbicides on
Smutgrass and association plants were started in fall 1955.
Results show that dalapon, either as a spot or broadcast
treatment, has given the best control of the translocated
chemicals. CMU and Urox have given excellent control as
spot treatments on plants in non-wooded sites (These materials
are soil sterilants and most trees are highly sensitive).
Dalapon in 1 application of 5 pounds active ingredient
per acre with boom spraying or 5 pounds in 100 gallons water
for spot treatment gave 85 percent or better kill of Smutgrass.
Similar results were obtained when 0.5 grams of Urox or 0.4
grams of CMU were applied to individual plants. Retreatment
was necessary to kill plants surviving treatment or missed
in original application. A promising find of the trials
using dalapon has been the greater susceptibility of Smut-
grass than Pangola, Bahia, Bermuda grasses and whiteclover.
Smutgrass can be controlled but requires prompt action to remove
early invaders into improved pastures and constant policing to
prevent re-infestation. Prompt kill of scattered bunches is the
soundest management procedure.
IV. ACCUMULATION OF FERTILIZER ELEMENTS IN PASTURES
C. L. Dantzman
Several pasture fertilizer practices have been carried on at the
RCS for varying numbers of years, some since 1942. Soil samples
takn in 1959 and 1960 were analyzed and the available fertilizer
elements per acre in the 0-6" depth are summarized below:
Pasture Treatment Years P205 K20 CaO. pH
Native --- 9 40 434 129 4.7
Native + rock phosphate 14 17 41 981 127 4.7
Improved grass 4 21 66 891 181 5.2
Improved grass 7 27 55 1464 106 5.3
Improved grass 14 28 68 1678 134 5.4
Hairy Indigo-grass 11 27 109 1768 83 5.4
Whiteclover-grass 15 25 178 2649 178 5.5
Soil test values for unfertilized native pasture were all low and
application of 1 ton per acre of rock phosphate 14 years before
doubled the CaO and P205 values.
The improved grass pastures were fertilized with 500 pounds 9-6-6
and 150 pounds NH4NO3 or similar treatment annually plus an
initial ton of lime with retreatment each 4 to 6 years. Where this
treatment covered 4 years, the residual available elements except
MgO were about double the native condition with the pH increased
In g"ass pastures having this treatment for 7 and 14-year periods,
the P205 and CaO values increased to approximately 3 times the
native condition. No dolomite was included in the 7-year treatment
and magnesium tested relatively low while K20 remained almost the
same as for the 4-year pastures.
Hairy Indigo-grass pastures were treated for 11 years with the
equivalent of 300 pounds 0-8-24 per year and a ton of lime each 3
to 5 years. Soil tests showed P205 and CaO similar to the 14-
year grass treatment while the K20 was approximately double, and
the MgO two-thirds that of the oldest grass treatment.
Whiteclover-grass pastures were treated for 15 years with 250
to 500 pounds of 0-8-24 or similar ratio annually plus a ton of
lime each 3 years. Soil analysis showed P205 about the same as
the grass and Hairy Indigo treatments while K20 measured 178 pounds
per acre, approximately 3 times that of the improved grass. The
CaO increased to 2649, and the MgO to 178, reflecting the greater
frequency of application of these elements. The pH was 5.5 as
compared to the 4.7 test of the native fields.
V. GRAZING TRIALS
Grass Varieties: Four grass varieties which were grazed for
weight gain in 1962 each received a fertilizer treatment tot-
aling 200 pounds per acre N, 100 pounds P205and 100 pounds K20.
Application was done at 4 dates (March to August) alternated
between 10-10-10 and ammonium nitrate, with 50 pounds N at
Beef Gain Av, Daily
Crass Variety Per Acree lbs. Gain,lbs.
Pensacola bahiagrass 222 .76
Tifhi bahiagrass 288 .88
PI 224152 Starr bermudagrass 351 1.17
Slender pangolagrass 339 1.26
Tifhi bahiagrass maintained a substantial per-acre gain
margin above the Pensacola variety although both were below
the bermuda and pangolagrass. Steers grazed on Slender pangola-
grass made excellent daily gains during both 1961 and 1962,
finishing the summer in higher condition than those on the
Supplemental Feedin_ On Pasture: Yearling steers were grazed
without supplement on Pensacola bahiagrass pasture 6-8 weeks
until June, and then fed 4i pounds per head daily of a 3 to 1
mixture of dried citrus pulp and cottonseed meal. These made
an average daily gain of 1.41 pounds during 1962 while cattle
similarly supplemented in 1961 averaged 1.16 pounds daily
gain. Steers similarly supplemented on insect-damaged pangola-
grass in 1962 averaged 1.11 pounds daily gain as contrasted
to 1.53 pounds in 1961, a good year for pangolagrass.
VI. PHOSPHORUS SOURCE PASTURES
The phosphorus treatments listed in the table were established
on pangolagrass pastures in 1947-49. Nitrogen, potash and
minor elements were supplied on a regular schedule and dolomitic
lime was added to all but the second treatment in 1955.
No phosphorus fertilization has been added since 1958 and rock
phosphate was last applied in 1953 the purpose being to
determine how long production can be maintained with only N
and K20 applied annually, at 100 and 50 pounds per acre, res-
pectively. Small cow-calf herds confined to each treatment
received only common salt and an iron-copper-cobalt mineral
supplement. They have been fed cottonseed hulls, citrus
molasses and urea in 3 critical spring seasons.
Weight gain per acre of cows and calves in 1962 and calving
percentage for 3 years are shown in the following table:
Calving Percentage Per Acre
Treatment 19 1961 1962 Pounds, 1962
No phosphorus 80 100 60 125
Superphosphate (6 71 67 154
Superphosphate lime 50 88 88 183
Rock phosphate 83 86 71 138
Colloidal phosphate* 100 86 100 187
Triple superphosphate 71 100 14 136
Basic slag 86 67 66 203
A complete breeding failure occurred on this treatment
Plots using superphosphate, rock phosphatic, basic slag and
Fairfield slag have been established on pangolagrass and
VII. TEMPORARY WINTER PASTURE
Oats have been used to supply winter grazing at RCS for the
past 6 years in an attempt to decrease the overall cost of
pasture renovation. Results for 4 years, 1957-60, show that
oats and rye did not make a profit because of the expense
of plowing and destroying the heavy turf of improved pastures.
However, oats reduced the cost approximately 415.00 per acre
for the entire programii from initial cultivation through
replanting Pangola, and rye increased costs by 410.00.
The first trial to determine the effect of feeding 4 pounds
of ground snapped corn daily per animal to steers grazing oats
was started Decemrber 8, 1960 and continued for 95 days. The
oats were fertilized with 400 pounds per acre of 10-10-10
initially and a total of 90 pounds of N as ammonium nitrate
in November and December.
Oat planting was delayed by extremely dry weather in the fall
1960, until too late to conduct grazing trial. The second
grazing trial was started 11-29-62 with 2 groups of steers,
each rotated on three 2.5 acre fields. Average daily gains
for the first 70 days were 1.95 pounds per acre for the
unsupplemented oats and 1.81 where ground snapped corn was
added while per acre gains for this period were 119 and 144
VIII. FALL MECHANICAL PRACTICES ON PASTURE PRODUCTION
The fourth trial to determine the effect of sod treatments
in the fall of the year on yield of whiteclover, sweetclover
and grass on non-irrigated permanent pasture was completed on
May 28, 1962. The 4-year average rank in order of descending
effectiveness on growth of whiteclover was as follows: burn;
roto-tilled; spring-tooth sub-soiler; mowed and herbage removed;
disk-harrow; untreated check.
A similar trial was started in fall 1962 on irrigated pastures
of pangola-whiteclover and Pensacola bahia-whiteclover.
Treatments were: mow and remove vegetation; roto-till; disk-
harrow (1 cut); medium chopper (1 and 2 cuts); dalapon at 4
pounds active ingredient per acre on pangola and 3 pounds
on Pensacola bahia; check. This trial will give information
for maintaining high production in a long term pasture program.
IX. CONTROL OF INSECTS AND RELATED PESTS OF PASTURES
The following insects were most destructive at RCS in 1962.
The insecticides and rates of active material per acre used
Yellow sugarcane aphid: Parathion .15-.20 pound per
Pea aphid: Parathion .35
Grassworms: Toxaphene 1.0
Spittlebug (Prosapia bicincta): The following insecti-
cides were not effective in controlling this insect
at the rates and gallons of water used: Mvethoxychlor
2.0 pounds active ingredient per acre; Dieldrin 2.0;
Toxaphene 2.0; and Parathion 1.5. Apparently dense
vegetative growth prevented material penetrating to
insects. Tests of insecticides, volume of water as
carrier and other management practices will be continued.
All species of grasses and watergrasses in the grass
nursery, except Bahia, Fescue and Reeds canarygrass,
were severely damaged by spittlebugs in 1962. Best control
was prompt removal of vegetation when browning of
plant tops became noticeable. Harvesting for hay or
silage cleans area quickly and is preferred to grazing
for spittlebug control.
X. PASTURE LEGUMES
Whiteclover is the most widely adapted cool season pasture
legume available for use in central and south Florida. This
clover is frost-resistant but subject to damage by sub-freezing
temperatures. It makes little growth when night temperatures
average near or below 50'F as they did in November-December
1962 and January-February 1963. Whiteclover has a high water
requirement and is outstanding in yield when later winter and
spring seasons have above-average rainfall. Irrigation is
required to make it a reliable crop. The S-1 and Nolin's
whiteclovers are vigorous full-blooming southern varieties
that are more uniform than commercial Louisiana white.
(All RCS whiteclover has originated from old plantingso.of
Louisiana White.) Ladino whiteclover grows and produces well
but makes no seed in peninsular Florida. It may be planted
in a 50-50 mix with the southern whiteclovers when the seed
Sweetclover is a tall, coarse-stemmed annual legume having a higher
lime requirement and less water tolerance than whiteclover. It
makes more growth than whiteclover during cool-mid-winter periods.
Sweetclover is not readily eaten by cattle but is well-used when
they once are accustomed to it. Seed production is abundant under
moderate stocking rates but fall germination of such seed is unrel-
iable. Summer chopping of the grass sod and October reseeding seems
to be the most desirable practice. Floranna sweetclover, selected
in north Florida,is more productive than Hubam. A later-maturing
variety, Israel, has given varying results under trial conditions.
Alfalfa has been planted repeatedly at RCS and on ranches and dairies.
Hairy Peruvian and African alfalfas make rapid fall and winter
growth under moderate temperature and moisture conditions but
unreliable production cancels their general value for this area.
Hairy Indio is the only warm-season forage legume available for
flatwoods soils with good surface drainage. It requires lime,
phosphate and potash treatment on RCS soils. Hairy Indigo is not
grazed well by cattle on first exposure but is we31 utilized once
they have learned to eat it. It should be allowed to reseed plenti-
fully in October and then grazed heavily. Hairy Indigo-bahiagrass
pastures at RCS are kept cropped close until mid-June when young
seedlings appear. Sixty to ninety days are required to produce
a heavy growth ready for grazing.
XI. FORAGE CROP NURSERY
Only a few recent grass and legume introductions and varieties
have shown promise when compared with those now used in improved
pastures in this area. Introductions in 1962 totalled 1062 selections
for the following groups.
Plants No. Planted Remarks (Disposition)
Grass: warm season 517 5 to replicated plots
cool season 34 9 to increase rows under
Legumes: warm season 134 6 selected for replanting
cool season 126 Planted in fall 1962
clovers (cool season) 251 23 in replicated plots.
A Starr bermudagrass(PI 225957) from Ethiopia was planted in a
2-acre block to provide planting material to establish pastures for
grazing trials in 1964.
Several commonly used pasture grasses and promising introductions
were given 2 rates of fertilization applied as 10-10-10 in spring
and in fall 1962. Average air-dried forage production per harvest
(3 harvests) was as follows:
Total Pounds 10-10-10 per Acre
XII. PRESERVATION AND FEEDING VALUE OF PANGOLAGRASS SILAGE
The third and final trial to determine the value of 3 additives
on preservation and feeding value of Pangolagrass silage was
started August 31, 1961, using plastic silos 8" x 8" in size and on
Drainage was negligible in volume and in amount of nutrients.
Highest temperature recorded was 114CF; however, 1300F was reached
in silos with greater silage mass in proportion to external surface
Two long -yearling steers were placed on feed for each treatment for
98 days. Each animal was fed 3 pounds 41% cottonseed meal per
day plus silage free-choice. Pounds of additives per ton of
ensilage and steer performance in 1961-62 were as follows:
Check, grass only
Ground snapped corn
Av. Daily Av. Lbs. Feed/100 lbs.Gain
Gain Silage Daily CSM Silage Mineral
1.61 57.9 187 3602 2.22
1.86 54.1 161 2885 1.92
1.56 51.2 193 3259 1.31
1.51 55.1 199 3658 1.36
XIII. HAY AND SILAGE
Hay: Early June harvest of hay has been adequate in the past because
RCS tonnage needs were moderate. Increased feed requirements made
additional hay making in the fall desirable for several reasons:
1, better weather for curing; 2, uniform distribution of labor;
3, the 2-season harvest permitted more efficient use of improved
Fertilization for spring hay is begun by March 1 (often earlier)
and at least 1 and often 2 additional dates of fertilization are
completed by May 1 to give a plant food total per acre of 100
pounds nitrogen, 50 pounds P205 and 50 pounds K20. Fertilization
for fall harvest should be completed by September 1 if moisture
conditions permit a single application at one-half the spring
total usually being enough:.
Mechanical conditioning increased drying rate of sickle-cut hay
but equipment breakage was excessive. The rotary mower produces
a swath that cures quickly in dry weather but is especially difficult
to cure after being wet by rain. Barn storage is best for spring
hay crop but the late fall harvest can be protected by plastic
sheeting. Storage of hay in the open is an invitation to damage
and should be avoided.
Silae: Silage can be made during July and August when grass
is plentiful and hay curing difficult. This reduces the improved
grass acreage needed to provide extra reserve forage. A flail-
type forage harvester is now being used at the RCS. This makes
a cut up to 6 inches in length that takes a great deal of packing
in the silo but permits rapid, trouble-free operation.
A concrete-floored bunker silo and long, narrow stack silos with-
out flooring have been used successfully in RCS feeding. A 6-mil
cover, was used on the bunker and 4-mil sheets on the stack silos.
Damage during out-feeding prevents re-use of plastic covers for
silos. The silage is self-fed by means of stanchions that can be
moved ahead as silage is eaten. Regular attention is required
for the self-fed bunker silos to keep racks in order, so cattle
can reach the feed.
XIV. FERTILIZER RATIOS ON PRODUCTION OF PANGOLAGRASS
AND PENSACOLA BAHIAGRASS
A 4-year trial was started April 9, 1962, to determine the
response of pangolagrass and Pensacola bahiagrass to 49 ratios
of N-P-K. Each treatment received 60 pounds N in spring and 60
pounds in fall. Rates of P20O applied per-acre were varied from
O to 360 pounds and K20 from 0 to 300 pounds in each season. pH,
CaO and minor elements were at satisfactory levels. Data obtained
included green and air dry forage weights, forage analysis and soil
samples. Information on changes of plant composition by treatment
will be collected for correlation with fertilizer ratios and other
pasture maintenance studies.
The ratios with highest total yield of tons of air-dry forage
per acre for 2 harvests in 1962 were:
Pangolagrass Pensacola Bahiagrass
N-P-K T N-P-K -TZA
60-0-300 6.65 60-60-180 3.88
60-60-120 6.62 60-60-240 3.78
60-60-30 6.50 60-60-120 3.73
60-30-120 6.28 60-30-90 3.69
60-0-240 6.13 60-30-150 3.67
XV. IiINOR MLETiENT TREATMENTS ON IWHITECLOVER
Plots were established in January 1962 in newly plowed native flat-
woods soil to determine which minor elements and what levels of
lime are needed for whiteclover growth. Treatments were grouped
as follows: (1) combinations of readily-soluble or fritted minor
elements plus phosphorus, potassium and dolomite; (2) dolomite
at several rates with standard treatments of major and minor
elements. Elements under study include copper, zinc, maganese,
boron, molybdenum and iron. Only limited and irregular growth
was obtained in spring 1962 and neither minor elements nor dolomite
effects could be observed.
The same minor elements were applied at various rates to an established
whiteclover-grass pasture in June 1961 to determine their response
to retreatment. The 1962 results were irregular and inconclusive.
Excessive rates of borax were also applied to determine the effects
on whiteclover. Severe leaf burn and stunting was observed one
month after application of 219 pounds of borax (4 units D203)
per acre with less burn occurring at lower rates.
XVI. FERTILIZER KOVZINTT IN SOIL SOLUTION
A study was started in 1962 to determine vertical and horizontal
leaching of fertilizer elements above the hardpan located 24 to 26
inches below the surface in undisturbed native Leon fine sand.
Fertilizer at the rate of 2000 pounds of 10-10-10 plus 200 pounds
IdgSO4 per acre was applied in August to a circular area 20 feet
across. Earth mounded around the area prevented fertilizer movement
by surface run-off.
Soil solution samples were taken at depths of 9 inches below the
surface and 3 inches above the hardpan at each sampling station
when sufficient ground water was present. There were 7 sampling
stations within the fertilized area and 16 surrounding the area.
Those stations outside of the fertilized area were located 3, 9
and 15 feet from the edge of the fertilized area in the directions
of N, NE, NW, S, SE and SW.
Analysis of soil solution samples indicated some lateral movement
primarily potash, with little or none detectable for N, P and Mg.
Trials to determine the most effective herbicides and carrier
solutions were started in 1955. The following chart shows some
of the common pasture weeds and suggested herbicides for their
Wax myrtle and
Banvel-D 4.0 4.0
Dowpon 6.0 5.0-6.0
Urox 0.5 gram/plant
2,4,5-T 4.0-6.0 4.0-5.0
gallberry trials in progress.
Spraying tops essential.
2,4-D not effective.
0 ppm tolerance on forage.
In open or wooded areas,
Non-wooded sites only.
-1.t. Wet plant to run-off; get herbicide in buds.
2. Pounds of active ingredient in 10O gals. water
3. Pounds of active ingredient per acre.
XVIII. WEATHER RECORDS
Rainfall in 1962 totalled 75.18 inches, exceeded only by the 78.79
inches recorded in 1959 which was the highest during the history
of the station records beginning in 1942. Seventy onepercent,
43;07 inchess of the total rain, fell during June, July, August
and September, resulting in a water-table near the surface much
of this time.
The lowest temperature on record since 1942 was 20'F on December
13, 1962 with 21'F the following day. There were 6 frosts in
January 1962, 2 in Miarch 1 in late April, 1 in November and 5
in December, totalling 16 for the year.
XIX. CATTLE PROGRAM
Breeding Straightbred Brahman and Shorthorn herds are maintained
to produce herd bulls, steers for grazing and feeding trials and
heifers as replacements. Shorthorn bulls have been mated to
Brahman cows since 1942 and the crossbred heifers backcrossed to
bulls of the two parental breeds. These and additional crosses
are being evaluated.
A Charolais bull was rated in the last 3 breeding seasons to Char-
bray, Brahman and Shorthorn cows to give Charbray and Charolais-
Brahman and Charolais-Shorthorn crossbred calves.
Thirty yearling Angus and 12 Charbray heifers were purchased
in 1962. In the 1963 breeding season these cattle along with
18 Charolais and 30 Brahman females raised on the Station,
were divided in 3 herds of 10 Angus, 10 Charolais and 10
Brahman females each. One herd was mated to an Angus bull,
the 2nd to a Charolais bull and the 3rd herd to a Brahman bull.
Management Practices Include: constant selection; controlled
breeding season of 105 days, starting in mid-march; calves
marked, castrated and dehorned shortly after birth; calves
weaned at 5.5 to 8.0 months of age, fed in corral for 10
days after weaning; all calves inoculated against blackleg
and heifer and bull calves vaccinnated for Bangs when 6 to 8 months
of age; complete mineral available at all times; control of horn-
flies by regular spraying; different classes of cattle kept
separate; regular attention to all cattle.
Records: Breeding, age, type and finish score, slaughter grade
and weight of all calves at weaning; all cattle are weighed
every three months and those on grazing and feeding trials
more frequently; selected heifers are used as herd replacements;
all castrated males and surplus heifers are used in grazing
and feeding trials; carcass yield and grade are obtained on.
all experimental steers and heifers when slaughtered.
Beef Quality: Factors affecting carcass quality and yield are
being studied in cooperation with Animal Science Department,
XX. WINTERING CALVES
One hundred fifty weanling calves were divided equally on
September 28, 1961, into 3 lots, each lot being given a different
form of pangolagrass roughage during the 156-day wintering
period. Lot 1 grazed pangolagrass, Lot2was self-fed pangola-
grass silage by means of a moveable stanchion in a horizontal
silo and Lot 3 was self-fed pangolagrass hay. A concentrate
mixture consisting of 1 part 41 percent cottonseed meal and
2 parts citrus pulp plus 2 percent complete mineral was fed
in amounts sufficient to keep the calves in a growing condition.
A summary of the results of this trial is given in the following
Roughage fed Grazin
Number of calves 50
Days on test 156
Average daily gain,lbs. .76
Average daily ration,lbs.
Pangolagrass pasture ad lib
Pangolagrass silage ---
Pangolagrass hay ---
41J cottonseed meal 1.23
Citrus pulp 2.46
Complete mineral 0.08
g Silage Hay
ad lib -
XXI. EFFECT OF BREEDING AND NUTRITION ON PRODUCTION
The objective of this project is to determine the productivity
of Shorthorn and Brahman cows and crosses of these 2 breeds
when kept under pasture conditions designed to supply low, medium
and high nutritional levels. Essentially, the 3 herds of 60 cows
each consist of 10 Brahman; 10, 3/4 Br-1/4 Sh: 20, 1/2Sh-1/2 Br;
10, 3/4 Sh-1/4 Br, and 10 Shorthorn. In the 1960 breeding season,
the Brahman, 3/4 Brahman and 10 crossbred cows were bred to
Brahman bulls; and the Shorthorn, 3/4 Shorthorn and 10 crossbred
cows to Shorthorn bulls. In the 1960-61 winter, Herd 1 on native
range was fed hay and limited amounts of cottonseed pellets;
Herd 2, on a combination of improved and native range received
cottonseed meal; Herd 3, on improved pasture containing clover
was given hay. Percent weaned'calf crop and average weight of
calves at 205 days are given below:
Herd 1,Low Herd 2,Medium Herd3, High Lean
e Lbs. Lbs. L Lbs. Lbs.
L/s. _1 __s
45 374 90 423 90
70 30O 67 405 7
50 405 90 506 70
- -- -- -- 100
-- --- 100
80 374 73 493 70
38 342 70 426 U9
40 214 50 35U 56
47 352 73 445 7Q
XXII. CHAROLAIS-BRAHMAN SHORTHORN CROSSES
The purpose was to determine the relative weight and grade of
Charolais, Brahman and Shorthorn crosses under pasture conditions.
Grade and 205-day weaning weight of calves born in 1962 are
dam 3/4Ch-1/4Br 3/4Ch-l/4Br 1/2Ch-1/2Br Brahman Shorthorn
sire Charolais 3/4Ch-l/4Br Charolais Charolais Charolais
calf 7/8Ch-l/8Br 3/4Ch-1/4Br 3/4Ch-1/4Br'hCh-1/2Br 1/2Ch-1/2SH
Slaughter H. Good
Feeder L. Good
XXIII. MINERAL CONSUMPTION
Minerals fed to cattle at the Range Station for the past several
years are as follows:
Red oxide of iron
Cobalt chloride or sulfate
28. 0 "
Ona Range Station mineral contains 14.5% calcium, 8% phosphorus
and 31% common salt. Common salt, in addition to being an
essential ingredient, prevents spoilage of bonemeal, molasses
and cottonseed meal if mixture becomes wet. Molasses and
cottonseed meal are added to improve palatability. Modified
salt sick mineral is used with bonemeal and common salt in all
experimental grazing trials. The average yearly per-head consump-
tion of Ona Range Station mineral in a 7-year period for 3 groups
of 60 cows each described in Section XX is given below:
LI__ _UY_ __
Native Native and Improved
Year Rnge- Irmpr. Ld Pasture Pasture
Lbs. Lbs. Lbs.
1956 .8 26 15
19F5 38 41 16
1958 44 42 18
1959 47 35 15
1960 43 37 24
1961 54 25 21
1.9 2 L3 30 11
Average 41 34 20
XXIV. SUPPLEMENTAL WINTER FEEDING
Providing adequate roughage for a herd of commercial beef cattle
throughout the year is an important management problem. Fertilization
of selected pastures in early fall combined with rotational and
deferred grazing has been used to advantage to furnish more
roughage for mature cattle through the fall and winter months
at the Range Station, By using these methods, mature cattle
were maintained from 1952 to 1957 in good condition on pasture
alone during the winter. In'the last 5 winters, however, hay,
silage, cottonseed halls, cottonseed meal, citrus pulp and molasses
have been fed in various combinations to prevent serious weight
loss. In the 1962-63 winter some animals were given supplemental
feed in October and practicallyall cattle on pasture were being
given additional feed by March 1. Suggestions for care of cattle
on pasture are outlined below.
1. Management of the commercial beef herd.
A. Have fewest cattle when pasture forage is scarce.
B. Keep all herds supplied with complete mineral.
C. Separate steers from heifers and dry cows from nursing
D. Start supplemental feeding a few days before it seems
2. Protein feeding when cattle have plenty of low-quality
A. Feed 1 to 2 pounds 41% high protein meal or pellets
daily. Double or triple these amount can be fed every
second or third day. Pellets can be fed on a good sod.
B. Self-feeding a mixture of 75 parts cottonseed meal,
20 parts common salt and 5 parts complete mineral.
Amount of meal and salt will have to be regulated
according to desired daily consumption, class and
condition of cattle, quality of pasture and weather.
C. Grazing clover 1 or more hours daily.
3. Feeding when both energy and protein nutrients are
required and some forage is available:
A. Feed 2 to 6 pounds 20% protein pellets.
B. Feed 1 to 2 pounds 41% protein meal plus 2 to 4 pounds
either pulp, ground snapped corn or molasses daily.
C. Feed 5 pounds daily of citrus or cane molasses con-
taining 3% urea or double these amounts every second
day. Calves do not utilize molasses or urea as well
as older cattle.
D. Self-feed a mixture of 35 parts cottonseed meal, 35
parts citrus meal, 20 parts salt and 10 parts complete
mineral. Amount of salt and meal have to be regulated
as shown in section 2-B above. Average daily consumption
and cost per animal for 5 groups of cattle in 1962-63
winter are given below. The cost includes 200 per
100 pounds for mixing and handling.
Cattle Period Av. Consumption Av.Cost
Class No. Initial Days Per Animal Daily Per Animal
Heifers 22 10-2-62 155 526 3.39 16.57
Heifers 30 11-5-62 116 360 3.10 11.34
Cows 60 1-25-63 33 97 2.85 3.01
Cows 56 2-1-63 32 74 2.18 2.29
Bulls 23 11-5-62 121 821 6.79 25.45
On the average the heifers had access to a mixture of
36 parts cottonseed meal, 36 parts citrus meal, 20
parts salt and 8 parts complete mineral while the cows
and bulls were fed a 33-33-26-8 mixture.
4. Pasture roughage is in short supply.
A. Feed 3 to 10 pounds hay or 10 to30pounds silage daily,
amount to feed will depend upon pasture available.
Cattle may require supplemental protein. Cottonseed
hulls, ground corn cobs and shuck meal may be used in
place of hay or silage but these feeds may be-too
XXV. FATTENING CATTLE
Charolais Crosses: Only a few steers were available to test
feed lot performance and carcass grade of Charolais-Brahman,
Charolais-Shorthorn and Shorthorn-Brahman crossbred calves.
The ration consisted of 25 parts cottonseed hulls, 17 parts
41% cottonseed meal, 30 parts corn feed meal, 22 parts citrus
pulp, 5 parts alfalfa pellets and 1 part complete mineral. A
small amount of hay was fed the first 4 weeks of the 179-day
Breeding of Animals 3 ACh-l/4r 1/2Ch-l/2Br 1/2CH-1/2SH 1/2SH-1/2Br
Av. initial wt. 587
Av. daily gain 2.64
Feed 100 lbs. gain:
Cottonseed hulls 238
Cottonseed meal 162
Corn meal 286
Citrus pulp 210
Alfalfa pellets 48
TDN 100 lbs. gain 626
Carcass grade H. Good
Steers versus Heifers: Twelve steer calves and 12 heifer calves
were full-fed separately for 193 days in dry lot to determine the
influence of sex on feed lot performance and grade. The ration
consisted of 25 parts cottonseed hulls, 17 parts 41% cottonseed
meal, 30 parts corn meal, 22 parts citrus pulp, 5 parts alfalfa
pellets and 1 part complete mineral plus 1.2 pounds hay per head
daily. Results are given below:
Av. initial weight, Ibs.
Av. daily gain
Feed 100 Ibs. gain, lbs.
TDN 100 lbs. gain
Chilled dressing percent
Shade versus no Shade: Four lots each made up of 8 yearling
grade Angus and Hereford steers were fed for 173 days starting
April 4, 1962, with 2 groups in dry lot and 2 on improved pasture.
One group in dry lot and 1 on pasture had access to shade while
one group in each systems had no shade. The concentrate ration
for all groups consisted of 17 parts 41% cottonseed meal, 67 parts
citrus pulp, 15 parts corn meal and 1 part mineral, while only
cattle in dry lot were fed hay. The results are summarized below:
_ UII_ ---------C-l~-
Av. initial weight
Av. daily gain
Feed-100 Ibs. gain:
TDN per 100 lbs. gain
Chilled dressing percent
Shade No Shade
Shade No Shade
ad lib ad lib
1. Does not include pasture.
Florida on January 1, 1963, stood 25th in state rankings for all
cattle (beef and dairy) in the United States, 17th in number of
beef cattle and 13th in number of beef cows and yearlings. The
number of all cattle in Florida on January 1, 1963, was 1,709,000,
a 5% increase over 1962; beef cattle, 1,449,000 which included
821,000 beef cows and yearling heifers.
The total cattle population for the U. S. on January 1, 1963, was
103,754,000 an increase of 3,752,000 animals over January 1, 1962.
XXVI. FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION PUBLICATIONS
A partial list of the available publications on pasture, cattle and
related subjects follows:
484A.Grass Pastures in Central Florida.
502...Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control.
510A..Plants that Poison Farm Animals.
513A..Minerals for Beef and Dairy Cattle.
515...Maintaining Fertility in Mineral Soils Under Permanent
517...Winter Clovers in Central Florida.
538...Citrus Products for Beef Cattle.
541...Selecting and Using Beef and Veal.
554A..Year-round Grazing on a Combination of Native and Improved
575...Feeding Value of Citrus and Blackstrap Molasses for
578A..Factors Affecting Weaning Weight of Range Calves.
603...Urea and Cottonseed Meal in Ration of Fattening Cattle.
607...Irrigation of Whiteclover-Pangolagrass Pasture.
611...Urea Toxicity in Cattle.
613...Whiteclover-Pangolagrass and Whiteclover-Coastal Bermuda-
grass Pastures for Central Florida.
616...Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed
Meal and Ground Snapped Corn in Drylot.
621...Value of Pangola Hay and Silage in Steer Fattening Ration.
623...Factors Influencing Pregnancy Rate in Florida Beef Cattle.
624...Genetic and Environmental Influences on Weaning Weight and
Slaughter Grade of Brahman, Shorthorn and Brahman-Short-
horn Crossbred Calves.
627...Diethylstilbestrol and Aureomycin for Fattening Beef Cattle.
630...Photosensitization in Cattle Grazing Frosted Common Bermuda
631...Beef Production, Soil and Forage Analyses and Economic
Returns From Zight Pasture Programs in North Central
632...An Economics and Statistical Evaluation of Grading Cattle.
635...Factors Influencing Winter Gains of Beef Calves.
641...Utilizing Bagasse in Cattle Fattening Rations.
S-57...Feeding Beef Cattle for Show and Sale.
S-78...Internal Parasites of Cattle, Their Control with Pheno-
thiazine and Management.
S-89...Steer Fattening Trials in North Florida.
S-108..Self-Feeding Pangolagrass Silage to Wintering Beef Cows.
S-124..Climatological Records from 1942 through 1958 at Range
218... Bull Evaluation.
173...Silage Processing Equipment and Structure for Florida.