The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Range Cattle Station
Mimeo Report 60-3 *-*
13TH FIELD DAY OUTLINE
Range Cattle Experiment Station
May 27, 1960
Dr. W. G. Kirk, Vice-Director in Charge
Dr. E. M. Hodges, Agronomist
Mr. F. M. Peacock, Asst. Animal Husbandman
Dr. J. E. McCaleb, Asst. Agronomist
Dr. C. L. Dantzman, Asst. Soils Chemist
Mr. W. C. Hines, Farm Foreman
Miss A. F. Evers, Stenographer
Mrs. Z. M. Mercer, Typist
The Range Cattle Station is a part of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station and University of Florida.
OUTLINE OF WORK
Clover Production and Utilization. . E
Chemical Control of Saw Palmetto . . J.
Organic Matter and Soil Fertility. . C.
Cattle Breeding and Beef Production. . F.
The Work of the Range Cattle Station .. .
Grazing Trials . . . .
Temporary Winter Pastures. . . .
Pasture Legumes.. *. . * *
Forage Crop Nursery. . . *
Herbicides .. * *
Pasture Insects. . .* *
Nitrogen Source Trials .. . *
Phosphorus Source Pastures .. . *
Additives to Pangolagrass Silage .. . *
Fertilizer Ratios on Pangolagrass. . .
Pangolagrass Die-Back and Winter-Kill. .
Weather Records. . *
Corn and Sorghum Trials. .. .* *
Cattle Program ... . . . .
Effect of Breeding and Nutrition on Production *
Calf Crop. . . . o o
Mineral Consumption. . * *
Supplemental Winter Feeding. *
Fattening Cattle . . *
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Publications
. M. Hodges
W. G. Kirk
* * *
S * *
* a *
* a *
a a a a *
4'. ~ 4'C
I. CLOVER PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION
E. M. Hodges
The clover season just finished has been one of the best on record. Following
the favorable 1959 year with excellent live-over, whiteclover made a tremendous
growth from February through June 1960. New plantings developed with unequalled
vigor, and many old stands were better than ever. Clover grew plentifully in
areas planted only by natural spread of the seed and became established in places
not specially fertilized or managed. Along with these very favorable develop-
ments were 2 on the negative side: 1, slow growth rate which delayed grazing
until February and later; 2, widespread occurrence of bloat loss among cattle
grazing clover where there was no grass.
Several vital points in clover production and utilization are clearly demonstrated.
Rainfall provided near ideal moisture conditions from November 1959 through May
1960, but production records at the Range Cattle Station show that rainfall has
been inadequate for clover growth during more than half the years since 1943. In
contrast to the uncertain growth of dryland clover, irrigated pastures have
produced excellent grazing every year since 1950. Reliable production of clover
can be obtained only by the use of irrigation. This practice has been increased
in the past several years, and its continued development holds a great deal of
promise for improved winter and spring pastures. Seepage irrigation, the type
used on most acreage in south and central Florida, also provides the ditches
needed to improve surface drainage. Removal of excess moisture enables more
whiteclover to survive the summer months. Seed from natural reseeding is slow to
germinate, and early grazing depends on live-over plants.
The effect of cold weather on clover was especially well demonstrated during the
1959-60 season. The period of cold weather in late November had a double benefit
for clover: 1, grass growth was checked, reducing competition with young clover
plants; 2, seed germination was stimulated, this being especially important where
plants had not survived the summer. Once seedlings are established and grass is
dormant, cool weather becomes a handicap to clover. Outdoor temperatures too low
for shirtsleeve comfort produce slow growth and limited grazing and held back
1960 grazing until late February, March and even early April. This effect varies
from year to year and neither plentiful moisture nor adequate plant food can
Grass pasture was exhausted before cold-delayed clover became ready for use, a
situation which occurs frequently. Clover pastures grazed before they have 6-8
inches of growth suffer a 50-75 percent reduction in productivity. Hay or other
reserve forage can be used to avoid emergency grazing of clover and thus increase
the efficiency of this valuable crop. Planning for reserve feed supplies is
effective only when done in spring and summer when extra grass is available for
storage. Even fall reserves of grass pasture require advance preparation.
Bloat on clover pasture, long serious in many areas, became a widespread problem
in Florida during the early months of 1960. Weather conditions which permitted
plentiful clover growth while cold-shocked grasses lay dormant were responsible
for the great increase in bloat loss. There is no complete solution, but several
practices help in keeping bloat to a minimum: 1, provide some native range or
mature grass pasture; 2, feed 2-3 pounds of hay daily; 3, allow cattle on clover
during the afternoon only. Exercising bloated cattle by driving them promptly
has helped reduce death losses.
No amount of water control, supplemental feeding or cattle management can succeed
unless applied to adapted varieties given adequate fertilization. Known origin
Louisiana White, Louisiana S-1 on Nolan s Improved White as pure seedings or
mixed 50-50 with Ladino give excellent results. Per-acre treatment of established
clover should include: October, 250# of 0-8-24; February, 100# of muriate of
potash; May, 250# of 0-8-24; every 3 years, 1 ton per acre ground limestone; minor
LleLc :i retreatment is variable, copper and boron being needed most commonly.
Weather varies from year to year but the requirements for clover production are
constant. A well-selected variety with adequate moisture control and fertilization
will produce a large yield of high-quality forage. Grazing and supplemental
feeding practices can be adjusted to changing pasture conditions and thus fully
utilize the highly productive value and strengthen the shortcomings of clover.
Efficient production and use can make whiteclover the most important improved
pasture crop in central and south Florida.
II. CHEMICAL CONTROL OF SAW PALMETTO
J. E. McCaleb
Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) occupies a large number of habitats along the Gulf
Coast from East Texas to South Carolina and is found throughout the 10 to 11
million acres presently used for native range in peninsular Florida. This plant
is unpalatable and not eaten by livestock except in periods of critical forage
supply or when there is a lack of bulk in the ration. The thicker clumps provide
protection for livestock against rain and/or cold wind and give shelter to game
birds. Eradication of 70 to 80% of this species is in the presently desired
control range for areas to be continued in use as native ranges.
Trials were started in August 1955 to determine: 1, response of saw palmetto
to selected herbicides; 2, changes in species composition and density of native
plants in treated areas; 3, comparison of carrying capacity and productivity of
Leec -cttle in areas with and without herbicidal control of saw palmetto. The
first 2 objectives will be discussed.
Early trials involved several chemical formulations, variations in rate and date
of application, percentage of oil in the carrier and use of sticker-spreaders.
Five chemicals showing possibilities were selected for further work and applied
to replicated plots of palmetto in September and October 1957 in an area without
tree canopy. Two of these herbicides, dalapon and erbon, caused heavy damage to
forage plants at the rates used and are not included in this discussion. Checks
for the 2 dates of application averaged 21.8 plants and 45.7 feet canopy cover
per 100 feet. The results for 3 chemicals 19 and 20 months after application as
determined in May 1959 are given below.
-- 100:0 50:50 0:100
4 4 4
100:0 50:50 o:100 100:0 50:50 0:100
4 4 4 6 6 6
Bud kill 00 75 53 44 69 67 50 22 64 64
Canopy kill 00 66 73 48 74 79 68 18 59 61
Grass 82 79 79 80 79 88.6 84.5 78 79 80
Watergrass 17 20 19 19 20 11 15 21 20 19
Forbs 1 1 2 1 1 0.4 0.5 1 1 1
Good grasses4 4.5 5.7 7.8 8.5 6.8 10.0 11.5 5.0 9.8 9.7
Fair 3.0 5.3 3.5 2.5 5.1 2.1 .9 4.8 1.5 2.6
Poor .4 .1 4 .2 .3 6 .3 .2 .4 .2
Sub-total 7.9 11.1 11.7 11.2 12.2 12.7 12.7 10.0 11.7 12.5
Watergrass 1.0 1.4 1.0 1.0 3.8 2.3 1.0 1. 1.3 23
Grand total "- 12.5 12.7 12.2 16.0 15.0 13.7 11.7 13.0 14.8
1. 2,4,5-T = 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) butoxy ethanol ester; 2,4,5-TP =
2(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid; 2,4-D = 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic
acid butyl ester.
2. Percent of water to oil in carrier. Total volume 60 gallons per acre.
3. AIA = Active Ingredient per Acre in pounds.
4. Indicates production and quality value of forage.
In addition to the treatments discussed, 12 plot areas 40 x 700 feet were sprayed
with 2,4,5-T and 2,4,5-TP on August 29, 1959, by airplane. Six plots of equal
size were treated by helicopter September 10, 1959, using 2,4,5-T and mixtures
of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T with varying percent of oil, penetrating agents and sticker-
spreaders in the carrier. Total volume was 4 and 16 gallons of liquid per acre
for airplane and helicopter, respectively. It is too soon to evaluate the
results as plants continue to die for 24 months or longer after treatment.
In summary, 2,4,5-T in water gave 75% palmetto bud kill, the highest of any treat-
ment. The percentage kill decreased as amount of oil in carrier was increased.
Either 2,4,5-T or 2,4,5-TP at 4 pounds per acre active ingredient in 100% water
gave control within desirable plant death range. The economic value of herbicidal
control of saw palmetto on native range can be determined only by grazing trials.
Estimated cost of 4 pounds of 2,4,5-T plus aerial application ranges from $10.00
to $15.00 per acre. Sufficient data have been accumulated to suggest the use of
herbicides in controlling saw palmetto in the following general groups:
1. Clearing fence line (8.25' wide x 5280' long = 1 acre) use 4 to 5 pounds
2,4,5-T. This will also kill most of the trees and other broad-leaved
2. Spot treatment of isolated plants and those dense stands which cause
difficulty in cattle drives.
3. Control of palmetto in areas which are to be used for sub-divisions.
4. Areas planned for vegetables 3-4 years in the future.
II. ORGANIC MATTER AND SOIL FERTILITY
C. L. Dantzman
Organic matter in the soil accumulates as the result of plants that die and
decompose. Cattle manure also contributes to the organic matter as do insects
and small animals; however, most is contributed by plants. The amount of organic
matter is influenced by climate, soil texture and nature of the vegetation, as
well as topography and drainage. Over a long period of time organic matter in
a soil reaches equilibrium with its environment. Soil organic matter is lowered
when a field is brought under cultivation, accelerating break-down and releasing
plant nutrients. When an improved pasture is established, a new level of soil
organic matter occurs which may be higher or lower than the original condition.
Organic matter improved soil productivity in several ways:
1. Increases moisture holding capacity which is needed in the sandy
soils of central Florida.
2. Decreases rate of seepage, making more water available for plants.
3. Helps bind soil particles into clusters.
4. Prevents excessive aeration in sandy soils to reduce decomposition
5. Leaching of fertilizer elements is reduced.
6. Prevents rapid change in pH.
7. Acts as a storehouse of organic and inorganic plant nutrients.
8. Makes phosphorus more available and other elements more soluble.
9. Increases growth of microorganisms which help circulate plant nutrients.
One percent organic matter in the top 6 inches of soil amounts to 20,000 pounds
per acre which contains from 300 to 1,000 pounds of nitrogen. However, decompo-
sition and release of the elements is slow.
Natural means add some nitrogen to the soil. Legumes on unimproved areas add a
limited amount of nitrogen, and nonsymbiotic organisms may add another small
amount. Lightning fixes nitrogen in the form of nitrates which is carried to the
soil along with ammonia and organic nitrogen by rainfall.
The amounts of organic matter present in selected pastures at the Range Station
are shown in the accompanying table:
Pasture Treatment Soil Types Replicates Matter
Native In~okalee & Leon 7 2.9
Native + rock phosphate Immokalee & Leon 3 3.1
*Pangola, under 5 years Leon 8 2.5
*Pangola, over 5 years Immokalee 30 3.7
*Clover, under 5 years Immokalee 8 3.4
*Clover, over 5 years Immokalee 3 4.7
*Pensacola bahia, over 5 years Immokalee 8 3.8
Received regular lime, fertilizer, and minor element treatments.
- 5 -
There was very little difference in percent organic matter present in the native
Scot:.--.s w:.th or without added rock phosphate. In pastures established in
pangolagrass for less than 5 years the organic matter fell 0.4% below the native
state due to increased decomposition as a result of cultivation during preparation
and planting. Pasture established to pangolagrass for more than 5 years had 1.4%
organic matter more than the young pangola pastures and 0.8% above the native
pastures. The organic matter of the newer clover fields averaged 0.5% above the
native state and 0.9% above the newly-planted pangola pastures. The older clover
fields had 4.7% organic matter or 94,000 pounds of organic matter per acre, an
increase of 1.3% over the newer clover fields and 1.8% above the native condition.
The level for Pensacola bahia was approximately the same as for the older pangola.
IV. CATTLE BREEDING AND BEEF PRODUCTION
F. M. Peacock
Beef cattle producers want animals that produce beef efficiently, either directly
as animals for slaughter or indirectly through the progeny of the breeding animals.
Improvements through breeding are slow but essential to increase the inherent
efficiency of individual animals and to permit them to make the best use of
improved management practices.
Traits of economic importance in beef production are: 1, percent calf crop; 2,
weaned weight and grade of calves; 3, gains after weaning; 4, market quality of
cattle when sold; 5, efficiency of feed utilization.
Research on beef cattle improvement began at the Range Station in 1942 when a
Eraha.n bull was obtained to use on grade Brahman, Hereford, Devon and Shorthorn
cows, and the purchase of a Shorthorn bull for crossing on Brahman heifers.
Production data on the grade herd were analyzed in 1952 on factors affecting
weaning weight of these calves. The half Brahman cow was superior to all blood
groups and cows with Brahman breeding weaned heavier calves than those with no
Brahman blood. Results showed that calves born in December, January and February
were 14 pounds heavier than those born in March, April and May.
In 1952 a project was initiated to determine the influence of breed composition,
Brahman and Shorthorn, and level of nutrition on adaptability of cattle to central
Florida conditions, while a second project was designed to test feed lot per-
formance and carcass grades of Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn steer calves.
Results of these studies are given in the following table.
These results on cow performance were in agreement with those from the grade herd.
Crossbred, 1/2 Shorthorn-1/2 Brahman, cows were the highest producers as shown
by calf crop, weaning weight and slaughter grade irrespective of breed of sires
used. This indicated that hybrid vigor had a beneficial influence on mothering
ability of the cow and that the environment furnished the calf during the nursing
period is as important as the genes transmitted by the parents. However, the
superiority of F1 calves out of Brahman cows and Shorthorn bulls over the parental
breeds indicates the value of heterosis in calf performance. Limited data showing
offspring out of 3/4 Brahman-l/4 Shorthorn cows sired by Shorthorn bulls to be
heavier than calves from similar cows sired by Brahman bulls support this.
Breeding Percent Breeding Adjusted Slaugh- Gain TDN/100 Car-
of Calf of 205-Day ter Per Pounds cass
Dam Crop Calf Weaning Wt. Grade Day Gain Grade
Brahman 71 Brahman 370 9 2.01 438 9
3/4B-l/ASh 71 7/8B-l/8Sh 401 9
1/2Sh-1/2B 83 3/4B-l/4Sh 442 10 2.01 454 10
Brahman 72 1/2Sh-l/2B 419 10 2.00 486 11
1/2Sh-1/2B 87 3/4Sh-l/4B 436 11 1.94 491 12
3/4Sh-1/4B 63 7/8Sh-1/8B 378 9
Short'o rn 62 Shorthorn 308 8
Cows with Brahman breeding were more productive than cows with the same proportion
of Shorthorn blood. Climatic conditions prevailing in the Gulf Coast region
probably handicapped cows with more than 3/4 Shorthorn.
Slaughter grades were in proportion to weight of calves. Importance of Shorthorn
blood for higher slaughter grade is shown by the 3/4 Shorthorn calves out of
crossbred cows being higher than for 3/4 Brahman calves out of the same cows.
The effect of breeding of calves is demonstrated by performance in feed lot.
There was little difference in daily gains between groups of calves in feed lot.
However, differences in feed efficiency for gain and carcass were significant.
Brahman steers required less feed for gain and steers with Shorthorn breeding had
the highest carcass grade.
Lower carcass grade and lower TDN requirements for gain indicate that Brahman
steers grew more and fattened less during the 140-day feeding period than those
having some Shorthorn breeding. Research has shown that less TDN is required per
pound of gain as growth than for a pound of gain as fat. As Shorthorn blood
increased in the experimental cattle, TDN requirements for gains were higher,
indicating that a larger amount of gain was fat rather than growth. Results of
this trial indicate that growth potential was a determining factor in the
performance of these calves in dry lot.
The economics of this feeding trial would depend upon price of feed and spread
between grades of beef as the variation in grade is partially absorbed by the
difference in the amount of feed for gains.
In view of these studies, considering both cow and calf performance, the grade
herd will be divided into 2 groups. Brahman bulls will be bred to cows with one
half and less Brahman blood and Shorthorn bulls to cows with more than one half
Brahman breeding. These matings after the first cross will result in offspring
that will approach a 2:1 ratio of Brahman and/or Shorthorn breeding. This ratio
appears to be within the range for the most efficient production with both cow
and calf. A criss-crossing program of this type utilizes the advantages of both
- 7 -
Brahman and Shorthorn blood and is applicable in a commercial operation.
A Charolais bull is being bred to Charbray, 1/2 Charolais-1/2 Brahman, Brahman
and Shorthorn heifers. Cow performance, comparisons in feed lot and quality of
beef will be studied.
V. THE WORK OF THE RANGE CATTLE STATION
W. G. Kirk
The Range Cattle Station was established in 1941 for 2 purposes: 1, to learn how
to produce e\ =d-s quality forage on the sandy cut-over pinelands of central
Florida; 2, to conduct research on breeding, feeding and management of beef cattle
to convert this feed into animal products.
Plans for the Station were made in 1935 and many people have assisted in its
development and operation. The Hardee County Board of County Commissioners
deeded to the State Board of Education 2600 of the 2830 acres which comprise
the Station. Work began January 12, 1941, with the only improvement being the
canal. There was a staff of 2 men, now there are 5 staff members, 2 secretaries,
a farm foreman and 10 workmen,
On the premise that "without good feed it is impossible to have good cattle" the
first experimental work was done with grasses. Grazing areas of carpetgrass and
Common bahia were planted in 1942. Pensacola bahia, Coastal bermuda and pangola
were established in 1943, and whiteclover in 1944. Since 1955, over 800 varieties
of grass have been tested, 3 of which are being used in grazing trials this
season. Argentine and Pensacola bahia and Hairy indigo have been valuable in
planned year-round grazing. Pangola and whiteclover have been the outstanding
forages. Pangola will not stand up under hard grazing like the bahias, and it is
more susceptible to weather and insect damage.
Under similar fertilizer treatments pangola yielded beef gains of 12%, 56% and
96% more than Pensacola bahia, the next most productive grass. Non-irrigated
clover has given seasonal gains 46 to 712 pounds per acre and irrigated clover
averaged 833 pounds per acre in a 4-year period.
The cattle herd in 1941 totalled 48 cows, 23 from the Main and Everglades Stations
and 25 calves from Stuart Bros., Bartow. Today, the total is 1050. Breeding work
has been entirely with Shorthorns and Brahmans. Angus, Santa Gertrudis and
Hereford bulls have been used in the grade herd and the native cows were of mixed
breeds. Eight Charbray and 1/2 Charolais-1/2 Brahman heifers have been purchased
recently as foundation animals in a new breeding project.
Two of the original Brahman heifers purchased for crossbreeding in 1942 from
H. 0. Partin & Sons and now 20 years old, are still in the herd. One of these
cows weaned 15 calves. Two other Brahman cows born in 1945 weaned their first
calves in 1948 and have dropped a crossbred calf every year since, a total of 13
Shorthorn-Brahman crossbred cows back-crossed to either of the parental breeds
wean calves heavier and fatter than those from purebreds or from cows with more
than 3/4 blood of either breed.
Records for 17 years and 4289 cow-breeding seasons show 3077 calves weaned, a
72% calf crop. Cows on native pasture had a 62% calf crop, averaging 364 pounds;
cows in Barn pasture, a 79% calf crop weighing 448 pounds.
Feeding trials started in 1945 have included 120 different rations:
Roughages: hay, silage, sugarcane, cottonseed hulls, bagasse, native and
improved grass and clover.
Protein: cottonseed and sunflower seed meal, urea, ammoniated feeds.
Energy: citrus products, ground snapped and cracked corn, citrus and
Additives: stilbestrol fed orally and implanted, aureomycin, rumex.
Mineral: free choice of the Range Station mineral mixture.
Cattle have been fed in dry lot and on pasture, hand-fed, self-fed, singly and in
groups. It has been demonstrated that Florida products in balanced rations are
valuable fattening feeds. Over 1200 steers and heifers have been used in grazing
trials to determine the nutritive value of different pasture forages and a
similar number have been fed in dry lot and on pasture. They were sold to packing
plants where slaughter data and carcass grade could be secured. The Meats
Laboratory, Gainesville, slaughter cattle from the crossbreeding project and
determine the quality of meat from each animal. Sales in 11 years have amounted
to over $326,000.00.
Cooperation with several departments of the University of Florida, cattlemen and
industry has been continuous and generous. An example of this is to be found in
the "phosphorus source" pastures since they were planted to pangola in 1947.
These pastures have been given the same treatment throughout, and some of the bred
heifers placed on trial there in 1947 are still producing. Records on soil, grass
and blood samples have been kept continuously. These data have been used by many
people for a variety of purposes and may presently provide a basis for checking
The work of the past 18 years has gone far toward fulfilling the purpose for which
the Station was established. Our aim for the future will be to make pastures,
feed, cattle, management, consumer demand and health balance one another in a
manner that will bring increased knowledge, prosperity and well being to the
people of Florida.
VI. GRAZING TRIALS
Fertilizer Rates: A grazing trial comparing 3 rates of fertilization on pangola-
grass has run 4 years, with Pensacola bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass at 1
fertilization level included during the last 3 years. Treatment rates and beef
gains from the 1959 test are summarized in the following table:
Fertilizer Pounds Per Acre Beef Gain
Grass Variety N P K20 Per Acre
Pangola 100 50 50 306 pounds
Pangola 200 100 100 423 "
Pangola 300 150 150 481 "
Pensacola bahia 200 100 100 374 "
Coastal bermuda 200 100 100 221 "
Cattle gains per acre on Pensacola bahiagrass and the lowest pangolagrass treat-
ment compared well with other years, but those on Coastal bermudagrass and the
double and triple rates on pangolagrass were lowered by heavy spring and summer
Grass Varieties: Four grass varieties were planted in 1959 with grazing begun
on all but slender pangolagrass in 1960:
1. Pensacola bahiagrass 3. Slender pangolagrass
2. Tifhi bahiagrass 4. P.I. 224 152 Starr bermudagrass
Annual fertilization will total 200-100-100 pounds per acre N, P205 and K20,
nitrogen being added in 50-pound increments alternately as 1-1-1 ratio in mixed
fertilizer and ammonium nitrate.
Supplemental Feeding on Pasture: A trial comparing different periods of supple-
mental feeding cattle while grazing fertilized grass pastures was begun in 1960
to explore the possibility of improving the slaughter grade of steers on pasture.
The supplemental ration will provide 3 1/2 pounds TDN per head daily from cotton-
seed meal and citrus pulp with 4 treatments as follows: 1, Pangolagrass, no
supplement; 2, Pangolagrass, supplement begun after 8 weeks of grazing; 3, Pangola-
grass, supplement begun after 16 weeks of grazing; 4, Pensacola bahiagrass,
supplement begun after 8 weeks of grazing.
VII. TEMPORARY WINTER PASTURES
Control of dense stands of smutgrass, weeds and grasses of low forage greatly
reduces the value of productive pastures and frequently renovation is required
to break the weed cycle. Oats and rye have been used for this purpose and also
to determine their value for fattening cattle. The fourth trial started November
10, 1959, with the planting of Floriland oats and Gator rye in 3 fields each 2.5
acres in size, totalling 7.5 acres per variety.
- 10 -
The results of the 1959-60 grazing trials starting December 18, 1959, are
Floriland Oats Gator Rye
Length grazing trial 122 110
Total pasture days/A 146.5 124.5
Total gain/A 286.0 162.7
Initial 4.0 4.0
Final 7.1 6.6
Return/Acre @ 20/lb. 57.20 32.54
Land preparation 16.75 16.75
Seed 8.50 8.50
Fertilizer 25.40 25.40
Total cost 50.65 50.65
Net return 6.55 -18.11
1. Slaughter grades: 4, Utility; 6, Low Standard; 7,
VIII. PASTURE LEGUMES
Whiteclover is the best cool season pasture legume available for central and south
Florida. It is frost-resistant but subject to damage by severe cold. Having a
high water requirement, whiteclover is a reliable crop only under irrigation.
Variety tests show that Louisiana S-1 and Nolants Improved White are vigorous,
free-blooming southern types and more uniform than commercial Louisiana White.
Ladino whiteclover is an excellent forage producer but does not seed adequately
in this area. It may be seeded in a 50-50 mixture with southern whiteclover when
seed costs make this desirable.
Redclover grows well from seed when soil moisture and drainage are adequate. Not
well adapted for pasture use, redclover does not renew growth from natural re-
seeding and has little value in central and south Florida.
Crimsonclover also develops vigorously under ideal conditions but is very sensitive
to damage by excess surface water. It has little reseeding ability and no general
value in this area.
Sweetclover is a tall, coarse-stemmed legume that has a higher lime requirement
and less water tolerance than whiteclover. It makes quicker growth during cool
midwinter periods but is less palatable and drops out of production more rapidly
in the spring months. Sweetclover reseeds abundantly if allowed to bloom but
fall germination of this seed is uncertain. Floranna sweetclover, selected in
north Florida, is more productive than Hubam. A recent introduction known as
Israel, which is leafier and later maturing than the established varieties, has
Alfalfa has been planted for years with varying success. Requiring good drainage
and fertility as well as adequate moisture, it is a special use crop. Hairy
Peruvian or other southern-adapted alfalfas produce more than the Common varieties.
Leaf diseases seriously handicap alfalfa growth.
- 11 -
Hairy Indigo has wide soil adaptation, but requires moderate drainage. It grows
on upland soils with little soil treatment but needs lime, phosphate and potash
on most flatwoods locations. Hairy Indigo is low in palatability, but cattle
learn to accept it. Grass response is excellent to the nitrogen fixed by this
IX. FORAGE CROP NURSERY
The nursery was moved to a new area in December 1959 and 126 grass selections
and 12 summer legumes were planted in rod rows. Eighty-five plots 10 x 10 feet
or larger were established for evaluation for yield and climatic adaptability.
Comparisons of production of 8 commonly used pasture grasses and 5 promising
grass selections were continued at the Range Station and South Florida Field
Laboratory (Immokalee). Tifhi bahia, a Starr bermuda P.I. 224 152, and slender-
stem pangola were increased and planted in grazing trial pastures in 1959.
Grazing studies were started in April 1960, using Pensacola bahia as a check.
NK-37 bermudagrass failed to survive leaf disease attacks at the Range Station
and South Florida Field Laboratory in fall of 1957-58-59, and further testing is
not planned. Pangola, bahia and bermuda grasses continued to give the highest
forage yield in warm weather. Reeds Canary, Harding and Ronpha grasses are the
best adapted of the cool season varieties tested to date.
The commonly used white and sweetclovers are still best at this location.
Control of weedy plants in native and improved pastures is increasingly important
each year in this area. Suggested rates and materials for several species are as
yearlong Apply materials
yearlong at rates suggested
yearlong per acre or mix in
March-July 100 gallons H20
March-July and wet plant in
yearlong treatment. Use
- 12 -
1. Observe label warning as to proper use and limitations.
The herbicides are not poisonous to livestock at rates shown but may improve
palatability of toxic plants, and increased consumption of these species may
result in livestock deaths.
Aerial application of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D + 2,4,5-T by airplane and helicopter were
made to 18 1-acre plots in August and September 1959. It is still too early to
determine plant kill.
XI. PASTURE INSECTS
The yellow sugarcane aphid and army (looper) worms were the most serious insects
on forage plants at theRange Station in 1959. Approximately 400 acres are
planted to pangolagrass, and the following table shows the areas treated in each
of the past 4 years.
Year Acres Percent Acres Percent
1956 130 33 15 4
1957 99 25 5
1958 45 11 -
1959 242 61 88 22
Average 129 32 27 7
Aphids were satisfactorily controlled with 0.15 to 0.20 pound per acre active
parathion and worms with 1.0 active DDT. Follow all precautions on label and
check with County Agent for limitations on use of treated forage.
XII. NITROGEN SOURCE TRIALS
A 3-year study to determine the effects of 6 sources of nitrogen on pangolagrass
was completed in 1959. A 1-1-1 ratio was used to supply 50 pounds N-P-K in the
spring. Fall application was 50 pounds N only. P205 and K20 were derived from
20% superphosphate and muriate of potash. The following table shows the N source
and yield in tons per acre of green and air-dry forage for the 2 harvests in 1959.
Ammonium Nitrate Ammonium
N Source Check Uran Urea Feran Nitrate of Soda Sulfate
% N in material -- 32.0 42.0 21.0 33,5 16.0 20.0
Green weight 8.2 13.3 12.8 14.5 16.7 16.0 16.0
Air-dry weight 3.5 5.9 4.8 4.7 5.1 5.3 5.3
- 13 -
XIII. PHOSPHORUS SOURCE PASTURES1
The 105 acres of pangolagrass were established in 1947-1949. Seven phosphate
treatments, each divided into 4 grazing blocks and covering 15 acres, were grazed
by separate breeding herds. Production records were kept on these herds, which
depended entirely on grazing for their nutrition until March 1958. These records
are being prepared for publication.
The residual value of the different phosphatic fertilizers is being measured in
these pastures. No phosphorus has been applied to any treatment since the fall
of 1958, rock phosphate being applied last in 1953 and colloidal, in 1957.
Nitrogen is being applied spring and fall, 50 pounds per acre at each date;
potash is supplied at 50 pounds per acre K20 once annually. A record of all
phosphorus applications and 1959 soil test results appear in the following table:
Total Application Soil Phosphorus, 0-4-
Phosphorus 1947-1958 inch Depth, Jan. 1959,
Sources lbs. per acre parts per million
Phosphate Elemental P Available Total
None 0 0 4.4 48
Superphosphate (no lime) 2500 218 5.3 72
Superphosphate 2500 218 8.8 70
Triple superphosphate 1250 197 6.7 47
Basic slag 2200 175 7.5 96
Rock phosphate 60C00 734 9.9 513
Colloidal phosphate 6600 577 7.1 255
XIV. ADDITIVES TO PANGOLAGRASS SILAGE
Additives of 150 pounds citrus pulp, 150 pounds ground snapped corn and 80 pounds
citrus molasses per ton of pangolagrass were made at time of ensiling. These 3
mixtures and a no-additive check were fed to 4 lots of 2 long-yearling steers
each to determine palatability and daily gain. Cottonseed meal, 41%, was fed
daily at the same rate to each lot throughout the 88-day trial. The results are
shown in the following table.
Ground Citrus Citrus
Check Snapped Corn Pulp Molasses
Av. daily ration:
Cottonseed meal 3.03 3.03 3.03 3.03
Silage 46.33 44.54 39.44 43.51
Mineral 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06
Total gain 210 260 225 250
Av. daily gain 1.22 1.51 1.31 1.45
1. In cooperation with Animal Husbandry and Nutrition and Soils Departments,
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XV. FERTILIZER RATIOS ON PANGOLAGRASS
The third trial in a 5-year study to determine effect of several ratios of N and
K20 on production of green and air-dry forage and residual fertilizer elements
was completed in 1959. Ratios included all combinations of 0, 50, 100 and 200
pounds of both N from ammonium nitrate and K20 from muriate of potash applied in
March and September 1959. Each plot received 50 pounds P205 from superphosphate
at each treatment regardless of amounts of either N or K20. Bermudagrass totalled
35 to 95% of total herbage in several, but not all, of the plots getting 100 and
200 pounds N and none and 50 pounds K20. The following table gives the total
pounds and ratios of N-P-K and yields in tons of green and air-dry forage per
acre for 2 harvests in 1959.
Total/Year Ratio/Year Green Weight Weight
N P K N-P-K
0-0-0 0-0-0 6.94 3.14
0-100-0 0-2-0 8.00 3.53
0-100-100 0-1-1 8.12 3.59
0-100-200 0-1-2 7.71 3.35
0-100-400 0-1-4 7.87 3.28
100-100-0 1-1-0 14.12 4.86
100-100-100 1-1-1 18.23 5.50
100-100-200 1-1-2 17.47 5.54
100-100-400 1-1-4 19.49 5.28
200-100-0 2-1-0 16.90 4.67
200-100-100 2-1-1 21.14 5.97
200-100-200 2-1-2 24.33 7.45
200-100-400 2-1-4 22.26 5.89
400-100-0 4-1-0 16.16 4.80
400-100-100 4-1-1 24.96 6.91
400-100-200 4-1-2 27.09 6.91
400-100-400 4-1-4 30.18 7.59
XVI. PANGOLAGRASS DIE-BACK AND WINTER-KILL
Winter-kill of Pangolagrass: Drastic thinning of stand took place in pangolagrass
pastures at the Range Station in the winter of 1957-58. Some areas had less than
1% living plants while a few were not affected. This type of damage has been
common in northern Florida, making pangolagrass of limited value in that part of
The injury which appeared on a major scale in 1957-58 and to a lesser degree in
the 2 following years has accompanied a combination of low temperatures and
heavy winter rainfall. High rates of fertilization appear to increase winter-
killing, but many exceptions have been seen. November treatment with 4 pounds
per acre of maleic hydrazide increased the dormancy of pangolagrass, but neither
treated nor untreated check areas suffered any winter-kill.
- 15 -
Cultivation of severely thinned sods has little value in restoring the sod, and
burning damages the grass by destroying the surface mulch and stimulating weed
growth. Severely damaged pangolagrass should be spring treated with 300-400
pounds per acre of a complete fertilizer and left ungrazed until the stand is
Die-back of Summer Grasses: Small areas of well-managed pangolagrass suffered
a severe decline in vigor during the summer of 1955. This condition was present
in well-drained as well as wet sites. Torpedograss and bermudagrass also were
affected while bahiagrass was not damaged. Stems and leaves turned brown and
the plant was weakened but not killed. After appearing at scattered points in
the years following 1955, this condition developed in mid-August 1959 in an 8-
acre field of pangolagrass ready for silage harvest. A similar condition was
observed in pastures in Manatee County. The Range Station area turned brown
within the week so that freshly harvested grass had as low as 32% moisture. Die-
back was present in both well-drained and wet sites. Recovery was excellent
following silage harvest. All tests for disease have been negative, but there
is some indication that insect attack may be one of the responsible agents.
XVII. WEATHER RECORDS
The yearly average rainfall from 1942 through 1959 was 55.94 inches. Maximum
rainfall was in 1959 when there were 78.74 inches and the minimum of 36.63
inches occurred in 1956.
Frost usually appears when temperature goes down to 36* F or below. During 10
years frost occurred 11 times in November, 24 in December, 48 in January, 20 in
February, 7 in March and 2 times in April. The greatest number of days on which
frost formed was 22 in the winter of 1955-56; however, the coldest temperature
during the 10 years was 23 F on December 3S, 1957.
XVIII. CORN AND SORGHUM TRIALS
Seven varieties of corn, 10 grain sorghums and 10 forage sorghums were planted
February 3, 1959. Fertilization was 500 pounds 8-8-8 at planting and 500 pounds
9-6-6 at 5-6 weeks. The sorghums failed to produce; however, in past years
yields have been consistently higher in fall compared to spring and the reverse
has been noted with corn. Yields of corn in spring 1959 were: Pfister 487, 39.7
bushels; NC 42, 17.5; Florida 200, 62.8; Jackson, 65.2; Lee, 54.0; DeKalb 120,
28.9 and Dixie 18, 62.2 bushels. Bud worms were controlled with DDT and no
serious diseases or nutritional deficiencies were encountered.
- 16 -
XIX. CATTLE PROGRAM
Breeding: Shorthorn bulls, starting in 1942, have been mated to Brahman cows
and the crossbred heifers backcrossed to bulls of the parental breeds, giving
varying proportions of Brahman and Shorthorn blood.
In a new cattle breeding project 8 Charbray and 1/2 Charolais-1/2 Brahman heifers
were purchased from K Ranch, Zephyrhills, D S Ranch, Clearwater, and Sugarland
Ranch, Clewiston. These cattle along with Brahman and Shorthorn heifers are
being bred to a Charolais bull on loan from K Ranch.
The grade herd of over 160 breeding cows consists largely of Brahman and Short-
horn with a few Santa Gertrudis, Angus and Hereford animals, all tracing to the
Florida native cow.
Management: Recommended practices for both pastures and cattle have been given
in previous Field Day Outlines. Due to the severity of the 1959-60 winter it
was necessary to give supplemental feed to all cattle for varying lengths of time.
Unplanned burning of some improved pastures further reduced forage supply. In
April, 3 calves died from blackleg, and calves from several herds were treated
with blackleg serum to give protection until weaning.
Records: Breeding, birthdate, weights, gains, grade, pasture forage, ration fed
both in dry lot and on pasture and method of disposal are all used to determine
productivity of individual animals and herds of cattle.
Use of Cattle in Research Program: Records are kept on all cattle at the Station.
The following illustrates how 8, 2-year-old steers have been used to obtain data
of value to cattle producers:
Birthdates: January 12 to 30, 1958.
Breeding: Ranging from 1/2 Brahman to purebred Brahman.
Pastures where born: Native; Phos. Source; Barn; North.
Test 1: Weaning Data: The 8 calves were weaned 9-15-58 at an average
age of 237 days, weighing 484 pounds and grading Good as feeder and
Low Good as slaughter calves.
Test 2: Wintering Calves: In 120 days starting 10-2-58, the 8 steers along
with 142 other heifer and steer calves were fed either pangola silage or
grazed pangola pasture and given the same supplemental feed of cottonseed
meal and citrus pulp. Average daily gain was 0.74 pound.
Test 3: Grazing Trial: Steers were in 7 different groups grazing either
pangola or Coastal bermuda pastures. In an average of 201 days on
pasture ending 10-12-59, these steers had an average gain of 1.09 pounds.
Test 4: Additives to Silage: Additives used with pangolagrass were-none,
citrus pulp, ground snapped corn and citrus molasses. Steers, 4 lots of
2 each, were fed free-choice one kind of silage and cottonseed meal at
same rate. Daily gain in the 86-day period ranged from 0.29 to 2.15 with
an average of 1.37 pounds.
- 17 -
Test 5: Sugarcane Bagasse in Fattening Rations: Rations consisted of
bagasse combined with cottonseed meal or cottonseed meal and urea plus
citrus pulp, cornmeal, alfalfa pellets and mineral fed free-choice.
Steers given cottonseed meal in 120 days had an average daily gain of
.'43pounds and those fed cottonseed meal and urea a.30 pounds. Average
weight of the 8 steers was 56 -Dpounds.
XX. EFFECT OF BREEDING AND NUTRITION ON PRODUCTION
Three herds of 60 cows each of similar breeding have been kept on the same type
of pasture for several years. Herd 1 on 800 acres of native, one half of which
is burned each winter. Cows were fed an average of 90 pounds cottonseed pellets
and 60 pounds of hay during the 1958-59 winter. Herd 2, on 310 acres native
range and 75 acres improved pasture, did not receive any additional feed. Herd
3 grazed 75 acres pangola pasture, 20 acres of which were overplanted with white-
clover under irrigation. There was considerable whiteclover over the entire area.
These cows were fed an average of 200 pounds hay.
The 1957-58 winter, because of several frosts and heavy rains, was the severest
on record and even with feeding, Herds 1 and 2 were in thin flesh at the
beginning of the 1958 breeding season. Herd 2 had an 80% calf crop in 1958 which
caused a further drain on the nursing cows, resulting in a weaned calf crop of
49% in 1959.
Average Weaning Weights for 1959
Adjusted to 205 Days of Age
Herd 1 Herd 2 Herd 3 Breed Group
Breeding of Calves Native Combination Improved Mean
Brahman 291 344 376 29 337
7/8 Brahman-1/8 Shorthorn 347 361 461 339 S 9o
3/4 Brahman-1/4 Shorthorn 372 457 493 399 y/
3/4 Shorthorn-l/4 Brahman 328 423 1433 441.9-9
7/8 Shorthorn-1/8 Brahman 281 348 387 399339
Shorthorn 183 266 379 999 3-4 6
300 366 421
Percent weaned calf crop 64 49 75
1. In cooperation with Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, Main Station, Gaines-
XXI. CALF CROP
Yearly calf crop is a most important factor in any beef production project.
Cattle at the Range Station are maintained on different levels of nutrition,
ranging from a highly productive pasture with 1.50 acres per cow to native range
with 13.3 acres per cow. Several herds are on a combination of improved and
native pasture. The majority of the cows in the breeding herd obtained all their
feed by grazing until January 1958. It has been necessary to supply considerable
supplemental feed from January to April 1958 and 1960 with smaller amounts for
- 18 -
the same period in 1959. The weaned calf crop for
each year from 1952 to 1960 is summarized below:
all cows in the herd for
1. One herd of 16 cows had no calves in 1957
as bull was sterile.
2. Cows extremely thin at start of 1958
breeding season reduced 1959 calf crop.
XXII. MINERAL CONSUMPTION
Mineral mixtures used at the Range Station for the past several years
results are mixed as follows:
Red oxide of iron
Cobalt chloride or sulfate
Ona Range Station mineral contains 16.4% calcium, 8% phosphorus and 31% common
salt. Common salt, in addition to being an essential ingredient, prevents
spoilage of bonemeal, molasses and cottonseed meal if mixture becomes wet.
Molasses and cottonseed meal are added to improve palatability. Modified salt
sick mineral is used along with bonemeal and common salt in all experimental
grazing trials. The average yearly per-head consumption of Ona Range Station
mineral in a 4-year period for 3 groups of cows described in Section XX
is given below:
- 19 -
Native Native and Pangola and
Year Pasture Improved Pasture Whiteclover
pounds pounds pounds
1956 18 26 15
1957 38 41 16
1958 44 42 18
1959 A7 35 15
Average 4 years 37 36 16
XXIII. SUPPLEMENTAL WINTER FEEDING
Adequate roughage is essential for all classes of cattle. Fertilization of
selected pastures in early fall combined with rotational and deferred grazing
has been used to advantage to furnish more roughage for mature cattle from
December through March at the Range Station for several years. Mature cattle
have been maintained in good condition during the winter without supplemental
feeding. In the last 3 winters, however, considerable hay, silage, cottonseed
hulls and cottonseed meal and pellets, citrus pulp and molasses have been fed
in various combinations to prevent serious weight loss. Methods of feeding
cattle on pasture are outlined below:
1. Management of the herd:
A. Have fewest cattle when feed is scarce.
B. Separate steers from heifers and dry cows from nursing animals.
C. Start supplemental feeding a few days before you think it is necessary.
D. Keep animals supplied with mineral.
E. Control external and internal parasites.
2. Feed only protein when there is plenty of low-quality roughage in pasture:
A. One to 2 pounds 41% cottonseed or other high-protein meal or pellets
daily or double these amounts every second day, fed on good sod.
B. Mixture 75 parts cottonseed meal, 15 parts common salt and 10 parts
complete mineral, self-fed. Ingredients adjusted according to
consumption, class and condition of cattle, quality of pasture and
C. Grazing clover or oats 1 or more hours daily.
3. Provide energy nutrients and protein when required:
A. Two to 6 pounds 20% pellets daily.
B. One to 2 pounds cottonseed meal plus 2 to 4 pounds pulp, ground
snapped corn or molasses daily.
C. Five pounds daily citrus or cane molasses containing 3% urea. Calves
do not utilize either molasses or urea as well as older cattle.
4. Roughage is needed when pastures are exhausted:
A. Three to 10 pounds hay or 10 to 30 pounds silage daily, amount depends
on pasture forage available. Cattle fed low-protein hay or silage
will need protein also.
B. Three to 10 pounds daily of cottonseed hulls or ground cob and shuck
meal, plus protein.
- 20 -
XXIV. FATTENING CATTLE
Pangola Hay and Silage in Steer Fattening Rations. Two trials of 120 days have
been completed in which pangola hay and silage were each fed to 2 groups of
steers. The 4 lots were given the same amount of protein feed with Lots 1 and
3 fed cottonseed meal, 41% protein, and Lots 2 and 4 a mixture of 50 parts
cottonseed meal, 8 parts urea and 42 parts citrus pulp. Citrus pulp was fed
at the same level to all lots, but the amount cf citrus molasses varied according
to the appetite of the 4 lots, with Lot 2 eating the least. The results of
the 2 trials are summarized below:
Feed Per 100 Pounds Gain Feed2 Fed. Av.3
Lot Daily Protein- Citrus Feed Cost Car. Selling
No. Gain Hay Feed Pulp Molasses TDN 100# Grade Price
1 2.16 259 141 420 192 602 18.67 8 24.91
2 2.11 263 145 432 174 597 18.40 8 24.98
3 2.17 865 141 419 198 607 18.59 8 23.71
4 2.10 855 145 433 201 613 18.75 8 24.89
1. Lots 1 and 3 given cottonseed meal, Lots 2 and 4 a mixture of 50 parts
cottonseed meal, 8 parts urea and 42 parts citrus pulp.
2. Feed costs per ton: hay $24.38; silage $7.50; cottonseed meal $75.00;
protein mixture $68.00; citrus pulp $37.00; citrus molasses $25.00 and
3. Based on weight at Tampa, shrunk dressing percent and federal carcass
grade. Shrink in hauling to Tampa, a distance of 75 miles, was as
follows: Lot 1, 3.18%; Lot 2, 3.46%; Lot 3, 3.64%; Lot 4, 4.08%.
Sugarcane Bagasse in Cattle Fattening Rations. Bagasse in several forms and in
combination with different feeds has been used in cattle fattening trials. The
bagasse feed in the 6th trial consisted mainly of cane pith obtained from the
U. S. Sugar Corporation, Clewiston. Three kinds of pellets (prepared by Jackson
Grain Company, Tampa, and containing 39% bagasse, 10% cane molasses, 1% mineral,
plus different amounts of cottonseed meal, urea, citrus pulp and corn meal) were
self-fed to 3 lots of yearling heifers. Pellets contained 11% digestible protein
and from 51 to 53% TDN. Lots 1 and 2 were fed citrus molasses daily and Lot 3
a mixture of 3 parts molasses and 1 part alcohol daily. Bloat occurred in all
groups. Average daily gains were 1.90, 1.62 and 1.84 pounds for Lots 1, 2 and
3, respectively, during the first 72 days. Feeding an average of 1.40 pounds
hay daily corrected the bloat condition and resulted in average daily gains of
2.59, 2.21 and 2.56 pounds for Lots 1, 2 and 3 in the last 43 days of the trial.
Effect of Rate of Gain During Winter on Feed Lot Performance. Forty-eight Standad
grade heifer calves were divided into 4 lots on October 7, 1958, and fed on
bahiagrass pastures for 148 days. At the end of this period the cattle were self-
fed a full ration in dry lot for 140 days. Results are given below.
- 21 -
Days on pasture
Av. daily winter gain
Av. final slaughter grade
Av. daily gain
Feed/100 pounds gain:
TDN/100 pounds gain
Av. final slaughter grade
Utilization of Pangola Pasture and Silage for Wintering Beef Calves. One hundred
fifty calves were divided into 3 groups of 50 calves each on October 7, 1959.
Group 1 was wintered on pangolagrass pasture; Group 2 ate pangola silage free-
choice from the silo and Group 3 was self-fed silage that had been weighed and
placed in feed bunks. All calves were supplemented with a grain ration. Results
are given below:
Days on test
Av. daily gain
Av. daily ration:
- 22 -
XXV. FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIM7T STATION PUBLICATIONS
A partial list of the available publications on pasture, cattle and related
Bulletin 484A ..Grass Pastures in Central Florida.
502 ...Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control.
506R ..Know Your Fertilizers.
510 ...Poisonous Plants in Florida.
513R ..Minerals for Beef and Dairy Cattle.
515 ...Maintaining Fertility in Mineral Soils Under Permanent
517 ...Winter Clovers in Central Florida.
523 ...Growing Oats in Florida.
538 ...Citrus Products for Beef Cattle.
541 ...Selecting and Using Beef and Veal.
554 ...Year-Round Grazing on a Combination of Native and
575 ...Feeding Value of Citrus and Blackstrap Molasses for
578 ...Factors Affecting Weaning Weight of Range Calves.
581 ...Response of Pangola Grass and Pensacola Bahia Grass to
Time, Rate and Source of Nitrogen.
597 ...Feed Lot Performance and Carcass Grades of Brahman and
600 ...Cost of Clearing Land and Establishing of Improved
Pastures in Central Florida.
603 ...Urea and Cottonseed Meal in the Ration of Fattening Cattle.
611 ...Urea Toxicity in Cattle.
613 ...White Clover-Pangolagrass and White Clover-Coastal Bermuda-
grass Pastures for Central Florida.
616 ...Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed
Meal and Ground Snapped Corn in Drylot.
In press ...Genetic and Environmental Influences on Weaning Weight and
Slaughter Grade of Brahman, Shorthorn and Brahman-Shorthorn
In press ...Value of Pangola Hay and Silage in the Steer Fattening
Circular S-33 ..Costs and Methods of Pasture Establishment and Maintenance.
S-57 ..Feeding Beef Cattle for Show and Sale.
S-64 ..Control of Some Insect Pests of Improved Pastures.
S-78 ..Internal Parasites of Cattle, Their Control with
Phenothiazine and Management.
S-89 ..Steer Fattening Trials in North Florida.
S-98 ..Hairy Indigo.
S-108 .Self-Feeding Pangolagrass Silage to Wintering Beef Cows.
S-110 .An Experimental Self-Feeding Horizontal Silo.
In press ...Climatological Records from 1942 through 1958.
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