The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
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site maintained by the Florida
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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Range Cattle Station
- $-I Mimeo Report 58-1
FIELD DAY OUTLINE
RANGE CATTLE EXPERIMENT STATION
October 11, 1957
Dr. W. G. Kirk, Vice-Director in Charge
Dr. E. M. Hodges, Agronomist
Mr. F. M. Peacock, Asst. Animal Husbandman
Dr. J. E. McCaleb, Asst. Agronomist
Mr. R. J. Bullock, Interim Asst. in Soils
Mr. W. C. Hines, Farm Foreman
Miss Alice Faye Evers, Steno I
The Range Cattle Station is a part of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station of the University of Florida. Visitors are welcome.
OUTLINE OF WORK*
I. Production and Management of Grass Pastures................. 2
II. Grazing Trials.......................................****** 2
III. Pasture Legumes.......*** ...************************* 3
IV. Grazing Trials, Fertilizer Rates...... ........* ....***** 4
V. Forage Crop Nursery..........**......................** ..... 4
VI. Phosphorus Source Pastures................... ......******** 4
VII. Pasture Insects............................................ 5
VIII. Herbicides...... ............**. ...................**** **** 5
IX. Production and Use of Hay, Silage and Grain Pastures........ 6
X. Corn and Sorghum Trials..............................******* 8
SXI. Cattle Program................................. .....******* 8
XII. Effect of Breeding and Nutrition on Production.............. 9
XIII. Calf CrOp.................................,l
XIV. Mineral Mixtures..........*o.o.................*............*1
XV. Supplemental Winter Feeding ............... ..................1
XVI. Fattening Cattle................0..0...*.......**... ........ *
XVII. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Publications.........J (
None of this material to be copied for publication without permiss(
I. PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF GRASS PASTURES
1. Plant pasture on the best land available.
2. Prepare land thoroughly, beginning several months before planting time.
3. Limit plantings to the acreage which can be regularly fertilized and
4. Plant only productive grasses such as Pangola and Pensacola or
Argentine Bahia, using pure stands of the different varieties each
5. Plant grass when land is moist, using a packer to save moisture and
smooth the field.
6. Lime, fertilizer and minor elements as needed, should be applied at
time of planting.
7. New pastures should be fenced and left ungrazed for 60 to 90 days after
planting or until well established.
8. A productive pasture requires a yearly minimum of 400 pounds per acre
of 8-8-8 or similar fertilizer and more lime each 4 to 5 years.
9. Additional nitrogen is necessary to provide very heavy grazing or
several cuttings for hay. This may be supplied by several applications
of a high N mixture such as 12-6-6 or by alternating 8-8-8 with 30 to
50 pounds per acre of nitrogen as topdressing.
10. Grazing and fertilization must be planned to supply feed when the need
is greatest, if returns are to justify cost. Late summer and fall
fertilization of reserve pastures should be practived to a greater extent.
11. Overgrazing permits weeds and poor grasses to invade Pangola and
Bermuda pastures. A pasture with some unused grass will produce more
pounds of better beef than one that is overstocked.
12. Pasture plans must be fitted to cattle numbers and marketing practices.
II. GRAZING TRIALS
Varieties: Trials with grass varieties have been conducted in paired
5-acre pastures. Results with 5 grasses are tabulated below.
Average Per-Acre Beef Gains on Different Grasses
-- -- -- -- --W-------- -------------- ------------- -- -- ----
Grass 500 lbs. 6-6-6 900 lbs. 9-6-6
Variety Annually, 1949-51 Annually. 1951-54
Carpet 61 Pounds 165 Pounds
Pensacola Bahia 152 215 "
Argentine Bahia 1021 I' 216 "
Coastal Bermuda 129 200 "
Pangola 202 338 "
i. One years result.
III. PASTURE LEGUMES
WHITE (Dutch) clover is the best cool-season pasture legume available.
The Louisiana strain has been used for many years with excellent results.
ALA-LU; LOUISIANA S-1 and ct.e_'r vigorous, free blooming southern strains
are at leaob equal to the L-iJsiana type. LADINO white clover has proved
to be ,a excellent forage producer but does not produce seed in the southern
half of the Florida peninsula.
HUBAM and FLORANNA sweet clovers are both good for fall planting, the
latter variety being proven superior in the northern part of the state.
HAIRY PERUVIAN alfalfa has made excellent growth when fall-planted with
heavy fertilization and complete water control. It usually grows as an
BEGGARWEED and non-poisonous CROTAT,ARIAS grow on better soils and have value
in the general pasture program.
ALYCE CLOVER is damaged by nemotode and by excess water. A very desirable
forage plant, its usefulness is limited by soil and climatic conditions.
HAIRY INDIGO can be grown in the summer period on any moderately drained
location. It requires liming at 3-4 year intervals on flatwoods land in
addition to annual spring treatment with phosphate and potash.
GROWING AND GRAZING WINTER CLOVER:
1. Very moist land or irrigation is necessary for white clover. Sweet
clover is slightly less exacting in moisture requirement.
2. Make new plantings in October and cattle can be left on area for 1 to
2 weeks. Remove cattle from old or established clover fields at time
3. Soil pH of 6.0 to 7.0 is needed (1800 lbs. per acre of available calcium
on sandy land). Treat with 2-3 tons per acre on most new land, add 1
ton every third year.
4. Apply 500 lbs. per acre 0-12-12 when planting new land; 250 lbs. 0-8-24
in October on old clover. One or two 60 lbs. per acre applications
of K20 as muriate of potash or 0-8-24 fertilizer are needed on vigorous
white clover during winter and spring. Most plantings on new land
should receive 1 unit copper and I unit boron.
5. Use up to 5 times manufacturers rate of seed inoculant, planting seed
as soon as treated and avoid drying after planting. Most failures
come at this point.
6. Do not graze the fall and winter clover for 90 to 120 days or until
early blossom stage is reached.
7. Graze rotationally, 3 or 4 divisions being best. White clover makes the
most feed if allowed to bloom moderately while being grazed.
8. Clover has caused some bloat in Florida. Grass growing in a clover
mixture or furnished in a separate pasture reduced the danger. Feeding
hay just prior to grazing lush clover decreases the bloating hazard.
IV. GRAZING TRIALS, FERTILIZER RATES
Fertilizers: Tests of Pangola pasture fertilized at three levels have
been run for two years. Two other grasses were tested at the middle
level during 1956. The acre gains for these treatments are shown below.
Grass Variety Fri-iliner Pounds Per Acre Beef Gain
S_ P K_0 Per Acre
Pangola (1955 & 1956) 90 45 45 302 pounds
Pangola 180 90 90 462 "
Pangola 270 135 135 626 "
Pensacola Bahia (1956) 180 90 90 335 "
Coastal Bermuda 1.0 90 90 326 "
V. FORAGE CROP NURSERY
The introduction of new or improved varieties of grasses and legumes must
be continued to meet the needs of cattlemen for yearlong forage of high
quality. More than 400 grasses have been introduced into the nursery
since its establishment in fall 1954. Two warm season grasses, Thompsonts
grass (Panicum stapfianun) and an African bermudagrass, have been vegeta-
tively planted in one fourth acre areas for increase and observation.
Only one cool season grass variety, Harding grass, appears to have some
adaptability for this area. White clover continues to be the leading
pasture legume under conditions here; however, three sweet clovers -
Israel, Hubam and Floranna will be planted in fall 1957 for observation
VI. PHOSPHORUS SOURCE PASTURES
Treatment Areas: Each treatment, containing 15 acres of Pangola pasture,
is divided into 4 equal areas, permitting rotational grazing and
accumulation of forage for winter use.
Fertilization: Beginning in 1955 the fertilizer program has been as
follows: Phosphorus 25 pounds P205 annually for soluble sources and
1000 and 1200 pounds per acre of rock and colloidal phosphate each 3
years; K20 at 50 pounds and nitrogen at 100 pounds per acre. The areas
received dolomitic limestone at 1 ton per acre in 1955 with the exception
of 1 superphosphate area left unlimed. The 1956 production record of the
cows in this experiment was as follows:
Phosphate No. % Calf Av. Wean- Gain Av.Cow P205
Treatments Cows Crop ing Wt. Per Acre Wt.Sept. Acre
No Phos. 5 80 506 126 1063 none
Super, no lime 10 40 480 256 13.73 25
Super 10 70 480 267 1050 25
RFw FRock 10 60 533 268 1148 1000
CGllc-dal 10 90 533 327 1079 1200
T-iple super 10 70 e6.0 6 275 1100 25
Basic slag 10 90 519 372 1164 25
VII. PASTURE INSECTS
Yellow sugarcane aphid and grass (army) worms are the worst pests of
improved grass pastures and are nost apt to attack vegetation in a lush
stage of growth following fertilization and/or cutting. However, a
severe infestation of aphids occurred in a field of Pangolagrass in
late November 1956 and May 1957 which had not received lime or fertilizer
since spring 1954. Aphids did not penetrate into adjoining fertilized
prnstures. Satisfactory control was obtained in 1956 with 0.15-0.20
pcinds of active parathion per acre for aphids and 1.00-1.25 pounds
of active DDT per acre for grass woLms. USE EVERY PRECAUTION IN
HANDLING MATERIALS. CATTLE SHOULD NOT BE PERMITTED TO GRAZE TREATED
AREAS FOR AT LEAST ONE WEEK FOLLOWING TREATMENT.
The herbicide program is concerned primarily with the control of the
following groups of plants: (1) Weed, sedges, grasses and ether grass-
like plants in improved pastures, (2) aquatic plants in canal and
drainage areas and (3) palmetto, gallberry and wax myrtle on native range.
The herbicides used have been limited to those materials which are non-
toxic to livestock at spraying concentrations. Seventy percent or more
bud kill of saw palmetto has been obtained with two chemicals and these
warrant more extensive tests. Grasses can be controlled and experiments
indicate that some herbicides are selective at lower concentrations.
The following treatments have given 80 percent or better control of the
listed plants at the RCS. Retreatment of small areas is necessary in
most instances for 100 percent kill. Rates of herbicides are given in
pounds of active material per acre.
Species Material Rate Season Remarks
Marsh Willow 2,4-D- 0.5-1.0 Yearlong
Dog fennel 2,4-D 2.0-3.0 March to July
Southern blackberry 2,4,5-T 2.0-3.0 "
C.esar burr 2 -D 1.0-2.0 "
W.,ter hyacinths 2, 4-D 0.5-1.0 Yearlong
Siutgra&s Uroxl- 200 Yearlong 2 grams/sq.ft.
Sandcordgrass Urox 200 Yearlong 2 grams/sq.ft.
1. Urox is given in pounds of commercial material.
Sod Grass: Most sod grasses can be controlled with several materials.
Dalapon at 5 pounds per acre initial, and repeated 5 pound applications
gives good grass control (cultivation is usually helpful prior to second
application). Amino triazole is also good at 10 pounds plus later
treatments of 5 pounds. (This herbicide works slowly.) These two
herbicides are absorbed and translocated, making runoff wasteful.
1. Plants should be growing vigorously when treated.
2. Do not leave livestock on areas after treatment where poisonous'
3. Check wind direction and speed and proximity to crop plants and
4. Follow directions on container carefully.
5. Check equipment before and during spraying for thorough coverage.
6. Do not use wooden tanks for both herbicides and plant sprays. Metal
is safe if completely cleaned.
IX. PRODUCTION AND USE OF HAY, SILAGE AND GRAIN PASTURE
The use of heavy producing grasses has increased the opportunity of
supplying nutritious roughage in winter and early spring. However, it
has also aggravated the problem of curing hay in our humid climate.
Personnel of the Range Cattle Station are studying production and use
of winter forage in the following ways: (1) Field and barn-cured hay;
(2) self and hand feeding of silage and (3) grazing of temporary pastures.
February fertilization will usually permit harvest for hay in May or
early June. Prompt refertilization will allow another harvest for hay or
silage in August, and winter grazing of the area can be had with September
Hay: Approximately 140-150 tons of Pangolagrass hay was field or barn
cured in 1957. About 60 tons of this total was barn cured with heated air
forced through the stacked bales. Earn curing nearly doubles labor and
costs six to eight cents per bale for fuel and electricity dependent on
moisture and weather during dryi'ng. However, with the wet weather of
1957, hay of a satisfactory quality could not be field dried.
Silage: Two silos totaling 100 and 200 tons were filled in August 1957
with Pangolagrass. The 200 ton silo, new this year, will be self-fed
to weaned calves. The 100 ton silo will be used in feeding trials
comparing the value of hay and silage for steer fattening.
Forage Feedin: Two trials using 2-year old steers in 6 groups have been
used to compare the value .f Pangola hay and silage in a fattening ration.
One lot on each roughage received cottonseed meal; another a full ration
of citrus pulp and citrus molasses; the third received one half the full
allowance of citrus pulp and molasses. All were fed equal amounts of
The average results of the two trials compare the value of hay and
silage in steer fattening rations for 1955 and 1956 are shown in the
Lot Number 1 2 3 4 5 6
Roughage fed Hay Hay Hay Silage Silage Silage
Av. Daily gain 1.30 1.96 2.36 1.43 2.12 2.49
Av. daily roughage 16.7 13.1 8.8 60.4 39.9 30.0
% Dig. nut. from
roughage 77.5 46.0 26.5 80.0 45.0 28.0
Eeed costs/100# gain 27.95 20.96 18.93 26.30 18.82 17.78
Slaughter grade 6.0 8.5 9.5 6.0 9.0 10.0
H.Ut. H.St. L.Good H.Ut. H.St. Good
Per ton Hay 30.00, bilage 10.00, C.S. Meal 68.00, Cit. Pulp 40.00,
Cit. Mol. 20.00, Mineral 66.00.
The table shows that hay and silage give similar gains. Also, that a
full ration of roughage with adequate protein is costly and incapable
of producing a fat animal.
Oats and Rye: Trials were started October 19, 1956, to determine the
value of oats and rye supplementary pasture for fattening long yearling
steers. Temperature and moisture were favorable for small grain growth.
The results obtained are shown in the following table:
Floriland Oats Abruzzi Rye
Days grazed 131 131
Av. gain per steer 237 173
Av. daily gain 1.81 1.17
Steer days per acre 139 89
Av. gain per acre 252 104
Fertilizer: 600 pounds of 9-6-6 at planting and 300 pounds of 33.5%
ammonium nitrate, 100 pounds per application, at 3-5 week intervals.
The following table shows the production costs per acre of three
supplementary feeds at the Rango Cattle Station in 1956-57.
Hay Silage Oats
Fertilizer: 8-8-8 7.00 7.00 --
9-6-6 -- 13.50
nitrate 9.00 9.00 12.75
Land Preparation 20.50
Sesd Costs 4.00
FEr tiller Applications 4.00 4.00 4.00
Labor 16.00 17.45
Equipment1 18.00 52.35
Drying (125 bales @ 6.50) 8.25 --
Total cost per acre 62.25 89.80 54.75
Cost per ton2 24.90 7.18 5.96
1. Depreciation costs not included.
2. Cost per ton are based on acre production.
X. CORN AND SORGHUM TRIALS
Cjmrn: Nine varieties of corn were tested in the spring and 11 in the
f&ll of 1956. Yields in bushels of shelled corn per acre for fall 1956
were as follows: Cornelli 54, 37.5; )unks G-740, 51.9; Coker 811, 36.8;
Dixie 82B, 46.0; Dixie 18, 46.6; Fanks G-737A, 45.84; Greenwood 4004,
47.3; Funks 792W, 44.7 and Florida 200, 57.1. Fertilizer treatments
were 350#/A of 8-8-8, at planting; 31)0/A of 9-6-6 at 5-6 weeks and
30# of N at tasseling. Rates were increased 50 percent in spring 1957,
but results are inconclusive.
Forage Sorghums: Fourteen varieties of Sorgos were planted in the spring
and 16 in the fall 1956. Seven varieties of sudangrass and one cattail-
millet were also planted in fall 1956. All sudangrass survived the
winter and made satisfactory growth in 1957. Honey sorgo continued to
produce the highest tonnage of green material. All the varieties included
in both spring and fall tests produced 50 to 100 percent more in the fall.
Grain Sorghums: Sixteen varieties of grain sorghums were planted in the
spring and 13 in the fall 1956. Yields in bushels of threshed grain
ranged from 19.3 to 42.0 bushels per acre in spring and 17.4 to 53.2 in
the fall. The release of the hybrid grain sorghums to commercial grain
producers in 1957 makes further testing of grain sorghums necessary
before any recommendations can be made. Insect damage has been slight
with both grain and forage sorghums.
XI. CATTLE PROGRAM
Breeding: A purebred Brahman herd was established in 1942 and has served
as the foundation stock for the breeding programs now underway. Short-
horn bulls have been mated to the:3e cows and the crossbred heifers from
these matings have been back-crossed to bulls of the parental breeds,
giving varying proportions of Brahman-Shorthorn blood. The first and
second cross cows are being used in a project outlined in XII.
The commercial herd consists of grade cattle, mostly Brahman and
Shorthorn, with a few Santa Gertrudis, Angus and Hereford, all tracing
back to the Florida native cow.
Management: Practices inc.lue: controlled breeding season of 100 to
120 days, starting March '.Th; weaning calves at 6 to 8 months of age;
feeding calves in corral -or the first 10 days after weaning and on
pasture during the first winter; rotational and deferred grazing to
provide good feed throughout the year; complete mineral available to
cattle at all times; control of external and internal parasites; no
continuous overstocking of pastures; calves castrated shortly after
birth with a knife; calves innoculated against blackleg; all calves
branded and individually marked; calves dehorned at 2 to 3 months of
age; culling inferior and low producing animals; supplemental feeding
when required to prevent excessive loss in weight; regular attention to
all herds. Breeding and production records for all cattle are being put
on IBM cards. This will permit analysis of data to give more information
on the production of cattle under widely varying conditions.
Records: Breeding,- weight changes and productivity of all cattle are
recorded as measures of the value of each animal for beef production.
All animals are weighed every 3 months, those on grazing and feeding
trials more frequently. Calves are classified as to type, condition
and slaughter grade at weaning and all experimental animals are graded
at time of slaughter. Carcass data are obtained on all animals when
Meat Quality: Factors affecting quality of beef such as breeding, age
at time of slaughter, grade, ration and methods of feeding and wintering
have been studied for several years.
Stringhalt: Twenty stringhalt cows were bred in 1957 to a stringhalt
bull to study the abnormalities and inheritance of this condition.
XII. EFFECT OF BREEDING AND NUTRITION ON PRODUCTION
Three breeding herds are kept on pasture throughout the year:
Herd 1, 60 cows, on 800 acres (5 pastures of 160 acres each) of native
range, one half of which is burned each winter.
Herd 2, 64 cows, on a combination of 300 acres of native range, one half
of which is burned each winter, and 80 acres of improved pasture.
Improved pasture is divided into four 20-acres field, two of which are
sub-divided into 10-acre areas for more efficient utilization of forage.
Improved grass pastures are fertilized twice yearly, once with complete
mixture and once with nitrogen; le.,ume pastures receive a phosphate-
potash mixture. Cattle have continuous access to native range and to
only 1 improved area at a time.
Herd 3, 64 cows, is carried on 75 acres of Pangola pasture which is
divided into 8 fields. Two 9-acre areas, both of which are irrigated,
are over planted to white clover. These areas are well fertilized to
obtain maximum production.
Rotational grazing is us~-1 throughout and combined with deferred grazing
in certf.in areas for Her-i :2 and 3 to ensure a reserve of feed for fall
and winter. Herd 1 is given l4 percent protein pellets when feed is
short in winter and early spring.
Each herd consists of 10 purebred Brahmans, 10-3/4 Brahman 1/4 Short-
horn, 20-1/2 Shorthorn 1/2 Brahman, 10-3/4 Shorthorn 1/4 Brahman and
10 purebred Shorthorns. Purebred Brahman, 3/4 Brahman and 10 crossbred
cows are bred to a Brahman bull and purebred Shorthorn, 3/4 Shorthorn
and 10 crossbred cows to a Shorthorn bull. Herds 2 and 3 each have 2
additional Brahman cows to be bred to Shorthorn bull and 2 Shorthorn cows
to be bred to Brahman bull. Production of these 3 herds in 1956 are
Herd No. 1 2 3
No. Cows 60 60 60
Pasture Native Nat. & Imp. Grass-clover
Capital outlay per cowl $534.00 414.00 329.00
Yearly charges per cow2 47.43 49.07 56.72
Percent calf crop 1956 62 83 88
Av. weaning weight 408 468 502
Av. calf weight per cow 253 388 442
Av. slaughter grade, calf 8 10 12
Av. cost 100# calf 18.75 12.65 12.83
Av. yearly weight of cows 815 939 1068
1. Includes land, cow, fences, corral, scale and water supply.
2. Includes 3% interest on capital outlay, taxes on land, care of
cattle, mineral, 2% death loss, spray, medicine, supplemental
feed for Herd 1, fertilizer for Herds 2 and 3 and irrigation
for Herd 3.
XIII. CALF CROP
Yearly calf crop is the most important factor in a cow-calf production
project. Cattle at the Range Station are maintained on different levels
of nutrition, ranging from a highly productive pasture with 1.25 acres
per cow to native range with 13.3 acres per cow. Several herds are
on a combination of improved and native pasture. The majority of these
cows obtain all their feed by grazing, only having free access to a
complete mineral mixture. The weaned calf crop from all cows for several
years is summarized on the following page:
- 10 -
No. Cows No.
1. Sixteen cows produced no calves in 1957
as bull was sterile.
XIV. MINERAL MIXTURES
Mineral mixtures fed at the Range Station for more than
good results are made up as follows:
Red oxide of iron
Cobalt chloride or sulfate
10 years with
Complete mineral contains 16.4% calcium, 8% phosphorus and 31% common
salt. Common salt, in addition to being an essential ingredient, prevents
spoilage of bonemeal, molasses and cottonseed meal if mineral becomes
wet. Molasses and cottonseed meal have been added to improve palatability.
Modified salt sick mineral is used along with bonemeal and common salt in
all experimental grazing trials.
XV. SUPPLEMENTAL WINTER FEEDING
Adequate supply of roughage is essential for all classes of cattle.
Fertilization of selected pastures in early fall combined with deferred
grazing can be used to advantage to furnish more roughage for mature
cattle from December through February. This method along with rotational
grazing has been used at the Range Station for several years to maintain
yearling heifers, cows and bulls in good condition during the winter
without supplemental feeding.
- 11 -
Grass silage is being used in increasing amounts to supplement winter
forage and hay can be used for selected groups of cattle.
White clover with adequate moisture and under good management of both
pastures and cattle will s.ipplement dry, low quality forage. Oats
and rye may have value a w,.inter supplemental feeds. Cull grapefruit
can be used to advantage.
Protein supplementation requires good management to ensure that all
animals get some of the feed. Several methods are suggested:
1. Cottonseed or high protein pellets can be fed on the ground to
small groups of cattle at the rate of 1 to 2 pounds daily per cow
or double these amounts every second day.
2. Cottonseed meal can be mixed with molasses in a feed bunk. One
pound cottonseed meal and 4 pounds molasses daily per cow or
double these amounts every second day. Four to five pounds daily
of molasses containing 3% urea can be used for mature cows.
3. Common salt and complete mineral can be used to regulate the daily
consumption of cottonseed meal as follows:
P~irts ner 100 Pounds
Cottonseed Meal Cottonseed Common Complete
Dailper Animal Meal Salt Mineral
1.0 pounds 75 15 10
1.5 pounds 80 12.5 7.5
2.0 pounds 85 10 5
These proportions will need to be adjusted according to class of
cattle, quality of pastures and other varying conditions.
4. When energy nutrients are needed in addition to protein, mixed
pellets containing 20% protein can be fed at double the rate of
41% cottonseed pellets.
- 12 -
XVI. FATTENING CATTLE
Feeding Trials: Results show that Florida-produced feeds can be used
to advantage in a balanced fattening ration. Steers and heifers when
full-fed for 120 to 150 day: produce carcasses which grade U. S. Good
with a few in the Standarl ~ nd Choice grades. The mixed ration fed Lot
42, in 3 trials of 140 da. each, consisted of 70 parts citrus pulp, 25
parts cottonseed meal and 5 parts 3/4l cut alfalfa. Ground snapped
corn replaced the pulp in the ration fed Lot 43 and cornmeal was fed to
Lot 44. Pangola hay and citrus molasses were fed at the same rate to
the three lots.
Stilbestrol has been fed in two 140-day trials to steers in dry lot.
Basal ration fed to yearling steers, Lot 47, consisted of Pangola hay,
cottonseed meal, citrus pulp and citrus molasses. Stilbestrol was mixed
with cottonseed meal to furnish 10 mg. of stilbestrol daily per steer
for Lot 48; otherwise both rations were the same.
Feed Reauired For 100 Pounds Gain
2.39 149 -
2.31 153 115 474
2.54 139 105 449
60 2.69 112
61 3.72 79
62 2.50 119
63 2.51 216
77 393 7.
1. Consisted of either 70 parts citrus pulp, gr. snapped corn or
yellow cornmeal, 25 parts c.s. meal and 5 parts 3/41 cut alfalfa.
Lot 42 fed pulp, Lot 43 gr. sn. corn and Lot 44 cornmeal.
2. Lot 54, 3/4Sh-l/4 Br.; Lot 55, 1/2 Sh-1/2 Br.; Lot 56, 3/4
Br-1/4 Sh.; Lot 57, Br.
3. Consisted of 25 parts c.s. meal, 5 parts 3/4" cut alfalfa, 10 parts
cornmeal and 60 parts pulp.
- 13 -
A standard ration consisting of 25 parts cottonseed meal, 5 parts 3/4"
cut alfalfa, 10 parts cornmeal and 60 parts citrus pulp was fed to 4
groups of steers in 4 trials of 140 days each. The breeding of the
steers was as follows: Lot 54, 3/4 Sh-1/4 Br.; Lot 55, 1/2 Sh-l/a Br.;
Lot 56, 3/4 Br-1/4 Sh.; Lot 57, Brahman.
Long yearling and two-year-l:d. grade steers were used in short feeding
trials of 20 to 45 days to determine the time and feed required to raise
carcass grade from U. S. Standard to U. S. Good. Lot 58 was fed 45
days; Lot 59 for 28 days; Lot 60 for 20 days and Lot 61 for 37 days.
It was estimated that the average initial slaughter grade for Lots 58,
59 and 60 was High Standard and Lot 61, Low Standard. At the end of the
feeding trials all 4 lots had an average carcass grade of U. S. Good.
The profit per steer after allowing for animal, feed, labor, depreci-
ation and interest costs for Lot 53 was $19.71, Lot 59 $22.11, Lot
60 $16.38 and Lot 61 $24.17.
1. .radePyearling cattle that are thrifty, good type, quiet disposition,
weighing from 450 to 700 pounds should be selected for feeding.
Calves should weigh from 400 to 5CO pounds. Cull out nervous and
poor gainers as soon as observed.
2. All sharp horns should be tipped. Cows and heifers kept separate
from steers. Steers should be grouped according to age and weight.
Scme animals may need Phenothiazine treatment to eliminate intestinal
3. Feed cattle in groups; 10 to 40 in dry-lot when fed twice daily and
in larger numbers on pasture when self-fed. Do not overcrowd animals.
4. Fattening ration must include roughage, protein, mineral, vitamins,
and energy nutrients in proper proportions if cattle are to make good
use of the feed for maintenance and gains.
5. Citrus, corn and cane products are rich in carbohydrates and low in
protein. They can be used for maintenance and fattening when balanced
with protein-rich feeds. Citrus pulp and ground snapped corn are not
roughage feeds. Cattle require a roughage feed such as pasture, hay,
silage or cottonseed hulls.
6. When feeding calves, allow 1 pound high protein feed for each 250
pounds live weight. With yearlings allow 1 pound protein feed for
each 300 pounds and with 2-year old steers 1 pound for each 325 pounds
live weight. With older cattle the protein feed can be reduced one
half when either citrus or blackstrap molasses containing 3% urea
is fed. Calves cannot utilize either molasses or urea as well as
- 14 -
7. Good gains can be secured with yearling and older cattle on an
average daily ration of:
A. 4 to 6 pounds of hay or equivalent pasture, silage
or cottonseed hulls and
B. 2 to 3 pounds of either cottonseed or peanut meal or
a mixture of 60 parts cottonseed meal, 8 parts urea
and 32 parts citrus pulp.
C. Plus any one of the following:
8 to 12 pounds of either citrus pulp or ground snapped
corn; 4 to 6 pounds of either citrus pulp or ground
snapped corn and 4 to 6 pounds of either citrus or
blackstrap molasses; 8 to 12 pounds sweet citrus pulp.
8. Supply ample fresh water and give access to a complete mineral
9. Give a small quantity of fattening and protein feeds at start,
increasing slowly until cattle are on full feed in 30 to 40 days.
10. Provide 3 linear feet of trough space for 600-pound animals fed
twice daily and one half this space for cattle self-fed.
11. Feed cattle at the same time each day. Keep troughs clean and remove
any moldy feed. A shed over feed troughs prevents feed spoilage and
reduces danger of cattle going off feed.
12. Keep cattle comfortable. Good sanitary conditions can be maintained
with less effort on pasture than on dry-lot. Spray animals to
13. Do not disturb animals unnecessarily. exciting or running animals
will reduce rate and increase cost of gains.
14. Disposition of herdsman is an important factor in how cattle perform.
- 15 -
XVII. FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION PUBLICATIONS
A partial list of the available publications on pasture, cattle
and related subjects follows:
477 .....Fay and Seed Drying with a Slated Floor
484 ....,j-rass Pastures in Central Florida
502 .....eliver Fluke Disease and Its Control
506 ......Know Your Fertilizers
510 ......Poisonous Plants in Florida
515 ......Maintaining Fertility in Mineral
Soils Under Permanent Pasture
517 ......Winter Clovers in Central Florida
523 ......Growing Oats in Florida
531 ......Comparative Feeding Value of Citrus
Molasses, Cane Molasses, Ground Snapped
Corn and Dried Citrus Pulp for Fattening
Steers on Pasture
538 ......Citrus Products for Beef Cattle
541 ......Selecting and Using Beef and Veal
554 *.....Year-Round Grazing on a Combination of
Native x-d Improved Pasture
558 *.....Relation Between Soluble Phosphorus in
Soils and Growth Response of Pasture Forage
575 ......Fesding Value of Citrus and Blackstrap
Mola3ses for Fattening Cattle
578 .,..9.Factors Affecting the Weaning Weight of
585 ......Pangolagrass Pastures for Beef Production
in C-,.tral. lorida A Method of Determining
tho Economics of Establishing and Fertilizing
S-33 *....Costs and Methods of Pasture Establishment
S-35 .....Fertilizer Should Contain a Source of
Sulfur for Clover Pastures in Many Areas
S-57 .....Feeding Eeef Cattle for Show and Sale
S-61 .....Inoculated Legumes in the Farm Program
S-64 .....Control of Some Insect Pests of Improved
S-78 .....Internal Parasites of Cattle, Their Control
with Phenothiazine and Management
S-89 .....Steer Fattening Trials in North Florida
Circular S-107 ....Screwwo-..s and Their Control
- 16 -
6l o-' Septern-r 14 1, L
Twelfth Field Day-Outline
W. G. Kirk, E. M. Hodges, F. M. Peacock,
J. E. McCaleb and C. L. Dantzman
Range Cattle Experiment Station
This supplement briefly summarizes results obtained since December 15, 1958,
and outlines some of the new work which has been started.
1. Grazing Trials:
A. Grass Variety Fertilizer Treatments
These grazing trials have produced the following weight gains
per acre from 3-9-59 to 8-21-5,.
Fertilizer Pounds Per Acre Beef Gain
Grass Variety PZ Pc2 2 Per Acre
Pangola 90 45 45 249 pounds
Pangola 10 O 90 385 "
Pangola 270 135 135 445 "
Pensacola bahia 180 90 90 323 "
Coastal bermuda 180 90 90 203 "
B. New Varieties
The following four grass varieties were planted in June 1959 for
grazing trial evaluation: Pensacola bahia (check), Tifhi bahia,
Slender Pangola and ?I 224152 Bermuda. Dolomitic lime and a
complete fertilizer with minor elements were applied to this
planting at establishment time.
C. Supplemental Feeding
One feeding trial using yearling steers on Pensacola bahia pastures
was completed in 1958; A balanced feed supplement was fed three
groups of cattle at 3, 6 and 12 pounds daily per animal for 182
days, beginning April 8. No feed was given a fourth group which
served as a check. Average daily gain for the no feed check and
the increasing levels of supplement were 1.29, 1.48, 1.49 and 1.96
2. Phosphorus Source Pastures:
The pastures in this project have received various phosphatic materials
since establishment in 1947-49. Several changes have been made but the
phosphorus source has been kept the same. A summary at the end of 1958
showed that cattle weight gains based on calf production and cow weight,
averaged highest on the basic slag treatment. Other treatments, in
descending order, were colloidal, super + lime, triple super, rock, f
super and no phosphate check.
Beginning in 1959, all phosphate addition was stopped. Uniform per acre
rate of nitrogen and potassium are being continued to permit observation
of residual value of the phosphate materials used. All sources received
lime in 1955 and are being re-limed in 1959.
Plots will be established to further observe the effect of basic slag
and other phosphorus sources on herbage yield of pangolagrass.
Die-back of pangolagrass became noticeable ih several pastures in week
starting August 17 and brown areas rapidly increased in size. One seven-
acre field, used for silage, had a moisture content from 32 to 60 percent.
Soil and plant sanbles were submitted to Gul' Coast Experiment Station
and Physiology Department at U of F for soil and plant analysis and
nematode counts. Field fertilizer plots and ot studies were started
August 24. Similar pastures were inspected ap two locations near Palmetto,
This condition had been deserved or. limited areas in previous years. It
affects Pangola, Bermuda ind Torped: but not ahia.
4. Forage Preservation and Storage:
Filling 12 experimental silos to determine the yalue of three additives
to pangolagrass on amount and composition of drainage, heat formation,
decomposition and feed value of silage was completed 8-13-59. The
following table outlines uhe 195) silage program.
1.4 150# Gr.
1.4 150/ Cit.
1.4 80 Cit.
V2 .008) Bag Feeding trial.
.- f --
P3(.004) Wintering calves
excess to cows.
-- Self-feeding cows.
P (.006) Feeding trials.
-- Wintering cows.
1. Pangolagrass. 2. Vinyl.
3. Polyethylene. 4. Argentine bahia-
___ ____ __
5. Long-range effects of pasturemanagement on fertility of flatwoods soil:
The purpose of this study is to measure the accumulative fertility
which has been derived from improved pasture vegetative, fertilizer
and lime applications, and pasture management practices at the Range
Cattle Station. Pasture improvement began in 1942 and continued to
the present. Soil samples have been obtained from 142 areas to
determine the change which has occurred in: pH, exchangeable P205,
K20, Ca and Mg; and total organic matter, N, P205, K20, Ca and Mg.
Some of the minor elements which have been applied in the fertilizers
will be considered.
6. Mr. Charles L. Dantzman, Research Associate in Soils, joined the Staff
of the Range Cattle Station, March 1, 1959. His main project is out-
lined in Section 5 above.
7. Chemical Control of Noxious Plants in Pastures:
Herbicides were applied by airplane to saw palmetto August 29 using
four replications per treatment, two plots in each treatment to
receive'an extra application in May 1960. Chemicals used were 2,4,5-T
PGBE, 2,4,5-T,BE and 2,4-D + 2,4,5-T (Brush killer) in 1:3 oil/water
plus detergent. Herbicides were applied to similar areas by helicopter
September 10 using-2,4,5-T Iso-octyl ester and varying amounts of 2,4-D
amine salt and 2,4,5-T Iso-octyl ester, 5 or 10 percent wetting agent
and 0.5-1.0 oz. spreader sticker,
8. Rainfall from October 1958 to September 13, 1959:
Inches Rainfall Measurable Rainfall
Month Ave. 1942-58 Total 1958-59 Ave. 1942-58 1958-59
Oct. 3.90 2.55 7 9
Nov. 1.96 3.05 5 6
Dec. 1.69 4.64 5 7
Jan. 2.06 2.13 5 10
Feb. 1.90 3.05 4 8
Mar. 2.69 8.60 6 14
Apr. 3.18 2.81 6 7
May 4.09 5.02 9 13
June 8.10 9.67 12 14
July 10.03 11.66 19 25
Aug. 7.93 12.89 17 25
Sept.(1-13) 7.07 6.87 15 12
Total 54.6O 72.94 110 150
9. Fattening Cattle:
A. Pangola Hay and Pangola Silage
A first trial of a second series to test value of pangola hay and
silage in steer fattening ration was completed February 16, 1959.
Lots 76 and 77 were fed pangola hay and Lots 78 and 79, pangola
silage. Lots 76 and 78 were given cottonseed meal and Lots 77 and
79 a protein feed consisting of 50 parts cottonseed meal, 8 parts
urea and 52 parts pulp.
Feed Per 100 Pounds Gain
Lot Daily Roughage U.S. Prot. Citrus Citrus Carcass
No. Gain Hay Meal Feed Pulp Mol. TDN Grade
76 2.36 196 129 -- 383 197 542 8
77 2.39 211 -- 127 378 162 520 8
78 2.13 847 143 -- 425 202 613 8
79 2.38 768 -- 126 378 166 534 8
B. Stilbestrol Implantation
Forty short-yearling steers were divided into four lots of 10 steers
each and fed for 140 days. Lots 83 and 84 were fed in dry lot and
Lots 85 and 86 each on 5-acre pasture of Argentine bahia. Each steer
in Lots 83 and 85 was implanted with 30 mg. of stilbestrol at the
beginning of the trial. Steers in dry lot were fed pangola hay
throughout the trial and those on pasture a limited amount at the
start of the trial.
Feed Per 100 Pounds Gain
Lot Daily Roughage C.S. Citrus Carcass
No. Gain Hay C eS. Hulls Meal Pulp TDN Grade
83 2.36 76 178 160 555 602 8
84 2.29 79 184 165 572 620 8
85 2.58 2 161 144 499 5231 7
86 2.36 2 175 157 542 5661 8
1. TDN from supplemental feed.
C. Rate of Gain of Calves in Winter on Feed Lot Performance
Forty-four weanling heifer calves were divided into four groups
of 11 each and put on separate 5-acre low-quality pastures for
a 120-day wintering trial (period 1). The groups were fed
different supplementary rations of cottonseed meal and citrus
pulp to give variable rates of gain. At the completion of the
120-day winte' feeding period, all four groups were put in dry
lot (period 2) and full-fed a ration averaging 22.5 parts cotton-
seed hulls, 20.7 cottonseed meal, 40.8 citrus pulp, 10.0 corn
feed meal, 5 alfalfa and 1.0 part mineral, plus 1.5 pounds hay
daily for 140 days.
Feed Per 100 Pounds Gain
C.S. C.S. Citrus
Hay Hulls Meal Plp
1. Meat evaluation
of all carcasses made by An. Husb. and Nut.,
None of this material to be copied for publication without permission.