The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Range Cattle Station
Memo Report 56-1
FIELD DAY OUTLINE
RANGE CATTLE EXPERIMENT STATION
March 23, 1956
Dr. W. G. Kirk, Vice-Director in Charge
Dr. E. M. Hodges, Agronomist
Mr. D. W. Jones, Asst. Soil Technologist A/
Mr. F. M. Peacock, Asst. Animal Husbandman' '
Dr. J. E. McCaleb, Asst. Agronomist
Mr. 0. C. Coker, Farm Foreman
Miss Jackie Johns, Typist '6,,
The Range Cattle Station is a part of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station of the University of Florida. Visitors are welcome.
OUTLINE OF WORK*
I. Production and Management of Grass Pastures................ 2
II. Grazing Trials.............. .............. ..... ......... 2
III. Pasture Legumes.....................................*...... 3
IV. Irrigation of Clover ....................................... 4
V. Forage Crop Nursery ......................... .... .... ..... 4
VI. Phosphorus Source Pastures................................. 4
VII. Pasture Insects............................................. 5
VIII. Herbicides ................................................. 6
IX. Production and Use of Hay and Silage...,.................... 6
X. Corn, Sorghum and Small Grain Trials........................ 7
XI. Cattle Program.... ......... ................................ 9
XII. Effect of Breeding and Nutrition on Cow Productivity....... 9
XIII. Calf Crop........................................ ....... .. 10
XIV. Mineral Mixtures .............. .. ..... ................... 11
XV. Supplemental Feeding During Winter......................... 11
XVI. Fattening Cattle ............................................ 12
XVII. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Publications....... 16
* None of this material to be copied for publication without permission.
I PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF GRASS PASTURES
1. Plant pasture on the best land available.
2. Prepare land thoroughly, beginning several months before plant-
3. Limit plantings to the acreage which can be regularly fertilized
4. Plant only productive grasses such as Pangola, Pensacola or
Argentine Bahia and Improved Bermudas, using pure stands of
several varieties each fenced separately.
5. Plant grass when land is moist, using a packer to save moisture
and smooth the field.
6. Lime, fertilizer and minor elements as needed, should be applied
at time of planting.
7. New pastures should be fenced and left ungrazed for 60 to 90 days
after planting or until well established.
8. A productive pasture requires a yearly minimum of 400 pounds per
Sacre of 8-8-8 or similar fertilizer and more lime each 4 to 5 years.
9. Additional nitrogen is necessary to provide very heavy grazing or
several cuttings for hay. This may be supplied by several appli-
cations of 9-6-6 or by alternating 8-8-8 with 30 to 50 pounds per
acre of nitrogen as topdressing.
10. Grazing and fertilization can be planned to supply feed when the
need is greatest. Late summer and fall fertilization of reserve
pastures should be practiced to a greater extent.
11. Overgrazing permits weeds and poor grasses to invade Pangola and
Bermuda pastures. A pasture with some unused grass will produce
more pounds of better beef than one that is overstocked.
12. Pasture plans must be geared to cattle numbers and marketing plans.
II GRAZING TRIALS
Varieties: Trials with grass varieties have been conducted in paired
5-acre pastures. Results with 5 grasses are tabulated below.
Average Per-Acre Beef Gains on Different Grasses
at Two Fertility Levels
Grass 500 lbs. 6-6-6 900 lbs. 9-6-6
Variety Annually, 1949-51 Annually, 1951-54
Carpet 61 165
Pensacola Bahia 152 215
Argentine Bahia 102* 216
Coastal Bermuda 129 200
Pangola 202 338
One year's result.
Fertilizers: Preliminary tests at different fertilization levels
with Pangola pasture produced large differences in beef gains. A
grazing experiment was begun in 1955 to compare 3 rates of fertili-
zation on Pangola grass. Fertilizer was applied at 6-week intervals,
alternating between 8-8-8 and ammonium nitrate, each date of appli-
cation furnishing 15, 30 or 45 pounds per acre of nitrogen. Gains
on Pangola in 1955 with 90, 180 and 270 pounds of N in the equivalent
of a 2-1-1 fertilizer were lower than those obtained in the earlier
trials. The 30-pound rate will be applied to Pensacola Bahia and
Coastal Bermuda pastures in 1956.
III PASTURE LEGUMES
WHITE clover is the best cool-season pasture legume available at
present. The Louisiana strain is widely used and well-adapted to
Florida while ALA-LU, LOUISIANA S-1 and some other vigorous white
clover types are equal to the best LOUISIANA WHITE. LADINO white
clover is an excellent producer but fails to seed in southern Florida.
HUBAM AND FLORANNA sweet clovers are suitable for fall planting,
FLORANNA being superior producer in the northern section of the state.
RED clover KENLAND and several southern types have grown satisfactorily
HAIRY PERUVIAN alfalfa has done well from fall through spring with water
control and heavy fertilization, behaves as an annual in south Florida.
BEGGARWEED and non-poisonous CROTALARIAS grow on soils of above-average
AESCHYNOMENE or JOINT VETCH, a native legume, is slightly more water-
tolerant than HAIRY INDIGO. Cattle eat it readily but per-acre prod-
uctivity is low.
ALYCE CLOVER is water and nematode susceptible but is producing excellent
fall crops of hay as far south as Fort Myers.
HAIRY INDIGO is a valuable summer legume. It is suited to well-drained
flatwoods land, requiring 1 ton of lime per acre and annual spring applic-
ation of phosphate and potash. The regular or late veriety is the most
productive and should be used in southern sections of the state. Cattle
do not eat Hairy Indigo well at first but continue to eat after becoming
accustomed to it.
GROWING AND GRAZING WINTER CLOVER:
1. Very moist land or irrigation is necessary for white clover. Sweet
clover is slightly less exacting in moisture requirement.
2. Make new plantings in October, at the same time removing cattle and
refertilizing old clover fields.
3. Soil pH of 6.0 to 7.0 is needed (1200 to 1800 lbs. per acre of avail-
able calcium on sandy land). Treat with 2-3 tons per acre on most new
land, add 1 ton every third year.
4. Apply 500 lbs. per acre 0-12-12 when planting new land; 250 lbs. 0-8-24
in October on old clover. One or two 60 lbs. per acre applications of
K0 as muriate of potash or 0-8-24 fertilizer are needed on vigorous
white clover during winter and spring. Most new plantings need minor
5. Use up to 5 times manufacturers rate of seed inoculant, planting
seed as soon as treated and avoid drying after planting. Many
failures come at this point.
6. Do not graze the fall and winter clover for 90 to 120 days or until
early blossomstage is reached. This boosts yields.
7. Graze rotationally, 3 or 4 divisions being best. White clover makes
the most feed if allowed to bloom moderately while being grazed.
8. Clover has caused some bloat in Florida. Grass mixed with the clover
or furnished in a separate pasture reduces the danger. Feeding hay
just prior to grazing lush clover decreases the bloating hazard.
IV IRRIGATION OF CLOVER
A 4-acre block of mixed grass and clover has been irrigated since January
1950. Steers (from January to May) and heifers (from May to October) were
grazed without supplement on this pasture, 1950-53. Average yearly beef
gain per acre was 833 pounds with a daily gain per animal of 1.4 pounds.
Similar cattle fed citrus pulp as supplement to clover pasture during 1954
and 1955 made similar daily gains; increased carrying capacity being the
principal result of feeding. Grazing of the 7th consecutive clover crop
in this area was started in February 1956.
Sprinkler and seepage irrigation are being compared in adjoining blocks of
land in a herd grazing project (Section XII). Both methods of irrigation
have benefited clover, the seepage requiring less labor and more water.
V FORAGE CROPS NURSERY
A forage crops nursery was established in the fall of 1954 to test new
varieties of native and introduced grasses and legumes. A special effort
is being made to locate better adapted legumes for use in pastures during
periods when grasses are making slow growth. Both warm and cool season
grasses are now growing in the forage crops nursery. One cool-season and
one warm-season grass appear promising enough to justify larger area studies.
VI PHOSPHORUS SOURCE PASTURES
Treatment Areas: Each phosphate treatment, 15 acres of Pangola grass
pasture, is divided into 4 equal areas, permitting rotational grazing
and accumulation of forage for winter use.
Fertilization: From 1951 to 1954 superphosphate, super plus lime, triple
super and basic slag were applied to supply 50 pounds of P20 annually;
raw rock and colloidal phosphate applied every three years at 2,000 and
2,400 pounds per acre, respectively. Potash (K20) and nitrogen (N) applied
at 25 and 50 pounds per acre respectively, with half of the nitrogen applied
in spring and half in fall.
In 1955 fertilizer treatments were changed as follows: Phosphorus rate
reduced by one-half on all treatments (25 pounds of P205 annually from
soluble sources and 1000 and 1200 pounds per acre of rock and colloidal
each 3 yea
to 100 pou
with potash remaining t
nds of N annually, one-half
The area received dolomitic
applied in spring and one-half
limestone at 2000 pounds per
izer applications remained
treatments are to
phosphatic materials at a higher
N and a lower rate of P.
to K and
Cattle Performance and Management
feed but have access at all
calves remain with
s with each lot of
le receive no supplemental
salt and modified salt sick
6 to 8 months
Low calving percentage has consistently been a major problem although
the cows have maintained weight and have appeared to be in a thrifty
as shown in
the following table.
Cows* in December,
1951 Through 1955
----------------ll --------------------- ----------- ------------------- -I
No P had
ed to 9 animals.
increased from 50 to
as indicated in
100 pounds per
aphid and grass
from red spider
in southern Florida none
Aphids and army worms are most apt
to attack pastures when in a
growth following fertilization.
-w* fi *1 A -
i I i q
Parathion applied at the rate of 1 pound of 15 W material per acre
will control aphids and is also effective for grass worms. DDT at
30 to 35 pounds of 5% dust per acre will control grass worms. Chlor-
dane, and toxaphene are also effective against grass worms. With any
insecticide USE EVER PRECAUTION IN HANDLING MATERIALS, CATTLE SHOULD
NOT BE PERMITTED TO GRA?7 TREATED PASTURES FOR AT LEAST ONE WEEK FOL-
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circular S-64 gives a further discussion on Pasture
The herbicide program is concerned primarily with the following classes
1. Weeds, sedges (Carex sppb), grasses and other grass-like plants
which invade improved pastures. The eradication of these plants
in a pasture is much more difficult than in a row crop, since the
method of control may also kill or slow the growth of the pasture
plant. A program of research studying chemical and/or mechanical
methods is now underway.
2. Aquatic plants in canal and drainage areas. One pound of 2,4-D
acid equivalent per acre gives adequate control of hyacinths but
does not control other plants which may be growing in these sites.
Herbicides that may give longer control are being studied.
3. Palmetto and gallberry on native range. Nineteen chemical formu-
lations were applied in August 1955 in a screening test. Ten of
these gave sufficient results (of a desirable nature) to warrant
further study. A program of spraying at 6-week intervals with the
10 herbicides was initiated December 15, 1955 and will be continued
for one calendar year. The results of this program, if favorable,
will be used to determine the proper chemicals, rate, time and cost
of control of these plants.
IX PRODUCTION AND USE OF HAY AND SILAGE
Hay: The recent development of heavy producing and high quality grasses
has increased the opportunity for hay making. It has also aggravated
the problem of curing hay in our normally humid climate. February ferti-
lization of the hay field permits harvest in the dry weather of May and
early June. A 1953 test showed improved Bermuda hay would dry in 1 day
while Pangola required 3 days. Ilay yields were in reverse order, being
3 to 1 in favor of Pangola. A tedder-rake has been found to shorten
Pangola drying time by 1 day.
Work is being planned to test the value of barn curing as a supplement to
field curing, using a recently completed drying unit for this purpose.
Silage: Pangola silage was made in a horizontal silo in August 1954.
Grass of good quality was thoroughly packed without addition of pre-
servative and quality of silage was excellent except for streaks of
white mold that developed deep in the mass. A similar filling of the
silo in 1955, with the addition of 8 pounds of sodium metabisulphite
per ton of fresh-cut grass produced silage in excellent condition.
Forage Feeding: Two-year-old-steers in groups of 6 were started in
a 120-day trial on October 18, 1955 to compare the value of Pangola hay
and silage in a fattening ration. One lot of steers on each roughage
received only cottonseed meal; another was given a full ration of citrus
pulp and citrus molasses; a third received one-half the full allowance
of citrus pulp and molasses. All groups were fed the same amount of
It is apparent upon inspecting the gains shown in the feeding summary
that hay and silage yielded very similar results. Also clear is the
fact that a full ration of roughage with adequate protein is costly and
incapable of yielding a fat animal.
Value of Hay and Silage in Steer Fattening Rations
Lot Number 1 2 3 4 5 6
Roughage fed Hay Hay Hay Silage Silage Silage
Av. daily gain 1.40 2.15 2.64 1.56 2.25 2.42
Av. daily roughage 18.0 13.6 9.7 57.6 36.1 26.0
% dig. Nut. from
roughage 79 47 28 82 47 28
Feed cost per 100
pounds gain* 27.33 19.40 17.36 25.67 17.47 18.41
Slaughter grade H.Ut. H.Com. L.Good H.Ut. H.Com. Good
* Per ton- Hay 30.00, Silage 10.00, C.S.Meal 68.00, Cit. Pulp 40.00, Cit.
Mol. 20.00, Mineral 66.00.
X CORN, SORGHUM AND SMALL GRAIN TRIALS
Realizing that one of the limitations to beef production in this area is
lack of energy feed and roughage during the late fall and winter periods,
a study was started in 1954 to determine the most productive varieties
of corn, grain sorghums, forage sorghums, oats and ryes at the Range
Corn: Fourteen varieties of corn have been tested; results of 5 of these
are given in the following table:
Bushels Per Acre
Fall 1954 Spring 1955 Fall 1955 Spring 1956
Dixie 82B 86.1 41.7 45.4 *
Funks G737A 75.0 36.3 40.1 *
Cokers 811 76.8 46.3 46.5 *
NC 27 77.6 54.5 48.5 *
Dixie 18 68.4 42.4 43.1 *
Indicates varieties planted in spring 1956 trials.
350#/A of 7-7-7 at planting
300#/A of 9-6-6 at 5-6 weeks
30#/A of N at tasseling
Grain Sorghums: Twenty-five varieties of grain sorghum have been used
in trials since Fall 1954. Very satisfactory yields were obtained in
the Fall 1954 planting when weather and rainfall approached ideal growth
conditions. Less favorable climatic conditions prevailed in the spring
1955 and fall 1955 tests when yields were only 25-30 percent of those in
1954. Budworms were much less severe in fall-planted sorghums than in
fall-planted corn in the same field. The results of these trials are
inconclusive and recommendations can not be made until more data are
obtained. However, Ladora, Shallu, Sagrain, Hegari and Schrock are
promising varieties in this area.
Forage Sorghums: There is increased interest in forage crops and par-
ticularly those which can be used for silage. This led to the initiation
of tests in fall 1954 to determine the productivity of several varieties
at the Range Cattle Station. The production of a few of the varieties
tested are given in the following table:
Forage Sorghum Tons of Green Weight per Acre
Variety Fall 1954 Spring 1955 Fall 1955
Honey X Leoti 19.9 14.0 13.1
Sumac 11.7 16.6 8.8
Honey 33.4 22.8 22.8
Sourless 16.6 15.4 17.8
Hi Hegari 12.5 7.3 9.9
Sweet Sudan 12.2 8.9 12.6
Popsorghum 7.5 5.9 9.9
Perennial Sudan 12.1 11.0 10.7
350#/A 7-7-7 at planting
300#/A 9-6-6 at 5-6 weeks
30#/A of N at 5-6 weeks
Oats: Realizing that a shortage of green forage occurs between the first
half of December and late January trials of 5 oat and 2 rye varieties
were planted in fall 1955. Portions of each variety were
- 8 -
clipped at intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks to determine green forage
yield and response to clipping treatments. Grain yields will be taken
as varieties mature. Varieties of oats are Southland, Floriland,
Seminole, Sunland and Alamo. Rye varieties are Florida Black and 8-21
(expected to be released to producers in 1956).
XI CATTLE PROGRAM
Breeding: A purebred Brahman herd was established in 1942 and has
served as the foundation stock for the breeding programs now underway.
Shorthorn bulls have been mated to these cows and the crossbred heifers
from these matings have been back-crossed to bulls of the parental breed,
giving varying proportions of Brahman-Shorthorn blood. The first and
second cross cows are being used in a project outlined in XII below.
The commercial herd consists of grade cattle, mostly Brahman, with a few
Shorthorn, Santa Gertrudis, Angus and Hereford, all tracing back to the
Florida native cow.
Management: Practices include: controlled breeding season of 100 to 120
days, starting March 20th; weaning calves at 6 to 8 months of age; feed-
ing calves in corral for the first 10 days after weaning and on pasture
during the first winter; rotational and deferred grazing to provide good
feed throughout the year; complete mineral available to cattle at all
times; control of external and internal parasites; no continuous over-
stocking of pastures; calves castrated shortly after birth with a knife;
calves innoculated against blackleg; all calves branded and individually
marked; calves dehorned at 2 to 3 months of age; culling inferior and low
producing animals; supplemental feeding when required to prevent excessive
loss in weight; regular attention to all herds.
Records: Breeding, weight changes and productivity of all cattle are re-
corded as measures of the value of each animal for beef production. All
animals are weighed every 3 months, those on grazing and feeding trials
more frequently. Calves are classified as to type, condition and slaughter
grade at weaning and all experimental animals are graded at time of slaughter.
Carcass data are obtained on all animals when slaughtered.
Stringhalt: Herd of stringhalt cows being bred to a stringhalt bull to study
the abnormalities and possible inheritance related to this condition.
XII EFFECT OF BREEDING AND NUTRITION ON PRODUCTION
Three breeding herds of 60 cows each are kept on pasture throughout the year
Herd 1 on 800 acres (5 pastures of 160 acres each) of native range, one-half
of which is burned each winter.
Herd 2 on a combination of 320 acres of native range, half of which is burned
each year, and 80 acres of improved pasture. The improved pasture is divided
into four 20-acre fields, 2 of which are sub-divided into 10-acre areas for
more efficient utilization of forage. Improved grass pastures are fertilized
twice yearly, once with complete mixture and once with nitrogen;
legume pastures receive a phosphate-potash mixture. Cattle have cont-
inuous access to native range and to only 1 improved area at a time.
Herd 3 is carried on 73 acres of Pangola pasture which is divided into
8 fields. Two 9-acre areas, both of which are irrigated, are over-
planted to white clover. These areas are heavily fertilized to obtain
maximum production. Rotational grazing is used throughout and is com-
bined with deferred grazing in certain areas for Herds 2 and 3 to pro-
vide a reserve of feed for fall and winter.
Each herd consists of 10 purebred Brahmans, 10-3/4 Brahman 1/4 Shorthorn,
20-1/2 Shorthorn 1/2 Brahman, 10-3/4 Shorthorn 1/4 Brahman and 10 pure-
bred Shorthorns. The purebred Brahman, 3/4 Brahman 1/4 Shorthorn and
10 crossbred cows are bred to a trahman bull and the purebred Shorthorn,
3/4 Shorthorn 1/4 Brahman and 10 crossbred cows to a Shorthorn bull.
Results of 3 feeding trials, using some of the claves from the above
matings are given below:
Lot Number 1 2 3 4
Breeding of Steers 3/4Sh-1/4BR. 1/2Sh-1/2Br. 3/4Br-1/4Sh Brahman
No. Steers per Lot 4 4 4 4
Average Daily Gain 1.96 1.99 2.03. 2.04
Av. Feed Eaten Per 100 Pounds Gain:
Hay 168 164 161 159
Standard Feed(l) 532 513 473 456
Citrus Molasses 100 97 97 93
Av.TDN Per 100 Lbs. Gain 508 491 460 445
Feeder Choice L.Choice L. Choice L.Choice
Slaughter Choice H.Good H.Good Good
Carcass L- Choae- ood Cood L- C6od
XIII CALF CROP
Yearly calf crop is an important factor in a cow-calf production project.
Cattle at the Range Station are maintained on different degrees of nutrition,
ranging from a highly productive pasture with 1.25 acres per cow to native
range with 13.3 acres per cow. Several herds are on a combination of
improved and native pasture. The majority of these cows obtain all their
feed by grazing, only having free-access to a complete mineral mixture.
The weaned calf crop from all cows for several years is summarized below:
- 10 -
XIV MINERAL MIXTURES
The mineral mixtures now
are made up as follows:
being fed at the Station with good results
Red oxide of iron
Cobalt chloride or sulfate
The complete mineral contains 16.4% calcium, 8% phosphorus and 31.2%
common salt. Common salt, in addition to being an essential ingredient,
prevents spoilage of bonemeal, molasses and cottonseed meal if mineral
becomes wet. Molasses and cottonseed meal have been added to improve
palatability of the mineral.
XV SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING DURING WINTER
Roughage frequently is lacking in winter pastures. Protection and ferti-
lization of selected pastures in early fall until needed in December or
later can be used to advantage to furnish more roughage for nature cattle.
This method along with rotational grazing has been used at the Range Station
for many years to maintain 2-year old heifers, cows and bulls in a thrifty
condition during the winter. Hay, silage, fresh sugarcane and crop residues
can be used to advantage to supplement pasture when roughage is short.
White clover where moisture is adequate and good management is practiced,
will furnish large quantities of high quality feed to supplement dry, low-
Protein is lacking in most winter pasture. The problem of feeding limited
amounts is to ensure that all animals have a chance to get a share of the
- 11 -
supplemental feed. Several methods have been used with success as
1. Cottonseed pellets can be fed on the ground at the rate of 1 pound
daily per cow or double this amount every second day.
2. Cottonseed meal can be mixed with molasses in the feed bunk. Feed
1 pound cottonseed meal and 4 pounds molasses daily per cow or
double these amounts every other day.
3. Molasses to which has been added 3% urea can be fed at the 5-pound
level daily per cow. Ten pounds can be given every second day.
4. Cottonseed meal consumption can be regulated by adding salt and
complete mineral as follows:
Mixture Parts Per 100 Pounds
Cottonseed Meal Cottonseed Common Complete
Daily per Animal Meal Salt Mineral
1.0 pounds 75 15 10
1.5 pounds 90 10 10
2.0 pounds 85 10 5
5. Mixed pellets containing 20% protein can be given at double the
rate of cottonseed pellet feeding if energy nutrients are needed
in addition to protein.
6. Ten to 15 pounds of cull grapefruit daily per cow will help maintain
cows during the winter.
XVI FATTENING CATTLE
Feeding Trials: Florida-produced feeds have been tested in feeding trials
since 1945. Results show that these feeds can be used to advantage in a
balanced fattening ration. Most of the steers when fed for 120 to 140 days
graded U.S. Good with some Commercial and Choice.
The mixed ration fed Lot 42, in 3 trials of 140 days each, consisted of 70
parts citrus pulp, 25 parts cottonseed meal and 5 parts 3/4" cut alfalfa.
Ground snapped corn replaced the pulp in the ration fed Lot 43 and corn meal
was used in Lot 44. All lots were given the same amount of Pangola hay and
Stilbestrol has been tested in one 140-day trial in dry lot. The basal ration
fed in yearling steers, Lot 47, consisted of Pangola hay, cottonseed meal,
citrus pulp and citrus molasses. Stilbesol was mixed with cottonseed meal to
furnish 10 Mg of stilbestrol daily per steer for Lot 48; otherwise both rations
were the same.
In 2 short trials (92 days in 1953 and 70 days in 1954) 2 lots of steers were
fed on mature Common Bahia pastures. Lot 45 was given cottonseed meal, citrus
pulp and citrus molasses and Lot 46 one-half the amount of cottonseed meal
fed Lot 45, citrus pulp and citrus molasses containing 3%o urea.
Stilbestrol was used in a 217-day trial with yearling steers on Common Bahia
pasture. For the first 105 days beginning March 22, 1955, Lot 49 was fed 1
- 12 -
pound of citrus pulp daily per steer and Lot 50 the same amount of
citrus pulp to which had been added 10 Mg of stilbestrol. In the
last 112 days of the trial 1 pound cottonseed meal was fed daily per
steer in addition to the citrus pulp. The feeding of stilbestrol to
steers on pasture increased rate of gain 12% in the 217-day feeding
Three groups of 15 calves each with an average weight of 322 pounds
were fed 141 days beginning October 1955. Each lot grazed 5-acres
of either Coastal or Suwannee Bermuda. The 3 lots were fed the same
amount of cottonseed meal. Lot 51 was fed all the citrus pulp they
would eat. Lot 52 was given a ration in which citrus molasses replaced
20% by weight of the citrus pulp fed Lot 51. Lot 53 received 60% as
much pulp as Lot 51 and had free access to citrus molasses.
See following page
Feed Required for 100 Pounds Gain
(1) Average for 3 al. Average for 2 trials, all other trial.
(3) Consisted of 70 parts of either citrue pulp, ground snapped corn or corn
meal, 25 parts cottonseed meal and 5 parts 3/4" cut alfalfa. Lot 42 fed citrus
pulp, Lot 43 ground snapped corn and Lot 44 corn meal.
1. Grade yearling cattle that are thrifty, good type, quiet disposition,
weighing from 450 to 700 pounds should be selected for feeding. Calves
should weigh from 400 to 500 pounds. Cull out nervous and poor gainers
as soon as observed.
2. All sharp horns should be tipped. Cows and beifers kept separate from
steers. Steers should be grouped according to age and weight. Some
animals may need Phenothiazine treatment to eliminate intestinal parasites.
3. Feed cattle in groups; 10 to 40 in dry-lot when fed twice daily and in
larger numbers on pasture when self-fed. Do not overcrowd animals.
- 14 -
4. Fattening ration must include roughage, protein, mineral, vitamins,
and energy nutrients in proper proportions if cattle are to make good
use of the feed for maintenance and gains.
5. Citrus, corn and cane products are rich in carbohydrates and low in
protein. They can be used for maintenance and fattening when balanced
with protein-rich feeds. Citrus pulp and ground snapped corn are not
roughage feeds. Cattle require a roughage feed such as pasture, hay,
silage or cottonseed hulls.
6. When feeding calves, allow 1 pound high protein feed for each 250 pounds
live weight. With yearlings allow 1 pound protein feed for each 300
pounds and with 2-year old steers 1 pound for each 325 pounds live weight.
With older cattle the protein feed can be reduced one-half when either
citrus or blackstrap molasses containing 3% urea is fed. Calves cannot
utilize either molasses or urea as well as older cattle.
7. Good gains can be secured with yearling and older cattle on an average
daily ration of:
A. 4 to 6 pounds of hay or equivalent pasture, silage
or cottonseed hulls and
B. 2 to 3 pounds of either cottonseed or peanut meal or
a mixture of 60 parts cottonseed meal, 8 parts urea
and 32 parts citrus pulp.
C. Plus any one of the following:
8 to 12 pounds of either citrus pulp or ground snapped
corn; 4 to 6 pounds of either citrus pulp or ground
snapped corn and 4 to 6 pounds of either citrus or
blackstrap molasses; 8 to 12 pounds sweet citrus pulp.
8. Supply ample fresh water and give access to a complete mineral mixture.
9. Give a small quantity of fattening and protein feeds at start, increasing
slowly until cattle are on full feed in 30 to 40 days.
10. Provide 3 linear feet of trough space for 600-pound animals fed twice
daily and one-half this space for cattle self-fed.
11. Feed cattle at the same time each day. Keep troughs clean and remove
any moldy feed. A shed over feed troughs prevents feed spoilage and
reduces danger of cattle going off feed.
12. Keep cattle comfortable. Good sanitary conditions can be maintained
with less effort on pasture than on dry-lot. Spray animals to control
13. Do not disturb animals unnecessarily. Exciting or running animals will
reduce rate and increase cost of gains.
14. Disposition of herdsman is an important factor in how cattle perform.
- 15 -
XVII FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION PUBLICATIONS
A partial list of the available publications on pasture, cattle
and related subjects follows:
........Hay and Seed Drying with a Slatted
.......Grass Pastures in Central Florida
........Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control
........Know Your Fertilizers
........Poisonous Plants in Florida
.......Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle
........Maintaining Fertility in Mineral
Soils Under Permanent Pasture
........Winter Clovers in Central Florida
........Growing Oats in Florida
.........Citrus Products for Beef Cattle
........Selecting and Using Beef and Veal
........Year-Round Grazing on a Combination
of Native and Improved Pasetre
........Relation Between Soluble Phosphorus
in Soils and Growth Response of Pasture
........ Leaching of Fertilizer Phosphorus in Acid
Sandy Soils as Affected by Lime
.......Costs and Methods of Pasture Establishment
......Fertilizer Should Contain a Source of
Sulfur for Clover Pastures in Many Areas
.......Soil Reaction (pH)
.......Ergot Poisoning in Cattle
.......Feeding Deef Cattle for Show and Sale
.......Inoculated Legumes in the Farm Program
......Control of Some Insect Pests of Improved
....... Internal Parasites of Cattle, Their Control
with Phenothiazine and Management
.......Steer Fattening Trials in North Florida