The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Range Cattle Station
/l 0 Memo Report 55-2
no -- FIELD DAY OUTLINE
RANGE CATTLE EXPERIMENT STATION
December 10, 1954
Dr. W. G. Kirk, Vice-Director in Charge
Dr. E. M. Hodges, Agronomist
Mr. D. W. Jones, Asst. Soil Technologist
Mr. F. M. Peacock, Asst. Animal Husbandman
Mr. C. Y. Ward, Asst. in Agronomy
Mr. O. C. Coker, Farm Foreman
Miss Jackie Johns, Typist
The Range Cattle Station is a part of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station of the University of Florida. Visitors are welcome.
OUTLINE OF WORK*
I. Field numbers, varieties and treatments on Range Cattle PAGE
Station pastures------------------------------------------- 2
II. Pointers for grass pastures--------- ---------------- 3
III. Pasture legumes------------------------------ ---
IV. Pasture irrigation------------------------------------------
V. Grazing trials------------------------------------------------ 6
VI. Combination of improved and native pasture-------------------- 6
VII. Phosphorus source pastures-------------------------------- 7
VIII. Pasture insects--------------------------- -- 8
IX. Hay and silage--------------------- ------------ 8
X. Pasture weeds-- ------ --- 9
XI. Forage crop nursery--------------- ----------------- 9
XII. Cattle program----------------------------- 9
XIII. Calf crop------------------------------------ 11
XIV. Mineral mixtures------------------------------------ -- 11
XV.. Supplemental feeding of protein-- ---- --------------- 12
XVI. Wintering beef cows on the range----------------------------- 12
XVII. Fattening cattle----------------------------- 13
XVIII. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station publications------- 16
None of this material to be copied for publication without permission.
I FIELD NUMBERS, VARIETIES AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON
RANGE CATTLE STATION PASTURES
No. Variety Treatments
1 Pangola-Torpedo, N-P-K*, lime*-, M.E.H,
2 & 19 Common Bahia, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
3 & 20 Carpet-Louisiana White Clover, P-K, lime, M.E.
4 & 12 Carpet and Carpet-Hairy Indigo, N-P-K, and P-K, lime, M.E.
5 & 14 Pangola, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
6 & 27 Argentine Bahia, N-P-K, lime M.E.
7 & 25 Pensacola Bahia, N-P-K, lime M.E.
8 & 17 Carpet, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
9 & 10 Carpet and Carpet-Hairy Indigo, N-P-K, and P-K, lime, M.E.
11 & 15 Carpet-Hubam, P-K, lime, M.E.
13 & 24 Coastal Bermuda, N-P-K, lime M.E.
16 & 23 Pangola, N-P-K, lime M.E.
18 Pangola, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
20A Mixed clover, P-K, lime, M.E.
21 Mixed grass-clover, P-K, lime M.E.
22 & 22A Suwannee Bermuda (#99), N-P-k, lime, M.E.
28 Carib-Pangola, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
29 Native, no fertilizer
30 Native, N-P-k, lime, M.E.
31 Torpedo, N-P-K, lime M.E.
32 Giant Pangola, N-P-K-, lime, M.E.
40 Hairy Indigo, P-K, lime, M.E.
41 Aeschynomene, P-K, lime, M.E.
42 Para-Pangola, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
43 Pensacola Bahia, N-F-K, lime, M.E.
hh Pangola, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
4L Pangola, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
46 Flots, irrigated
47 Pangola-clover, F-K lime, N.E., irrigated
48 Pangola-clover, F-K, lime, M.E. irrigated
49 Fangola, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
51 Pangola-Para, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
52 Mixed grasses and clovers, P-K, lime, M.E.
53 Pangola-Para-Indigo, P-K, lime, M.E.
54 Coastal Bermuda-Bahia-Indigo, P-K, lime, M.E.
61 Bahia-Carpet-Indigo, P-K, lime, M.E.
62 Pangola, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
63 Pensacola Bahia-Hubam, P-K, lime, M.E.
64 Coastal Bermuda, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
65 Native, untreated
66 Native, untreated
67 Fangola, N-P-K, lime, M.E., for hay and pasture
68 Suwannee Bermuda, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
69 Pangola, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
73 & 74
81 thru 94
1W thru 5W
Pangola, N-P-Kf, lime, M.E.
Pangola, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
Pangola, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
Pangola, heavy rates of fertilizer
Plots near houses
Grass and clover, P-K, lime, M.E., irrigated
Pangola and Improved Bermuda, N-P-K, line, M.E.
Suwannee Bermuda (#99)-White clover, P-K, lime, M.E.
Suwannee Bermuda (#99)-Hubam, P-K, lime, M.E.
Phosphate source pastures, see page 17
North Pasture, native land
East Pasture, native land'
Barn Pasture, carpet grass
House pasture, carpet-clover, partly irrigated. P-K,
Carpet, Pensacola Bahia and Native
Pensacola Bahia and Para, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
Giant Pangola, N-P-K, lime, M.E.
Native pastures, see Cattle Program, Section G.
Native pasture for herd maintenance
*N-nitrogen, P-phosphorus, K-potash: --'Calcic lime; *s*-M.E. indicates
15-20# per acre each of copper and managanese sulfate, 10# zinc sulfate
and on clovers, 5-10# borax.
II POINTERS FOR GRASS PASTURES
1. Plant only as much pasture as is needed and can be fertilized and
2. Plant pasture on the best land available.
3. Prepare land thoroughly, beginning several months before planting time.
4. Plant only productive grasses such as Pangola, Pensacola or Argentine
Bahia and Improved Bermudas. Plant pure stands of several varieties
each fenced separately, when large pastures are established.
5. Plant grass when land is moist, using a packer to save moisture and
smooth the field.
6. Lime, fertilizer and minor elements as needed, should be applied at
time of planting.
7. New pastures should be fenced and left ungrazed for 60 to 90 days
after planting or until well established.
8. A productive pasture requires a yearly minimum of 400 pounds per acre
of 8-8-8 or similar mixture.
9. Additional nitrogen is necessary to provide very heavy grazing or
several. cuttings. This may-be supplied by several .applications.'of-;:
9-6-6 or by alternating 8-8-8 with 30 to 50 pounds per acre of
nitrogen as topdressing.
10. Grazing and fertilization can be planned to supply feed when the need
is greatest. Late summer and fall fertilization of reserve pastures
should be practiced to a greater extent.
11. Overgrazing permits weeds and poor grasses to invade Pangola and
Bermuda pastures. A pasture with some unused grass will produce more
pounds of better beef than one that is overgrazed.
12. Pasture plans must be geared to cattle production and marketing plans.
III PASTURE LEGUMES
LOUISIANA WHITE is the best cool-season legume for pastures.
HUBAM and FLORANNA are adpated sweet clovers for fall planting.
RED several southern varieties show promise, especially for hay.
HAIRY FERUVIAN alfalfa has grown well during favorable seasons with good
COC0MO~I and KOBE lespedeza give late summer pasture but are not reliable
SERICEA lespedeza has no value in this area.
BEGGARWEED and edible CROTALARIA grow on soils of above-average fertility
but are not valuable on flatwoods land.
CROTALARIA $E; CT .ELIS is poisonous and should be eradicated from pastures.
BIG TREEFOIL has been planted in various places with limited success. It
has not produced well at this location.
AESCHYNOMENE, a native legume, has made good growth for 3 years at the
Range Cattle Station, While eaten readily by cattle, it does not produce
large per-acre beef gains. Grass is stimulated strongly after the legume
crop is completed.
HAIRY INDIGO is a valuable summer legume when properly managed. Cattle do
not find this plant palatable at first but keep the taste for it, once they
have learned to eat it.
Regular Hairy Indigo makes more growth than the early type and should be
used where frost is late enough to permit. seed production. It will grow
on well-drained flatwoods land and usually is improved by plowing in wide
beds with a furrow for water removal.
Many upland soils will produce Indigo without treatment but much land re-
quires 1 ton of lime per acre at 3 to 4 year intervals. Indigo should be
spring-seeded at $ pounds per acre on newly prepared land or in sod that
has been chopped or disked. Three hundred pounds per acre of 0-12-12
should be applied at planting time or when volunteer seedlings develop in
the spring. Indigo will reseed if not overgrazed in late fall.
Casses of severe lameness have developed in cattle confined to Hairy Indigo
during wet summer periods. A swelling and cracking of the skin just above
the hoofs occurred after 60-90 days of grazing. Recovery was rapid when the
cattle were moved to a grass pasture and no lameness developed when a free
choice of Indigo and grass was available.
Indigo is not highly productive on an acre basis, but provides high-protein
forage in summer and fall when most grass pastures became low in feeding
value. Rotational grazing or moderate stocking permit grazing Indigo dur-
ing both summer and fall. The nitrogen added to the soil during the growth
of this legume strongly stimulates grass growth. This crop has hay and
silage value when properly handled.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WINTER CLOVER:
1. Very moist land or irrigation is necessary for White clover. Hubam
is less exacting in moisture requirements.
2. Make new plantings in October, also refertilize and remove cattle from
old clover fields.
3. Soil pH of 6.0 to 7.0 is needed (1200 to 1800 Pounds per acre of avail-
able calcium on sandy land). Treat with 2-3 tons per acre of lime on
moist land, applying additional ton every 3 years.
4. Fertilize with 500 pounds per acre of 0-12-12 at planting time. Sixty
to 120 pounds of K20 as 0-8-24 or muriate of potash is needed on vigorous
White clover in the winter and spring. Most new plantings need minor
5. Take extreme care with the seed inoculation, using up to 5 times the
manufacturers rate. Plant seed as soon as treated and avoid drying
6. Allow clover to grow without grazing for 90 to 120 days or until early
blossom stage is reached.
7. Graze rotationaly, 3 or 4 divisions being best. White clover makes the
most feed if allowed to bloom moderately while being grazed.
8. Some bloat has occurred in Florida. Grass mixed with the clover or
furnished in a separate pasture reduces the danger.
IV PASTURE IRRIGATION
Irrigation was applied on a 4 acre block of mixed grass and clover from
January 1950, through 1953, Louisiana White being the principal legume.
Two-year-old steers were grazed in late winter and spring and sold for
slaughter. Yearling heifers grazed during summer and fall. Fertiliaztion
consisted of 500 pounds per acre 0-14-14 in October, 100 pounds muriate of
potash in January and 250 pounds of 0-8-24 in March.
Year 1950 1951 1952 1953
Weather Very dry Med. dry Moist Variable
Irrigation;.acre-inches 16.5 14.0 10.0 15.0
Began grazing 1-21-50 1-6-51 12-18-51 1-22-53
Finished grazing 9-21-50 10-27451 11-1-52 10-10-53
Beef gain per.A., lbs. 492 1050 889 901
SCattle days per A. 440 584 696 628
Daily gain per head, Ibs. 1.12 1.80 1.28 1.43
A larger irrigated clover pasture was established in the 1951-52 winter,
being used with a breeding herd on a high nutrition pasture. This project
has a 10" well equipped with turbine and electric power to deliver 1 acre-
inch of water per hour.
Surface ditches have been installed in portions of 2 pastures to test the
value of seepage in comparison with overhead sprinkler irrigation.
V GRAZING TRIALS
Several grasses have been tested in grazing trials. Most varieties were
in duplicate 5-acre pastures and grazed rotationally with yearling and
2-year old grade Brahman steers.
Beef gains per acre for 3 years, 1949-51, were made with an application of
500 pounds per acre of 6-6-6 fertilizer in March of each year. Beef
gains for the next 3 years, 1952-54, were produced on the same fields with
the annual fertilization plan changed to 900 pounds per acre of 9-6-6,
300 pounds put on in March, May and July. All varieties had lime and minor
Average Per-Acre Beef Gains on Different Grasses
at Two Fertility Levels
Grass 500 lbs. 6-6-6 900 lbs. 9-6-6
Variety Annually, 1949-51 Annually, 1952-54
Carpet 61 165
Common Bahia 74 149
Pensacola Bahia 152 215
Argentine Bahia 102* 216
Coastal Bermuda 129 200
Torpedo 125 203
Pangola 202 338
Native 58* 121
*One year's result.
Three Pangola pastures received average yearly fertilization of 300, 1600
and 3100 pounds per acre of 9-6-6, 1952-54. Weight gain per acre by yearling
heifers averaged 164, 705 and 907 pounds annually for these treatments.
VI COMBINATION OF IMPROVED AND NATIVE PASTURE
Using native and improved pasture to supplement each other is a system of
management that can be employed successfully. This combination requires
fewer acres per cow than the native range and gives more uniform distribution
of higher quality feed. The additional feed decreases weight and death
losses and increases production of the herd.
A herd of 65-70 cows and heifers was maintained from 1947 to 1952 on a 400
acre experimental area at the Range Cattle Station. This area consisted of
320 acres of native range and 80 acres of improved pasture, one-half of the
native area being burned each year. The 80 acres of improved pasture were
divided into four 20-acre fields, 2 of which were subdivided into 10-acre
areas for more efficient utilization. Lime was applied at 1 ton per acre to
the grass pastures. The forage planting and annual fertilization were as
Field No. Kind of Forage Annual Fertilization
61 Common and Pensacola Bahia, 500 pounds per acre 0-li-1l
Carpet Grass-Hairy Indigo in spring
62A* Pangola 350 pounds per acre 9-6-6
in spring and 25-30 pounds
N in fall.
62B Pangola 25-30 pounds per acre N in
spring and 350 pounds 9-6-6
63A & 63B Pensacola Bahia-Hubam Clover 500 pounds per acre 0-lh-14
in fall and 250 pounds 0-8-24
64 Coastal Bermuda 350 pounds per acre 9-6-6 in
spring and 25-30 lbs. N in fall.
Fields 62 and 63 were divided into sections A and B in 19h9. This per-
mitted more efficient utilization of these pastures, resulting in a more
uniform supply of nutritious forage during the winter and spring months.
Cattle had continuous access to the native range but were allowed to graze
only 1 improved area at a time. Grazing was deferred on some of the im-
proved pastures during the fall to provide a reserve of feed for fall and
These cows averaged an 80% calf crop for the period and claves had an average
weight of over 425 pounds when weaned.
This work is discussed in more detail in a bulletin in the process of pub-
VII PHOSPHOROUS SOURCE I'ASTURES
This grazing experiment using Pangola pasture to evaluate 5 sources of phos-
phorus has been in progress since 1947. Superphosphate, concentrated super-
phospahte and basic slag are applied annually at the rate of 50 pounds of
P205 per acre; rock phosphate and collodial phosphate are applied at 2,000
and 2,400 pounds I;er acre, respectively, every 3 years. Potash (K29) and
nitrogen (N) are applied at 25 and 50 pounds per acre, respectively, with
half of the nitrogen out down in the spring and half in the fall. Lime is
added to 1 superphosphate treatment at the rate of 1,000 pounds every 3
years. All pastures received minor elements at the time of establishment and
copper was reapplied in 1953.
Each phosphate treatment, 15 acres in extent, is divided into 4 equal areas,
permitting rotational grazing and accumulation of reserve forage for winter
use. Each area is fertilized twice yearly, once with a N-P-K or N-K mixture
and once with sodium nitrate.
The cows used in this experiment are kept the entire year on the same treat-
ments; their calves remain with them until weaning at 6 to 8 months of age.
A bull is with each lot during the breeding season. These cattle receive no
supplemental feed but have access at all times to common salt and modified
salt sick supplement (see page 11)
This work is carried on cooperatively with the Animal Nutrition and Soils
Department of the Main Station, Gainesville, and will be revised in 1955.
- 7 -
VIII PASTURE INSECTS
Pangola grass pastures have been extensively damaged by the yellow sugar-
cane aphid. This insect is about one-eight of an inch in length and
bright yellow in color. Cool winter weather and summer rainfall have an
adverse effect on this pest and as a result most damage in done during the
spring and fall months. Recently fertilized pastures are most readily
attacked. On Pangola pastures an aphid attack is indicated by yellowing of
the leaves and in later stages theccolor changes to purple. Infested areas
are frequently more or less circular in shape and enlarge as the insects
work outward. This aphid has been controlled by spraying with a mixture of
1 pound of 15W parathion to 100 gallons of water applied at the rate of 75
gallons per acre and by 25 to 30 pounds of 1% dust applied with a drop-type
fertilizer spreader. USE EVERY PRECaUTION IN HANDLING THIS ITIP.-IL. CATTLE
SHOULD NOT BE PERMIT TED TO GRAZE TREATED PASTURES FOR AT LE-.ST ONE VEEK
The striped grass loopers, sometimes called armyworms or grassworms, cause
considerable damage to pastures. These insects eat notches along the edge
of the leaves and in severe infestations the plant may be conDletely defo-
liated. There are several species of this worm in Florida and they vary in
color from cream to grey-blue to brown, black or orange and usually have a
stripe down the back. DDT dust, 5% at 30-35 pounds per acre gives control.
Chlordand, Toxaphene and Farathion also are effective.
A discussion of pasture insects will be found in Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circular
IX HAY AND SILAGE
HAY: Hay has been made at the Range Cattle Station since its establishment
but recent years have brought increased cattle numbers and greater need for
a reserve of forage.
Most of the hay at this Station ha, been field-cured in May, which required
early fertilization, usually starting in February. Similar areas of Pangola
and Suwannee Bermuda were given 5 applications of fertilizer in early 1953,
beginning February 17 and finishing May 1, 10 days before mowing. For-acre
totals of 131 pounds of N and 60 pounds each of P205 and K20 were applied.
This produced in a single cutting, 1 ton per acre of 6% protein hay on the
Bermuda and 3 tons of 7% protein hay on the Pangola. Field drying time was
27 hours for Bermuda and 9h hours for Pangola.
SILAGE: Two smell lots of Pangola silage, one with plain grass and one with
100 pounds per ton of citrus molasses added, made silage of desirable quality
in 1953. A horizontal silo, 15 feet by hO feet by 6 feet high, was filled
with Pangola grass, no preservative added, in August, 1954. Quality was
excellent when the silo was opened October 1. Streaks of white mold and
other spoilage were found later as feeding progressed. This took place in
spite of thorough packing and suitable (65%) moisture conditions.
- 8 -
The value of different reserve roughages is affected by nutritional
value, cost of production, ease of handling and other factors. Different
locations and conditions will lead to different choice of storage. Pangola
hay, Pangola silage and chopped sugarcane are being compared in a pen feed-
ing trial with grade Brahman steers.
X PASTURE VIEEDS
Weeds are plants growing where they are not wanted. Most weeds are low
in feeding value and palatability. This is definitely true of the sedges
(Carex) and other "grasslikes", which are rapidly invading improved pastures
in Central Florida. These plants spread chiefly by seed, though several
produce vegetative runners.
The eradication of a weed in a pasture is much more difficult than in a
row crop, since mechanical methods of control will also kill or slow the
growth of the pasture plant. A program of research on the control of the
sedges is now underway. Although chopping and disking give some control
of these weeds, it appears that the use of selective herbicides will also
be needed. Several of these chemicals have already been tested and more
will be tried in the coming year.
Measures that may aid in controlling the sedges and other pasture weeds are:
1. management to prevent overgrazing; 2. mowing to reduce seed production;
3. chopping, disking and fertilization to renovate severely infested pastures.
XI FORAGE CROPS NURSERY
This year marks the establishment of a Forage Crops Nursery at the Range
Cattle Station. The purpose of this nursery will be to test new varieties
and strains of grasses and legumes, including introductory material from
outside the United States. A special effort will be made to locate better
adapted legumes for use in our pastures during periods when grasses are
making slow growth.
One area of the nursery will be set aside for demonstration plantings of
pasture grasses and legumes. This will allow visitors an opportunity to
become better acquainted with the plants being used in pastures throughout
XII CATTLE PROGRAM
Brahman; 3 mature and 6 2 and 3-year old bulls, 24 cows and
2 year old heifers, 5 yearling heifers and 12 calves. Shorthorns; 4
bulls, 3 cows and 4 heifers.
- 9 -
Shorthorn bulls have been mated to Brahman cows since 1942.
Crossbred heifers are back-crossed to bulls of the parental breeds.
Female herd consists of 1:8 Brahman cows, 53 crossbred cows and heifers,
48 3/4 Brahman-1/1 Shorthorn cows and heifers, 20 3/4 Shorthorn-1/4
Brahman, 5 7/8 Brahman-1/8 Shorthorn and 6 either 5/8 Brahman-3/8 Short-
horn or 5/8 Shorthorn-3/8 Brahman. The crossbred, 3/4 Brahman-1/h
Shorthorn and 3/1 Shorthorn-1/h Brahman cows arc being used in a project
outlined in Section G below. Brahman and Shorthorn bulls mentioned in
Section A above are used in this project.
Seven crossbred bulls and 1 3/4 Brahman-l/4 Shorthorn bull are used in
the Phosphorus Source trials with small groups of cows.
C. Grading Up:
Commercial herd consists of 365 cows, and 2 year and yearling
heifers. Over one-half of this herd consists of grade Brahmans with a
considerable number of grade Shorthorns, and a few each of grade Angus,
Hereford, Santa Gertrudis, and Devon animals. These cattle trace back
to the Florida native cow in 1 to 5 generations.
Breeding, weight changes and productivity of allmattle are re-
corded as measures of the value of each animal for beef production. All
animals are weighed every 3 months, those on grazing and feeding trials
more frequently. Calves are classified as to type, condition and slaughter
grade at weaning and all experimental animals are graded at time of slaugh-
ter. Dressing percent and carcass grades are obtained on all animals
Trials to determine the value of feeds produced in central and
south Florida for fattening cattle on pasture and in dry-lot have been in
progress since 1945. These feeds include citrus pulp, citrus and black-
strap molasses, ground snapped corn, corn meal and roughage feeds such as
Pangola hay and silage and fresh sugarcane. The results of many of these
trials are summarized in Section XVI, Fattening Cattle.
Practices include: Controlled breeding season of 100 to 120 days,
starting March 20th; weaning calves ot 6 to 8 months of age; feeding calves
in a corral for the first 10 days after weaning and on pasture during the
first winter; rotational and deferred grazing to provide good feed through-
out the year; complete mineral available to cattle at all times; control of
external and internal parasites; no continuous overstocking of pastures;
calves castrated shortly after birth with knife; calves inoculated against
blackleg; all calves branded and individually marked; claves dehorned at 2
to 3 mlunturn f ae, cullin, inferior and low producing animals; supplemental
feeding when required to prevent excessive loss in weight; regular attention
to all herds.
- 10 -
Go Effect of Breeding and Nutrition on Production:
Three breeding herds of 60 cows each to be kept on pasture through-
out the year* Herd 1- on native range; Herd 2- on a combination of native
range and improved pasture; Herd 3- on improved pasture. Each herd to con-
sist of 10 purebred Brahmans, 10 3/4 Brahman-1/4 Shorthorn, 20, 1/2 Short-
horn-1/2 Brahman, 10 3/4 Shorthorn-I/ Brahman and 10 purebred Shorthorns.
The purebred Brahman, 3/4 Brahman-1/4 Shorthorn and 10 crossbred cows will
be bred to a Brahman bull and the purebred Shorthorns, 3/4 Shorthorn-1/L
Brahman and 10 crossbred cows to a Shorthorn bull.
XIII CALF CROP
Yearly calf crop is an important factor in a cow-calf production project.
Cattle at the Range Station are maintained on different degrees of nutrition,
ranging from a highly productive pasture with 1.25 acres per cow to native
range with 13.3 acres per cow. Several herds are on a combination of im-
proved and native pasture.
In 1952, 236 cows and
same cows in 1953 had
heifers placed in the
a total of 212 weaned
heifers had 158 calves weaned, a 67% calf crop. These
163 calves, a 69% calf crop. Fifty-seven 2-year old
breeding herd in 1952 had an 86% calf crop. This made
calves in 1953 from 293 cows, a 72% calf crop.
The older cows, 324 in number, produced a 52% calf crop in 1954 while 79
3 year old heifers had a 53% calf crop. The 1953 breeding season was
shortened from 120 to 100 days and the bulls were placed with the cows 10
days earlier than in previous years. Weather was extremely dry for 5 weeks
beginning May 1 while during the last 3 weeks of June the rainfall totalled
18.9 inches. Both of these extremes affected the amount and quality of
forage in the different pastures. These factors were partly responsible for
the low calf crop in 1954 compared to 1952 and 1953.
The reasons given above for the low calf crop with the cows in 1954 did not
apply to the 79 heifers which were healthy, well grown and in good flesh
when placed in the breeding herd. No particular breed or crossbreed of
bull or type of pasture can be singled out as causing low reproduction.
Other factors are being investigated.
XIV MINERAL MIXTURES
The mineral mixtures now being fed at the Station with good results are made
up as follows:
Red oxide of iron
Cobalt chloride or sulfate
- 11 -
The complete mineral contains 17% calcium, 8.3% phosphorus and 31.2%
common salt. Common salt, in addition to being an essential ingredient prevents
spoilage of bonemeal, molasses and cottonseed meal if nimeral becomes wet.
Molasses and cottonseed meal have been added to improve palatability of the
XV SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING OF PROTEIN
The nutrient most lacking in winter pasture is pr6t&in. The problem is to
feed a high protein supplement in such a manner that all animals have an
equal chance to get their share of the protein feed. Cottenseed meal or
similar protein feeds can be given as a supplement to winter grazing by
1. Cottenseed pellets can be fed on the ground.at the rate of 1 pound
daily per cow. Double this amount can be fed every other day to
insure all cattle getting some of the feed and to reduce labor.
2. Cottenseed meal can be mixed with molasses in the feed bunk.
1 pound cottonseed meal and 4 pounds molasses daily per cow
double these amounts every second day.
3. Cottonseed meal consumption can be regulated by adding salt and
mineral. The following table is given as a uide as to the amounts
Daily per animal
Mixture Parts Per
4. Molasses to which has been added 3% urea can be fed at the rate of
not more than 5 pounds daily. Double this amount can be fed every
5. Mixed pellets containing 20% protein can be fed at double the rate
of cottonseed pellet feeding if energy feed is needed in addition to
XVI WINTERING BEEF COWS ON THE RANGE
In November 1948, 60 grade cows from 2
5 lots of 12 cows each. From November
160 acres of native pasture and given
the remainder of the year the 60 cows
mineral in addition to native forage.
to 5 years of age were divided into
to April each lot was confined on
1 of the supplement feeds. During
ran together receiving only complete
This was a 1-bull herd with a breeding
- 12 -
in--- -ri ^-mil i-tjij_.!_____ -- i -- -- -i -- TJ i
season of 4 months starting about April 10 of each year. Forty acres of
each pasture was burned in December and 40 acres in February of each winter.
Four-year results, from November 1949 to November 1953,
Ave. supplements fed
each winter per cow, lbs.
Calves weaned, h4'ears
Percent Calf crop weaned
Grade calves at weaning
Yearly calf production:
Per cow, lbs.
Per acre, lbs.
1 2 3 4 5
None Oranges Gtf't G'f't & Citrus
C.S. Pellets pellets*
1456 1452 G'f't
/ Com'l /'Com'l /
4 40 pahts citrus meal, 35 parts citrus molasses and
meal. s,* 36 calves born, 2 died at birth.
25 parts bottonbeed
XVII FATTENING CATTLE
Florida-produced feeds have been tested in feeding trials since 1945, grade
Brahman steers being used. Most of the steers, after being fed 120 to 140
days, graded U.S. Good, with a few Commercial and Choice.
Four trials in dry-lot have been completed in which equal amounts of citrus
pulp and either citrus molasses, Lot 23, or blackstrap molasses, Lot 24, were
hand-fed. In another group of 3 trials, the molasses was self-fed, Lot 25
being given citrus and Lot 26, blackstrap molasses. Each test was for 120
In 4 trials of 120 days, Lot 27 was fed cottonseed meal and Lot 28 a
protein feed consisting of 60 parts cottonseed meal, 5.5 parts urea (2-6-2)
and 34.5 parts citrus pulp. Weanling calves and yearlings each were used in
2 of these cottonseed meal-urea comparisons.
The mixed feed given to Lot 42, in 2 trials of 140 days each, consisted of
70 parts citrus pulp, 25 parts cottonseed meal and 5 parts 3/4" cut alfalfa.
Ground snapped corn replaced the pulp in the ration fed Lot 43 and corn meal
was used for Lot 44. All lots were given the same amount of hay and citrus
In 1 trial on mature Common Bahia Pasture, Lot 45 was fed cottonseed meal,
citrus pulp and plain citrus molasses. Lot 46 was fed one-half the amount
of cottonseed meal fed Lot 45, citrus pulp and citrus molasses containing
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__ __ ___ _I
This trial was started on October 23, 1953, and lasted for 91 days.
lot consisted of 3 yearling and 5 two-year
Feed Required for
Lot No. Av.
100 Pounds Gain
Citrus MolAsses Mixed
Pulp Citrus Cane Feed
2.30 190 121
2.33 191 122
2.28 189 111
2.18 205 118(1)
232 --- (Hand-Fed)
--- 233 (Hand-Fed)
362 --- (Self-Fed)
Common Bahia Pasture:
1.83 55 151
1.86 54 73
(1) Consisted 60 parts cottonseed meal, 5.5 parts urea and 34.5 parts citric
pulp. (2) Mixed feed consisted of 70 parts of either citrus pulp, ground
snapped corn or corn meal, 25 parts cottonseed meal and 5 parts 3/4" cut
alfalfa. Lot 42 was fed citrus pulp, Lot 43 ground snapped corn and Lot k4
corn meal. (3) Lot 46 fed one-half as much cottonseed as was fed Lot 45
and molasses which included 3% urea (2-6-2). (4) Forage from pasture not
1. Grade yearling cattle that are thrifty, good type, quiet disposition
weighing from 450 to 700 pounds should be selected for feeding. Calves
should weigh from 400 to 500 pounds. Cull out nervous and poor gainers
as soon as observed.
2. All sharp horns should be tipped. Cows and heifers kept separate from
steers. Steers should be grouped according to age and weight. Some
animals may need Phenothiazine treatment to eliminate intestinal para-
3. Feed cattle in groups: 10 to 40 in dry-lot when fed twice daily and in
larger numbers on pasture when self-fed. Do not over-crowd animals.
U. Fattening ration must include roughage, protein, mineral, vitamins,
and energy nutrients in proper proportions if cattle are to make good
use of the feed for maintenance and gains.
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5. Citrus, corn and cane products are rich in carbohydrates and low in
protein, They can be used for maintenance and fattening when balanced
with protein-rich feeds. Citrus pulp and ground snapped corn are not
roughage feeds. Cattle require a roughage feed such as pasture, hay,
silage or cottonseed hulls.
6. When feeding calves, allow 1 pound high protein feed for each 250
pounds live weight. With yearlings allow 1 pound protein feed for
each 300 pounds and with 2-year old steers 1 pound for each 325 pounds
live weight. With older cattle the protein feed can be reduced one-
half when either citrus or blackstrap molasses containing 3% urea is
fed. Calves cannot utilize either molasses or urea as well as older
7. Good gains can be secured with yearling and older cattle on an average
daily ration of:
A. h to 6 pounds of hay or equivalent pasture, silage or
cottonseed hulls and
B. 2 to 3 pounds of either cottonseed or peanut meal or a
mixture of 60 parts cottonseed meal, 8 parts urea and
32 parts citrus pulp.
C. Plus any one of the following:
8 to 12 pounds of either citrus pulp or ground snapped corn
h to 6 pounds of either citrus pulp or ground snapped corn
and h to 6 pounds of either citrus or blackstrap molasses
8 to 12 pounds sweet pulp
8. Supply ample fresh water and give access to a complete mineral mixture.
9. Give a small quantity of fattening and protein feeds at start, increas-
ing slowly until cattle are on full feed in 30 to hO days.
10. Provide 3 linear feet of trough space for 600-pound animals fed twice
daily and one-half this space for cattle self-fed.
11. Feed cattle at the same time each day. Keep troughs clean and remove
any moldy feed. A shed over feed troughs prevents feed spoilage and
reduces danger of cattle going off feed.
12. Keep cattle comfortable. Good sanitary conditions can be maintained
with less effort on pasture than in dry-lot. Spray animals to control
13. Do not disturb animals unnecessarily. Exciting or running animals will
reduce rate and increase cost of gains.
1l. Disposition of herdsman is an important factor in how cattle perform.
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XVII FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION PUBLICATIONS
A partial list of the available publications on pasture, cattle and
related subjects follows:
-------- Hay and Seed Drying with a Slatted Floor System
-------- Grass Pastures in Central Florida
------- Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control
-------- Know your Fertilizers
------- Poisonous Flants in Florida
------- Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle
-------- Maintaining Fertility in Mineral Soils Under
-------- Winter Clovers in Central Florida
------- Growing Oats in Florida
------- Citrus Products for Beef Cattle
------- Selecting and Using Beef and Veal
-------- Year-Round Grazing on a Combination of Native
and Improved Pasture.
------- Leaching of Fertilizer Phosphorus in Acid Sandy
Soils as Affected by Lime
------- Cost and Methods of Pasture Extablishment and
------- Fertilizer Should Contain a Source of Sulfur
for Clover Pastures in Many areas of Florida
---- Soil Reaction (pH)
------- Big Trefoil
------- Feeding Beef Cattle for Show and Sale
------- Control of Some Insect Pests of Improved Pasture
------- Internal Parasites of Cattle, Their Control witl
Phenothiazine and Management
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