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Group Title: Field day outline, Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Florida
Title: Field day outline. September 11, 1953
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075778/00001
 Material Information
Title: Field day outline. September 11, 1953
Series Title: Field day outline.
Alternate Title: Mimeo - University of Florida Range Cattle Experiment Station ; 54-1
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: University of Florida Range Cattle Experiment Station.
Publication Date: 1953
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075778
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143655040

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Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




Range c fe 1A5ation
Range CM nation


Mimeo


Report


54-1


FIELD DAY


OUTLINE


RANGE CATTLE EXPERIMENT STATION
ONA. FLORIDA


Septe


mber 11,


1953


STAFF


Dr. E. M.


Kirk, V
Hodges,
Jones,


ice-Director in


Charge


Agronomist


Asst.


Soil


Technologist


Mr. O.


, Coker, Farm Foreman


Miss Jackie Johns, Typist
Mr. F. .M Peatosk* 4. Animal Husb.


Range Cattle Station is


Station


of the


a part


University of Florid


of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
a. Visitors are welcome.


OUTLINE OF WORK*


PAGE


Field numbers,


varieties and


treatments on Range


Cattle


Station


pastures-------------------------------------------


II.

III.


Pasture

Pasture


gras s es---- -----------.----------------------------

legumes- .-- _-na--------------------------------


Pasture irrigation---------------------------------------------


Grazing


trialas-----.- .-----------------------------------


Combination of improved and native pasture---------------- -


VII.

VIII.


Phosphorus

Pasture ins


source pastures-------------------------- ---------------------

ects_------------------- -----------------------


Hay production---------------------------- -- -- -- ---- --------------


Cattle


program- --------------------------------- ----- -------


Weight


calves


born in


1952---. ------ -- --------------


XIII.


Average weight of


cows and heifers--------------------------


XIII.


Wintering


beef


cows on


range-----.---.----.-----------------


- -


* .L - -


ryr -. _-^*


. -


If










Field Ntumbers,


Varieti


and Fertilizer Treatments on


Range Cattle Station Pastur


Field
No.


Variety


GRAZING


Treatments


TRIALS


1 & 31
2& 19
3& 20


Torpedo,


disked,


Common Bahia,


N-P-K*,


N-P-K,


lime,


limei,


M.Ee


Carpet-Louisiana White Clover,


& 12


Carpet-Hairy


5 & U
6& 27
7& 25
8 &17
9 & 10
11 & 15
13 & 2h
16 & 23


Pangola,


Indigo,


N-P-K,


Argentine Bahia,
Pensacola Bahia,


Carpet,


N-P-K,


P-K,


lime, M
N-P-K,
N-P-K,


lime,


lime,


[.E.


lime,
lime,


M.E.


Carpet and Carpet-Hairy


Carpet-Hubam,


Coastal
Pangola,
Pangola,


P-K,


Bermuda,
N-P-K,
N-P-K,


lime,


N-P-K,
lime, M
lime, M


Indigo,
M.E.


lime,
[*E.
[.E.


M. E.*Ha


P-K,
M.E.


lime,


Ml.E.


M. E.
M, E.


N-P-K,


mad P-K,


limes


M.E.


M.E.


Mixed clover,


P-K,


lime,


Mixed grass-clover, P-K,
Suwannee Benrmuda (#99),


& 22A


Carib


Native,
Native,
Giant P
Hairy I


- Pangola,


N-P-K,


M.E.


lime,
N-P-K,
lime,


M.E.
lime, M.E.
M.E.


no fertilizer


N-P-K,
Angolaa,
ndigo,


lime,
N-P-K,


P-K,


M E.


lime,


lime,


M.E.


M.EE


HERD PASTURES


Rhodes & Joint Vetch
Para-Pangola, N-P-K,


(Aeschynomene),
lime M.E.


P-K,


lime,


. E.


Pensacola Bahia,


Pangola,
Pangola,
Plots, i


N-P-K,
N-P-K,


N-P-K,
lime, M
lime,' i


lime,
.E.
r4I.


.rrigated


Pangola-clover,


Pangola-c
Pangola,


lover,
N-P-K,


Pangola-Para,


P-K,
P-K,
lime,


N-P-K,


lime,
lime,
ME.
lime,


M.E;


ME.,
M. E.,


irrigated
irrigated


M.E.


Mixed


grasses


and clovers


Pangola-Para-Indigo,


P-K,


, P-K,
lime,


Coastal Bermuda-Bahia-Indigo,


lime,
M.E.


P-K,


M.E.


lime,


M.E.


Bahia-Carpet-Indigo,


P-K,


lime,


M.E.


Pangola,


N-P-K,


lime, M.E.


Pensacola Bahia-Hubam,


Cnastal Bermuda..


N-P-K.


P-K, lime,


li-me.


M.E.


M.'R.


&






Field
No.

70


Variety


Pangola,
Pangola,
Pangol a1


N-P-K,
N-P-K,
N-P-K,


Native pastures


Treatments


lime,
lime,


bull pasture


bull


pasture


lime, MIE.


Pangolas


heavy rates


fertilizer


Plots
Grass


near houses
and clover,


P-K,


lime, M.E.,


irrigated


Improved Bermuda,


Suwannee Bermuda (#99)-Hubam,
Suwannee Bermuda (#99)-Hubam,


Phosphate sour
North pasture,
East pasture,
Barn pasture,
herd, com
House pasture,
Pond pasture,


Carpet,


101
102
1W thru 5WP


'ce pastures, see
native land plus


native


land plus


Carpet grass
bined with 6


Carpet-clover,
Pangola and Nati


N-P-K,
P-K, 1
P-K, 1


M.E.


ime, M.E.


ime,


page 7

61-64


M.E.


51-55


Brahman and crossbreeding
, 80 and 98


partly irrigated,


N


Pensacola Bahia and Native,


Pensacola Bahia and Para,


Giant Pangola, N
Native pastures,


Native


r-P-K,


lime,


N-P-K,


-P-K,
sons


lime,


P-K,
M.E.


lime,


M.E.


fertilization


M.E.


M.E.


see wintering


cows


on the range,


page


pasture for herd maintenance


*N-nitrogen,


per acre


P-phosphorus,


each of


copper


K-potash;


*CaLcic


and manganese sulfate,


lime;
10# sin


*H1M, E,


indicates


l1-20#


sulfate and on clovers,


5-10l borax.


PASTURE GRASSES


Plant improved grasses


on the


Establish only as much pasture
maintain dc


best land available,


as is


needed and can be properly


Destroy native


months


growth and prepare land


thoroughly,


starting 6 to


before planting.


Plant productive and


and Improved Bermudas.


adapted grasses


such as


Pangola,


Use more than one variety,


each


Pens acol


in a pur


Bahia,
e stand,


when large areas are planted.
Plant when land is moist and use a


packer to


save


moisture and smooth


the field.


Apply


lime,


treatment


fertilizer


and minor


element s


as needed.


Most soils


require


at planting time.


Fence new pastures and
planting or until grass


protect from grazing


establ


Refertilize high producing pastures


hed.
yearly with


to 90


days


after


4CO pounds per acre of


8-8-8 or a similar mixture.
Apply additional nitrogen when


very heavw


arazing or


several cuttings


Pangola ard


thru 9h


M*E.,
M.E. J


73 &


lime


lire,







Maximum production depends on


proper rate of


undergrazed will produce more and better
cattle.


stocking.


beef than


A pasture slightly


one with


Pastures must


be used


effi ciently to be profitable.


III.


PASTURE LEGUMES


WINTER CLOVERS:


Very moist


land


or irrigation is necessary for white clover.


exacting in moisture requirements.


Louisiana White and


limited


Soil


lime per


areas
6.0 to


acre


Fertilize all


plantings


Hubam are best


varieties.


of Hairy Peruvian alfalfa ar


7 0 is


required for clover.


land,


adding 1


Kenland
e grown.
Treat w
every 3


Red has


ith


years.


500 pounds per acre 0-14-14 each fall. Most n
ements. Sixty to 120 pounds additional K20 as
h is needed on vigorous white clover in late


- -I -- -


require minor el


0-8-24 or muriate of potas


Hubam i


less


ew


winter and


Extreme
rate of


spring.


seed wi
d. Pla


1l pay. Up to 5
nt seed as soon a


should


against drying after


sowing.


Leave ungrazed for 90 to


stage


reached.


should


be grazed


120 days after planting or until


left


3 to 4 divisions


rotationally,


times the manufacturers
s treated and guard


the early blossom


being


best.


White


clover i
Little b


most


available in a


allowed


occurred in Florida


separate pasture may reduce


bloom moderately while grazed.


the danger.


HAIRY INDIGO:
Cattle do not


This
eat H


further problem.


summer


airy


legume has


Indigo quickly


grazing value when properly managed.


but once accustomed


to it


there is no


Cases of


severe


lameness


Range Cattle Station.


occurred


when the


for 60 to 90 days.
grass pasture and


pasture was


have developed in


cattle had


been on


cattle grazing Hairy


cracking of


skin


the pasture during


Recovery was rapid when affected


no lameness


available.


developed


Indigo at


just above the hoofs


continued wet weather


to a


when a free choice of Indigo and grass


Indigo that accumulates


growth during mid-summer provides high quality forage


fall when grass pastures


or a moderate


stocking


become


rate permit


graz


low in feeding value.
ing Indigo during both


Rotational grazing
sumner and fall.


Well-drained flatwoods


lime at


lizer annually at


seeded


land


given


with 1


300 pounds of 0-14-14 or


June.


similar


Indigo should be


or in sods


w -


ferti


spring-


Carpet.


Bermuda


too many


on most acid
clover with


some promise


2 to 3 tons of


care in inoculation


inoculant


be use


is reached.


clover


Hubam loses value if


productive if


ungrazed until full bloom is


but grass miAcd with


the clover or


A swelling and


animals were moved


4 year intervals


will grow


Indigo if treated


planting time or in May or


5 pounds per acre on newly prepared land


ton per acre of


__ _


loat


'm w


_






OTHER LEGUMES: Common and Kobe lespedeza have been in grazing trials with
Carpet grass. Benefits were obtained but irregular in nature and of limited
value. Sericea lespedeza has failed in local plantings. Alyce clover made
excellent growth on upland soils. It is damaged by rootknot on higher lands
and will not tolerate the wetness of flatwoods. Crotalaria and Beggarweed grow
on soil of above-average fertility but are not of general value. The poisonous
Spectablis crotalaria is widely distributed and should be guarded against in
pastures. Big Trefoil has been seeded in many places with limited success. A
small area at the Range Cattle Station in its second year grew well in spring
and summer, 1953. A native legume, Joint Vetch or Aeschynomene, has made
vigorous summer growth.

IV. PASTURE IRRIGATION
FOUR-ACRE AREA: Irrigation with a small perforated pipe system was begun on this
area in January, 1950. Louisiana White is the principal clover, growing with a
number of grasses. A native sedge, commonly called "watergrass" has become a
pest in this pasture. Potash deficiencies following fall fertilization of
the clover have led to increased treatment rates on this type of pasture.

Records have been obtained with two-year old steers and yearling heifers. A
summary of results follows:

Year 1950 1951 1952 1953
Weather Very dry Med. dry Moist Variable
Irrigation, acre-inches 16.5 14.0 10.0 15.0
Began grazing 1-21-50 1-6-51 12-18-51 1-22-53
Finished grazing 9-21-50 10-27-51 11-4-52
Beef gain per acre, lbs. 492 1050 889 664 (May 21)
Cattle days per acre 440 584 696 --
Daily gain per head, lbs. 1.18 1.79 1.28

HERD AREA: A large-scale irrigation trial was begun in the 1951-52 winter, using
a nest of shallow wells with a centrifugal pump and rotary sprinklers. White
clover was established in Pangola-Carpet sod but water supplies were inadequate
for the 25-acre area. A 781-ft. deep, 10 inch well was finished in early 1953.
Equipped with a 5-stage turbine and 30 HP electric motor, this installation
delivers 30,000 gallons per hour with a sprinkler pressure of 50 pounds.

The clover is grazed in rotation with Pangola pastures to maintain 60 cows
year-round and their calves to 6-8 months of age on a total area of 80 acres.
This herd is described on page 9, paragraph G.

V. GRAZING TRIALS
Data on the spring and summer grazing value of several pasture grasses were
obtained from 1945 through 1951. These pastures were paired in most instances,
two 5-acre areas being grazed in a 7 to 10 day rotation. Lime and minor elements
were added as needed and 500 pounds per acre of 6-6-6 fertilizer applied annually
in March. Average gain per acre per year was as follows:


-5-






Variety Gain in pounds
Carpet 57
Common Bahia 83
Torpedo 125
Vasey 121
Native 58
Pangola 176
Pensacola Bahia 145
Coastal Bermuda (#35) 130
Suwannee Bermuda (#99) 159
The Suwannee Bermuda was in a single field where the soil was slightly mr e
fertile than elsewhere in the area. The sod had to be reworked in 1951 because
heavy grazing had permitted invasion of less productive grasses.

The annual fertilization plan was changed on these pastures at the end of
1951. Three separate applications of 9-6-6, made in March, May and August, 1952
produced the following figures in pounds of gain per acre: Carpet 182; Common
Bahia 138; Torpedo 206; Native 144; Pangola 362; Pensacola Bahia 224;
Argentine Bahia 236; Coastal Bermuda 211. Four different rates of 9-6-6
fertilizer were applied to Pangola in 1952, all except the lowest rate being in
split applications. The per-acre rates of fertilizer were 300, 900, 1700 and
2900 pounds with respective per acre gains of 252, 362, 710 and 895 pounds.
Beef gains were high for most pastures during 1952, due partly to moderate
moisture conditions during most of the growing season.

VI. COMBINATION OF IMPROVED AMD NATIVE PASTURE FOR A BREEDING HERD
A herd of approximately 70 grade Brahman and English bred cattle have been
maintained since 1949 on a 400-acre experimental area without supplemental feed.
The area is composed of 320 acres of native range and 80 acres of improved
pasture. These cows have an average calf crop of 80%, the calves when weaned
at 6 to 8 months of age have an average weight of over 425 pounds.

The 80 acres of improved pasture are divided into four fields, Variety,
fertilization and management are as follows:

No. 61. Pensacola Bahia with some Common Bahia and Carpet, topseeded to
Hairy Indigoe Lime and minor elements. Spring application of
500 pounds per acre of 0-14-14. Reserved in summer to permit
growth of Indigo.
No. 62. Pangola. Lime and minor elements. Fertilized in spring with
N-P-K and fall nitrogen topdressing, reserved during fall for
mid-winter feed. Grazed rotationally during spring and summer.

No. 63. Pensacola Bahia seeded to Hubam clover. Heavy lime and minor
elements. Chopped and reseeded to Hubam in fall ci -1 1 Y
application of 250 pounds per acre of 0-8-24 if lover makes
good growth. Clover grazed intermittently from February to
May. Grass grazed rotationally May to October.


-6-







Coastal Bermuda.


fall,


Lime and minor


one application N-P-K and


served in late summer for


elements.
one nitrogen


late fall


Grazed intermittently during winter,


Treated


spring and


topdressing.


- early winter grazing.


spring and


early


summer.


The native range,
but alternate bur


to which the


ning,


one-half


cattle have year-round access receives no treatment
each year.


VII.


PHOSPHORUS


* SOURCE PASTURES


These Pangola


pastures are now in


evaluate the phosphate sources in a


phates, sup
annually at
phosphate a
per acre, r
rate of 100


erphosphate
50 pounds
nd colloida
respectively


0 pounds


p


concentrated


of P205 per acre.
1, are applied ev
*. Lime is added


per acre


their sixth year of production in a


grazing


experiment .


superphosphate


less


The more


basic


slag


soluble material


test


soluble phos-
, are applied
s. rock


'ery three years at 2000 and 2400 pounds
to one superphosphate treatment at the


every three years,


to approximate the amount


calcium added in the rock phosphate.


Through 1950 all pastures


per acre,
Copper, m
rates of


after which the N
anganese and zinc


received nitrogen


rate was increased


5


sulfates were applied at


15 pounds per acre,


potash K20at 2


0 pounds
time of


respectively.


pound


each


per acre annually.
establishment at


Copper


sulfate at


pounds per acre was reapplied in 1953,
treatment.


six years after initial minor element


Each treatment is


with N-P-K


cedure is


made up of


or N-K and


reversed,


four


3-3/4 acre areas,


other two with nitrate


and as


result,


two being treated
soda. In the fall


each area receives alternate N-P-K,


each


spring


the pro-
or N-K,


and nitrate of


the areas


soda


treatments.


being reserved in


These


pastures


are grazed


rotationally with


the fall for winter grazing.


A small br
treatment.
times to c
remain wit


eluded in t!

The average


feeding herd is


These


lonmon


carried


cattle receive no


salt and modified


cows until


weaning,


throughout


the year on


supplemental feed


salt


at 6


sick


supplement


to 8 months of


the pastures of


have access


(see page


age,


each


s at all


12).


Calves


their weights in-


he total gain for the treatment.


beef


to 1950 and 1951

Field No.


gains per acre on


to 1952* are given in


Phosphorus


the various


treatments for the periods


1948


the following table:


treatment


1948 to


1950


1951.to


1952


82 and 90
83 and 86
81 and 85
84 and 87
89 and 91
88 and 94


No Phosphorus
Superphosphat e
Superphosphate plus lime
Raw Rock Phosphate


Concentrated


Superphosphate


Colloidal Phosphate


,h







VIII. PASTURE INSECTS


An aphid, known as the yellow sugarcane aphid, has caused extensive damage
to Pangola grass pastures. The insect is about one eighth of an inch in length
and bright yellow in color. It was first believed that aphid damage was con-
fined to the fall months, but in the past two years much damage has been done in
the spring. Both summer rainfall and cool winter weather adversely affect this
pest. In most instances, recently fertilized pastures are more readily attacked.
The first indication of aphid damage on Pangola pastures is the yellowing of
leaves and in later stages the color becomes purple. Infested areas are usually
more or less circular in shape and enlarge as the insects work outward. At
the station the aphid was controlled by spraying pastures with a mixture of 1
pound of 15% wettable parathion to 100 gallons of water applied at the rate of
75 gallons per acre* CATTLE SHOULD NOT BE PERMITTED TO GRAZE TREATED PASTURES
FOR AT LEAST ONE WEEK FOLLOWING TREATMENT.

A grass worm, erroneously called Fall Armyworm, has caused considerable damage
to pastures. This is a looper, or measuring type worm, and varies in color
from a tannish gray to dark green or black, usually having a striped appearance
down the back. This is a chewing insect and eats notches from the sides of the
leaves. In severe infestations, the plants may be completely defoliated. These
may be controlled with DDT, Toxaphene, Chlordane, or Parathion.

IX. HAY PRODUCTION
Limited quantities of hay have been made at the Range Cattle Station ever since
itb establishment. Some of this was from grass cut especially for hay and
some resulted from mowing to prepare for clover planting.

Hay is a means of carrying feed from time of plenty to periods of need* Its
production in central Florida has been stimulated by introduction of grass
varieties suitable for the purpose. Wet weather, common when the grass is
available, and lack of storage space hinder more extensive production.

Similar areas of Pangola, Suwannee Bermuda and Giant Pangola were set aside
for hay production at the Range Cattle Station in early 1953. The fertilization
program on all three grasses was as follows:

February 17 - 00 lbs. per acre 9-6-6
March 19 - - 25 lbs. N per acre from mixed sources
April 5 - -- 300 lbs. per acre 9-6-6
April 20 - - 300 lbs. per acre 9-6-6
May 1 - - 100 lbs. per acre nitrate of soda

Weather was increasingly dry after May 1 and the grass was cut on May 11.
Drying conditions were ideal and curing rapid. The grasses were raked at least
once during each day they lay in the field.

Suwannee Giant
Variegt Pangola Bermuda Pangola

Water content when mowed 70% 59% 72%
Time from cutting to baling 94 hrs. 27 hrs. 52 hrs.
Water content when baled 12% lh% 11%
Hay yield per acre 3 T. 1 T. 2 T.
Protein content of baled hay, y / L
12% moisture% a% 12%


8 -






CATTLE PROGRAM


Purebreds:


Shorthorn;


Erahman'


I bull


mature a
', t cows,


hnd3


young


bulls,


4 heifers


I.2 COWS,
calves.


6 heifers


and 9


calves.


Crossbreeding:
Shorthorn bulls


Crossbred heifers


consists


have been mated to


are back-crossed to


Brahman cows,


Brahman-l/4 Shorthorn cows


bill


L6 Crossbred cows


and heifers


Brahman cows


since 1942.


of the parental breeds.


and heifers,


twenty


Female herd


six 3/4 Shorthorn-i/h Brahman heifers.


Brahman and Shorthorn bulls mentioned in Section A are


used in


this


project.


Grading Up:
Commercial herd consists of


Shorthorn and Angus cows
in 1 to generations.


in this program,


O


and heifers,


Brahman


In 1950 an Angus


a Santa Gertrudis was used with a


ver
all


grade Brahma
which trace


Shorthorn bulls have


bull,


1951.


small herd of


n,


Devon,


Hereford,


back to the native cow
been used extensively


a Hereford bull,


grade


and,


1952 and 1953


Brahman cows.


Records:


measures


Breeding,


weight


of the value of


weighed every 3 months,


Calves


changes


and productivity of


each animal for beef production.


those


graded at weaning


on grazing
and all fat


cattle
All


are recorded


animal


feeding trials more frequently.


animals


time of


slaughter.


Fattening:
Feeding trials


fattening cattle on pastur


The first trial with
been completed. The


wher


a study was made of


to determine


and in


steers


the
dry:


different


value of Florida by-prod act feeds for


are in progress throughout


breeding


se cattle were slaughtered


each carcass.


This


and fed a


the year.


standard ration has


the Main Station,


Gainesvill e,


included a detailed record of the


physical,


chemical


and quality characteristics of prime rib roasts from each animal.


Manag ement:
Practices


April 1; w
during the
mixtures;
after birt
of pasture


loss

G.


in weight.


Effect


Three


include:


meaningg calves


first


winter;


control of


controlled breeding


at 6 to


rotational


external


inoculating


months of


age;


eason of


100 days,


supplemental


deferred grazing;


and internal parasit


all calves


culling inferior


Breeding
breeding


animals;


against


bl ackleg;


free


starting about


feeding of calves


access


t


castrating calves
no continuous ove


supplemental feeding


and Nutrition on Production:


herds,


to be kept on pasture


throughout


prevent


the year.


o mineral
shortly
rstocking
excessive


Herd


1- on native range.


Herd


Herd 3- on improved pasture.


ten purebred Brahman,


Brahman,
hFrd t.he


on a combination of native and improved pasture.


Each herd will


consist of the following


ten 3/h Brahman-1/h Shorthorn,


twenty


ten 3/4 Shorthorn-1/h Brahman and ten purebred Shorthorn.


mrr sphrAd


cows:


Shorthorn-1/


and oradI brahman and 10 of the crossbred cows will


each


be bred to


are


f


s at


C










XI. WEIGHT OF CALVES BORN IN 1952

Average Weight at 180 Days and Slaughter Grade at 200 Days of Calves
Sired by Different Bulls and Out of Various Groups of Cows

No. Av. Weight Av.Slaughter Pasture
Sire Dam Calves at 6 Mos. Grade Conditions

Shorthorn Brahman 16 450 Good Good

Brahman Crossbred* 17 438 Good Fair to
Good

Shorthorn Crossbred* 7 411 Good Good

Hereford Gr. Brahman 20 414 Good Fair to
Good

Brahman Gr.Brah., Devon Fair to
and St. Gert. 38 400 Good- Good

Brahman Gr.Brah. Hete. Fair to
and Devon 31 414 Good- Good

Brahman Gr.Brah. and
Shorthorn 27 352 Commnw Native

Crossbred* Gr. Brahman 32 417 Good Good
Average -- 408 Good


* 1/2 Shorthorn-1/2 Brahman


The average weight at 6 months of age of 167 calves born in 1950 was 429
pounds, 205 calves born in 1951, 380 pounds and 188 calves born in 1952, 408
pounds.


- 10 -















No
Breeding Catt

Brahman 30

Gr. Brahman 53

Gr. Brahman &
Gr. Shorthorn 60

Gr. Brah., Devon,
Hereford & X-bred 78

Gr. Brahman &
S. Gert. 15

Heifers born
in 1950 57

Heifers born in
1951 83


XII. AVERAGE WEIGHT OF COWS AND HEIFERS

Average Weight
Dec. March June Sept. Dec. Calf Crop Feed
Le 1951 1952 1952 1952 192 1955 Condition

1035 987 997 990 993 93 53 Good

1065 935 979 980 1081 60 66 Good


777 871 876 883 825 47 72 Native
Fair to
898 867 894 913 935 78 81 Good


933 825 883 895 905 87 93 Native
Fair to
723 758 845 922 960 86 Good
Fair to
Al 706 705 Good


- 11 -


L)j~ jl( VI/







XIII. WINTERING BEEF COWS ON THE RANGE

Feeling Citrus Products and Cottonseed Meal


The object of this project is to determine the supplemental value of citrus feeds,
with and without cottonseed meal, in terms of calf crop and weight and grade of
calves at weaning. In November 1948, 60 grade cows from two to five years of age
were divided into five lots of 12 cows each. From November to April each lot is
confined to 160 acres of native range but the 60 cows run together the rest of
the year. One-half of each pasture is burned during the winter. The three-year
results, 1949-50, 1950-51 and 1951-52 are as follows:


Lot number


Supplements fed

Av. supplements
fed each winter
per cow, lbs,


Calves weaned,
3 years

Percent calf crop

Grade calves at weaning

Yearly calf production
per cow, lbs.

Yearly calf production
per acre, lbs.

No. calves born 1953


1 2


None Oranges G'f't


O 971


1447


24 25 28

67 69 78

Good Good H.Conm.

253 270 311



19 20 23

7 10 9


G'f't and
C.S.Pellets

1447 G'f't
70 CSM


Good


286


* Citrus pellets contain 4 parts citrus meal, 35 parts
25 parts cottonseed meal. 4*One calf died at birth.


Citrus
Pellets*


266


H. Comm.


286


citrus molasses and


XIV. MINERAL MIXTURES

The mineral mixtures now being fed at the Station with good results are made up
as follows:


Ingredients

Steamed Bonemeal
Defluorinated Phosphate
Common Salt
Red oxide of iron
Copper sulfate
Cobalt chloride or sulfate
Cane Molasses
Cottonseed Meal


Range Station
Mineral

29.00 pounds
29.00 "
31.21 "
3.12 "
0.63 "
0.04 "
5.00 "
2.00 *


Modified Salt
Sick IMineral



100.00 pounds
10.00 "
2.00 "
2.00 ounces


'The-complete mineral contains 17% calcium, 8.3% phosphorus and 31.2% common salt.
Common salt, in addition to being an essential ingredient, prevents spoilage of
.'hbonemeal, molasses and cottonseed meal if mineral becomes wet. Molasses and
-ttuonseed meal have been added to improve palatability of the mineral.

12 -


-. I.-







XV. SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING OF PROTEIN

Protein is the nutrient most lacking in range forage from late fall to early
spring* The problem is to provide the feed in such a manner that all cattle have
an equal chance of getting their share of the protein feed. One method of con-
trolling the intake of cottonseed meal or other high protein feed is by mixing
with salt and complete mineral. The results of a feedingtrial with steers on
native pasture during the 1952-53 winter are given below. These cattle main-
tained their weight during the winters


Period Mixture Fed
CSM Salt Complete
Mineral


10-25 to 12-17-52 68 26 6

12-18-52 to 2-7-53 67 24 9
Average


Av. Consumption Daily per Steer
CSM Salt Complete
Mineral
Ibs. Ibs. Ilbs.

0,61 0.23 0.05

0.60 0.22 0.08
0.61 0.22 0.07


Daily consumption of cottonseed meal is regulated by the amount of salt and
mineral in the mixture. It is suggested that a mixture of 2 parts salt and 1
part complete mineral be added to the cottonseed meal in the amounts needed to
control the daily intake of cottonseed meal at the desired level.

XVI. FATTENING CATTLE

Florida by-product feeds have been used in fattening trials since 1945. Four
trials in dry lot in which cottonseed meal was fed at the same protein level as
a mixture of 60 parts cottonseed meal, 5.5 parts 2-6-2 (Urea) and 34.5 parts
citrus meal as protein feeds have been completed (see data below). Lot 32 was
fed citrus molasses and cottonseed meal while Lot 33 received citrus molasses
to which was added 3% 2-6-2 and one pound of citrus meal daily per steer.

Ammoniated citrus pulp with a nitrogen content equivalent to 12 percent pro-
tein has been fed in preliminary trials. Lot 35 was fed regular citrus pulp
and Lot 36 ammoniated pulp, both lots getting the same amount of nitrogen,
Ammcniated pulp is not as palatable as plain pulp. Replacing 20 parts of
ammoniated pulp with cracked corn improved the palatability of the ration.

The "standard' ration fed for 140 days to calves in Lots 37, 38, 39 and 40
consisted of 55 parts citrus pulp, 30 parts cottonseed meal, 10 parts cornmeal
and 5 parts alfalfa. All were fed hay and citrus molasses at the same rate.

The ration fed Lot 42 consisted of 70 parts citrus pulp, 25 parts cottonseed
meal and 5 parts alfalfa. Ground snapped corn replaced the pulp in the ration
fed Lot 43 and cornmeal for Lot 14, All lots were given the same amounts of
hay and citrus molasses.


- 13 -












UREA AND AMMONIATED CITRUS PULP IN FATTENING RATIONS


Lot
No. Breeding

Dry Lot-Urea


Grade Brahman
it It


Feed Required for 100 lbs. Gain


Av.Da.
Gain
Ibs.


2.28
2.13


Citrus
Hay CSM Urea Pulp
lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.


189
205


ill
71


6.5


284
339


Native Pasture-Urea


Grade Brahman
tn it


1.58
1.48.


- 110


22.0


Dry Lot-Ammoniated Pulp


Grade Brahman
it It


2.02
1.86


221 152
240 106


306
320**


99 460
107 492


* Pasture not included.


** Ammoniated citrus pulp, 12% protein.


"STANDARD" FEED*, CITRUS PULP, GROUND SNAPPED CORN AND CORNMEAL FOR FATTENING


Av.Da.


Feed Required for 100 lbs. Gain


St d Citrus Gr.Sn. Corn- Cit.


Gain Hay_ Feed Pulp Corn meal Mol. TDN
lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.


3/4 Sh.-l/4 Br.
1/2 Sh.-1/2 Br.
3/4 Br.-l/4 Sh.
Pure Brahman

Grade Brahman
r r


1.87
2.01
2.02
1.94

2.46
2.47
2.44


212
200
202
206

162
161
164


427
482
432
400


462


107
100
99
103

86
468 81
- 468 82


* 55 parts citrus pulp, 30 parts cottonseed
alfalfa.


meal, 10 parts cornmeal, 5 parts


- 14 -


Citrus
Mol.
lbs.


TDN
lbs.


433
456


688
696


411*
397*


Lot
No.


Breeding


442
472
435
418

433
435
465


--~-~----


4









RECOMMEDATIONS


1. Grade yearling cattle that are thrifty, good type, quiet disposition,
weighing from 450 to 700 pounds should be selected for feeding.
Calves should weigh at least 350 pounds. Cull out poor gainers as
soon as observed.

2. All sharp horns should be tipped. Cows and heifers kept separate from
steers. Some animals may need Phenothiazine treatment to eliminate
intestinal parasites.

3. Feed cattle in groups: 10 to 40 in dry lot when fed twice daily and in
larger numbers on pasture when self-fed. Do not over-crowd animals.

4. Fattening ration must include roughage, protein, mineral, vitamins, and
energy nutrients in proper proportions if cattle are to make good use
of the feed for maintenance and gains.

5. Citrus, corn and cane products are rich in sugar and low in protein.
They can be used for maintenance aid fattening when balanced with pro-
tein-rich feeds. Citrus pulp and meal are not roughage feeds. Cattle
need hay or pasture.

6. Provide three linear feet of trough space for 600 pound animals, fed
twice daily and one-half this space for cattle self-fed.

7. Good gains can be secured with yearling cattle on an average daily
ration oft
4 to 7 pounds good quality hq or equivalent pasture and
2 to 3 pounds of either cottonseed or peanut meal or' mixture of
60 parts cottonseed meal, 5,5 parts 2-6-2 (Urea) aid 34.5 parts
citrus meal,

PLUS ANY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING:

8 to 10 pounds citrus pulp or ground snapped corn
5 to 6 pounds citrus pulp or snapped corn and 3 to 4 lbs. molasses
8 to 10 pounds sweet pulp

8. Give a small quantity of fattening and protein feeds at start, increasing
slowly until cattle are on full feed in 30 to 60 days*

. 9 Allow 1 pound daily of high protein feed for each 250 to 300 pounds live
weight. Feed yearling and older cattle a mixture of 2 parts citrus pulp
or snapped corn to 1 part of cottonseed meal with molasses self-fed at
the start of the feeding periods Use a 3 to 1 mixture after 40 days.
Calves require more protein, giving 2 parts of the fattening to 1 of
high protein feed from the beginning. Calves cannot utilize either
molasses or urea as well as older animals.

.10. Supply ample feed and water and keep a good mineral before them.


- 15 -










U1. Feed cattle at the same time each day. Keep troughs clean and remove
any moldy feed. A shed over feed troughs prevents feed spoilage and
reduces danger of cattle going off feed.

12. Keep cattle comfortable. Good sanitary conditions can be maintained
with less effort on pasture than in dry lot. Use spray to control
flies.


13. Do not disturb animals unnecessarily.
reduce rate and increase cost of gains,


Exciting or running animals will


14. Disposition of herdsman is an important factor in how cattle behave.

XVII. FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION PUBLICATIONS

A partial list of the available publications on pastures, cattle and re-
lated subjects follows:


Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin


477
484
506
510
513
515


Bulletin 517 -
Circular S-32

Circular S-33

Circular S-35

Circular S-39


------ Hay and Seed Drying with a Slatted Floor System
.--- Grass Pastures in Central Florida
----. Know Your Fertilizers
.----- Poisonous Plants in Florida
..- Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle
------ Maintaining Fertility in Mineral Soils Under
Permanent Pasture
.---- Winter Clovers in Central Florida
---- Leaching of Fertilizer Phosphorus in Acid Sandy
Soils as Affected by Lime
.. Costs and Methods of Pasture Establishment and
Maintenance
---- Fertilizer Should Contain a Source of Sulfur
for Clover Pastures in Many Areas of Florida
----- Soil Reaction (pH)


9-11-53
1200


- 16 -


I


M




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