• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Front Matter
 Yearlong grazing trials
 Perennial grass variety tests at...
 Ryegrass in beef cattle produc...
 Aeschynomene in pasture progra...
 Forage research in south Flori...
 Micronutrient research and...
 Progress report on breeding research...
 Beef cattle incomes from improved...
 Appendix
 Acknowledgement














Title: Beef cattle field day.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075777/00002
 Material Information
Title: Beef cattle field day.
Series Title: Beef cattle field day.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Range Cattle Experiment Station.
Publication Date: 1972
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075777
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143648503

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Yearlong grazing trials
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Perennial grass variety tests at the agricultural research center, Fort Pierce
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Ryegrass in beef cattle production
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Aeschynomene in pasture programs
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Forage research in south Florida
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Micronutrient research and recommendations
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Progress report on breeding research Arc, Ona
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Beef cattle incomes from improved and native pastures
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Appendix
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Acknowledgement
        Page 55
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JUN


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I I I












































Dr. J. E. McCaleb


, Associate Agronomist,


pass


away


quite


suddenly
Center (


on June


1955-


1971.
McCale


During


was very


tenure
active


at this Research
in evaluating


forage


varieti


various


pasture management


programs


effects


fertilizer
McCaleb wa


on forage
s dedicate


growth and


a variety


to furthering


beef


of pasture problems.
cattle production


in Florida.
and a number


In addition


of prof


he was


essional


active


societies


in many
This


community


1972


affairs


Beef Cattle


Field Day


Program


dedicated


in his


memory.














Program participants


L. Chapman,


Center


Director,


Ona Agricultural


Research Center


T. J


Cunha


Chairman,


Science


Department
Gainesvill


of Animal


C. L. Dantzman


Assistant


Soil


Agricultural


Chemist
Research


Center


E. M. Hodges


Agronomist,


Ona Agricultural


Research


John Holt


Center


Farm Management Economist,


Department
Economic s.


of Agricultural
Gainesville


. W. Jones


Extension Agronomist,


Department


of Agronomy,


Gainesville


E. Kretschmer


Agronomist,


Fort


Pierce Agricultural


Research


Center


. E. McCloud


Chairman,


Department


of Agronomy,


Gainesville


F. M. Peacock


Associate Animal


Scientist,


Agricultural


Research


Center













BEEF


CATTLE FIELD


PROGRAM


ONA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH


April


CENTER


1972


Registration

Announcements


and welcome


Chapman


Yearlong

Perennial


azing


grass


trials

variety


at Ona

tests


E.
at A.


Hodges

Kretschmer


Pierce


grass


- 10:05


in bee


Aes chynomene


cattle


ture


production


Jones


programs


. Hod


10:05


- 10:25


Forage


research


h in


south Florida


McC loud


10:25


- 10:40


Micronutrient


research


and recommendations


Dantzman


10:4


- 11:00


Coffee


break


11:00


11:15


- 11:15


Progress
research


- 11:40


report


cattle


on breeding


incomes


F. M. Peacock


from native and


John Holt


11:40 12:00


improved

Summary,


pastures

comments


and discussion


period


. Cunha


12:00


- 12:10


Announce emen t s


and introductions


. Chapman


12:10


Lunch


served


the Hardee


County


Cattlemars


sociation


Field


trip


Adjourn














YEARLONG GRAZING


TRIALS


E. M. Hodges


E. McCaleb


and H. L. Chapman,


Extensive


grazing


trials


during


the warm season


had been


conducted


at the Ona ARC


prior


to 1965


when


a yearlong


grazing


period


study was


initiate


This report


presents


results


obtain


since


1966


from


12-month


graz


trials.


of daily


gain


primary


animal


objective


as influence


these


y forage


trials

species


was the measurement


Also


interest was


winter


behaviour


the cattle and


effect


grass


variety


on ne


ed for supplementation.


and most


pasture

had been


areas~


used in


wanted


the tests had


to diffe


rent


grasses


been


in use


years


or more


and had some variation


prior


- The di


itgra


Sf 0;


and bermudagras s


pasture


were


razed


on a 4-way


rotation


week on


and 3


weeks


off and the


bahia


asses


were


grass


razed


and Hair


week on

y Indigo


and 1


week off.


and another


using


combination


Ameri


Pensacola


can Jointvetch


bahia-


schynomane)


were


razed


in the


last


and 2


years,


respect


tively,


of the trial.


warm


season


and manag

included


legumes


to allow


acres


were


planted


summer


during


on one.-half


o\xth.


the first


Each


year


expert

and 10


combination


mental

acres


pasture

during


tures


unit

the next


ears


grasses


were


fertili


zed twice


annually with


a 12-6-6


mixture


at 50-25-25 pounds


received


300 pounds


acre o


acre


, P2 5


and ~0.


24 annually


grass


in June,


legume

Calcium


pasture


evels


ranged


from


1200


to 2000 pounds


CaO per


acre.


fertilization








higher weight


gain during


the 1966


winter


resulted


from over-supple-


mentation.


Results


Results


table


maintain


are pres


approximately


similar


ented


in Table


twice as much


gains


during


As shown


supplement


the winter on


per head

the bahia


section A of


was


required


grasses


as on the


digitgrasses


and bermudagra


sses.


Argentine bahia


was the least productive


grass


during


the winter period.


Section B of


the table shows


summer


(unsupp element

digitgrasses


daily gains


and bermudagrass


averaged

than on


substantially

the bahias.


higher on

Differences


the

within


groups


grasses


were


large enough


to be


important.


The data


in section


of the table


emphasizes


the wide variation


in measured


production


from year


to year within a single grass variety.


Pangola was


producer

showed a


during


long


the experiment.


Bermudagrass


term productivity under


rotational


designated as Bermuda 52)

grazing with a substantial


fertilization


program.








Table 1.


Summary of weight


gains


on grazing


trials (Ibs).


Year Pan S.Stem B.52 Pensa Arg Para 22 P+HI P+-Aes


Total winter gain per


steer and supplement per head.


1970

1969


1967


1966


Ave.


50O


26/


Ave.


Supply
Herd


2071/


Summer


season


average


daily gain per steer


1970


1969


1.13


1.05


1.00


1.41


1.05


1967


-.03


1966


1.10


Ave.


.641/


.942/


Yearlong gain per acre on pasture plus supplement


1970


1969


1968


1967


1966


Ave.


1661/


2312/


of 3


years.


AvP




*ja *.s
-


Fort


Pierce ARC


Mimeo


Report


RL-1972-1


March


1972


PERENNIAL GRASS


VARIETY TESTS


THE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER,


FORT


PIERCE


Albert


Kretschmer,


1/
Jr.-


INTRODUCTION


Replicated


eld trials


comparing


various


grasses


have


been


progress


continuously


at the


A.R.C


Pierce


since


1956.


purpose


been


assess


the productivity


various


domes


and foreign


types


on the


sandy


soils of


south


Florida.


PREVIOUS


RESULTS


Amon


Argentine


those


bahias


grasses

.fescue


tested in the past


, carpet,


were:


and Coastal


pangola,

Suwannee


Pensacola and


bermudas


Generally,


Bermudas


were


the most


produced more


invaded


by weeds.


productive and


forage during the

The bahiagrasses


wee


wint


free


er pe


produced


grass

riod


less


was


than


pang


pang


per year,


were


weed-fre


and were practically non-productive during


winter


and early


spring.


These


trends


are shown


in Table


next


a Rhod


rass


phase


(Chloris


testing

guyana)


revealed


introduce


two introduced Digitaria


tion


which


eare


species


form


better


than


yield

months


pang


ola during


of the


from


commercial


late spring


the colder periods.


and introdu


through


early


About


grasses


was


percent o

produced


the annual


in 5


to 6


fall.


Crude


the bahia


rose


during


protein


grass


contents


Coastal


were usually higher


the winter


(periods


than


and Suwannee


those


reduced


rowth


bermud


pang

rate


ola.


agrasses

Protein


and fell


levels


in the


summer;


there was


an increase


, during


summer,


in the


percent


recovery


nitrogen


applied.









More


recently


emphasis


centered


on winter production


because


critical


feed


shortage


south Florida


is during


a six month


period


including

available


the winter,


but no


and there are


adequate


perennial


good


commercial


winter-growing


summer-growing


species


types.


fo 1 lowing


a report


of five


years


results


a replicated


experiment


periods.


in which


Additional


grasses


data ar


were


press


clipped


ented


during


several


each


grasses


winter


harvested


during


a 2-


r period.


GRASS


YIELDS FROM SEPTEMBER


1966


TO JUNE,


1971


Procedure


sses


listed in Table


were


established


in the summer proceeding


the initial November


1966


harvest.


There were


four,


10 by


15 foot


replicated


plots


of each grass.


Plots were


"staged'


September


of each


year,


on or within


by cutting

a few days


and removing

of November 4,


the cuttings.


February


Harvesting


occurred


and June


There


were


20 harvests


grasses


included


in Tables


and 4


less


for those


in Table


Yields


were


ased


on grass


dried


at 70-75C


in a


forced


-draft


oven.


Values


are 5-year


averages


(November


1966


to June


1971)


per harvest


date and


the total


or average


yield


eptember 9


through June


10-10-10


fertilizer


was applied

to grow undi

once during


after


sturbed


that


each


provided


except


during


a rate of


the June


June


75 pound


harvest.


of nitrogen per


sses


to September


acre


were permitted


period or were cut


this period.


Results


The differences


in yields


iven


rass


varied markedly depending


years.


A typical


and Coastcross


example


bermuda


this


rasses


variation


where


is shown


large variations


in Table


occurred


for pangola

in yields,


nna rt;- on1 an ,, t


n nnt- AW ... .. - - -1- A-


nril


r-T- n\ Tr n^- >v ^


*.


rr


b









into


grass


variety production


difference can also be observed


in Table


Pangola and


Coastcross


grass


production


is almost


equal


during


Septem-


-November


4 and May


1-June


11 growth


periods;


stcross was


superior


during


the November


to May


rowth


period,


generally character-


zed by cooler temperatures


than


those occurring during


summer.


In Table


the combined


-year


average yields


are


reported


for 14


grasses

cuttings


at each of


are


harvest dates.


listed to show the


relative


Interval


growth


rates


grass

during


rowth


each


between


riod


Yield


differences


between


grasses


greater


than


those values


listed


below the

percent 1


harvest


evel


date averages


of confidence.


indicate


Pangola alw


significant

ays produced


differences


significantly


a I

less


forag e


than


the highest


yielding grass


at any given harvest.


In Tabi


4 are


reported daily dry matter


yields.


These


were determined


by dividing values


in Table


by the number of days


between


cuttings,


snd give


an indication of


effect of


season


on production.


in Table 4 are


listed


the relative production


rankings


of the


grasses


for each harvest.


smaller numbers


indicate grasses with higher production.


Data


in Tables


and 4 show that


from


September


to November


4 and


from May


while


from


to June


11 pangola


November 4


rated


to February


as fourth


and fifth


best


and from February


grass

to May


respect


tively,


periods


it ranked


last


or next


to last.


Previous


experiments


indicated


that during


summer periods


pangola


production was


equal


or b


better


than many


of th


commercial


and introduced


grasses.


Coastcross


bermudagrass


out-yield


pangola during


the November


to May


period


and could


classed


as a


higher producing


grass during


this


time of year.


two Digitaria species


#133


and #134,


that


yielded


well


in a


previous


test yi

period.


elded


exceptionally well


Bermudagras s


and the


except t


for the November


two highest yielding


4-February


Rhode


grasses


rowth


#161


I










Nandi


setaria


, #174,


(both Australian


commercial


grasses)


could


be placed


in the


lower


producing


grass


category.


Pounds


dry matter produced


varied


from


extremes


averages


of all


grasses


varied


from a February


low of


a June


high


of 61.


Several newer


experiment


in time


grass
to be


access


"staged"


ions were


established


on September


in the replicated


1969


seasons


data


(november


February


June


were averaged


for Table


Yield


data


pangola,


-Coasteross


bermuda and


the highest


yielding Digitaria


were


also


included


for comparison


Total


yields


varied


from


5360 for pangola


and 8380 pounds


acre for


Digitaria


#133.


Coastcross


bermuda


Hemarthria


#263


were high


yielding


and the remainder, were


in the low to


moderate


p roduc ing


category.


Discussion


Results


show there are


several


grasses


with


the potential


to out-produce


pangola during


the colder periods


the year.


Pangola


produced


average of


about


percent


as much


forage during


September


to June


period


as the


two or


three


highest yielding


grasses,


the November


to February

the highest

was about 5


growth


producing


period,


gras


however


ses.


, production was


The difference during


less


than half


g February


to May


percent.


It is


known whether


the clipping data


strictly


applicable


grazing

nitrogen


conditions


been


or whether


applied


after


similar


diff


each harvest.


erences


would


occur


The potential


if less


been shown


and the higher-producing


Quality


of most of


commercial


the grasses


grasses

included


should


in the


tried


under grazing.


experiment


been


determined,


and data on


animal


intake


not available.


It is


doubtful











produced


to 50 percent more


during


the winter


than


a standard


grass


with higher

ability would


quality.


result


During


summer


in more complete


periods


utili


higher


zation


intakes


a grass,


and digesti-


while


during

prior


winter periods most


to the


following


summer


grasses


because


would


probably


general


utili


lack of


dry matter


available.


In this and other


experiments


there


been


cons


iderable


infestations


the yellow sugarcane aphid


on pango


la and other Digitaria


spec


effect


of aphid


damage


on pangola


yields


has been well


-documented


It is


believed


that


this problem


is largely


responsible


for the relatively


poor


growth


pangola during


colder months


, although


aphid


counts


on pangola

experiment.


and on the


other


Digitaria


ecies


were


not made


in this


SUMMARY


Five


-year yields


of 14


grasses


were


compared


during


period


approximat


September


June


There were


arge


variations


between


the harvest


dates


approximately November


ebruary


June


Production


was least


from November


to February


and most


between


and June


There


were


also


large


variations


in yields


among


species


years.


In this experiment


pang


was considered


among


the lowest


producing


group


rasses


during


September


9-June


11 period.










TABLE


Oven Dry Weight


Yields


of Various


Grasses


Growing


in Different


Periods


the Year


Yield


- Ibs./acre


Between
about


Total


Between
about


Mar.


Between
about


July


IRFL
No.


Grass


Yearl/


&
Oct. 204/


232/1


Pangola

Coastal


Pensacola

Argentine


bermuda


bahia

bahia


1,240

2,180


15,720

14,790

13,180

13.580


4.110


3,390


Four


replications;


years


data


for average yi


per year;


a rate


16-8-8 fertilizer was


applied


after


each harvest


to provide


50 pounds


nitrogen


acre.


Harvested


on about


February


March


June


, July


September


October


20 and December


Including


harvests


of February


24 and


March


Including

Including


only


the May


harvests


5 harvests


September


and October


TABLE


Year


to Year


Variation


and Average


Oven


Weight


Yields


Pangola and Coastcross


Bermuda


Grasses


for Different Harvest Dates


IRFL


Grass


Pounds


Per Acre


November


Pangola


range

93-368


February


range

6-185


range


9-295


June
range


16 L4-37


avg.


-- w *


a 1:/


- __1. 7. --









Table


Five-year
Harvested


Average Ov
- November


en Dry


Weig


to June


ht Yields
111/


of Various


Grasses


IRFL


rG seOs


Pounds


Per Acre


Tlnrn


Total
Sept.
Julne


*V r sJ J h V L A.. & a -* -, -* Jh a
Growth intervals-days-- 56 88 89 41


Cynodon


(Bermuda)


2830


2130


2710


2930


10600


2340


. Digitaria

* Digitaria


Rhodes


2330


1970


1340


1160


2100


3230


3150


2730


3310


2820


2580


10220


9460


9380


Coastcross


bermuda


2270


1880


2420


2440


9010


Rhodes


1900


1980


2360


2510


8750


Rhodes


1620


1790


1910


2540


7860


Rhodes


1750


1750


1960


2000


7460


Rhodes


(Stamford)


1840


1500


1840


2130


7310


Rhodes


Rhodes


164.

25.


Pangola

Setaria


1570


1740


2160


sphacelata


1560


1460

1550

850


1990

1810

1450


2090


2220

2120

2560


2480


7240

7220

7020


6750


Setaria


sphacelata(Nandi) 1330


1430


2170


5820


Avg.


1940


1500


2220


2490


L.S.D.


--.01


2460


* L.S.D.


--.01


among


harvest dates


equals


330.


Plots w
cutting
applied


ere


10 by 15


on September


after


Plots were
Included 1


cutting


either


966,


left


1967,


feet
9.


, replicated
A rate of 7


in September
undisturbed


1968,


1969,


times;


50 Ibs./A


and after


or cut


and 1970


once


staged


were
10-10


each harvest


during


seasons


each


year


-10 fertilizer was


except


summer


in June.


time.


data.


__illli __






Table


Five-year


Harvest Dates ;


Average Oven Dry M


and Position


matterr Y Ids
Ratings-


of Various


Grasses


in Pounds


Per Day


at Differ


IRFL


Yield


- Ibs


. per day


Yield


Position Ra2


n -----


T in a


Anrto


Nnu


tu t'.____rasses IfOV *e r e~i iacr y r '.'.'. .Lj. 4.av .* - '- ----- -


Growth interval


-daysv- -


Cynodon


. (Bermuda)


Digitaria

Digitaria


Rhodes


Coastcross


bermuda


Rhodes


Rhodes


Rhodes


Rhodes


(Stamford


Rhodes


Rhodes


Pangola

Setaria


175.

174.


Setaria


sphac


elata


sohacelata


(Nandi)


Plots


of 750


were


10 by


Ibs./A of


15 feet,
10-10-10


renlicatcd


fertilizer wras


times


airlied
a -.


sh- (3ge o- '--


C-ut"


ye r\ n 1
_7 --

in S c~ zb r


c- 't.g -- c


and after


cn Septe.mbe


each


harn


in June.


Plots


were


either


left


undisturbed


or cut


once e


c~ij *-i'g


^.- ' T -
a^ ....&*t-U^ A.


imes.


Included


1956


1969


1970


seasons


data.


I


----~


-
*


after


I










Table


Two-year


Average Oven Dry Weight


Yields


of Different


Grasses


IIRFL


sses


Growth


interval


Yield


- Ibs


per


acre


June


Total
Sept.
June


-days--


Digitaria


1900


1980


1680


2830


8380


Hemarthria altissima


Coasteross


Tannergras

Digitaria


Hemarthria


bermuda


s

sp.

altissima


Pangola


1220

2070

1980

1540

1420

1760


1760

1710

850

1100

640

680


2530

1580

1760

1500

2040

900


2390

2420

2460

2750

2000

2020


7900

7780

7050

6890

6100

5360


Avg. 1670 1120 1720 2340
I m u i


Includes
seasons,


harvests


of November


, February


, May


and June


11 for 2


1969-71.












RYEGRASS


IN BEEF


CATTLE


PRODUCTION


W. Jones


Extension Agronomist

IFAS


University


of Florida


Ryegrass,


a cool


season annual


grass,


can be used


to produce high


quality forage during


the cool winter months


in Florida.


Ryegrass


be used


in combination with


perennial


pastures,


other cool


season


forage

In the


plants,


fall


small


of 1971,


grains


and clover,


approximately


170,000


to extend


acres


grazing


of pa


season.


sture


seeded


ryegrass


in Florida


, representing


an increase of


about


20% in


acreage planted


to this


crop


since


1968.


Varieties


Gulf


Florida Ru


st Re


stant


Common


and Magnolia have


been


more productive varieties


Limin


in Florida.


and Fertilization


Soil


pH should


to 6


with minimum


levels


600 pounds


and 100 pounds


of MgO per


acre.


Apply


500 pounds


acre


-12-12


or a similar mixture at planting.


Topdress


with


50-60 pound


nitr


ogen


at 6


to 8


week


intervals


if weather conditions


are


favorable


forage


needed.


Soil


tests


indicate


a need


to adjust


fertilizer


ratio


amount.


Do Not plant


ryegrass


without


an adequate


fertility


program.


Soils


and Seedbed


Select


fertile


soils that


are naturally mois


but not ant


to be


can













Ryegras s


may be


seeded


into


freshly prepared


soil


or into


established


grass


sod.


When


seeding


into


a sod,


it is


necessary


graze


or mow do


sely


in order


remove


excess


forage and


thus


remove competition


for the


young


seedlin


When


seeding


either


situation


it i


desirable


, however,


not absolutely n


necessary,


to pack


seed with


some


type of


roller.


soil should


thoroughly moist


at time of


seeding


in order


to get


fast


rmination


and rapid


seedlin


development.


Seeding


Dates


and Rates


Ryegrass


should


not be planted


during


eriods


extremely


high

time


tempe


rature.


seed


October


ryegrass.


to mid-November


grass


should


is the


seeded


mos


at the


t desirable


rate


of 20


30 pound


seed


acre.


Good


stands


have


been


obtained


from


mixing


seed with


fertilizer


and applying


both


materials


at the


same


time.


Utilization


Ryegras


can


produce


good


quality


forage during


cool months


Florida.


Graz


should


begin


when


plants


are


to 5


inches


high.


Rotational


grazing


desirable.


Providing


cattle


razing


ryegras s


with


access


to plenty of


roughage,


from


either native


range


or mature


grass


pasture,


will


result


in more


efficient


utili


zation of both


types


Some


ryegrass


availab 1


razing


in late


ember


January,


however


, February,


March


and April


are the months


greatest


production.


Good


in April


quality

or May.


can be made


Yields


to 1


ryegrass


after


ton of hay per ac


it has


re may


"headed


out"


be obtained.










AESCHYNOMENE


Hodges


IN PASTURE PROGRAMS


and J. E. McCaleb


Aeschynomene or American Jointvetch


(Aeschynomene Americana)


been growing


in Florida


for many years


and is


a native of


the western


hemi

also


sphere

is fou:


sub-tropics.

nd on wet rc


(Another


iadside


spec


locations


of Jointvetch


in peninsular


virginica)


Florida.)


member


the legume


family,


it forms


root nodules


and obtains


nitrogen


from


through


bacterial


action


Aeschynomene


seed unhulled


the hull)


seed


runs


ranges

almost


from


twice


75,000


this


to 100,000 per pound


count.


Germination


while hulled


occurs


in the


(naked)


spring


when

vege


soil

tative


moist

rowth


and daytime


seldom b


temperatures

before June


reach

1-15,


900F. Act

continuing


ive


into


September

in height,


or the onset


being


taller


of cool


weather.


in a thick


stand


Aeschynomene


than


grows


a sparse


to 6


one.


feet


Leaves


are medium


green,


inches


in size


with


blade


divided


into


to 60 leaflets


, giving


the whole


plant


a light and


feathery


appearance.


leaves


are


sensitive,


folding


together when


touched


or shaken


name


"Aeschynomene"


comes


from


Greek word


for "shy"


or "ashamed"


Pale


yellow


flowers marked


with


dark


lines


appear


in early October,


date varying with


location.


Four


six seeds


are produced


flattened,


to clothing.


jointed


There


which


a time


resembles


period


arweed


to 3


weeks


does


stick


from flower


production


to mature


seed.


Aeschynomene


is damaged


by cold


winds


killed


first


frost.


Most


seed


harvest has


been


accomplished


after


the plants


were


dead


Some windrowin


is now done


to ha


sten


seed


harvest.


Grazing or mowin


to a high


stubb1


before


September


keeps


t 1 -nn- 4- e


jcA -nf fl n.n f


tnn tall


fnr combine operation


and stimulates


seed


E. M.,










Planting


Recommendations


A variety of


drained,


but moist


soils


areas


produce


to lower-


ood Aeschynomene,


lying


sites


that


varying

have a


from well-


little


much


water


for Hairy


Indigo.


land


should


be limed


a pH


- 6.0 with


a soil


test


600 pounds


acre


CaO and


100 pounds


New or


low fertility


land


should


fertili


zed with


500 pounds


acre


0-14-14 or


similar mixture


when


seed is planted.


Old fields


of Aeschyno-


mene do well


with


an annual


application


300 pounds


acre of


0-8-24


or similar


fertili


zer.


requirement of


Aeschynomene for minor


elements

Pangolag


has not


;rass


been


supply


determined.


enough minor


Soil p

elements


reducing


good Bahiagrass


for Aeschynomene,


with


and

the


possible


exception


of boron


, which may


suppli


as 0


B203


in the


fertili


zer mixture.


Seeding:


Aeschynomene can


be planted


on cultivated


land


or on very closely


mowed


or grazed


sod.


Success


ful establishment


been


obtained


on sod


with no


seed


coverage,


a light disking


or chopping


is recommended


to put

rolled


seed in contact with


or run over with


soil.


a straight


on cultivated


-set grove disk


land


should


ive minimum


coverage.


Many


Florida


soils


have a natural


supply of


legume


bacteria


for Aeschynomene


but new plantings


should


be treated


with


cowpea


inoculant


or special


inoculant


at rates


recommended


on the package.


Aeschynomene may


be seeded


anytime


from


late winter


through June.


Later plantings


have


grown


and reseeded


but do not make much


fora


Seeding


should


be at


to 10 pounds


acre.


Aeschynomene


seed remains


unless


very vi


gorous


rubb in


action


applied.


Germination


tests










Table


1/
Germination-r


of Jointvetch


Seed


Harvested


in December


1966.


Unhulled,


in the


pod


Hulled,


naked


Date


Germin-


test


action


Hard
seed


Germin-


Total


ation


Hard
seed


Total


4-4-67
8-1-68
3-13-7
3-31-7


State of Florida,


Department


of Agriculture,


Seed


Laboratory.


Such


Many

seed


fields


provides


plant


with


unhulled


a second chance


seed have


case


the early


iven good


seedlings


results.


are


killed


in the


by dry weather.

laboratory have


It is


their


apparent


that


dormancy broken when


seeds which do not


placed


under


terminate


field


conditions.


Grazing


Recommendations


Cattle


should


graze a


sod until Aeschynomene


seedlings


are 2


inches


high and


then be


removed


for 50-60 d


ays.


Cultivated


land


that has


been


seeded


should


left ungraz


as soon


as germination


well


begun.


Grass


in to crowd


the legume


plants


will


reach


above


grass

inches


if given

high.


time


grow.


Rotational


Grazing can


grazing


should


started when


done with


plants


are 24


one week on


to three


weeks


off.


Continuous


grazing may


practiced


on a


thick


stand,


using not more


than one animal


unit


acre


as a base


stocking


rate.


Removal


of 75 percent


leaves


and small


stems


the signal


to stop


grazing


if regrowth


and reseeding


are desired.


Heavily


grazed


areas


1


IM I M


_ II


1


1









if flowers


are


present


in abundance


there


no need


to change


grazing


cycle.


be grazed

following


Once seed


heavily until


a crop


pods


frost


begin


to turn


Regrowth


of Aeschynomene


brown,


grass


the normal


the pasture should

s usually vigorous


grazing program can


be followed


through winter


spring


until


new


seedlings


reach


inch


Chill or


frosty weather virtually


ends


grazing


value of


this legume.


Harvested


Forage


Some mixed


stand


grass


and Aeschynomene have been harvested


for hay.


Proximate analysis


The dry matter content


of a single hay


growing


Aeschynomen


sample i

e plants


s shown

is low,


in Table 2.

in the


range of


plant.


percent


The analyses


for the top


in Table


six inches


indicate


24 percent


the protein


for the whole


is concentrated


leaves


and fine


stens.


Tab1


1/
Proximate Analyses-


of Aeschynomene Forage,


Single


Sample


Type of


Sample


Moisture


Protein


Fiber


inches


of tall


plants


13.6


24.1


20.1


Stems,
thick


stand


Leaves


fine


stems


11.5


21.3


20.4


38.5


Hay,


Aeschynomene
75% Pangola


12.6


34.2


34.3


Analyses,


Florida


State Department of Agriculture


Feed


Laboratory.


rI I III II









Conclusion


Aeschynomene has


been


planted


on extensive


areas with growth


being vigorous


in many


cases.


Early summer drouth,


excessive


grass


competition,

No clear-cut


premature


pattern


of us


grazing have


e has


been


limited


established


results


in some plantings.


for Aeschynomene and


the options

acreage has


are varied.


been grazed


Some


in late


green chop


summer


has been


and fall.


but most of


New plantings


should


be developed


with


the idea


that


their usability depends


methodical


grazin


management.


The perennial


grass


- summer


legume


combination


can be an


additive


to the


year-long


forage


program in


central


and south Florida and


Aeschynomene may well occupy


10-20


percent


of the total


improved


pasture area of


some


ranch.









FORAGE RESEARCH IN SOUTH FLORIDA

Dr. D. E. McCloud, Chairman
Department of Agronomy
University of Florida


It is a pleasure to be with you at the Ona Agricultural Research


Center Beef Cattle Field Day.


Beef cattle are an important agricultural


industry in Florida, and one with a tremendous potential for expansion,

particularly in South Florida.


Florida has availab


e land resources;


there are nearly 10 million


acres of flatwoods lands


,most of which has excellent pasture potential.


The climate is suitable for forage production.

Appropriate improved forage and pasture plants, economic fertilizer

practices, and suitable grazing management practices must be put together


in a system for beef production


this is not


easy.


More ski ll,


technical know-how and careful management are required to develop

a high producing beef cattle operation than are required for most other

farm operate ions.


much easier to produce a high yielding corn crop


a high y


, to produce


ding tomato crop, a high producing citrus crop than to develop


a high producing beef cattle operation.


This is true because a high


producing beef cattle operation requires all the skill 1


of crop pro-


duction to produce high yielding forages and pastures and in addition,


the skills of cattle management.

his forages and pastures nor his c
1 C iC r. r"


A good cattleman can neglect neither

battle. Both aspects must be

*~~~~~ ~ -- __,, 1 t T _1__ ^ I *. IA j-I l fr -h 1~ flIr ^Btf ^ I / '


Q












even more


imperative.


What are the forage and pasture factors that


limit


livestock


production


in South Florida?


There are some seven major factors that


should be considered:


Acreages of white clover and other legumes


in permanent grass


pastures are below optimuti


levels;


the use of annual


summer and


winter crops such

grazing season is


as summer

inadequate


legumes and ryegrass to extend the

; and double or triple cropping is


not practiced to the fullest extent possible.


Pastures and forage crops are generally under-ferti


ized.


Inadequate application of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, minor


ements and


limestone


common.


The dollar return per do


spent for fert


3. Optimum s


izer is high.


oi -plant-waterrelationships through drainage and


irrigation has not been achieved to the extent which


is economically


feasible.


4. In addition to some lack of attention to the great number of


individual


practices,


many


livestockmen do not follow "An All-


Practice Approach"


(one which gives simultaneous consideration to


such various production practices as species


seed


, planting


dates and rates;


fertile 1


zation


, kinds


, rates and dates


grazing












5. Florida livestockmen need one or more new dependable and

nutritious perennial pasture plants, resistant to cold and heat,


which would extend grazing to more nearly year-round basis.


will be said about this


More


ater.


A pasture and forage


eval


nation testing program for digestiblity,


total net energy


palatability or animal response is needed on a


routine basis


milar to the soil testing


services.


We soon will


have this capability.


7. Extreme fluctuation of cattle and livestock product prices


are responsible, to a large extent for non or


limited fertilization


of improved past


and for non


establishment of new improved


pastures.


Stab


zing pr


ices


would benefit the pasture and


forage program.


Some of these problems and needs can immediately be alleviated by


putting into practi


existing know-how.


Others await new research and


development such


the release of new varieties of pasture plants now


in forage crop breeding nurseries and improved crop production practices


of University of Florida plant breeders and agronomists.


The sol


ution


to still other problems must await the results of yet to be conducted

research of our scientists.


What is the forage research effort in South Florida?


At Belle


- I


1 1 *









and management


problems,


Robert


Allen.


efforts


are primarily


rected


toward


prob


ems


new vari


test


and supplement


feeds


such


as si


and d


ehyd rated


forages.


At Fort


Pierce,


two agronomists


are working on


forages,


bert


Kretschmer


John


Brolmann.


Kretschmer


acti


y working


on the


nt product


and management


new forage


ants


Berseem


over


and S


rat ro


have


recent


come


from


program.


Brolmann


a legume


breeder


ateda new breed


vari


deve


ment


program on


tylo


and other


egumes.


At Ona


two agronomi


sts,


Elver Hodges


and Dr


Paul


are working on


forages


. Dr. Hodges


along with


coope rat


entists


condu


acting


grazing


to measure


pro-


duct


ness


new pasture


ants.


a very


important


cess


devel


hoping


new forage


pasture


ants


for Florida.


Dr. Mi


slevy


our


group.


response


the testing


eval


uation


new forages


also i


carry


out the


agronomy


work at


mmoka


hope


to add another


agronomist


to work


full


Immokal


and other


South


areas


will


come


about


y when


a new facu


member


can be added.


Slenderstem dig


tgrass


the newest


pasture


vari


come


from


Ona forage


rese


arch


program.


addi


tion


work of


four


other


breeders


located


nesv


cont ri


butes


directly


to South


Florida.


A host


breeding


lines


from


these


programs


are being


tested


and evaluated


South


Florida.











we have six forage and pasture management agronomists who work


Central


and North Florida whose work has applicabi


ity to South Florida.


Two extension agronomists work full-time on forages and pastures.


Forage and pasture research and extension makes up


component of the agronomic program in Florida.


largest


The Department of


Agronomy has expanded the


effort on forages and pastures.


We have


shifted faculty and added new staff members which will


permit us


step-up the efforts


in th


field.


We are on the threshold of having


a new viru

Florida.


s


resistant digitgrass,


before this serious disease strikes


We want to breed higher feeding quality


into new forage


plants for your use.


We hope to develop forage and pasture plants


sensiti


to cold temperatures and more product


during the


winter,


something you have been asking for.


We are working on


improved


pasture and


forage production and management systems to furnish the


feed for Florida's beef cattle


industry


These are our challenges today.


hope that


we can help you make


Florida one of the top beef producing states.


ess









MICRONUTRIENT RESEARCH AND


RECOMMENDATIONS


C. L. Dantzman


There


has been


considerable work


done with micronutrients


mineral


by per

done on


soils


sonnel


during

located


a number


the 30


r history


of the Ran


at Ona and in Gainesville.


grasses


some


egumes.


Early


report


Cattle


studies


Station


were


ts indicated


that


in some areas very


micronutrients


were not


little

applied


growth

. even


took place


though


supplied


plants


with


where


the major


elements

zinc (Zn)

Benefits


and lime.


Where applications


and manganese


appeared


(Mn)


as increased


were made,


seedlin


a mixture of


plant


survival


responses


copper


were


increa


(Cu),


evident.


rates


rowth,


greener


color where deficiencies


were


severe.


Better


responses


occurred


where applications


a combination


Mn were appli


than where


they were applied


individually.


Plants


that


showed


responses


were pangola,


Pensacola and


Common


bahiag


rass


carpet,


oats


para,


were


vasey


the most


and dalli


sgrass


sensitive


esped


to the


eza and


lack of


clover.


copper while


Pangola

bermuda-


grass


showed


little


response.


Applications


at the


Range


Cattle


of micronutrients


Station has


been


to improved

a standard


pastures

practice.


and fields


In addition


cattle


graz


the pastures


have


free


access


to a mineral mixture


which


contains


0.63


percent


copper


sulfat


percent t


iron


sulfate


alone


with


other


elements


and materials.


Each


animal


consumes


an average


0 pounds


or more


year


a stockin


rate of


one head


acres


This


would


amount


to 0.06


Ibs/A/yr


copper


sulfate and


0.31


Ibs/A/yr of


iron


sulfate consumed.


Large


portions


these


elements


excreted


the animal


and reach


the soil.


are









iron were sprayed


in decreasing


amounts,


starting with high


conc en-


trations,


on a


field


previously


supplied


with


these


elements,


test


responses


to those


elements


and to detect pos


sible


toxicities


deficiencies.


There was


littL


effect


on the


grass


in the short-


term


trial.


Another


experiment


tested elements


individually


and in combinations


in the readily


soluble


and slowly


soluble


fritted


forms


on the growth


of whiteclover-grass.


land


was newly


broken


from a native pasture


condition.


Beneficial


results were


lacking or variable on


previous

clover


grazed


area


Irregular


benefits were


areas


ed yi


elds,


coverage and height.


A trial


was conducted


on an 11 year old


established


to test micronutrient


clover-grass


levels


pasture.


as retreatments


The field had


previous


treatments


again included


copper,


individual


manganese,


elements


zinc and boron.


and combinations


Treatments


as sulfates


and other


soluble


forms


and as fitted


trace


elements.


summary


the data


iven


in Table


The pasture was


grazed


from February or March


until


fall


for three


years


Overall


yield


was


less


on year


to the


shortened


rowing


season.


Response was


lacking


or variable


for the


copper,

trend


sulfate


was


treatments


similar


zine


as compared


and manganese


to that


for the


sulfate and


zero


level.


suggests


This


that


an adequate

Boron w


both


the need


indicates


that


micronutrients.

leaf burn and s


rate


increased.


amount of

as applied


the nutrient

as borax.


for retreatment


boron


Clover


stunted g

Clover


is subject


was


already present.


Different


and the effect

t to leaching


receiving


growth,

cover


or more


the condition

ge and yield


levels were

of excess

more readily


pounds


becoming mo


also


tended


applied to test

amounts. Research

y than most other

acre B203 showed

re severe as the

to decrease in








Recommendations


for flatwoods


soil


pastures
pastures.-


Initial


treatment.


Copper


should


applied


to new soils


at the


rate of


pounds


acre


calcula':c


as copper


oxide (CuO)


ess


clcal


experience

has shown


has shown


that


zinc,


it to be


manganese,


unnecessary.


or iron has


Here


been


research


benefit,


or expe


they


rience


should


be applied


the following


rates


manganes


e 4 pounds


per acre MnO,


zinc 4


pounds


acre


ZnO,


and iron


pounds


acre


Fe20


3. These
Jdhc~


elements


be applied


as oxides


sulfates


or as frits


slowly


soluble


orm).


boron


at 2


pounds


acre


B203


ually


applied


as b


orax


to legumes.


Retreatment.


Under


graz


conditions


astures


should


be retreated


at 5


to 10


year


intervals


at the


same


rate


rates


as in the


initial


treatment,


except t


for boron.


The latter


should


reapplied


at 1


pound


acre of B203
234ih


every


to 4


ars.


Where ha


rves


ting


and removal


the forages


from


the fields


occur


the time


interval


for reapplication


shortened.


The fritted


trace


element


form


contains


micronutrients


slowly


soluble


silicate.


frit


generally


used is


503 and contains


the equivalent


.8% CuO,


9.7% MnO


25.7%


Fe203


and 0


.3% MoO0

Pastures


at the station


generally have copper


only


or copper


manganese,


and zinc applied


at planting


time on


a new field.


For a


legume,


boron


added.


After


this


has been


done


it is very difficult


to get


a growth


response


to further


additions


of micronutrients.


Cattle


provided


with minerals


further


add to the soil


supply


some necessary


plant micronutrients.


Iron


deficiencies


have


been


suspect


on some


forages


under conditions


of high


fertili


zation


A- YT A~ -~ A i.


.c


n


*


r* ~ ,rj,


--






Table 1.


Oven Dry Yield,


Percent


Clover Coverage


and Average


Clover Height of


Micronutrient Retreatment on Whiteclover-


grass


Pasture.


Clover


D. wt T/A


Treatments


Feb 20


% Clover


Mar 14


Coverage


Feb -20


Height (in.)
Feb 20


(Ib/A)


(Nutrient)


Year


Year


Year


Year


Year


Year


__ __ I I ~_Year_


- Check


1.15


1.13


10.0


1.01


10.0


10.0


1.09


1.18


10.0
20.0
40.0
80.0


1.13
1.18


1.09


Fe20

MoO3
3J


1.17


25.5


mix of above


1.40


1.05


1.08


- 1 ~C~ ---~ ~- ~-~~-----. --- -- 1C1--


~_le *_ Inu a in e


Year














PROGRESS REPORT ON BREEDING


RESEARCH ARC,


M. Peacock,


M. Koger,


M. Hodges,


W. Carpenter


and A.


Palmer


The b


cattle


breeding pro


gram


is d


designed


to evaluate


genetic


potential


of the Charolais


, Brahman,


Angus


and Santa


Gertrudis


breeds


straight-breds


and in various


combinations


Beef


Project No.

Production,


1120


" is


"Charolais


designed


, Brahman,


to evaluate


Angus


and Their Cro


the relative


sses


produce tiv


three


breeds


under


south Florida conditions


repres


ented


by this


center.


This study utilizes


the three


breeds


plus


their


three cro


sses.


Sires


cows.


each


This d


three-breed


breed


design


cross


are


bred


produces

calves.


to each


straightbred


of the three straightbred


reciprocal


and cross-bred


backcrosn


Results


for adjusted


205-day weaning weight and


pregnancy


rate


three


years,


averaged


Project No.


1261,


by years,

"Feed lot


are


given


Performance


in Table


and 2,


and Carcass


respect


Characters


tivoly.


tics


of Brahman,


Angus


Charolais


and their Cro


sses


" evaluates


breeds


feedlot potential


and end product


when


fed for approximately


180 days


after weaning.


Data


on average


daily


gain


carcass


rade


years,


average


calculated


by years,


adjusting


are given


final


in Table


liveweight


Daily


to a 60 pe


re nt


gain was

chilled


carcass


weight.


Data have


been


presented


on weaning


performance,


pregnancy rate


and feedlot


performance.


Two more


years


data will


obtained


on cow


performance and


three


years


on feedlot performance


carcass


characteristics










s traightbreds


in all


traits measured


except t


carcass


grade.


Charolais


and Brahman


pregnancy,


crosses


out performed


but Charolais


the straightbreds


and Angus


crosses


for weaning weight


did not perform


same manner


as the Brahman


crosses.


brings


up the genetic


environmental


relationship


which


relative


to performance,


resulting


in variations


in performance of


d different


breed


groups.


section


of materials


relative


to environ-


ment


is necessary


in crossbreeding


as well


as for straightbreeding


maximize


benefits


from


this practice.







Table


Adjusted


205 day Weaning Weight


and Their Crosses


years,


of Angus,


averaged


Brahman


Charolais


by years),


Breed


Breed of Dam


of Sire


AX Ch


x CH


Angus


Brahman


Charolais


Table


Pregnancy


years,


Rate of
averaged


Angus,


Brahman,


by years


Charolais


and Their Crosses


percent,.


Breed


Breed of Dam


of Sire


x Ch


x Ch


Angus
Brahman
Charo lai s


Table 3.


Feedlot


Performance and


Carcass


Grade


of Angus,


Brahman,


Charolais


and Their


Crosses


Final


Weight Based


on 60%


Chilled


Carcass


Weight


years,


averaged


years).


Breed


Breed of Dam
- .- ---staE M 1haHEIhmMM~. -4t


of Sire


x Ch


x Ch


Angus


1.91


II.G.


Brahman


2.30
H.Go


2.30
I. G.


2.08
L. Ch.


1.66


2.20
IIG.


2.41
H, CG.


2.03
JUG.

2.14


Charo lais


2.01


2.19
L.G.


2.17
L.G.


, 2.15


1.94


IloGo


C_~~~~ _f ._~_1IL~I


_ 1 __~_~ __ ____~~_ I_1~CCI*Y_


I II I .. .


_ _I __1_ ~__~ ___ _I _~ ~___ ___1_1~_~ 1__ __ ___~___I


___~~~~ mamme_ III~ imma_ _~_~












BEEF


CATTLE INCOMES


FROM IMPROVED


NATIVE


1/
PASTURES-


2/
John Holtr


Both


like


pasture

General


nation


established


ask "what


is improved,


answers


differs


ranchers


questions.

or what happe


to these questions

from any other.


and potential


What happens


an irri


are difficult


investors


to ranch


action


because


in land


income

stem is


each


cattle


if more

installed.


actual


sit-


To provide guidelines


and Resource Economics


for answering


Department


these


(formerly


kinds


Agricultural


of questions,


Economic


the Food


initiated


a study


five


which


ranching


compared

situations


estimated

ranging


land, 1

from all


abor


and capital


improved


pastures


requirements


to all native


pastures.


Given


this framework,


rancher can make adjustments


to fit


particular


situation,


and still


develop


a reasonable


idea of


expect-


ed returns to


own


situation.


This


paper presents


a summary of


that


3/
study.


The Situations


Five different


ranching


situations


were specified


for Flatwoods


soils


in Florida.


by high


Each


ranching


weaning weights,


situation as


sumed


calving percentages


top management

and intensive


(mainly


evidenced


land management


practices.


Each


situation


calls


for a 1,000 cow herd


to be maintained.


/Suary
- Summary


a talk presented


at Beef


Cattle Field Day,


Ona Agricultural


Research


Center,


April


1972.


Profes


sor,


Food


and Resource


Economics


Department,


I.F.A.S


University of Florida.


3/_


- -


- .


- C n, 4C .kn 4 n*1n rf r n..hl nnt/nn


* --_


hur f.


T. Anderson


2/Assistant
-Assistant:








Expenses and returns for these situations were developed by making an

itemized breakdown of the production practices actually in use on similar

ranches in Florida, then applying current prices to obtain estimated costs

and returns. Table 1 shows a comparison of the different situations.

In this study, no charge is made for the investment in land, there-

fore the "Return to land and management" is money that would be available

for living expenses and debt retirement. The cost of land improvement has

been considered, however.

Examination of the "Land use" rows in Table 1, gives an idea of the

different intensities of land use. Situation 1 is the most intensive,

having 1,200 acres of seepage irrigation pasture. At the other extreme is

Situation 5 which has 15,000 acres of native range.

All situations assumed top management. These input and output levels
are thought to represent the top five percent of Florida ranches. For

example, the most intensive ranch sells 326 pounds of beef per acre, and is

stocked at a rate of 1.2 acres per mature cow.

Returns per acre have been estimated to range from $14 down to less

than $2, thus it can be seen that returns to land improvement can be real-

ized. This can be calculated by deducting an appropriate management charge,

because pasture establishment costs have been deducted as a fixed expense.

The supporting data for this study include estimated (a) investment
in machinery and equipment (b) investment in buildings and fences, (c)

costs of water control systems, (d) land clearing and pasture establishment

costs, (e) costs of hay production (f) pasture fertilization and renovation

costs (g) miscellaneous practices and their charges (h) operational practices

by months and (i) cattle inventories by month.

These supporting data can serve as an aid in estimating the impact of
most common "what if" questions posed by Florida ranchers.




Table 1.--A comparison of estimated variable and fixed costs and returns to various factors of production
on five Florida ranch situations with some measures of size and efficiency

Situation
Item 1 2 3 4 5


Total revenue

Variable expenses
Interest on variable expense
Return over variable expense

Annual fixed cost
Bull depreciation
Bldgs, fences, cowpens, etc.
Water control equipment
Farm equip., and machinery
Int. on pasture establishment
Int. on breeding herd
Return to land and management


Land use
Acres
Acres
Acres
Total


of irrigated pasture
of non-irrigated imp. pasture
of native range
acres


Measures of efficiency
Pounds of beef sold/acre
Acres of irrigated past./cow
Acres of non-irrigated imp.past./cow
Acres of native range/cow
Total acres /cow
Variable expense/cow
Return to land and management/cow
Return to land and management/acre


$142,408

69,961
3,371
$ 69,076


$ 6,937
3,505
6,908
5,569
10,512
18,443
$ 17.202


1,200
7--

1.200


326
1.20


1.20
$ 73.33
$ 17.20
14.33


$142,408

74,395
3.585
$ 64,428


$ 6,937
3,505
5,342
5,569
12,730
18,443
$ 11.702


500
1,000

1,500


261
.50
1.00

1.50
$ 77.98
$ 11.70
7.80


$131,129

66,551
3,207
$ 61,371


$ 6,937
3,776

5,569
15,215
18,443
$ 11,431



2,000


159

2.00

2.00
$ 69.76
11.43
5.72


$103,788

49,189
2,370
$ 52,229


$ 6,525
2,922

3,485
7,320
18,324
$ 13,534



1,000
4,000
5,000


56

1.00
4.00
5.00
$ 51.56
13.53
2.70


$ 82,410

31,451
1,515
$ 49,444


$ 6,525
5,538b




18,324
$ 19,057




15,000
15.000


27


15.00
15.00
$ 32.97
19.06
1.27


a. Each ranching situation maintains a 1,000 cow herd.
b. Includes machinery and equipment also.
c. Excludes sale weights of breeding cows and bulls.

























APPENDIX

Enclosed are brief summaries of results

obtained during 1971 from projects that were

active at the Ona Agricultural Research

Center.














Leader


Project
Number

404










883



















989


C. L. Dantzman










E. M. Hodges




















C. L. Dantzman


1971 results

Trials were planted with pangolagrass and
whiteclover to test the effects of lime, fritted
micronutrients and time of fertilization on
plant growth. Pangolagrass fertilized during
October had more vigor in early December than
plots fertilized on other dates. These trials
have been in progress only a short while.


Annual ryegrass varieties (Lolium multiflora)
were compared for forage yields in a replicated
trial. Gulf ryegrass pasture yielded 50% more
animal gain when fertilized with 300 pounds
of N and 100 pounds each of P205 and K20
fertilizer as compared to 150 pounds of N and
50 pounds each of P205 and K20. Stocking rate
varied from one to two calves per acre from
January through April under a severe drought
condition. Commercial varieties of corn and
grain sorghum were compared at February and
March planting dates, both with and without
irrigation. Corn and sorghum varieties at
both planting dates and moisture conditions
averaged above 100 bushels per acre.


Samples have been taken for a number of years
from surface soil of pastures having different
vegetation, soil types, fertilization programs,
and age. Results indicate that levels of soil
potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and
organic matter change, in direct relation to
the level and number of years these fertilizer
elements were applied. A summary of latest
available data is given as follows:



































F. M. Peacock


C. L. Dantzman


Pasture
age CaO MgO K20 P205 % M pH
Forage (yrs.) (Ib/Acre)

Native 340 200 73 26 3.1 4.9
Pangola 5 1250 140 140 39 2.7 5.1
Pangola 10 1130 130 160 48 2.8 5.0
Pangola 20 1410 250 110 56 2.5 5,3
Pangola 30 3230 170 110 100 3.5 5.3
Pens.Bahia 20 2270 260 220 94 4.2 5.1
Pens.Bahia 30 3230 340 200 120 5.5 5.0
Arg. Bahia 28 3830 380 400 300 5.2 5.1
Hub.-P.Bahia 15 7500 830 410 200 3.8 5.3
W.clover 20 8360 880 540 75 6.6 6.1


In another study poultry manure is being evaluated
as a fertilizer for Pensacola bahiagrass pastures.
Levels of 1, 3 and 5 tons per acre of poultry
manure are being compared with levels of
commercial fertilizer to supply the same amount
of plant nutrients.

Charolais, Brahman and Angus cows have been
compared with their crosses for a number of
years. During 1971 production from purebred and
crossbred cows was as follows (Ib of calf weaned):


Breed Breed of bull
of cows Charolais Brahman Angus

Charbray 497 457 498
Angus 423 470 421
Brahman 571 455 520
Angus x Char 467 535 453
Angus Brahman 568 497 535
Brah x Char 579 459 513


A study was made of a Leon fine sand soil to
measure vertical and lateral movement of potassium
(K) and phosphorus (P) in soil solution and the
persistence of these elements in soil solution
over a period of time. A 10 foot radius circular
area was fertilized on two dates at the same rate


.150









of 200 lb/A each of N, K20 and P205 and 500 Ib/A
of MgS04. Soil solution samples were taken,
when sufficient moisture was available, from
wells extending to a depth of 9 inches under
the soil surface and to within 1 inch of the
hardpan horizon. Downward movement of the
elements was detected within 3 weeks at both
depths. Lateral movement to a distance of 3
feet from the fertilized area was measured at
both depths within 6 weeks after fertilization.

A second study showed both K and P persisted
for several years in varying quantities under the
fertilized area as measured in the soil solution.
Total P of the soil samples taken at 6 inch
increments to a depth of 72 inches occurred
in large quantities in the spodic layer of the
native Leon fine sand soil in both the check and
fertilized areas, indicating a natural P reserve
in the soil.

Ammonium acetate and water extractable K measured
larger in soil samples taken from the fertilized
area than in samples taken 3 and 15 feet from the
area.


E. M. Hodges


American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana) seed,
in the hull, had 7% germination and 71% hard seed
after 4 years in storage at room temperature.
Seed that had the hull removed by a hammermill
had 4% germination and 14% hardseed after the
same storage. Commercial jointvetch, in the hull,
produced a good stand when broadcast at 5 pounds
per acre. Five different perennial grasses were
treated with 33, 67 and 100 pounds of nitrogen
each time the grass was harvested. Production
from all grasses equalled or exceeded 5.8 tons
of dry forage per acre from June to November.
Highest yields during this period were 8.2
tons/acre by two Brachiaria grasses.


1167










































E. M. Hodges


The average dry matter yield per acre was 4.8
tons when 33 pounds of nitrogen was applied
after each harvest and 5.3 tons when 67 or 100
pounds of nitrogen was applied, Response to
highest levels of nitrogen varied between
grasses with Cynodon responding more than Digi-
taria.


Limpograss (Hemarthria altissima) plantings
made in pasture areas at the Ona ARC suffered
a reduction in stand during spring and summer
1971. Planted in areas already having common
bermudagrass and Vaseygrass, the three Limpo-
grasses planted at this location did not hold
their own. Additional information on planting,
fertilization and cultural procedures is needed
before the cool season growth potential of these
grasses can be used. There are indications that
mineral soils with an organic matter content of
5 percent or more are better suited to Limpo-
grass than those with lower levels of organic
matter.


Work was completed enabling FDA approval for
the use of Dalapon for the control of Smutgrass
(Sporobolus poiretti) in pasture. Present
recommendations are 6 pounds of material per
acre, preferably applied in the spring months.
Additional plots have been established both off
and on the Ona Research Center to further
evaluate the use of Dalapon for smutgrass control.
Completion of a 5-year study showed that chopping
or herbicide treatment were more effective than
rotary mowing in controlling saw palmetto (Serenoa
reopens .


1241













1261 F. M" Peacock


1361 C. L. Dantzman


This project is for the purpose of evaluating feed-
lot performance and carcass characteristics of the
male progeny produced in project 1120. After weaning
the calves are placed in the feedlot for 180 days.
Results for 1971 are as follows:

Average Carcass
Breed daily gain grade
(Ib)

Ch x Ch 2.09 High standard
Ch x A 2.18 Good
Ch x B 2.26 Low Good
3/4 Ch x 1/4 B 1.75 Standard
3/4 Ch x 1/4 A 1.69 Good
Ch x A x B 2.02 Low Good
AxA 1.86 Choic e
Ax B 2.17 Good
A x Ch 2.30 High Good
3/4 A x 1/4 B 1.98 Low Choice
3/4 A x 1/4 Ch 2.04 Good
SA x Ch x B 1.96 Good
B x B 1.73 Low Good
B x A 2.39 Good
B x Ch 2.30 Good
3/4 B x 1 A 2.24 Good
3/4 B x 1 Ch 1.96 Good
B x W Ch x A A 2.36 High Good



Greenhouse trials were conducted to evaluate the
effect of lime treatment on the growth of Pangola-
grass and Pensacola bahiagrass that was irrigated
with water containing a toxic level of salt (1600 ppm).
Previous trials indicated these two grasses survived
in poor condition at the 400 ppm level but died at
1600 ppm level. At all levels of lime treatment
Pangolagrass tolerated the high salt content better
than Pensacola bahiagrass. Three tons of lime per
acre extended survival time of Pensacola bahiagrass.
Pangola survival time was extended by 4 tons of lime
per acre.







1367 E. M. Hodges











1368 E. M. Hodges
















1382 C. L. Dantzman


During the past several years tests have been
conducted to determine the yield of Pangolagrass
(Digitaria decumbens) grown on soil containing
25, 75 or 125 pounds of K20 per acre, as determined
by soil tests. During 1971 hay yields for one harvest
averaged 1.5, 3.0 and 3.0 tons per acre, respectively,
for the low, medium and high levels of soil potassium.
These results agreed with results of earlier years.


This project is for the purpose of evaluating forages
under grazing conditions, throughout the year.
During 1971 six groups of steer calves grazed
Pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pastures,
with and without warm-season legumes. The legumes
were Jointvetch and Hairy Indigo. Summer drouth
seriously curtailed both grass and legume growth.
Daily gains averaged 0.64 and 0.55 pounds for the
legume and no-legume treatments, respectively, from
10-29-70 to 4-28-71, with both supplemented at the
same rate. Daily gains during the summer months
of 1971 were 0.88 and 0.93 pounds, respectively.


A chemical survey of waters from five lakes, eight
.streams and six rainfall stations in central Florida
was made at monthly intervals to determine quality
of water sources available for human and agricul-


tural needs. Results are presented


Streams
1969 1970


below (ppm).


Lakes
1969 1970


Aluminum
Calcium
Chlorine
Copper
Fluorine
Iron
Iodine
Potassium
Magnesium
Manganese
Sodium
Phosphorus
Zinc
Sol. Salts
pH


.17
8.03
19.79
.02
.40
.49
.05
1.58
4.15
.04
11.90
.47
.02
22.82
6.68


0
16.82
17.70
.01
.48
.23
.01
2.40
4.66
.02
10.73
.80
.02
80.06
7.15


.29
4.38
20.60
.02
.32
.22
.09
2.28
3.25
.04
8.54
.15
.03
17.22
6.64


0
5.36
14.32
.03
.22
.11
.01
2.66
3.30
.02
7.97
.50
.02
17.28
6.88





















1383 H. L. Chapman, Jr.




















1386 H. L. Chapman, Jr.


In addition, deep and surface soil samples are being
periodically taken in and around feedlots at the Ona
ARC, Picnic and Bartow areas, to determine if the
concentration of cattle in feedlots has significant
effect on the level of various nutrients in different
types of soil.


Bagasse pellets and cottonseed hulls were compared
as roughage sources in complete drylot fattening
rations at levels of 5 and 10 percent of the ration.
Forty eight Charolais-Brahman-Shorthorn steers were
divided into four groups of 12 animals each, on the
basis of weight and grade and assigned to the experi-
mental treatments. Gains for steers fed 5 or 10
percent of cottonseed hulls and 5 percent bagasse
pellets were not significantly different. Cattle
receiving the ration containing 10 percent bagasse
pellets had an average daily gain of 2.86 pounds
which was about 25 percent more than the other three
groups. The bagasse pellets did not have any apparent
harmful effect on the rumen. There were no signifi-
cant treatment effect on carcass measurement.


Two experiments have been initiated under this project
to examine various production programs for light-
weight calves. The first experiment compared four
different levels of supplemental feed on pangola-
grass pastures to a full-feed program in drylot for
growing light weight calves from 220 to about 450
pounds in weight. The second study is to compare
different breeds and sexes of calves being fed on
pangolagrass pasture and also growing light weight
English-type steers on pangolagrass pasture and in
drylot.













1403 E. M. Hodges


Eight breeding herds of European-Brahman cows have
been grazed on eight different pasture treatments
for several years to measure the effect on beef
production and reproductive performance. .Forage
variables include Hubam sweet clover (Melilotus
alba), American jointvetches (Aeschynomene
americanus)., rust-resistant annual ryegrass
(Lolium multiflorum) and irrigated whiteclover
(Trifolium reopens One herd was fed urea-fortified
molasses. All groups received pangolagrass hay


as needed. Average performance for
follows:


1971 was as


Wean Wean Total wt. gain
Pasture treatment- wt.(lb) % (Ibs)


Pangola
Pangola
Pangola
Pangola
Grass +
Grass +
Grass +
Grass +


+ molasses
+ ryegrass
+ Aeschynomene
Aeschynomene
Hubam
W. Clover
Rye G. + W. clover


Calves

7980
9280
1800
3650
4280
5250
4525
4960


Cows

3720
5420
10545
6385
7625
4660
5915
9545


1578 H. L. Chapman, Jr.


1/ First 4 treatments are pangolagrass and second 4
treatments are a combination of pangola, bahia and
bermudagrass.


Currently in the second year of a three-year study to
evaluate the effect of injectable vitamin E on the
reproduction of Brahman, Charbray and Santa Gertrudis
cows. Results to date have not shown any additional
reproduction attributable to injected vitamin E.










ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Grateful appreciation is expressed to the
companies and the people that have supported
the research program at the Ona Agricultural
Research Station by their grants, gifts and
assistance. These are listed alphabetically
as follows:

American Cyanamid, Princeton, N. J.
Borden Chemical Company, Plant City, Florida
Department of the Army, Ft. Detrick, Maryland
Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan
Hardee County Cattleman's Association
Hardee County Commissioners
Hardee County Cowbells
Hardee County Sheriff's Office
Hoffman-LaRoche Company, Nutley, New Jersey
K. D. Eatmon, Pompano Beach, Florida
Peace River Electric Corporation, Wauchula, Florida
Picnic Ranch, Picnic, Florida
Lykes Brothers Ranch, Okeechobee, Florida
Superior Fertilizer Company, Tampa, Florida
U. S. Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, Florida

A number of other ranchers and persons have
assisted in forage testing programs and/or field
tests of various types. To them and others who
have supported the Ona Research program, grateful
appreciation is acknowledged.




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