• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Preconditioning of beef cattle
 Progress report on range cattle...
 Challenges ahead for the Florida...
 Use of warm season legumes
 Effect of salty irrigation water...
 The use of winter annual crops...
 Appendix
 Acknowledgement














Title: Beef cattle field day.
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 Material Information
Title: Beef cattle field day.
Series Title: Beef cattle field day.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Range Cattle Experiment Station.
Publication Date: 1968
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075777
Volume ID: VID00001
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 143648503

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Preconditioning of beef cattle
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Progress report on range cattle station breeding projects
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Challenges ahead for the Florida beef producer
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Use of warm season legumes
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Effect of salty irrigation water on the growth of pangolagrass and Pensacola bahiagrass
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The use of winter annual crops in flatwoods Florida
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Appendix
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Acknowledgement
        Page 46
Full Text
2
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1* e~-


TOPICS

CHALLENGES

SUMMER
LEGUMES


BEEF


CATTLE

FIELD

DAY


WINTER
ANNUALS


BREEDING


OCTOBER


4,


1968


PRE-
CONDITIONING


MEAT-TYPE
CARCASSES


RANGE CATTLE EXPERIMENT STATION
INSTITUTEOF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
ONA, FLORIDA


LIVE ANIMAL
EVALUATION


avA Of










EEEF CATTLEMEN'S FEILD DAY

Range Cattle Experiment Station
Ona, Florida
October 4, 1968


H. L. Chapman, Jr., Presiding


Registration and coffee

Welcome and opening comments

Comments by Dean of Research

Pre-conditioning of beef cattle

Progress report on breeding research

Future challenges for beef cattle industry
in Florida

Coffee break

'Use of warm season legumes

Effect of salty irrigation water on
pangola and bahia grass

Production of cool season forages

Meat type beef animal
Live animal cutability
Meat type carcass

Lunch

Field tour

Reassemble for questions and answers

Adjourn


Jack Hayman

J. W. Sites

H. L. Chapman, Jr.

F. M. Peacock


T. J. Cunha



E. M. Hodges


8:30

9:00

9:05

9:15

9:35

9:50

10:15

10:25

10:45


11:00

11:25



12:10

1:30

3:30

4:00


J. W. Carpenter
A. Z. Palmer


Dantzman

McCaleb














Program Participants


J. W. Carpenter

H. L. Chapman, Jr.

T. J. Cunha

C. L. Dantzman

Jack Hayman

E. M. Hodges

J. E. McCaleb

A. Z. Palmer

F. M. Peacock

J. W. Sites


Associate Meat Scientist, DASI/

Head, RCES/

Head, DAS

Assistant Soils Chemist, RCES

Hardee County Agricultural Agent

Agronomist, RES

Associate Agronomist, RCES

Meat Scientist, DAS

Associate Animal Husbandman, RCES

Dean of Research, IFAS/


Department of Animal Science, Gainesville.

Range Cattle Experiment Station

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Gainesville.








PRECONDITIONING OF EEEF CATTIE

H. L. Chapman, Jr.

Introduction .,
The two.'most critical'-prid s iththe life of a calf occur at birth,
before immunity to" disease develops, and at weaning..time. after maternal

immunity-disappears. After birth the calf. develops immunity to various

diseases from its mother's milk. This maternal-immunity protects the calf

during the first few months of its life .Maternal immunity has disappeared

'By weaning:time Unless care'is taken the stress of weaning and post-weaning

treatments'weaken the' calf' s6 that it is susceptible to a wide variety of.

diseases. In many instances calves are weaned directly unto a truck, hauled

long distances without feed or water :for 24 to 72 hours, and then subjected

to various treatments such as being dehorned, castrated, sprayed, wormed,

and vaccinated. The result is often'considerable body weight loss, sickness

and death.

Preconditioning is a term that has been applied to management systems

iher a calves are weaned on the farm before shipment and managed' in'a manner

to prepare the calf to withstand stress that occurs at weaning, thereby

reducing.the,incidence of disease, weight loss and death. Many progressive

cow-calf operations have had management systems that accomplish the'goals set

forth for preconditioning for many years. Others do not. There is no one

preconditioning system that will apply to all ranchers, nor is there one system

that will be best for any one rancher allo~ f "the time.

Since the word preconditioningg" first appeared in print there have

been many.articles written and many meetings held concerning the subject.

The. most apparent factor in all of these articles and meetings has been the

great variation existing in the definition of preconditioiing, The purpose





4.

of this talk is to summarize available information and to discuss the importance

of preconditioning to Florida cattlemen.

What is preconditiibnin? --

Essentially we are talking aboit a management system for the period of

time from about 30 days prior to and 30 days after weaning that will minimize

weight loss, sickness and death of calves during the 30 days after weaning.

This becomes more important as modern, accelerated beef production programs

replace old-fashioned, unintensive programs. In many areas calves no longer.

have a year or more to overcome the shock of weaning but are placed directly

into the feedlot or into' accelerated production programs demanding rapid growth,

Preconditioned calves are expected to have received all or some of the following

treatments:

1, .Dehorned and castrated before weaning.
2. Taught to eat and drink before weaning.
3. Vaccinations before weaning.
4. Weaned before shipment.
5. Treated for grubs and worms (optional).
6. Identified to show treatments they have received.

No one of the above factors is the total'program of preconditioning. Also

some are considered more important in some areas of the country than in

others' Some cannott be applied to all ranches. Standardization is difficult,

if 'iot Impossible, to bring about. However, some progressive cattlemen

already incorporate most of the above treatments into their normal management

program and -it is probable that such programs will become more commonplace

in the future. .

Disease control

Z. -~ sea'se- control is not the total program of preconditigning. However,

it is a very important part of the overall. program. 'As mentioned earlier

calv6esdevelop' immunity to.- number of diseasee's immediately after, birth

from their mother s milk. This material immunity will ,last for a few months.
S' ?

// -






5.

Immunization vaccination programs should:pnot start until after maternal

immunization has disappeared. 'g"acc.ntiQns will not .b effective when given

to an animal with maternal immunity.

It is also important to remember that it takes about 3 to 4 weeks for

antibodies to develop, after vaccination.., Immunity does, ot occur immediately.

The vaccinations should be given at leAst- .to : weeks before weaning if

immunity is to 'developop by'- j ninng.. ..
Calfhood diseases that ht~e'teien discussed by-veterinarians (in conjunction

with preconditio0ingi program') tht can.be controlled by vaccination

include ,Lepq spi6 sis, Bla ~~g; Malignant Edema, Infectious Bovine..
i L t sis, 1.

Rhinotracheitis (IER), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), and Parainflueniza-3 (PI-3).

Some variation occurs in thinking concerning the age calves should

ebe vaccinated. Your veterinarian should be consulted to determine what

vaccinations are needed and when they should be given. It has been conclusively

demonstrated that, where needed, fewer deaths, faster gains and more profit *

il .ber realizedd from using proper ai-il a ntiin programs. For immunization

programs;to be most effective the following should be ddne:

.,I l.. Vaccinate at proper age.
.' Have animals in good state .Qf nutrition.when vaccinated.
3. Vaccinate for proper diseases...
4. Handle vaccines properly. ;,r:-!.- .. .
5. Manage animals properly.
6. Identify vaccinated animals. .
n 'ition : .'

,;gjrhe,.ig-termr nutritional objective is to provide calves proper nutrition
for:, gpwth. However, of more immediate importance at weaning is a short-term

objective of preventing an interruption of rumen activity due to a radical

diet change.,or a 24 to 72 hour starvation period immediately after:'waning.

SIf a calf ages 24 hours without eating changes occur in the rumen that are

very difficult to overcome:





6.
1. Fermentation capacity is reduced 85% to 90%.
2. a teria c6unt -falls'"25% to 50%- ''or mo e.
3. Protozoa almost completely disappears..
.' Rumen '- volume decreabss' approximately' 50%. '
5. Balance of rumen microbes is upset. .
6. pH falls.
7. At end of 48 hours of starvation the rumen is alamosj non-functional.
i1 the normal se.se' : .
.:.In order' to prevent" this men' interruption calves mut be taught to

eat and drink,:'preferably before weaning. '-Ths is not easy'to do'under the
management practices followed by the majority of Florida cattljemen. However,
;there.-are' several -ptio6ns that cat be'consid'ered

1. Creep feed' calvs last 30 days before weaning, for the purpose of
teaching them to eat, or
2. Wean ca1lves.. into a good pasture,- give a' dy feed; and haye 'a fewa
teacher steers" with the group to teach the new calves how to
.eat -or, '" '.-, "
3. Wean into a drylot with ample hay, feed, and water.
Whether or not a preconditioning program is being used it.is recommended
that a management program be utilized at weaning that will reduce or eliminate
the starvation of caived fbr 24 to 72 hours after weaning. .,

Abimtadentification
One of the major problems Iin r'donditioning programs is the development. .
of a simple yet adequate idenifiatibib system that will tell the history of

an1 given &nimal!i "T'hlas is-ver e -iib4hAht iwh6n animals are grouped frota many
sources. Thb idenit dit1bi6n sybt& dAeeds to teil: ...

1. Origin of anifai.
2. Individtiu ntmbrbf of &amlfti
3. Whether or not the tidmil i baC Andi w d.
4. Treatments given before and/or at Weidfhg. .
Many systems have been tried and none has been compldtely sidcessfdsi
One system being used in Oklahoma involves a green ear tag with .9 numbers.

The first two numbers tell the origin, the third number indicates if the
animal is preconditioned and the last six are used for animal identification.
The tag has numbers on the back that describe the treatments given the animal.







7.

Animal-identification is a vital requirement for a successful

preconditioning program in order that preconditioned calves can be properly

merchandised. It is extremely important that all background information

be available to the.buyer.

Management recommendations

A preconditioning program should accomplish the following:

1. Allow time for adaption to new diet.
2. Teach calves to eat and drink.
3. Provide opportunity to separate good and bad calves.
4. Allow recovery from weaning stress under favorable conditions.
5. Provide time for development of immunity.
6. Provide opportunity for better merchandising of calves.

Management steps that should be considered are:

1. Vaccinate calves to allow immunity to be developed by weaning time.
2. Castrate and dehorn calves before weaning.
3. At weaning avoid putting calves in dusty environment.
.4. Use all practical sanitary conditions.
5. Teach calf to eat by creep feeding or immediately after weaning.
6. Feed a simple feed containing adequate protein, energy, vitamin
A, phosphorus, copper and cobalt. Use antibiotics the first 10 to
14 days. Do not use urea until after calves have learned to eat and
are adapted to new diet.
7. Hand feed calves daily to insure observation of calves.
-8. .Have good employees handling preconditioning program.
9. Treat any abnormal animal immediately.
10. Handle calves quietly and with as little disturbance as possible.
11. Have adequate hospital facilities.
12. -Routine internal parasite treatment is not recommended unless
need exists.
13. Grub treatment is recommended.

Economic s

One of the most important facts of preconditioning is the economical

aspects. The cowman wants to know how much preconditioning he should do.

Will he receive a bonus for it? He may not have facilities. Should he invest

in facilities? The feeder, on:the other hand, wants the calves.to be weaned

at least three weeks before he buys them and to be preconditioned. There is

reluctance to pay for the extra services for fear he may not get what he is

paying for, or he may feel all the preconditioning steps are not necessary or





8.

he may question the way the vaccines, etc were given.. There are a number

of problems involved. Preconditioning programs are best suted for
private negotiations between cattleman ad. buyer .and must be based on a

mutual trust and respect being developed.

However at a recent meeting in.Wyoming the following economic data for
units of 100 calves was presented by a cattleman who preconditioned his calves

that were shipped to a midwest feedlot. The calves gained ,40 pounds during

the 30 day post-weaning period:

400 lb. calf@ .30 $ 120.00
Death loss 1/2% .60
Washout calves at 1/2 value .60
Interest on calves @ 7% .70
Freight on additional 40 lbs.@ 1.50 cwt .60
Fixed cost (Facilities, etc.) 3.00
Yardage for 30 days @ 6 1.80
Bedding .50
Combiotic for 4% of calves .02
Vaccination and parasite control 3.59
Feed costs 8.09
$ 139.50
At the end of the 30-day preconditioning period the cattleman had over

310 invested in his steers. Costs will vary from state to state and from

ranch to ranch. However, the above figures present an example that can
be used for comparison.

What will preconditioning mean to the Florida cattleman?

Preconditioning will be utilized by the larger, more integrated cattle
operation and possibly by the smaller operation if he has facilities that
can be used for this purpose.: Many of the cattle operations in Florida do

not have facilities or management programs that can be readily adapted
to preconditioning cattle.

However, the concept .of preconditioning has received widespread interest

during the few years it has existed and while there are problems it is very
probable that the practice will become more widespread. Feeders will become
accustomed to- uing pre-conditio ttnedl calves Catli il fd
..will-find thera







9.

develop reputations for preconditioned and backgrounded calves. As the concept

spreads nationwide and becomes accepted and expected it is quite probable

that price differentials will exist between preconditioned and non-precon-

ditioned calves.

The loss from shrink, feed utilization and efficiency, plus a 1 to 2%

death loss in prevailing management practices reportedly cost feedlot

operators $10 to $20 per animal. As a result feedlots are developing record

systems to tell them which groups of cattle do well and which do poorly.

Florida cow-calf producers will be faced with the fact that their reputation.

will be built on the way their cattle do in feedlot or in grass-fattening

programs.

As management systems continue to become more intensive Florida

cattlemen will find that they will be carrying out many of the steps of

preconditioning as normal management policy. Many do this at the present

time. It will require very little effort for these people to precondition

calves. However many cattlemen (particularly the smaller ones) will find

their program not easily adapted to preweaning calves because they will

not be able to hold their calves for 30 days after weaning. However, many

ot the other steps in preconditioning calves will be easily carried out.

Each cow-calf operator should examine the potential that preconditioning

has for his operation to determine the program best suited to his needs.






1.

MOWESS R T ON RANGE CATTLE STATION
&RMEING ROJECT9

F. M. Peacock, E. M. Hodges, W. G. Kirk,
M. Koger, and J. W. Carpenter


The beef cattle breeding program is designed to evaluate the genetic

potential of the Charolais, Brahman, Angus and SantaGertrudis breeds as

straight breds and various combinations.
Project No. 1120, "Charolais, Brahman, Angus, and Their Crosses For

Beef Production", evaluates the relative productivity of the three breeds.

This report is on Phase 1 where straight breeding and reciprocal crosses are
being made. Phase 2 utilizes the three breeds of sires on the FI females and
is now in the beginning stage. Data from one year of Phase 1 are given in

Table 1.

-Project No. 1261, "Feedlot performancee and Caress Characteristics of

Brahman, Angus, Charolais and their Crosses". Weanling steer calves from

Project 1120 were fed by sire groups due to lack of facilities rather than

in individual herd groups whict. would have been desirable.

Animals were fed a ration insisting of 19 parts, Al% cottonseed meal;

48% citrus pulp; 18% corn; 9% j*ound snapped corn; 5% alfalfa and 1% mineral'

plus 14 pounds hay daily per sveer. Calves sired by the Brahman bull ate
814 pounds of feed per 100 poadds gain while those sired by the Angus bull

required 900 pounds, and by tte Charolais 847 pounds. Calves were slaughtered

at the Meats Laboratory, Gaine ville, where slaughter, and carcass data were
obtained. Performance and caivass data for three years are given in Table 2.

Project No. 1209, "The Efftct of Breed on Performance of Heifers Bred

to Calve at Two Years of Age', Yearling heifers between 11 and 15 months of

age were exposed to Charolais bulls for a 100-day breeding season. In 1965

cows were provided with sufficient pasture for grazing and supplemented









Table 2. Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of Angus, Brahman,
Charolais and their crosses.

Ax Ax Char.
Angus Brah. Char. Brah. Char. x Brah.

No. of animals 11 10 12 19 21 19

Days on feed 178 178 178 178 178 178
Beginning weight 377 448 623 466 492 560
Final adj. weight at 60 D.P. 715 797 1050 873 895 977

Adj. daily gain at 60 D.P. 1.90 1.96 2.40 2.29 2.26 2.34

Carcass weight 429 478 630 524 537 586
Dressing percent 60.51 61.60 62.31 62.46 61.65 62.54
Federal grade Ch G G+ G++ Ch- G

Fat over eye 0.41 0.29 0.24 0.40 0.33 0.29
Rib eye area 8.73 9.25 12.40 9.94 10.30 10.61

Estimated yield 50.18 50.90 52.01 50.02 50.65 50.79






Table 3. Performance of yearling heifers bred to calve as two-year olds.

Weaning
Calving Weaning Breedback Weight
Year percent percent percent percent


1965 80 75 76 507
1966 80 74 84 473

1967 70 60 60 409

1968 77 67 65 371








i5.

S CiALLENGU PAP FOR THI, FIO.RDA BBEF PRODUCER. -.

by

.T. J. Cunha, Chairman
Department of Animal Science
University of Florida .,..


Florida is still in the beginnring stages of developing theta full potential which

it has for beef production. This is because the average beef produced per acre-in

Florida is only 40 pounds. :At ,the Beef -Researth Unit at: Gainesville, 400 pounds of

beef production per acre is being obtained under practical ranch conditions. This -is

10. times the average beef produced in the State. A.few top cattlemen are also pro-

ducing 400 pounds of beef per acre. A larger number of cattlemen are producing 200

pounds of beef per acre. This means that the average Florida cattleman has' the

potential to increase beef'production 5 to 10 times by using'better production prac-

tices.- *

Florida is presently producing only 20 per cent the quality beef :which it con'-:,

sumes. The 80 per cent being shipped in amounts to over.$130,000000 worth; of beef.

If Florida were to increase its beef production to 200 pounds. per acre, it would pro-

duce.all.the beef it consumes and. wuld add a great deal to its income: I

SFlorida is in a unique situation where it. can.greatly increase its;beef produc-

tion without; affecting, to any appreciable extent, the total U.S supply of..bee, and,

consequently, its price level. For.example, Florida now produces about.1.1 per cent

ofthe total.beef consumed in-the U.S. 'If it were to double its beef. production, it

would still produce only about 1.4 pet cent of the beef consumed in the' U.S.' Thus,

Florida is fortunate in being, in the position to'double.and redouble .its beef pro-

duction without appreciably affecting the-national supply and 'price level.:



*Address given at the Range Cattle Station Field Day on October 4, 1968.







16.


Florida has a number *of very important-advantages working for it. The more

important ones are as follows:

1. A mild climate which allows forage growth most of the year. Florida has an

advantage in forage production potential.over other areas of the country.

2. An availability of water which is short or lacking in most other areas of

the U.S. 'Florida is just beginning to take advantage of developing water control

systems for year around use.

3. Plenty of land available which can be cleared and developed into high

quality improved pastures.

4. A ready made market for beef since Florida is a beef deficit area which pro-

duces only 20 per' cent of the quality beef it consumes.

5. An area which can do as well as any other state in beef produced per cow or

per acre providing good breeding or produc.ton,practices are followed.

In order to develop top quality, I ih producing beef cattle herds the following

challenge need to be met by Florida cowmen: -

1. Increase the calf crop

The calf crop for 1968 in Florida was.72 per cent. This is the lowest calf crop

percentage in the:U.S. whdse average was 88 per cent. This is one of the biggest

problems in Florida and one which needs to be concentrated on. There is no reason

why an excellent calf crop cannot be obtained in Florida. Our Beef Research Unit

at Gainesville is a good example. It started with a 47 per cent calf crop and now

has a 95 per cent-calf crop. We recently had a 3 day Short Course on the calf crop

problem and published a book on it entitled "Factors Affecting the Calf Crop".

This book is available for anyone interested in it. Better production practices as

well as culling and selection for reproductive ability are needed to raise the calf

crop. Cattlemen should strive for at least a 90 per cent calf crop.







17.

2. Increase the qualit of cattle

Another one of our biggest challenges is to increase the quality of beef. This

will necessitate the continual and greater use of higher quality purebred bulls'

plus better production and management practices. The better the bull is than the

cows he will be bred to the more progress will be made in increasing the quality of

the herd. Cattlemen should buy as good a bull as they can possibly afford.

3* Ivprovethe feed suprl.

A lack of enough to ect is still one of the biggest problems on too many Florida

ranches. As a result,the cattle suffer from a lack of energy. Moreover, a lack of

proper protein, mineral and vitamin supplementation is not followed in too high a

percentage of Florida ranches. Better pasture development, fertilization and manage-

ment is essential to providing more and better quality feed. A good pasture pro-

gram is the backbone of a good beef program.

4. Improve marketing practices

Marketing is one of the biggest problems facing cattlemen. They need to study

markets, prices, grades and develop programs which will allow them to market at more

than one time in the Fall when everyone else is marketing and when prices are

generally the lowest. One of the big challenges ahead is for cattlemen to develop

a marketing program which will assure them a fair price for their animals.

5. Pregnancy test cows in Fall

Cattle should be pregnancy tested in the early Fall and open cows sold while

they are still grass fat. This will eliminate carrying an open cow during the win-

ter and waiting another 16-19 months before she calves again. This will save carry-

ing free boarders in the herd. This program, if followed consistently, is one of

the most effective in increasing the calf crop.










6. Use a Production Testing Program

This program can be-used by both the purebred and commercial producer. It is

an excellent way to improve a herd and to select and cull animals based on actual

production records and not on guess work, which is still the case with .too many

cattlemen. Anyone interested in joining this program should see their County Agent

or Jim Pace, who is in charge of this program.

7. Buy performance tested bulls

Too many purebred bulls are being sold in Florida which should have been

:astrated to begin with. High quality, purebred bulls are needed to work improvement

on Florida herds. Bulls with excellent performance records, good conformation and

cund feet and legs will find increasing favor with cattlemen in Florida.

8. Test bulls for fertility

Cattlemen buying new bulls should insist that they be tested for fertility.

lost purebred breeders will fertility test their sale bulls if requested to do so.

An average of 10 to 12 per cent of all bulls will fail this test and in some herds

the percentage can be considerably higher. Eliminating the use of sterile bulls

will increase the calf crop.

9. Develop a good disease and parasite prevention program

Disease and parasite losses can reduce the income of a herd by at least 20 per

cent. Too much time and effort is still spent on treatment rather than prevention

New animals brought into a herd should be isolated for 30 and preferably 60 days and

then checked by a veterinarian to make sure they are clean and can be mixed with the

remainder of the herd. This will save bringing in diseases to a clean herd.

10. Develop a good record keeping system

A good record system is needed. Without one cattlemen cannot do a top job of

evaluating their operation. Such a system will also simplify income tax reporting

and will make it possible for proper planning, culling, selection and flan lng when
it is needed.








S19.


There are many other challenges facing cattlemen. These are some of the imphrt-

ant ones and meeting them will work tremendous improvement in a cow herd. Florida

has already made great strides in the development of its beef cattle industry. It

is only in the beginning stages, however, of what can be accomplished in the future

if the challenge is met on the undeveloped potential for beef production in the state.








































TJC:hjr
8/5/68








USE OF WARM SEASON IEGUfES

E. M, Hodges


The use of legumes in a grazing program offers several advantages:

1. Increased return per dollar of' fertilizer outlay.

2. Higher feeding value of forage.

3. Longer grazing season through feeding on the legume .and from
increased grass growth in winter and spring due to nitrogen fix-

ation in the soil.

Early work with pastures in Florida included both cool and warm season

legumes and resulted in emphasis on the winter and spring-growing clovers.

The first legume planting.made..at the RCS was a mixture of Common and Kobe

lespedezas seeded with carpetgrass in 1942. Excessive grass competition

and other problems kept this from being successful but some improvement in

cattle performance was obtained in favorable years. This same period of time

brought other summer legumes into view and Creeping beggarweed (Demsodium

canum), which grows throughout the warmer sections of the world, became

known to nost people because of the seed which sticks to clothes. Wild

peabean or phaseybean (Phaseolus lathyroides) has a showy purplish-red flower

in summer. Cattle eat both these plants readily but they have not been

planted much in spite of their adaptation to some south Florida conditions.

Florida beggarweed (Desmodium purpureum) and several different crotolarias

grow well on soils with above-average fertility but have not proved out on

flatwoods sites. Siratro (Phaseolus astropurpureus) is a new introduction

which has been planted on0 a limited area at RCS. The crown lives from year

to year and new plants also come from seed. The value of Siratro on this

soil is not yet determined..






22.

Seed of a legume known in Australia as Townsville Lucerne (Stylosanthes

humilis) has been planted in many places in southern Florida. Also
referred to as S. humilis, this plant has grown vigorously in numerous

locations. It is presently being evaluated for pasture purposes. More

information is available in FAES Circular S-184I authored by A. S.Kretschmer, J

S A-Bair of tall-growing summer legumes have been grown in Florida for

many years, one introduced and one native. The first of these is Hairy Indigo

(Indigofera hirsuta) and the other Jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana).

They. ar,. similar in general growth habit, reaching 3 to 5 feet at full height,

and both are cold-sensitive.

.:..i.i Indigo mwas first planted at the RCS in.1948. It has been used as
a cover, crop, in groves and as a forage crop. There are two common types in

Florida,..E;arly. Indigo and the Regular or Late type. Only the Late variety

should be used in southern Florida. Indigo for pasture improvement should
be planted .at. 5 pounds per acre inoculated seed in June on very closely grazed

Ssod or prepared land._ Rolling or chopping is needed for seed coverage. Indigo

grows well on upland soils without lime but flatwoods soils require 1 to 2
tons per acre before planting with 1 ton per acre added it '4-year intervals.

Treatment at seeding time with 250 to 300 pounds 0-8-24 is adequate for:legume

. ,a: grass growth. Annual retreatment at the same date (June) and rate is"
recommended. Minor element requiremen~h hatae not been investigated but

conditions suitable for pangolagrass and bahiagrass a e adequate for Hlairy

Indigo., ,

Seedling Indigo plants should be given t 'daysg protection from grazing
and up to 90 days if athick growth is desired. Cattle have been known to6

.develop severe lameness during wet weather when confined on dense Indigo.


-/ Kretschmer, A. E., Jr. Stylosanthes humilis. 1968. Fla. Ag.s Exp. Sta
Circ. S-284 (21).







This trouble has not appeared when grass areas were available to the cattle.

Cattle data on carpetgrass and Hairy Indigo separately and in combination

are shown in Table 1. Gains during the warm season are comparatively low since

the season of direct grazing is short. Hairy Indigo produces blossoms about

ctob 'ist'iti' Risiad hias reg's ded reilTably since 1950.

Jointvetch resembles Hairy Indigo in growth habit and responds to the

same cultural and management practices but is more tolerant of wet soils.

Seed harvested in the pod has low germination (see Table 2). Removal

of the pod is relatively easy and only naked seed should be planted,

ten pounds per acre for good results the first year. Jointvetch leaves

are smaller than Hairy Indigo, darker green in color and the forage is more

palatable to cattle. Serious damage to leaves occurs in late summer by a

yellow and black worm. Immediate grazing is recommended when insect damage

begins. Seed production may require control measures, with insecticide.

applied before 9 a.m. 'ihen flowers open andiorneybees become active.

There will be many ways to manage and use the tall-growing, warm season

legumes. The following points deserve special attention:

1. Very close grazing or chopping by June 1 to 15. Graze to July 1

if grass is plentiful and legume seedlings are below 3-inch height.

2. Complete protection from grazing for 60 days or until plants reach

24 inches.

3. Rotational grazing until October 1, allow regrowth for 30 days or
until seed begins to ripen.

4. Graze heavily until frost, then follow usual grazing program until

new seedling growth reaches 3-inch height in late June.

The effect of legume nitrogen on grass cannot be shown in a short-term

trial because much of the benefit comes during the winter and early spring.

Work is currently underway to measure the year-long performance of warm season

legume-grass .pature. ...






24.


Table 1. Summary of grazing trials on


Number of
years grazed


grass, hairy indigo,


Cattle gain
lbs/acre


and jointvetch.


Daily gain
Ibs


Carpetgrass 3 124 1.06

Indigo 3 108 0.88

Carpet Indigo 6. 112 0.76

Jointvetch 1 117 1.22





Table 2. Germination of summer legume seeds, 1968.


Total
Variety and age Germination Hard Seed live seed


Hairy Indigo, scarified

6 mo. after harvest

18 mo. after harvest

Jointvetch in pod

6 mo. after harvest

18 mo. after harvest

Jointvetch, naked seed

6 mo. after harvest

18 mo. after harvest

S. humilis, Florida grown

4 mo. after harvest

8 moo. after harvest

S. humilis, Australian-grown,

unknown age


20 62


Pasture
type


. .. .. I I I I I








EFFECT OF SALTY IRRIGATION WATER ON THE
GROWTH OF PANGOLAGRASS AND PENSACOLA BAHIAGRASS

C. L. Dantzman


During the past several years there has been an increased interest in

salt in irrigation or soil water and its effects on plants. This condition

has occurred in several parts of the state especially near the coastlines and

saltwater rivers. Research has shown that beans grown on Marl soil were

killed by water containing 2,000 to 4,000 parts per million (ppm) of chlorine;

potato yields were reduced to one-half by well water measuring 3,600 ppm soluble

altss, and that the toxic level for citrus was 2,000 total dissolved solids

(T.D.S.) in furrow irrigation water or 800 T.D.S. for overhead irrigation.

Pasture species were found to have different salt tolerances. Bermudagrass

has a high salt tolerance; alfalfa, oats, rye, and sweetclover a medium

tolerance; and white Dutch clover, redclover, and ladino clover a low

tolerance.

Trials were made to test the salt (NaC1) tolerance of pangolagrass and

Pensacola bahiagrass. Results of these are given in this report (see Table 1).

Since the bahiagrass testing is still in progress, only partial yeild data

and survival times are given. The trials were conducted in the greenhouse

to control weather factors, and temperatures were somewhat warmer than field

conditions. Sodium chloride (NaC1) was included in the irrigation water

at levels 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, 3,200, and 6,400 parts per

million (ppm).

Pangola plants receiving 6,400 ppm all died within 91 days, those receiving

3,200 in 95 days, 1,600 ppm in 123 days, and 800 ppm in 133 days. The-highest

level tolerated by pangolagrass was 400 ppm. Salt toxicity symptoms included







27. ,


Pangolagrass has been known to utilize sodium to some extent as a

substitute potassium and along with the increased extractable potassium and

other elements may account for the accelerated growth surge before the toxic

effects appeared.

Pensacola bahiagrass did not tolerate the 6-400 ppm salt treatment beyond

58 days somewhat less than pangola. However those receiving 3,200, 1,600, and

800 ppm survived somewhat longer. The trial is still in progress but the

400 and 200 ppm treatments are showing decline and probably wil not survive

as was the case of pangolagrass.

Yields of 50 and 100 ppm treatments measured more than the check.

Accelerated growth also occurred in the bahiagrass in some .of the salt

treatments. In those receiving higher levels, it was soon followed by

declined growth, dark green rolled leaves, browning, and dying. All harvests

were made at a height of approximately 4 inches. The bahiagrass was harvested

four times, and fertilized at the same rates as the pan&olagrass. Harvests

appeared to accelerate plant decline.












Table 1.


Salt concentrations, forage yield,
Pensacola bahiagrass trial.


and soil analysis of Pangolagrass trial, and forage yield of


Pangola rial
i+ rff Al k ~


Forage
Max. Yield
days (for
lived 205
of days
205 O.D.
days T/A


205
205
205
205
205
205
133
123
95
91


5.54
4.82
2.61
3.02
4.07
2.72
0.95
0.98
0.39
0.26


Final So~il Anlsi


Chlorine
0-2" 2-5n


ppm


104
205
423
671
1850
2980
3520
6650
8600
12300


ppm


78
106
155
230
409
1170
450
1250
1350
3040


Sodium
0-2t 2-5"1


'PPM


21
96
170
268
775
1210
1510
. 3890
3830
5350


ppm


12
50
74
119
301
329
354
715
1160
1700


Potassium
0-2" 2-5


ppm


18
47
105
120
130
126
171
197
114


Dissolved


Solids
S EC 1:2
0-2" 2-52'
.ppn unhos/cm


8.
18
46
33
44'
912
38
38
34
35


.0.48
0.72
0.93
1.381
2.13
3.77
4.37
7.43
11.20
15.93


0.39
0.59
0.69
1.00
1.33
0.92
1.57
2.80
3.97


Bahia Trial
SForage
MaxE Yield
days (for
lived 184
of days)
220, O.D.
days T/A


220
220
220
220'
220
220,
195.
143
129
58


7.75
7.09
9.37
8.51
6.89
5.31
4.03
2.59
1.06
0.a1


Soil extracted with 1 normal anuonium acetate at pH 4.8.
Trial in progress.


Conezi
NaCI
in
Water


0
25
50
100
200
'400
800
1600
3200
6400


alL
Av.
NaCI
Used
per
day
T/A


0.00
0.14
0.20
0.35
0.82
1.20
4.18
6.35
12.74
20.69


1/
3/


- '- ~ r~ - ------ -- --


I' I a ---- -- -









TH. USE OF WINTI R ANNUAL CROPS IN FIATWOODS FLORIDA

J., E. McCaleb

The use of cold tolerant annual crops for grazing is an old and well

established program throughout most of the United States, but is not a wide

spread practice in the flatwoods of south and central Florida. The DARE
report (Inst. Food and Agr. Sci., Univ. of Fla.) estimates that the acreage

planted to oats in Florida will increase from 80,000 in 1960 to 88,000 in

1975, while ryegrass will remain constant. Apparently the reverse of this
prediction is presently occurring with ryegrass becoming more popular with

increasing acreages grazed each year.

Oats and ryegrass, and rye to a lesser degree, are adapted and grow
well in the flatwoods. Their use in this area is limited to grazing or for
cover-crops to prevent wind erosion of bare ground or wind-burn of young

citrus or vegetables.

The present trials at RCS started in the fall of 1955 to determine
adaptability, growth habits and productiveness of several commercially

available varieties of oats and Abruzzi, Florida black and the rye later

released as Gator rye (Gator rye was not commercially available in large

amounts until 1958 and was included in grazing trials at that time). Based

on the 1955 varietal plantings a 4-year grazing trial was started in 1956

using Floriland oats in all years; Abruzzi rye in 1956; Florida black rye

in 1957; and Gator rye in 1958 and 1959. The purpose was to determine the

performance of steers approximately 21 months of age at the start of the

grazing period on the two varieties. This trial is reported in FASS

circular. S-152, 1964. The two years, 1958 and 1959, when Gator rye was

grazed are shown in Table 1.





30.


This 4-year trial showed that oats, as an intermediate crop, gave good

returns over the cost of the seed, fertilizer and machinery needed for

production of the crop when it was used in a pasture improvement program

requiring soil preparation.

The results of this trial showed that oats excelled rye in average

daily gain and in total gain per acre. Analysis of oat and rye forages

showed no significant differences. Protein content was approximately

17% for oats and 19% for rye, both well above the minimum requirement for

fattening cattle. Oats can be used satisfactorily and economically for

grazing in this area if combined with other programs requiring some land

preparation or soil disturbance.

Based on the results of the previous trial rye was eliminated from

varietal grazing studies. A three-year study was run from 1960 to 1963

to determine the performance of long-yearling steers grazing oats with and

without supplementary energy feed of 4 pounds of ground snapped corn daily

per steer. The results are shown in Table 2. (Reported in Proc. Soil and

Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 1964.)

Supplementation increased total steer grazing days per acre from 89

to 117 and total gains per acre from 130 to 208 pounds. Thus, it required

602 pounds of ground snapped corn to produce 100 pounds gain. Slaughter

data showed appreciable differences in final grade between the two groups.

Animals getting supplement had an average lower shrink in transit and a
higher average dressing percent. The increased average daily gain was

sufficient to pay for the ground snapped corn, but did not pay for the other

costs incurred. The advantages were: increased graving capacity and larger

total gain per acre, less loss in transit and slightly higher dressing per-

cent. Market grade was not increased by supploeentation of energy feed at

4 pounds per steer per day,







31.

i years observations (1964 and 1965) showed that a.herd of 30 to 35

cows with approximately 80% calf crop were wintered in good condition on

25 to 30 acres of Bahiagrass and Pangolagrass pasture and allowed to graze

5 acres of oats 30 minutes to one hour per day for approximately 100 days.

This program is the most difficult to evaluate economically but may have the

highest potential for present-day beef cattle programs in the flatwoods.

Several ryegrasses (Lolium spp.).that are resistant to rust and other

leaf diseases, and are well adapted to peninsular Florida, have been released

in recent years. Gulf and Florida Rust Resistant varieties have been best

at RCS and Gulf has been used in grazing trials. Little information is

available on number of acres planted with ryegrass but interest in increasing

in this crop because it can be planted in a large number of ways including

mixing with the fertilizer which is applied in the fall; and because less

cultivation is required to -establish it that the other small grains.

Ryegrass does not re-seed satisfactorily in south Florida and must be

planted each year.

A grazing trial to compare Gulf ryegras with Gulf ryegrass plus More-

grain oats when grazed with yearling cross-bred steers was run in 1965-66

in fields being renovated to control undesired grasses. Forage variety

and animal performance are shown.in Table 3.

Weaned heifer and steer calves averaging 350 to 400 pounds and. 10 to 12

months of age at start of grazing were used in two years 1966-67 and 1967-68.

A comparison of'Table.4 with Tables 2 and 3 shows that total number of

grazing days increased for the younger cattle but the total gain per acre

was essentially the same. Slaughter data are not available since these

animals were used for later research.







32.


Data from these trials and observations iii other grazed aieas, including

the trial using weanling'heifers and steers grazing oats and ryegrass,
show a close correlation insofar as animal behavior is concerned. Namely:

1. Oats were higher in palatability than ryegrass.
2. Animals on ryegrass are cleaner And have a slick appearing coat.
3. Aeorage daily gains are higher with ryegrass, but gains per acre are
lower because of decreased carrying capacity.

4. When both are planted in early October, oats normally can be grazed
from december 10 and may extend to April 1, ryegrass should be planned
for the latter part of December and may last to May 1, dependent on
both available moisture and cool spring temperature for each variety.
Winter annual crops are expensive and required good management and

fertilizer programs. At RCS 50 pounds of N per acre as 10-10-10 or 12-6-6
is applied at planting; with an additional 50 pounds of N from ammonium
nitrate after the second grazing rotational cycle, and a third application
of 50 pounds of N from a complete fertilizer approximately March 15 to-extend
the grazing as far as possible into the spring. If the weather becomes hot and
drought after this date there will be little loss of fertilizer and the
residue is available for the next crop. Rotational or limited grazing
should be practiced so that oats are harvested to a minimum of 5 to 6 inches
in height and ryegrass to approximately 4 inches. Care must be taken to
purchase varieties selected for this area. Buy variety by name.
Oats and ryegrass are adapted and can be a valuable addition to a beef
cattle program in peninsular Florida provided their use is based on an
intensive fertilizer and management program. They should be seriously
considered as an intermediate crop to f)nish- supplementary feed and thereby
recover oe of the cost involved hen establi g or reo i a p










To summarize for flatwoods soils:

1. Ptlaht approSiatmtly October 1 orFas son 'as possible'after the summer"'

rainy season. Early de'edling establishment and rapid growth is

necessary for a long grazing period.

2. Fertilize at planting to supply minimum of 50 pounds of N per acre in

a 1-1-1 or 2-1-1 fertilizer ratio.

3. Grazing normally starts by December 15 for oats or January 1 for

ryegrass if planted about October 1. Use rotationally with animals

continuously on the pasture or limit grazing by cows to that time

required for them to fill.

4. Oats should be stocked at approximately 1.0 acres per 700, to.O0-pound

steer orryegrass at 1.15 acres per steer. Allow 5 to 7 cows per

acre on limited grazing schedule. Cow herds, etc. may be used to control

growth and prevent early seed head formation. Graze oats to 5 or 6

inches and ryegrass to 4 inches, closer at end of season.

5. Supply additional N as needed; usually 50 pounds in late December

and again in a complete fertilizer in mid-March.


- . I






34.


Table 1. Performance of steers grazing oats and rye. Average of
two years. 1958-60.


Grazing period: length days

Acres/steer

Av. steer weights

Initial
Final
Daily gain

Total gain/A (includes put-and-take
steers)

Average analysis (air-dry basis)

Percent moisture
Crude protein
Ash
Calcium
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Ether extract
Crude fiber
Nitrogen free extract

Grass returns/A

Av. cost/A


Floriland Oats

114.5

1.00



673
888
1.88


270


9.85
17.82
12.61
.51
.41
.70
2.80
24.12
32.80

$60.00

$52.49


Gator Rye

114.5

1.29



674
868
1.70


165


8.68
19.18
10.60
.49
.40
.53
2.97
22.83
35.74

$36.99

$52.49


~-.. ----- _.~







35.


Table 2. Average performance of 'steers grazing oat pastures for
three years with and without supplementary feed.


No. steers continuously on pasture

Av. length grazing period2

Av. steer weights lbs.

Initial
Final- .
Daily gain

Av. slaughter grade

Initial
Final

Average/acre/yearV/

Grazing days
Gain


Oats

6

99



787
933
1.47



5.3
7.1


89
130


Oats and G.S.C.1

8

99



772
948
1.78



5.0
7.0



117
208


Ground snapped corn.

/ Tester steers only. (Animals on pasture throughout trial.)

2/ Tester plus put-and-take steers. (Put-and-tke animals used to maintain

desired growth.)











Table 3. Variety and animal performance. 1965-66.
... ' L I


Forag e~ - -- ...----.. .



Gain/A

A/steer

Animal /

Av. daily gain


Ryegrass



100.00

170.67

1.08



2.00


Rye-rass and oats



100.00

158.00

: 1.081 '



1.62


1/ Total of tester plus put-and-take steers.

/ Total of tester steers only.


Table 4. Average performance of weaned calves grazing


supplementary pastures.


Grazing
period


Length days

Average

Daily gain

Gain/A2

Grazing days/A./


- _Oats1/
1^g6"' 1967-68


12-2 12--12
to to
3-28 3-27

106 116


.93

180

193


1.69

231

137


Av.


12-7
to
3-27

111



1.3:

206

165


"'- yearass
3 6-r.7 1967-68


12-27 12-12 -
to to
4-5 4-10

99 120


I.


1.57

320

204


1.50

234

156


Av.
oats
and
.Rye-
grass


110



1.43

242

185


Av.


12-19
to
4-7

110



1.54

277

180


2/ Suregrain oats 1966 and Fla 500 oats in 1967. Gulf ryegrass grown each year?
STester steers only.
STester plus put-and-take animals.


... `


Illarrrrr~llrrr~ll


i- I II Ill


I IIII I II I I ............


1




























APPENDIX

A brief summary of each active project is included in
this appendix in order to provide up-to-date information
concerning research in progress at the Range Cattle
Experiment Station.







39.


FERTILIZATION RESEARCH

C. L. Dantzman


Project 989 LONG-RANGE EFFECTS OF PASTURE MANAGEMENT ON THE FERTILITY OF
FLATWOODS SOILS.

A. Field Fertility: Soil samples from pastures at the RCES were taken to a
soil depth of 6-inches during the winters.of 1967 and 1968. Accuailation
of fertilizer elements was related to intensity of fertilization and to
a~aount of plant removal.:

B. Residual Fertility: Areas previously treated with differing amounts of
Ni P2O"5 and XK0 and planted to pangolagrass and P. Bahiagrass were treated
with' only nitrogen. Harvests during one-year indicated plant growth was
related to the higher residual fertility of potassium and phosphorus, and
especially for the pangolagrass.

Project 1150. MOVEMENT OF FERTILIZER ElEMENTS IN FLATWOODS SOILS.

This project was designed to measure vertical and horizontal movement of
fertilizer elements in hardpan soils over a period of time. An area was highly
fertilized at a rate of 2000 lbs. per acre of 10-10-10 and'500 lbs. per'acre of
Mg S04 on two dates.

Soil samples were taken at depths of 6 inches below the surface and 3 inches
above the hardpan. ..Results of.the ,167. collections indicated consideral downward
movement of phosphorus and potassium to both depths. -ater sampling in 1968
showed lower values under thbehighly fertilized area..

Project 1361 SALT TOLERANCE OF PASTURE PLANTS.

.- A-greenhouse pot study was made to test the salt (NaC1) tolerance of pangola-
grass. Sodium cholride levels from 0 to 6400 parts per million were applied in
irrigation water. Results showed a severe reduction. in yield at levels above
400 ppm. Soil analysis indicated increased sodium chlorine and total dissolved
solids in relation to amount applied, with higher readings measured for the 0-2
inch (surface) layer. Other analysis showed higher amounts of potash extracted
in some of the higher Na Cl treatments.


Project 1382 .-MEASUREMENT OFElEMENTS .ZEPOSITE.. FROM ATMOSPHERE.

Rainfall was collected from several stations at the RCES (away from:roads
and fertilized areas) at one-month intervals for measurement of chlorine, .fluorine,
iodine and' sulfur. Results of preliminary collections are pending.;










AGRONOMIC RESEARCH

E. M. Hodges


Project 1167.


EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED AND NATIVE PLANT SPECIES FOR PASTURE,
FORAGE, AND OTHER USES.


Pensacola bahiagrass sod disked once in June 1967 recovered rapidly and
crowded a four pound per acre seeding rate of S. humilis. Scattered plants
produced a scant seed crop. The same area was double-chopped in 1968, seeded
at eight pounds per acre and grazed after planting. Imported and Florida-grown
seed produced fair stands with this treatment. Similar response was obtained
in pangolagrass in 1968. Jointvetch seeded in June 1968 at 10 pounds naked
seed per acre on triple chopped bahiagrass sod produced a dense growth. Areas
with double seeding rate and more severe cultivation made the most rapid
summer growth. Jointvetch plants, completely denuded by grazing in late
August made vigorous regrowth from stubbles 12 to 24 inches in height.


Project 1368. YEARLONG GRAZING ON GRASS AND GRASS-LEGUME VARIETIES.

Weaned steer calves were placed on grass and grass-summer legume combinations
in October and kept for 11 to 12 months. They received a balanced supplemental
feed'.in winter if required to produce approximately one-half pound daily gain.
Gain and supplement data for the favorable 1967-68 winter and for most of the
summer 1968 periods are shown here.


Summary of 1967-68 yearlong grazing.
Winter 10-18-67 Av. daily Summer 4-11-to
to 4-10-68 winter 9-11-68
Av. daily gain supplement Av. daily gain


Pangola 0.55 0.0 1.07
Bermuda 52 0.56 2.4 1.20
Slender digitaria 0.34 0.0 1.03
Pensacola bahia 0.31 2.6 1.02
Argentine bahia 0.16 2.6 1.01
Paraguay 22 bahia 0.29 2.6 1.13
Pensacola + Hairy Indigo 0.45 0.0 0.89


Grasses were fertilized in both spring and fall with 400 pounds per acre
12-6-6 fertilizer. The Pensacola-Hairy Indigo pasture consisted of 5 acres
grass and 5 acres of the combination. The legume received 275 pounds per
acre 0-8-24 in June. Treatments.including S. humilis and Jointvetch will
be included in the 1968-69 trial.






,41.


Project i403. PASTURE AND SUPPLEENT SYSTEMS FOR BEEF COWS.

..i..'. :.Ths .experiment consists .of. eight breeding herds, each assigned to a
40-acre pasture unit. Stocking is at 25" females per unit on seVen treatments
with 30 head where supplemental .concentrate is provided. All herds will be
given hay (produced outside the 40"acres) when needed. Effect of the pasture
.' and supplement practices are measured in. terms of cow conception.and weaning
rates, cow weight, and calf weight and grade. Input ahd production'factors
will be recorded for cost and return analysis. Fertilization procedures
follow current recommendations wifh the base treatment for pangolagrass pasture
two 400-pound per acre applications of 12-6-6 each year.


AGRONOMIC RESEARCH

J. McCaleb

Project 883R. VARIETY TESTING OF ANNUAL GRAIN AND FORAGE CROPS IN CENTRAL
FLORIDA.

S.:Nine.acres were planted to Fla.-500 oats and 9 acres to Gulf ryegrass
October 13, 1967. Grazing with weanling calves averaging 412 and 451 pounds
for oats and ryegrass, respectively, started December 12, 1967. Results
were as follows:


Days on Av. Per acre Planted '
trial daily gain Days Gain seed/A

Fla. 500 oats 140 1.69 192.4 324.9 3 bu:
Gulf ryegrass/ 120 1.50 155.6 233.5 15 bu

SL/ Seedbed preparation was inadequate for this small amount of seed.
Grazing data is not compatible with previous years.

Varietal trials to-determine yield of Grazer type sorghums, etc, were
planted in 1967 and 1968. The five highest producers in descending order were:
(1967 Haygrazer; Southern cross; Gahi-1; SX-12; and Chowmaker. (1968) Grazer
N; chowmaker; Graze master; Sordan 67; and Grazer S.

SProject -1167. EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED AND NATIVE PLANT. SPECIES FOR PASTURE,
FORAGE, AND OTHER USES.

Six grasses from A. J. Oakes collection of Digitaria in Africa in.1964-
65 were selected and placed in varietal clipping trials in 1967. Fields
ranging from 2.5 to 510 acres in size were. planted in June 1968 to furnish
grazing observations and increase blocks of three bermudas PI 224152, 224566,
Coast cross 1, Hemarthria altisstna 29994, Digitaria pentzii 300955. .









Tons of oven-dry forage harvested from replicated variety clipping studies
in 1967 and 1968 are shown:

1967 1968
4-25 6-21 8-3 10-13 4-25 5-31 7-16


Pensacola bahial/ 0.77 1.44 2.48 1.78 0.88 1.05 3.03
Pangola1 0.46 1.79 1.41 1.12 1.23 0.61 1.79
Slender digitarial/ 0.77 1.58 0.96 1.34 1.50 1.17 1.77
H. altissima 93 1.72 1.63 1.54 1.43 1.24 1.46 3.01
94 2.22 1.06 1.39 1.68 2.07 1.18 2.75
95 1.34 1.79 1.31 1.26 1.16 1.32 3.08

l Plots 4 years old; remainder 2 years.

Project 1241. USE OF HERBICIDES IN FORAGE PRODUCTION.

A trial to determireresponse of Pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum)
and Common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) to herbicides was established June
23, 1967, and scored July 25, September 20, November 16, 1967, and June 14,
1968. Thirty treatments were made with four retreated July 25. Plots
treated with Hyvar X (bromanil) alone at 4 or 10 ai/A or 5 ai/A in combin-
ation with ATA-T or DSMA were +95% bare ground June 14, 1968. Similar
results were obtained with Amchem 67-100 at 6 and 12 ai/A. Gulf ryegrass
overseeded in these plots October 13, 1967, germinated but failed to survive,
The third year's data was taken April 4, 1968, from replicated plots in
a trial to determine percent bud kill and economics of control of saw palmetto
which were sprayed with 2,4,5-T, mowed or chopped. Herbicide treatments
were re applied May 20, 1968. Percent saw palmetto buds April 4, 1968,
compared with February 7, 1966, as follows:

2,4, 5-T Mow Chop with Tandem chopper

6# ai/A (1966) 131 Spring 258 Single: spring 143
3# (1966) + 3# (1967) 139 Spring + fall 273 spring + fall 170
Double: spring 150
spring + fall 73


Project 1308. BIONOMICS AND CONTROL OF THE TWO-LINED SPITTIEBUG.
The two year cooperative project of the State Experiment Stations,
Department of Entomology, University of Florida, and School of Tropical
Agriculture continued in 1968. Data will be used in one Master's degree









thesis "and a Doctorate Dissertation. Previous recommended control measures
of plowing or chopping every two years or removal of top growth during epidemic
populations by harvesting or close grazing over as short a period of time
as possible are still valid. Damage has been observed on all cc"m1onl.y used
pasture grasses, except the Bahias, on both sand and muck. Observat.ions
of all introduced grasses are made to try and isolate resistant varieties.


Project 1367. RESPONSE OF PANGOLAGRASS TO POTASSIUM.

This project was approved in March 1967 with the general objective of
measuring the effect of 50 lb. N, 30 lb. P205 and 50, 130, :or 210 pounds
of K20 per acre applied after each harvest or twice per year on grazed areas
on hay yield or cattle performance. Soil analyses are used and the amounts
of P205 and K20 added so that the total in the soil sample plus additions
will equal the rates given. Grazing data is incomplete and all pastures
were renovated and replanted to Pangola in June 1968. Bales of hay harvested
per acre are as follows:


Fertilizer
Date .50-30-50 50-30-130 50-30-210


7-12-67 97 112 99
9-20-67,. 112 118 127
1-17-68 13 21 23
6-24-68 125 1 129
347 395 378


NUTRITION RESEARCH
S. H. L. Chapman, Jr.

Project 1284. EFFECT OF VARIOUS SOURCES OF VITAMIN A ON FATTENING CATTLE.

.-" Work under this project was conducted by W. G. Kirk until. his retirement
in July 1968. Depletion-repletion studies have been conducted with crossbred,
weanling, steer calves to evaluate vitamin A utilization from pangolagrass
hay and a synthetic form of vitamin A. Results to date indicate that when
the body stores of cattle become deficient in vitamin A they cannot easily
return to normal by the use of pangola hay or recommended maintenance levels
of supplemental vitamin A. Additional research is needed to determine how
much vitamin A is needed to overcome -deficient vitamin A stores in body tissues.

Project 1345. UREA IN CATTLE FATTENING RATIONS.

Work under this project has been led by W. G. Kirk until his retirement
in July 1968. Two trials have been conducted evaluating the uae pf urea to









replace 0, 25, 50, and 100 percent of the nitrogen normally furnished by
cottonseed meal. Gains by steers fed the two highest levels of urea were not
as high as the other two groups. There were no appreciable differences in
carcass grade or yield.

Project 1365. USE OF FORAGE STORED IN OXYGEN-FREE STRUCTURES IN EEEF
CATTLE PRODUCTION.

Construction on four oxygen-free storage st-uctures were completed in
September 1967. Initial studies involved mature, poor-quality pangola grass.
Haylage made from this material was not nutritionally adequate to maintain
the weight of yearling cattle. Cattle receiving the poor-quality haylage
plus 5 pounds a day per head of a concentrate ration gained 0.74 lb. a day.

Project 1369. EVALUATION OF THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF FORAGE GROWN ON MINERAL
SOILS OF SOUTH AND CENTRAL FLORIDA.

This project was inactive during 1967-68.

Project 1383. FEED ADDITIVES IN BEEF CATTLE FINISHING RATIONS.

Melengestrol acetate (MGA) was tested in fattening rations for beef
heifers. Average daily gains for yearling crossbred heifers were 2.11, 2.17,
and 2.32, respectively, for heifers on control, 0.4 mg MGA, and 0.4 mg MGA
+ 24 mg diethylstilbestrol (DES) implants. MGA or MGA + DES did not
appreciably affect carcass measurements. MGA inhibited corpus luteum formation
and increased uterine weights.

Project 1384. VARIOUS PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS FOR BALANCING THE CALCIUM:PHOSPHORUS
RATIO IN FLORIDA-PRODUCED CATTLE FEEDS.

Two studies have been conducted to compare the relative value of dicalcium
phosphate and a phosphorus-containing material having a fertilizer formula
of 10-34-0 to furnish supplemental phosphorus for dried citrus pulp fed to
yearling heifers. Results are presented below:


Table 1. Average weight change of heifers, 1966-67, 135 days on test (lbs.).

Experiment 1 Experiment 2
10-34-0 Dical. 10-34-0 Dical

Number animals 201/ 21 21 21
Initial weight 561 563 458 459
Final weight 728 704 622 624
Total gain 161 141 164 165
Daily gain 1.19 1.04 1.21 1.22

Animal died. Clinica dianos was erebrii and nary edema.
1 dagnseswas cerebritis and Pulmonary edema.






45.

Table 2. Average weight change of heifers, 1967-68, 118 days on test (Ibs.).


cEperiment 1 Experiment 2
10-34-0 Dical 10-34-0 Dical

Number of animals 20 20 20 20
Initial weight 480 482 419 422
Final weight 542 566 502 479
Total gain. 62 84 83 57
Daily gain 0.53 0.71 0.70 0.48


Project 1385. SUPPLEMENTAL FADING OF STEERS AND HEIFERS ON PASTURE.

First work to be initiated during the winter of 1968.

Project 1386. POST WEANING MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS FOR EEF CALVES IN
PENINSULAR FLORIDA.

First work to be initiated during the winter of 1968.


ANIMAL BREEDING RESEARCH

F. M. Peacock

(see pink pages)

Project 1120. CHAROLAIS, BRAHMAN, ANGUS AND THEIR CROSSES FOR BEEF PRODUCTION.


Project 1209. EFFECT OF BREEDING IN PERFORMANCE OF HEIFERS BRED TO CALVE
AT TWO YEARS OF AGE.


Project 1261. FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF BRAHMAN,
ANGUS, AND CHAROLAIS AND THEIR CROSSES.














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Grateful appreciation is expressed to
the companies that have supported the
work at the Range Cattle Station by
their grants and gifts. These are
listed alphabetically, as follows:


Allied Chemical, Agricultural Div., N.Y.
Department of the Army, Fort Detrick, Md.
Borden Chemical Co., Smith Douglas Div.
Norfolk, Va.
Commercial Solvents Corp., Terra Haute,
Ind.
Czarnikow-Rionda Co., N.Y.
Florida Agricultural Research Institute,
Gainesville, Fla.
Hoffman-LaRoche Co., Nutley, New Jersey
Kaiser Agricultural Chemicals, Tampa, Fla.
Mar-K Ranch, High Springs, Fla.
M & M Angus Ranch, Loxahatchee, Fla.
P.A.B. Widener Farms, Ocala, Fla.
L. E. Pritchard, Lutz, Fla.
Tuco -Products Co., Kalamazoo, Mich.


In addition sincerest thanks are expressed
to the many other people assisting in the
program of research and this Field Day,
including the Hardee County Cattlemen's
Association; Hardee County Cowbelles;
Peace River Electric Cooperative, Inc.;
Hardee County Sheriff's Office; Superior
Fertilizer Co., Tampa; Hardee County
Commissioners; and the employees of the
Range Cattle Station. Their assistance
is gratefully acknowledged and deeply
appreciated.

J________




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