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Community resource development
Planned and expended time by program area
The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
florida cooperative extension service
institute of food and agricultural sciences
university of florida
Farm income from field crops in Florida was
more than 11 percent higher in 1971 than in 1970
and approximately 23 percent above the 1969
value. Every field crop increased in value in 1971,
except tobacco. The record crop of 1970 resulted
in reduced allotments for the 1971 crop of flue-
cured tobacco. Acreages of shade tobacco also
declined in 1971.
Florida corn producers recovered from the 1970
ravages of southern corn leaf blight. Extension
agronomists cooperated with other Extension and
research specialists, county Extension personnel
and industry representatives in advising growers on
how to avoid losses from the disease. Despite seed
shortages, the 1971 average yield was almost dou-
ble the 1970 average and only one bushel less than
the state record yield per acre.
Peanut yields continued an upward spiral. Farm
income from peanuts in 1971 was about 50
percent above the 1969 value. The Florunner
variety', developed at the University of Florida was
a major contributor to the record yields. Recom-
mended cultural practices were presented to grow-
ers at shortcourses, field days and farmer meetings.
Specialists emphasized programs designed to in-
crease farm income by preparing growers for new
technology. Information on variety selection and
on the requirements for mechanized harvest was
presented to sugarcane producers. A systems ap-
proach to weed control was encouraged in all crops
and was especially emphasized to soybean farmers
through studying yield losses due to weeds. Live-
stock producers were urged to consider legumes,
small grains and silage in their forage programs at
forage schools held in several areas. Tobacco
farmers were acquainted with changes in cultural
practices that are needed for mechanical harvest.
Environmental quality was a major consideration
in all programs. Aquatic weed control methods
were presented in order to improve fish population
as well as the beauty of lakes and rivers. Fertilizer
and pesticide recommendations were designed to
result in maximum production with no resulting
residues or pollution.
THE CITRUS INDUSTRY
Research in the Institute of Food and Agricul-
tural Sciences has developed information that may
reduce the cost of citrus production to approxi-
mately $.35 per 90 lb. box exclusive of taxes and
interest on investment. A survey indicates many
growers have costs greatly in excess of that figure.
To counteract this, Extension fruit crops special-
ists, working with researchers, have developed the
Florida Program for Economical Citrus Production.
Using a package which includes comprehensive
text, extensive bibliography, and a series of charts
and 35 mm color slides, Extension agents receive
intensive training in each segment of the program.
Duplicate packages of the materials are distributed
to all Extension citrus agents. This material is used
in a unified statewide program whereby all Exten-
sion personnel concerned with citrus can conduct
intensive programs on specialized topics.
Over the past two years, county Extension agents
have received highly specialized training in the
program's various facets and most counties have
begun to implement some areas. Extension fruit
crops specialists have spoken at many county
schools and some agents, cooperating on a cross-
line basis, are serving as resource people for other
county schools. The state staff publishes monthly
information on improved production practices and
tips to save money which is sent to county person-
nel for dissemination to the growers. In this way,
all county and state Extension personnel are
attacking similar problems at the same time and all
are "telling the same story," which is documented
by research and backed up by visuals and a
One south Florida county has reported tre-
mendous yield increases due to information re-
leased regarding the use of phosphorus. Conserva-
tive estimates indicate over $1,000,000 additional
income to south Florida growers as a result of
increasing phosphate rates on young citrus trees.
This is based on a /4 box per tree increase over
50% of the groves in the flatwoods area of south
Demonstrations utilizing abscission chemicals in
several counties have shown that harvesting costs
on early and mid-season fruits for processing can
be reduced and have the beneficial side effect of
making the harvesting laborer's job easier.
These are just two examples of the potential
value of practices developed for the program. With
a statewide average cost of citrus production now
at $.56 per box, it is hoped that the Florida
Program for Economical Citrus Production can re-
duce these costs to the $.35 per box level and
achieve a savings potential of over $55 million
annually for Florida citrus growers.
INSECT AND NEMATODE CONTROL
With added emphasis and concern for the quality
of the environment, the Extension Chemicals
Information Center continued to assemble and
disseminate information on pesticide residues,
tolerances, labeling and safe usage through 11
issues of the "Chemically Speaking" newsletter
received by more than 1,000 individuals, agencies
and organizations. Proper application, storage and
disposal were important aspects of pest control
Extension specialists held three workshops
attended by about 300 pest control operators.
Twenty-five meetings were held for about 1100
homeowners on insect control in lawns and orna-
mentals. Training meetings were also held for
leaders and aids in the Expanded Nutrition Pro-
gram, Seminole Indians and State Agency Person-
nel on insect control. Thirty publications were
prepared on insect control including eight circulars
on household insect control for low income
families. Applied research was conducted to find
more effective control measures for mole crickets,
ground pearls, and leatherleaf fern borer. Phyto-
toxicity experiments were carried out to find safer
insecticides for use on ornamental plants.
The 5th Annual Agricultural Pest Control
Conference was held in Gainesville. The two-
day program included talks on control of insects,
plant diseases, weeds, nematodes, pest wildlife and
application of pesticides. Approximately 220
dealers, spraymen, agents, researchers, salesmen,
production managers, manufacturers, formulators
and related professional agricultural workers attend-
In an effort to inform and unify beekeepers, the
monthly newsletter "Hum of the Hive" has been
revised, reoriented to disseminate information of
a research nature and activities of national, state
and local organization. Responses of organizations
have been complimentary and positive in nature.
A pilot project of a honey bear sales program in
conjunction with 4-H candy sales has been in-
stituted. This program should be mutually bene-
ficial to beekeepers and to the 4-H program. Bee-
keepers have given enthusiastic support of this
program on the state level.
Publications on bees and pesticides, programed
instruction on beekeeping, honey fact sheet, popu-
lation densities as related to hive temperature
maintenance, and queen rearing were initiated in
1971. The publication "Sweets from Florida Hon-
ey" was revised. Upon completion these publica-
tions should help expand honey markets and
educate beekeepers to new and better techniques.
The Extension nematology program for 1971
included editing the "Florida Nematode Control '
Guide," preparing nematode information mimeo-
graphs, and planning and developing nematode
programs for 18 short courses, agent training ses-
sions, grower meetings, or other similar meetings.
Demonstration trials on nematode control were
conducted on peanuts, potatoes, ornamentals, turf
and pine plantations last year.
A total of 4,480 Extension soil samples were
analyzed for plant parasitic nematodes during 1971.
As a result of this service, a new nematode prob-
lem of soybeans was found in Florida -- reniformm
After three years of preparation, the "Florida
Plant Disease Control Guide" was issued in 1971.
This is a loose leaf notebook for commercial use
which can be kept up-to-date by revisions of sug-
gested controls as new methods are developed for
disease control, and as better and safer disease
control chemicals are developed. In the Guide an
attempt has been made to include all plants im-
portant in Florida and to give a description of the
symptoms and suggested controls of diseases im-
portant on each plant listed.
One of the most important benefits of this
publication is that all Extension and experiment
station personnel (as well as other professional
workers) now will be able to make uniform sug-
gestions to growers for disease control. In the past
lack of uniformity has resulted in some confusion
on identifications and suggested controls.
One of the research demonstration experiments
conducted during 1971 was in a nursery in Orange
County on control of the fungus Rhizoctonia
on Ardisia. The disease was destroying some 20%
of this specialty plant and causing a very consid-
erable loss to the nurseryman. Several different
fungicides were applied and the most effective one
reduced the 20% loss almost to zero. As a result,
the grower immediately initiated a suggested disease
control program and since that time, has had little
loss in his Ardisia plants. Effective control in-
creased income by some $4,500 on a single type of
plant among many produced by the nursery.
Displays at Foliage Shortcourse featured all phases of production
and disease and insect controls.
The Florida foliage industry has undergone a
rapid period of growth in the last four years. In
1968, the estimated wholesale value of Florida
foliage plants was 15 million. Projected value of
commercially grown foliage plants is 25 million for
Extension programs of the Department of Orna-
mental Horticulture have provided leadership in
helping the industry grow and produce better
Over 300 people representing 25 states and 5
foreign countries registered for the 1972 National
Tropical Foliage Short Course held January 23-26
in Orlando. The short course was sponsored by
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service, with
Dr. Dennis B. McConnell, State Extension Special-
ist, Department of Ornamental Horticulture, Uni-
versity of Florida serving as program coordinator.
The 21/2 day short course was divided into 4
sections: utilization; merchandising and marketing;
production; and transportation and handling.
Each section featured speakers who have gained
national prominence in their fields of expertise.
Foliage plant growers served as moderators through-
out the short course.
Over 440 people representing all phases of
Florida's turfgrass industry attended the 1971
Florida Turf-Grass Management Conference.
Extension horticulturists coordinated and or-
ganized several displays showing turf pests, new
grass varieties and a unique device for measuring
thatch on golf courses. A display booth included
the latest bulletins, circulars, and mimeos on pests
and their control as well as Extension's programs in
support of the turf industry.
An Extension entomologist used slides and pre-
served samples to show the major insect pests of
grasses, and also passed out copies of Extension
bulletins for commercial and homeowner insect
An Extension nematologist presented a slide
show on new techniques for nematode control,
provided written material on diagnosis and treat-
ment of nematodes, and showed the audience live
specimens of nematodes parasitic on turfgrasses.
The latest information on diseases was provided
by an Extension plant pathologist, including color
pictures and a mimeo on the SAD virus which is a
potential threat to all St. Augustinegrass in Florida.
The conference program demonstrated Exten-
sion's emphasis on a "joint effort" among special-
ists in several departments in working with the
Vegetable growers in the tri-county area of St.
Johns, Putnam and Flagler counties have used
open ditches to deliver water to their fields since
farming began there before the turn of the century.
Water from deep wells is becoming salty and in
short supply from over use. Under the direction
of St. Johns County Extension Director Paul
Dinkins, a group of experts representing county
Extension agents in St. Johns, Putnam and Flagler,
Extension specialists in vegetable crops and agri-
cultural engineering at Gainesville, and representa-
tives of the ASCS and SCS at Hastings, met with
growers to explore possible solutions to the prob-
lems. The group decided to try replacing open
header ditches with plastic pipes. (See Figure 1).
Three years later, an evaluation of the program
showed that the practice has proven to be very
At a recent meeting of growers, Bobby White, of
the ASCS office, reported that about 4,000 acres of
farmlands are now served by plastic header pipes in
that area. Mr. White was instrumental in getting the
use of plastic header pipes approved as a cost-
sharing practice by ASCS. Joe Davenport, SCS
representative, quoted results of his studies which
showed from 39 to 50% savings in the amount of
water actually pumped for irrigation through plas-
tic header pipes as compared with the old open-
ditch system. The pipes as installed presently
could very well be-used for portable sprinkler or
solid set irrigation systems according to Mr.
Davenport. He estimated installation costs at
about fifty dollars per acre.
Most of the growers at the meeting commented
favorably on their experiences with the use of
plastic pipes. Savings in pumping costs, if any,
have not been determined. Since less water is
needed, it was pointed out, also, that smaller well
capacity would be required. It was reported that
one grower closed one of two wells down after
installation of plastic pipes. The important thing
being recognized by Hastings' growers is that they
are using less water on the average now than ever
Youth Work in Vegetables
Under the leadership of the assistant vegetable
crops specialist, Florida hosted the National Junior
Horticultural Association's 37th Annual Conven-
tion in 1971. Over 400 young people (mostly
4-H and FFA), along with their leaders, from 25
states attended the week long affair. National
competition was held in horticultural plant, disease,
insect and weed identification, and in horticultural
demonstrations. Other highlights of the convention
were career programs, horticultural workshops and
The Big Picture
During the past year, the vegetable crops post-
harvest section has been deeply involved in at-
tempting to improve, or in some cases initiate,
communications between retailers and Florida's
vegetable packers and shippers. The market chain
is so segmented that each participant is likely to see
only his limited area while the overall picture
becomes quite distorted. A major effort at opening
communications in this area was the Super Market
Institute Produce Buyers School which met on the
Gainesville campus for a series of lectures prior to
touring the state and meeting a number of vegetable
suppliers face to face. (See Figure 11).
A second major effort culminated in the Perish-
able Handling Conference, also held at Gainesville.
This conference was of wider scope and included
growers, packers and shippers, transporters, whole-
salers and retailers.
In order for the consumer to receive high quality
vegetables from Florida all steps between field and
consumer must be designed to maintain quality.
This means that the individuals concerned must
understand the biological and physical require-
ments of living produce. High quality vegetables,
satisfied consumers, and increased sales can result
from a cooperating system, but not from a frag-
mented one where each segment sees only the
LIVESTOCK, DAIRY, POULTRY
Florida cattlemen realize more than ever that
herd records pay dividends. During 1971 produc-
tion testing records were processed on 11,287
calves and post-wean information was processed on
789 yearlings (mostly bulls). These bulls, when
purchased by commercial cattlemen, will assist
them in making very rapid improvement in their
A series of meetings were held in north and west
Florida during June to encourage cattlemen to use
temporary grazing crops to grow out light weight
calves to desirable feeder weight.
During the year a number of county cattlemen
and breed associations were assisted in holding
feeder calf sales. These sales generate considerable
income in areas where held.
Several cattlemen schools were held on the
county and area level during the year. In addition
a field day was held at the Jay Education and
Lower prices received by swine producers during
1971 slowed the trend of increased production and
lowered participation in meetings and field days.
However, greater emphasis was placed on quality
improvement by Cooperative Extension workers
during this period and results of entries in Florida's
Swine Evaluation Center, local, state and national
shows indicated this paid off. Florida's Swine
Evaluation Center records show the 1971 records
compared to the past 5 year average 1965-1970 as
1971 5 Yr. Av. 1965-1970
Feed per 100 lbs gain
Average Daily Gain
Back Fat Thickness
% Lean Cuts Carcass Wt.
In local and state shows there has been more
depth of top cutting market hogs with new
producers taking over the limelight from older
Florida producers competed for the second
year at the National Barrow Show in Austin,
Minnesota. This trip was coordinated by Exten-
sion workers and an outstanding record was made
as indicated by the 8th place carcass barrow overall
against national competition (26 states).
The national Grand Champion Chesterwhite
boar was purchased at the show by a Florida
producer who in turn leased him to the Florida
Swine Evaluation Center for artificial insemination
work. His services were made available to Florida
swine producers. Many have already used this
method to improve their herd quality.
Through Cooperative Extension's West Florida
Swine Improvement Program, Florida was success-
ful in obtaining the National Hampshire Type
Conference scheduled for January 1972 in Quincy.
This event will bring high quality breeding stock
into the state and educational demonstrations
Quality is the word in the swine industry and
Florida swine producers have proved by their
activities they are gearing themselves for the
Extension programs with swine producers are stressing improved
The horse industry in Florida received a great
deal of attention in 1971 from federal and state
regulatory agencies due to the Venezuelan Equine
encephalities outbreak in Texas. All agencies com-
bined efforts to initiate and carry out a massive
statewide vaccination program. This program made
necessary a rapid survey of the number and loca-
tion of Florida horses. During the period from
July 20 to August 14, over 140,000 horses were
vaccinated in Florida. This was estimated to be in
excess of 90% of the total horse population.
Each veterinarian filled out forms on the horses
he vaccinated giving the age, sex, color, breed and
the owner's name and address. From these forms,
the Animal Science Department, Food and Re-
source Economics Department and the Florida
Department of Agriculture have undertaken a
project to classify and tabulate the horse popu-
lation of the state. This project will yield the first
accurate count of horses in this state since 1940.
This accurate tabulation of horse numbers by
county will be invaluable information to Extension
agents in developing programs for horse owners.
The racing industry has increased in importance
due to approved pari-mutual races for Quarter
horses. In 1971, a successful meet was run 48
days at Gator Downs near Jacksonville. Due to the
success of this meet, 60 days of Quarter horse
racing from May until September have been ap-
proved for 1972. This gives Florida the largest
Quarter horse racing meet in the nation for 1972.
The 4-H horse program has grown to the extent
that it was necessary to hold four district elimina-
tion shows prior to the state show. The number of
horse camps was increased to five and enrollment
in horse projects has reached 4,000. The main
effort during 1971 was to increase the use of the
educational media in the 4-H horse program. In
the 1971 calendar year, 18 4-H horse production
clinics were held.
Florida's 250 inspected meat plants and 50
exempt meat plants have again received the top
rating in competition throughout the United States.
Much of the progress, improvement and continuous
upgrading has been due to better communication,
better relations between IFAS, state and county
Health Departments and the state-federal agencies.
County Extension staffs, agricultural engineer-
ing specialists and the meat science staff have
enabled all Florida meat plants to improve so that
Florida could be classified and certified as equal to
Two short courses are held annually on the
campus involving plant operators and owners,
State-Federal Meat Inspection personnel, Extension
agents and specialists and Health Department
Plant plans, specifications and other information
have been supplied by the Extension meat special-
ist and the Extension agricultural engineer. This
service has enabled many plants to improve and
comply. Cooperation with regulatory officials has
made it possible for meat plants to operate more
efficiently and produce wholesome meat.
Wholesome meat regulations left meat plants
with one of two alternatives -- improve and produce
wholesome meat, or close up. Florida's 300 plants
improved and produced wholesome meat.
Florida's dairy cattle industry has continued to
increase in cow numbers during recent years at a
time when other states are seeing a reduction.
The DARE projection of 179,000 dairy cows by
1980 has already been exceeded by 18,000 dairy
cows and the number is expected to exceed 200,000
on farms by 1975. Florida has one of the fastest
growing dairy industries in the nation.
Milk production per cow increased during 1971
by approximately 500 pounds per cow, up from
the 8,592 pounds reported for 1970 to 9,200 in
1972. Florida continues to lead southeastern states
in average production per cow.
Florida led the nation in percentage of dairy
cows bred artificially. Seventy-five percent of
Florida's 213,000 dairy females of breeding age
were inseminated artificially. The average for all
other states was 46 percent. Benefits of A.I. usage
include maximum availability and use of superior
sires, reduced time required for evaluation of
genetic merit, disease prophylaxis and early de-
tection of low fertility. Evaluation summaries of
A.I. sires were made available to dairymen and
county Extension personnel. These summaries
contain production information on sires' daughters
which permits ranking of the sires according to
their estimated transmitting ability for milk pro-
duction. The most recent summaries included a
feature called "predicted dollar difference" which
assigns a monetary value to a sire's proof based on
local milk pricing structure.
Dairy herd management is the key to increased
income on the nation's largest dairy farms. Exten-
sion dairy specialists concentrated their efforts
during 1971 on all phases of management. Pro-
grams receiving special attention were feeding,
records, herd health, reproduction, and raising
dairy calves for replacements, veal and dairy beef.
Several area workshops were held in which
4-H'ers received instruction in judging, preparation
of animals for show, showmanship and record-
keeping. These workshops were attended by
youths from 10 counties. Positive results were
indicated by increased quantity and quality of 4-H
participation in dairy shows in those areas where
workshops were held.
The Calf Distribution and Workshop is an annual
event conducted by the Extension dairy specialists
in cooperation with the Florida Purebred Dairy
Cattle Association. The 1971 distribution was
attended by over 200 youths and their leaders from
all parts of the state. During the event 23 calves
were purchased by the youths. Results of the
annual event has shown an increase in number of
counties participating in youth activities and a two-
fold increase in number of animals exhibited at
dairy shows in the past three years.
Florida continues to lead the Southeast in increased per cow milk
Extension made great strides during 1971 in
organizing the dairy foods industry throughout the
state. This group includes dairy foods processors
and management personnel, regulatory people,
allied tradesmen, and co-op leaders. Information
on new dairy food products, quality control
programs, and marketing concepts were presented
systematically. Also, programs were developed to
aid in systematic shelf life testing procedure by all
processors for dairy products. Due to the efforts
of this program, new legislation requiring shelf life
testing should be no problem for Florida producers.
The, Extension poultry staff placed special em-
phasis on educational programs for improving
efficiency of poultry production during a period of
surplus production and on programs for improved
management and utilization of poultry wastes.
Waste Management schools were held in Hills-
borough, Orange and Bradford counties with the
Extension entomologist and Extension agricultur-
al engineer cooperating with Extension poultry
specialists in bringing to producers a thorough
program of management practices. Combined
attendance at these three schools represented
approximately 70 percent of the state's laying
hens. The Hillsborough school extended for three
nights with an average attendance of 138 per night.
Those attending came from Hillsborough and sur-
rounding counties and represented approximately
six million laying hens. At the Orange County
school, 135 producers were present, representing
counties having approximately two million ad-
ditional laying hens. The Bradford County school
was attended by 45 producers representing approx-
imately one million laying hens and three million
As a result of adoption of sound waste manage-
ment practices it would be possible for the produ-
cer to save approximately three cents per bird per
year by reducing the amount of pesticides needed.
This could mean a savings to the entire Florida egg
industry (13,000,000 laying hens) of almost $400
Just as important as the monetary savings is the
improvement in the environment brought about by
elimination of water and air pollution, odor and fly
control thus greatly improving living conditions for
those on the farm and in surrounding communities.
Approximately 80 million dollars is lost each
year in Florida due to animal diseases. In addition,
more than 100 animal diseases are transmittable to
man. Florida's Cooperative Extension Service
carried out an educational program with practicing
veterinarians, regulatory officials, livestock orga-
nizations, producers, and pet animal owners in the
control and eradication of animal diseases with a
view to better protecting the public health and
welfare and raising the standard of living.
Continuing education programs were provided
for practicing veterinarians to acquaint them with
the latest techniques and research through distri-
bution of a monthly newsletter. Also, the Exten-
sion Service participated with the Florida Veteri-
nary Medical Association in arranging conferences
and short courses. The educational effort was de-
signed to increase professional competence among
practicing veterinarians, particularly those in food
animal practice who continue to offer services to
livestock and poultry producers.
County agents and state Extension specialists
held educational meetings and disseminated infor-
mation to producers to promote better animal
disease control. Adoption of teat dipping to pre-
vent mastitis in dairy cattle, better control of
internal parasitism in cattle, support of hog cholera
eradication, and control of piroplasmosis and
infectious anemia in horses are examples of pro-
gram areas that received special attention. In
addition, the Extension Service made a vital con-
tribution toward the mass vaccination of all Florida
horses against Venezuelan Sleeping Sickness. Near-
ly 130,000 horses were vaccinated in a three week
period in Florida following an outbreak in Texas
that threatened the nation's horse industry and
Ecology, environmental health, and product
quality also received attention. The role of insects
and wild animals as vectors and reservoirs of
animal and human diseases was defined to rural and
urban audiences with the intent of creating a
greater awareness. Control of certain diseases of
dairy cattle was aimed at improving milk quality.
Proper use of drugs used to treat diseases and to
improve feeding efficiency was directed at pre-
vention of drug residues in animal tissues. The
application of veterinary knowledge helps to in-
sure the increasing human population a generous
and wholesome supply of meat, milk, and eggs at
the lowest possible cost.
During 1971 the Agricultural Engineering De-
partment emphasized educational programs in soil
and water engineering (irrigation and drainage),*
power and machinery, grain and seed processing and
storage; environmental protection (animal waste
utilization and disposal), domestic home water
quality and 4-H youth projects in electricity,
safety, small gas engines and bicycle operation, care
Demonstration projects in Dade, Seminole, Put-
nam, Columbia and Walton counties involving the
proper management of irrigation and/or drainage
systems for optimum production of fruit, vegetable
and certain field and forage crops were carried out.
In addition cooperation and assistance were given
the Fruit Crops and Vegetable Crops Department
in the design and management procedures for
water management systems to be used in the
conduct of several of their research projects.
The 1971 dock strike emphasized in a dramatic
way the lack of adequate on-farm and off-farm
processing and storage facilities for grain and seed
crops in Florida. Many thousands of bushels of
grain and seed were lost because ships and barges
were not available to take the products as they
were harvested and on shore storage was either not
available or was inadequate. An intensive program
was initiated in the late summer and early fall of
1971 to encourage farmers to acquire their own
crop drying and storage facilities. Where interest
seemed to warrant it information was given to
groups on pros and cons of cooperative grain
elevators. Mail out information was sent to all
major grain producing counties for distribution to
The proper selection and operation of farm
machinery and equipment continued to be em-
phasized in 1971. This educational effort involved
demonstrations, field days and group meetings.
Liaison and cooperation was given research workers
involved in the development of fruit and vegetable
As a result of an intensive educational program
on the need for proper waste management and
pollution abatement, noticeable change in the
attitude of most agricultural livestock and poultry
producers is evident. Much credit for the success
of this effort must be given the good relationship
and cooperation which exists between Extension
and research staff in the department and with the
Department of Air and Water Pollution Control,
the Soil Conservation Service and other state and
county regulatory and governing bodies.
Also in 1971 a coordinated program for dead
poultry and hatchery waste disposal has been
agreed upon. Guidelines were drafted by Exten-
sion and meetings were held with representatives of
the Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, the Department of Pollution Control, the
Board of Health and Rehabilitation Services and
the Florida Poultry Federation. This effort will be
of significant help to all poultrymen and hatcheries
in the state.
In 1971 emphasis on the Domestic Water Quality
Program was increased. The lowering of water
tables over the past several years, particularly in
Central and South Florida, has created water
quality problems in areas where they did not exist
before. Clinics involving Extension, Department of
Health and commercial interest were conducted in
critical areas of the state. At these clinics home-
owners were instructed how to recognize water
problems, how to take water samples and where to
have them tested and how to select the proper
equipment to correct their particular problem.
Requests for this type assistance is increasing at a
During 1971 leadership was given to four 4-H
projects, namely, Electricity, Safety, Small Gas
Engines and Bicycle Care and Safety.
4 H'er studies electric motor at 1971 Watts & Wheels summer camp.
FOOD AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS
The change of department name from Agricul-
tural Economics to Food and Resource Economics
emphasized the broad nature of Extension edu-
cational programs in marketing. Extension econo-
mists worked in educational programs with mar-
keting, supply and consumer cooperatives, com-
modity and industry associations, youth programs,
and individual food industry firms.
The complexity of modern agricultural businesses
calls for more knowledgeable management, par-
ticularly at the level of the final decision authority,
the board of directors. Member-directors making
up the boards of farmer cooperatives especially
need additional knowledge and training.
The Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives
requested resumption in 1971 of the highly suc-
cessful director training workshops given in the
1963-67 period. Extension economists and the
director development committee of the Florida
Council planned the leadership conference subject
matter, covering legal responsibilities of directors;
roles directors must assume in planning, organizing,
directing, coordinating and controlling a business;
the motivation of employees to high performance;
membership relations; and, finally, the role of the
board in achieving business growth.
Long-range objectives envision a series of work-
shops at three levels of training: basic, intermediate,
and advanced. The two 1971 workshops were at
the basic level. As more directors in other areas of
state complete these first-stage workshops, inter-
mediate level sessions will be scheduled.
Thirty-eight directors of cooperatives partici-
pated in the two 1971 sessions representing 12
farmer cooperatives with a total of 120 directors.
The cooperatives included such diverse enterprises
as citrus production, processing and marketing,
farm supply, vegetable processing and sales, sugar
cane harvesting and processing, and rural electric
supply. In addition, the 38 participants serve as
directors for 40 other organizations. Thus, work-
shop registrants have the opportunity to apply the
training in more than 50 directorates in contact
with many people over the state.
Extension educational programs on cooperative
management included workshops on consumer
cooperative principles for low income rural people
in Dade county. Essentials of business management
for tomato canning, retail food stores, and consu-
mer buying clubs were covered in these pilot
Twenty years of youth education programs on
the principles of cooperative business and farmer
cooperation were marked in 1971. Both 4-H and
FFA youth participated in individual and group
programs of study, visits to cooperatives, and state
regional and national youth cooperative activities.
A continuing problem facing the food marketing
and distribution sector is the lack of qualified
management personnel. Extension economists and
other members of the Food and Resource Econom-
ics faculty, working with a food industry edu-
cational advisory committee, developed formal
training programs for both community college and
university levels in 1970.
The Food Marketing and Distribution curricu-
lum was established in the Food and Resource
Economics Department and scholarship funds were
donated by food industry members. The first
scholarship was awarded in 1971, and sufficient
funds were added to provide additional scholar-
Extension economists worked with soybean and
tobacco groups on their respective industry-wide
problems during 1971. Representatives of the
soybean and tobacco industries wished to expand
exports of their products, and wanted to develop
additional domestic and foreign markets. Enabling
legislation was required to allow these groups to
institute producer and marketing firm assessments,
so funds could be generated for market develop-
Economic data and analysis of Florida and U.S.
production and exports, and destination of Florida-
produced soybeans and flue-cured tobacco was
provided for industry groups. Extension econo-
mists also testified before legislative bodies con-
cerned with enabling statutes.
Legislation authorizing an assessment or check-
off on soybeans and tobacco was passed early in
1971. Each commodity group formed an organi-
zation to handle funds and administer market
Extension marketing personnel also conducted
educational programs for two national food mer-
chandising associations in 1971. Programs on
purchasing, handling, shipping, and sale of fresh
Florida fruits and vegetables were conducted by
Extension economists and other IFAS staff mem-
bers. Nearly 100 merchandising executives from
the U. S. and Canada participated in these two
training sessions, which included field trips and
tours of Florida citrus and vegetable producing
Planning for a national conference on perishable
foods handling received considerable attention
from Extension economists and many other IFAS
personnel in 1971. The conference was scheduled
for January, 1972.
Examples of Extension educational programs
with individual farm and marketing firms include
market outlook and price information for feeder
livestock producers, a management audit for a
farm supply cooperative, and operational analysis
of garden supply firms.
Individual producers of feeder livestock are
often poorly informed about market conditions
and outlooks. Production and marketing decisions
based on incomplete or inaccurate information are
costly to individual producers and to the livestock
industry as a whole.
Extension educational programs to livestock
producer audiences include information, publica-
tions, and other materials designed to improve
understanding and provide bases for informed de-
cisions. Teams of Extension specialists from several
disciplines, working with county personnel, pre-
sented a coordinated educational program to pro-
The farm supply business is one of the most
competitive in agricultural marketing with firms
operating on relatively narrow margins. Grower-
owned farm supply cooperatives must be particu-
larly efficient to operate in such a competitive
sector and still serve their owner-patrons ade-
Extension economists conducted an in-depth
management audit of a farm supply cooperative in
1971. This cooperative, besides providing special-
ized supplies and services, acts as a unifying force
for group action in state horticultural industries. The
Extension management audit identified strengths
and shortcomings in key managerial functions, and
recommended specific improvements. Many recom-
mendations were implemented soon after the
management audit, and other improvements are
scheduled over a longer term.
Extension also continued in-depth management
workshops with garden supply retailers. Building
on economic and financial studies from 1964,
1966, and 1970, these workshops helped firm
owners to learn key elements of merchandising,
costs of doing business, and modern management
techniques. The 1970 study provided industry
standards of performance for many areas including
sales growth, owners' equity, profits, margins, and
management returns. Firm owners participating in
workshops used these standards to assess the
relative efficiency and performance of their own
The direction of commercial agriculture is clearly
toward larger firms and these firms have complex
problems. To remain effective in the future,
Extension specialists must acquire expertise in
solving these complex interdisciplinary problems.
Accordingly, Extension farm management person-
nel provided leadership to an interdisciplinary
problem solving effort on a large ranch which in-
volved a team of scientists from Agronomy, Animal
Science, Forestry and Food and Resource Econom-
ics. They completed an analysis of the different
cattle and pasture management systems now uti-
lized on the ranch, and made recommendations
which are now being implemented in improving
both the physical and economic management of
Successful interdisciplinary effort by such a task
force is rare enough to warrant mention, but more
unique is the fact that the ranch defrayed the
the variable costs of the study. This involved the
establishment of a fund which was used on an "as
needed" basis. Therefore, this study accomplished
at least three different things: (1) It enabled a
large ranch to begin the solution of its organization
problems, (2) provided a concrete example of
interdisciplinary problem solving (on the kind of
"system-wide" problem which will be increasingly
important in the future) and (3) gave an example
of a new way to finance part of the costs of Exten-
A new system for keeping machinery and labor
records was jointly developed by a farm manage-
ment specialist and an agricultural engineer. This
system can be used to determine machinery ef-
ficiency, and per job costs of performing different
functions. More importantly, it facilitates the
scheduling of year-round labor, which is a boon
to both labor and management.
Extension sponsored Income Tax schools are
helping meet a need, as evidenced by the steady
growth in attendance over the last four years.
These schools (four in number) were designed for
professional tax practitioners. Seven hundred and
sixteen (716) attended this year's schools, com-
pared to an attendance of 200 in 1968. The impor-
tant thing however, is that these practitioners
completed 344,160 individual returns in 1970.
This number includes returns for 5,153 farmers and
25,833 other business returns. The 5,153 repre-
sents about one-fourth of all commercial farmers
in the state, and nearly half of the commercial
farmers in the area where the seminars were held.
Improving the skills of the men who actually
complete tax returns both helps reduce procedural
mistakes and, hopefully, improves the net income
of the farmers and other businessmen who utilize
Commercial citriculturists manage large invest-
ments in equipment, do custom work for many
different land-owners, and employ many hired
laborers. Heretofore, they have largely been
"seat-of-the-pants" managers who relied almost
exclusively on successful neighbor's advice and
their own experience when making decisions.
County Extension agents and Extension farm
management specialists jointly attacked this prob-
lem by a series of seminars.
The first two dealt with the decision-making
process, including the use of economic principles
as decision-making aids. The initial audiences were
foremen, whose favorable reports caused their
employers to request a short-course directed to-
ward labor and machinery management decisions.
Thus, Extension gained a rung on the decision-
making ladder, progressing from middle to top level
In summarizing the value of this shortcourse, the
County Extension agent stated that, ."The
interest of your audience clearly reflected you
were giving them something they both wanted and
Florida citrus is a $1 billion industry. The crop
amounts to nearly 9 million tons of fruit. Of this
9 million tons, 90 percent of the oranges are con-
verted to juice products and 65 percent of the
grapefruit are processed. A mammoth waste load is
created by the 52 plants processing citrus. Over 4
million tons of residue remain after juice extraction
which must be treated as waste or converted to
useful by-products. It was estimated in 1965, that
the processing plants discharged 130 million gal-
lons of waste water per day with 400,000 pounds
of BOD loading. This is equivalent to a population
of some two million people.
The Florida citrus processing industry is a leader
in the field of by-products production and waste
utilization. In 1969, the value of citrus by-
products was estimated to be $35 million. De-
hydrated citrus pulp had the highest value -- at $22
million from 600 tons of dehydrated pulp. Other
major contributors were citrus essential oils, citrus
molasses, d-limonene and candied citrus peel.
The Extension program includes a continuing
effort to keep industry personnel informed of new
developments in waste management. To strengthen
this program, a 4-day session on solid, liquid and
air pollution control techniques was presented for
the industry. The majority of Florida citrus
processors were represented at this training session
and received the latest on integrated waste manage-
ment programs for the food industry.
Florida vegetable processors pack between two
and three million cases of canned tomatoes an-
nually and improved utilization of tomatoes by
processors is an ongoing Extension program.
This processing industry is in a critical period,
in part brought about by the onset of mechanical
harvest of tomatoes, increased processing costs and
other economical factors. Information from re-
search projects on new varieties, mechanical harvest
equipment and utilization of machine harvest
tomatoes was made available to the processing in-
dustry throughout the year by plant visits, con-
sultations and newsletters.
The first Tomato Processors Field Day was held
at the Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Bradenton, June 3. IFAS researchers and Exten-
sion personnel presented information on breeding
programs, yield trials, mechanical harvesting devel-
opments, bulk handling techniques, tomato prod-
ucts, utilization of machine harvest tomatoes and
improved peeling methods.
Good sanitation in food handling during distri-
bution to the consumer is vital to the food's keep-
ing quality'and is the first line of defense in pre-
venting outbreaks of food-borne illness. The
food science Extension specialist worked with a
large Florida food distributor to develop a program
on good food sanitation procedures and practices.
Objective of the program was to explain the needs
and benefits of good sanitation practices to super-
market personnel handling meats, dairy, fresh
fruits, vegetables and grocery items.
The supermarket personnel learned where prob-
lems from improper sanitation could develop and
how to use proper equipment and trained personnel
to prevent these sanitation problems. One store
owner ordered all stainless steel tables and equip-
ment for his meat market, after learning that the
porous wooden tables in his market were sources
of bacterial contamination contributing to spoilage
of meat. The sanitation program was highly suc-
cessful and almost all store representatives put
improved sanitation programs in their stores. The
resulting improved sanitary quality of the food
benefited both the supermarkets and the consu-
This past October, Florida counties sent a total
of 24 teams to compete in a new 4-H event -- the
Forest Ecology Contest -- held during the annual
Florida Forest festival at Perry. Most of the 4-man
teams came from the forested counties of north
and central Florida, and one team came from as
far south as Martin County.
Sponsored by the Florida Forestry Association
and directed by the assistant Extension forester,
the contest is designed to help young people build
an appreciation of the outdoors. The event began
with a guided tour of the Natural Resources
Teaching Center at Hampton Springs near Perry.
Contests included an environmental awareness
quiz and a series of specimen identification con-
tests. Specimens of native trees, forest plants,
wildlife food plants, forest insects and diseases, in
all a total of 70 plant specimens were identified by
each contestant. Several team members and agents
remarked prior to the contest, "Many professional
foresters would hate to take this test."
Prior to the contest, members trained in county
meetings and 4-H club summer camps using actual
specimens and a 4-H Forest Ecology Instruction
and Training manual developed by the assistant
Extension forester. This new event fits naturally
into the 4-H summer camping program. Members
who attend training sessions in forest ecology in
their county or at summer 4-H camps are learning
"environmental awareness" which we all hear so
much about today.
The number of Florida families has increased
rapidly during the past decade, and inflationary
trends in the economy have resulted in a larger
proportion of families needing help in stretching
limited income to improve their quality of living.
To meet the growing demand for knowledge of
homemaking skills, Extension home economics
agents and specialists have found a variety of ways
to extend information to reach new audience
Special emphasis has been given recently to
"reaching the hard-to-reach and teaching the hard-
to teach." Primary efforts in this direction have
involved recruiting and training volunteers and
para-professionals who, in turn, work with new
homemaker audiences individually and in groups.
After initial training, Extension home economists
provide the volunteers and para-professionals with
direction and guidance, visuals, literature and other
teaching aids, and additional training on a con-
Homemaker Club Volunteers Making Consumers Survey in Citrus
Extension homemaker clubs have provided vol-
unteer leaders to be trained and present their own
club programs for many years. Recently, these
leaders have shpwn greater willingness to give of
their time and talents to reach and teach home-
makers and disadvantaged families, and those whose
full-time employment away from home deprive
them of learning opportunities offered to full-time
In Escambia County, Extension homemaker
volunteers have held weekly demonstrations and
workshops for over 200 women working in a large
industrial plant. Meetings were held at the plant at
different times of the day to accommodate women
working on all of the five shifts. Popular topics for
these meetings were: "Well-Balanced Meals for
Your Family"; "Quick and Easy Meals"; "Learning
to Sew"; "Making Children's Clothing"; "Making
Draperies"; "Low-Calorie Foods for Home Enter-
taining"; and "Making Lingerie". Other volunteers
have given sewing lessons to low-income home-
makers and to a group of mentally retarded girls
and women, and still another group of volunteers
have taught a group of handicapped boys to
re-upholster and refinish furniture.
Volunteers in Okaloosa County have worked to
organize 12 club groups, in communities not
reached before, to bring the total to 23 ranging in
size from 12 to 35 members. Five new clubs are
composed principally of homemakers from low-
income families. These volunteers conduct monthly
workshops to pass on to others the special training
given by the County home economics agents to
provide information and assistance with a variety
of consumer and family living problems. Six
volunteers have helped to staff a newly established
community canning center where they assist home-
makers in learning safe methods of canning home-
produced meats, vegetables, and fruits.
In Manatee and Hillsborough Counties, Extension
homemaker volunteers presented demonstrations
and set up teaching exhibits in shopping centers to
bring information to consumers on how to get the
most value for dollars spent for food, clothing,
household equipment and home furnishings. In
addition, several Hillsborough volunteers, after re-
ceiving the home agent's special training, held 32
workshops, many in low-income areas, to teach
families how to make minor home repairs such as
repairing screens, leaky faucets and replacing bro-
Volunteers in St. Johns County responded to
training provided on community health services by
showing films and making talks to inform parents
of the importance of having children inoculated
for rubella. They assisted in maintenance of school
and county immunization records as children were
immunized. Through this coordinated effort, 72%
of children in the county were immunized, a rate
far above the state average.
Homemaker demonstrating skills learned from a para-professional.
In Santa Rosa County volunteers assisted in the
organization of six new homemaker club groups,
adding 218 to the number of families reached on a
regular basis. Volunteers held monthly workshops
to demonstrate to more than 1300 low-income
families how to prepare and use donated foods to
improve family diets.
In a state-wide program Extension homemaker
club volunteers received training in survey tech-
niques and conducted a survey to gather data from
consumers on their food shopping problems, activi-
ties, and attitudes. On Friday, September 10, 2078
trained volunteers from Homemaker Clubs inter-
viewed over 21,000 shoppers entering 867 food
stores. Each 10th person entering the store was
asked about his food shopping activities and atti-
tudes. A total of 20,288 completed questionnaires
were sent to the computer center at the University
of Florida to compile the data. The information is
being used in planning programs for consumer
education and in evaluating proposed state legis-
lation on consumer concerns.
The use of para-professionals in Extension Home
Economics to reach and teach special audiences
became a reality in 1968. Para-professionals from
the Seminole community were first employed to
assist Seminole families in making the transition
from chickees to new housing facilities on the
Extension Home Economics, in 1969, expanded
the para-professional concept in Florida when
"aides" were hired to assist low-income home-
makers in providing nutritious and satisfying diets
for their families. The aides were hired to work in
the Expanded Nutrition Program, an extension of
the ongoing nutrition educational program. Since
the outset of the program, 666 para-professionals
have been hired and trained by Extension home
economics agents. These workers have taught,
individually and in small groups, more than 19,237
Program evaluations show that a favorable im-
pact has been made on the para-professionals as
well as their families. The frequent testimonials of
aides reveal definite changes in their self-image and
living standards. Many say that they now have
hope where there was once despair. They readily
admit that learning better management practices
has helped them and their families to maximize
family resources in the attainment of family goals.
They express joy in being able to help others to
find a better way of life.
One aide writes, "I have self-confidence now be-
cause of what I can accomplish in nutrition with
families and I am more considerate of other people
and their problems." Aides also tell how their
training has been invaluable to them in their own
homes. Another aide writes, "I feel so much
better now that I have learned to better our diets in
my own family. We all eat more vegetables, where
we used to eat nothing but lots of starches. My chil-
dren have a glow about them, they used to feel
tired and didn't want to do anything." Still
another aide sums it up by saying, "I applied all my
training to my home; now we eat better, feel
better, look better and my grocery bill is cheaper."
ENP aide teaches comparative buying to young homemaker.
The Expanded Nutrition Program objective of
making a positive impact on the life situations of
para-professionals has come to an even broader
realization. Of the 666 para-professionals trained
in the Expanded Nutrition Program 26 have re-
signed to assume better paying positions or to
pursue a higher academic or vocational degree on a
full-time basis. An additional 83 have expressed a
desire to further their education and 7 are presently
attending school part-time.
In addition to the para-professionals' involve-
ment in teaching nutrition in the Expanded Nutri-
tion Program, Extension is now utilizing aides to
teach clothing, housing, and house furnishings to
low-income homemakers. Para-professionals have
and are making significant contributions towards
reaching and teaching special Extension home
economics audiences in Dade, Brevard, Lee, and
Newsletter Series and News Columns
Almost all counties have used newsletters as a
means of informing homemakers regularly on
newer developments in consumer products and how
to choose wisely among them, and on new laws and
regulations to protect the consumer. Working
mothers and young couples have been reached
most effectively by this method. A newsletter
series entitled "For Richer -- For Poorer" was
developed to give this audience group help with
problems in family economics. Topics were: Plan
Your Future Now; How to Live on What You
Make; Credit Addiction; Cars A Way of Life;
Cost of Raising a Child; Inflation -- What It
Means to You. These were mailed to 2497 couples
in 27 counties. Responses from couples indicated
that a substantial number benefitted from the
series by adopting better practices of money
management and wiser use of credit.
Consumer education specialists working with
newspapers in two areas established a weekly news
column called "Consumers' Ask" to provide an-
swers to consumers' questions and information to
assist in solution of consumer problems. In the 12
months of publication, the column has drawn
inquiries from approximately 1,500 readers. An-
swers have been provided by letter and through
Representative Government Through 4-H
Citizenship development became a reality for
110 young people from 56 counties in 1971 as they
gained first-hand experience in practicing repre-
sentative government through 4-H. These elected
representatives from county and district councils
participated in the Annual Meeting, Florida 4-H
Club Council, which convened during Florida 4-H
Congress, July 26-30.
The Florida 4-H Club Council is a constituted
body of elected 4-H members who meet, discuss,
plan and assist in carrying out programs and activi-
ties in the interest of Florida's 4-H young people.
The Annual Meeting is structured very much the
same as the Florida Legislature or U. S. Congress.
There are general sessions for floor discussion,
debate and elections; however, the major work is
accomplished by committees. These committees
(plan of work, policy, constitutional study, budget,
special events, district events, communications,
membership, resolutions and election procedure)
are carefully organized to assure statewide repre-
sentation of 4-H youth as well as Extension agents,
who serve as committee consultants. The printed
format for all committees includes members, con-
sultants, functions and references. Each committee
is instructed to perform its work by a specific time
and to bring before the general assembly an action
report for discussion and adoption or rejection.
Special Expanded Nutrition
Youngsters basic food groups.
program summer camp taught
4-H Photo Fun TV Series
In 1969, Florida had no 4-H television enroll-
ment. In the Fall of 1970, the State 4-H
office began making arrangements to buy
a 4-H television series called "4-H Photo Fun".
Junior leader points out various parts of the basic camera to mem-
bers of the 4-H Photo Fun Club.
The series was purchased, reproduced on Florida's
video tapes, project manuals and certificates of
completion were printed, and the series was run on
Channel 6 WDBO television, Orlando, Florida.
Seven counties within the radius of WDBO's
broadcasting area were contacted and all 4-H
Coordinators in that area were called together for a
*meeting to plan for the series' effect and enroll-
ment. They were Orange, Lake, Volusia, Seminole,
Polk, Brevard and Osceola. The series of 6 half-
hour shows was aired between 7:30-8:00 AM on
January 16, 23, 30 and February 6, 13, and 20.
Total enrollment was 2,729.
In October 1971, the series was again shown in
Palm Beach on WPTV Channel 5. It had a
10:30 11:00 AM time slot and was shown on
October 17, 24, 31, November 7, 14, and 21.
Again, the broadcast area reached into other coun-
ties and the 4-H Coordinators in those counties
were prepared for enrolling young people in the
series. As a result of this showing, 289 4-H
television members were enrolled in Palm Beach
County, of which all but 25 were new to 4-H.
Martin County enrolled 85 members, thus the total
enrollment amounted to 374.
As a result of the Photo Fun series, Extension
has been able to reach and enroll 3,103 young
people in 4-H.
Fund Raising Assists Camping Program
Florida's 4-H camping program received a shot
in the arm during 1971. As a direct result of ex-
tensive county participation in fund raising proj-
ects, a $60,000 dining hall-classroom-recreation
hall structure was erected at 4-H Camp Tim-
poochee. It replaced a delapidated structure of
shuttered windows, drooping floors and sagging
roof lines with a concrete block terrazzo floor
structure complete with air conditioning and heat-
Creation of this facility not only enhances the
looks of the camp site, but allows year round use
of the facility for educational and recreational
The fund raising effort was primarily through
sale of chocolate by 4-H Club members throughout
the state. Even though funds raised in this cam-
paign were greatly needed and certainly wisely
used, the educational impact of the sales program
and opportunity for personal growth were probably
even of greater total importance.
Share-the-fun show is one highlight of State Congress.
4-H and ENP Youth Combine for Summer Camp
During 1970, the Florida camping program
included three special Expanded Nutrition Program
(ENP) camps for youth from low-income families.
Because of the favorable results of these camps,
some counties accepted the challenge of combining
the ENP youth and regular 4-H'ers in their 1971
This combination camp included experienced
4-H'ers, inexperienced 4-H'ers, and ENP youth.
The ENP youngsters acted much like any other
first-time campers. They followed the example of
experienced 4-H'ers in learning the daily routine,
songs, dances, games, and assuming responsibility.
The evidence from this camping arrangement
that youngsters from low-income, middle class and
higher income families can study, work and play as
a group will affect much of the planning of 4-H
activities in the future.
More Effective 4-H Programs for Teens
In February 1971, the Florida 4-H staff hosted
the 4-H section of the Association of Southern
Agricultural Workers (ASAW) meeting in Jackson-
ville. All southern states except one were repre-
sented. The program for this meeting, "More
Effective 4-H Programs for Teens," was keynoted
by Dr. Evelyn Duvall, nationally known authority
on teenagers. The 21/ day meeting was highlighted
as each state presented "Special or Unusual Program
Ideas," which had proven effective in programming
As host state, Florida was able to invite county
4-H coordinators in the Jacksonville vicinity to
many of the sessions.
The value of such meetings will be reflected for
several years to come as professional staff who
attended incorporate these ideas into Florida's
Modem communication and transportation sys-
tems are rapidly removing boundaries between
urban and rural communities. Shifting populations
are demanding more services in some communities
and adding to problems of financing local govern-
ment. The need for planned community develop-
ment is becoming more evident at national, state
and local levels. Exploding communities in some
parts of Florida are creating a multitude of growth
problems while other communities are experiencing
unemployment, low income, and retarded economic
Recognizing that opportunities depend on avail-
able resources, that solutions vary with situation, and
that developmental programs must relate to com-
munity objectives, the Cooperative Extension Ser-
vice tries to maintain flexibility in educational
programs. Emphasis is given to the task of helping
people develop means of using what they have
more efficiently in order to get what they want.
This includes the establishment of organizations
and dissemination of information which enables
local communities to bring outside resources to
bear qn local problems.
A basic problem in many communities is the
reluctance of some people to become involved in
community affairs. This is especially true among
low income families, families in isolated rural areas,
and minority groups. A history of noninvolvement
has left many people poorly prepared to participate
in group action. They often have potential for
leadership but lack confidence and skill in human
relationships. An important part of Extension's
effort has been basic leadership training.
In addition to series of leadership training ses-
sions conducted in small communities and neigh-
borhoods, an intensive training workshop for rural
leaders was held in Tallahassee in November, 1971.
It was designed to develop leadership skills and
explore ways and means for mobilizing human
resources in rural areas. Topics explored during the
meeting included (1) organizing for community
development; (2) developing a meaningful com-
munity improvement program; (3) problems affect-
ing social and economic growth; (4) conducting
effective meetings; (5) becoming involved in coun-
ty development programs; and (6) improving com-
munication and relations. These discussions helped
develop leadership skills that will be useful for
organizing and conducting community improve-
The three day workshop provided time for all
members of the group to participate in the dis-
cussions. The workshop was attended by 65 men
and women from 13 north and northwest Florida
counties. Following the workshop, the participants
(most of whom are members of minority groups),
have been more active in community programs.
During 1971 Extension personnel played a key
role in delineating 16 districts under the Florida
Cooperative Area Manpower Planning System
(CAMPS). The Extension economist serving as
USDA representative on the state CAMPS com-
mittee developed and coordinated a training work-
shop for the 16 USDA area representatives. By
actively participating in area and state manpower
efforts, Extension personnel have helped to insure
attention to rural manpower training needs. High
priority was given to a study of manpower skills
and manpower training programs needed in agri-
cultural and related occupations in Florida. Spe-
cific assistance was given to a producer group in
establishing a machine operator training school for
In Washington County, the community develop-
ment committee has been making a human re-
sources inventory to collect basic manpower infor-
mation. The data has been tabulated and com-
mittees will begin work in the very near future to
formulate programs to meet these identified needs.
In Taylor County the agricultural forestry com-
mittee of the county improvement council has
given leadership to the development of training
positions in the forestry industry. A survey in-
dicated 250 skilled jobs were going unfilled in
Taylor and surrounding counties with the number
expected to grow to 375 by 1974. Owners and
managers of forestry operations are cooperating
with the employment service and Veterans Admin-
istration to provide on-job training in the area.
Another project of the Taylor county improve-
ment council has been the housing committee's
push to solve low income housing problems.
During 1971 the committee held several meetings
with local officials and interested citizens. Repre-
sentatives from Farmers Home Administration, low
income housing projects and private development
companies cooperated in devising plans to alleviate
the housing shortage. A 36 acre tract of land is
being prepared for home-sites with planned con-
struction by the middle of 1972. A low income
rental project was completed during 1971 and is
about 90% filled. A group of local citizens are
planning to form a non-profit corporation to ob-
tain a site-development loan from the Farmers
Cooperative efforts of the Hamilton county
rural area development council and the county
commissioners have given satisfactory solutions to
some problems of solid waste storage and disposal.
Two new sanitary land fills were put into operation
in 1971, and plans were developed to replace three
others that are currently in use but undesirable.
These efforts of the development council
prompted a large paper company to offer the
services of their personnel and equipment in
collecting and burying trash found on private
property and along roadsides.
In Live Oak, environmental improvement pro-
grams have gone beyond waste collection and dis-
posal. The downtown merchants association and
the Suwannee County Chamber of Commerce
cooperated with the Rural Area Development
committee on plans to revitalize the downtown
section. The groups were given assistance by the
University of Florida's College of Architecture.
A class of graduate students is preparing a pro-
fessional model of the downtown area to give
guidance for harmonious work and restoration or
reconstruction of the central business district.
The Northwest Florida Development Council
and Economic Development District used Exten-
sion Service personnel extensively in developing
comprehensive planning programs for the area.
Funded by appropriations from boards of com-
missioners in eight counties, this development
district is providing leadership for long-range plan-
ning for all types of community development. In
the same northwest Florida area several new
training courses have been established at area
technical schools as a result of demand uncovered
by the community development councils. Of
special importance is the practical nursing program
recently established at the Holmes-Washington
An industrial committee in Calhoun County
borrowed funds to construct a building for a
sewing factory. The plant will provide 100 new
jobs when it begins operation in the summer of
The Calhoun and Jackson county Chambers of
Commerce worked together in reopening the
Marianna-Blountstown railroad and in obtaining a
boxcar repairing industry. A port and industrial
park site on the Appalachicola River which was
recently purchased by the Jackson County Port
Authority will have an additional economic impact
on this area.
Community development committees in Levy
County concentrated their 1971 efforts on com-
munication, transportation, education, and pro-
motional information. The communications group
is striving for expanded area telephone service
(toll-free) throughout the county. A county-wide
survey of all telephone subscribers is being planned.
Commercial bus transportation is now available
from Cedar Key to Gainesville, largely through the
efforts of the transportation committee, the citi-
zens of Cedar Key, and the Gainesville Transit'
The education committee has been working
closely with the Levy County School Board in
efforts to upgrade the quality of education, achieve
accreditation for all secondary schools in the
county, and promote better relations among citi-
zens, parents and students. The education com-
mittee received financial assistance from the school
board in establishing adequate lunchroom facilities
in the Cedar Key schools. Another Rural Area
Development Council project was to publish a
booklet entitled "Levy Looks to the Future."
This publication includes statements and analyses
of current situations, projections to 1980, and
goals and objectives of each action group.
The Union County Improvement Association
was formed in April after a series of seminars on
community development. The group gave first
priority to communications and beautification.
Expanding toll-free telephone service and improv-
ing telephone facilities throughout the county has
been emphasized by the communications commit-
tee. The group concerned with beautification
conducted a campaign to improve the appearance
of downtown Lake Butler by appealing to
businesses to beautify storefronts and lots. Another
achievement of this committee was erection of
street signs in Lake Butler and issuance of house
numbers so residents could have city mail delivery.
In community development programs through-
out the state, Extension Service personnel give
leadership in a variety of projects but major em-
phasis continues to be comprehensive planning for
environmental improvement, expanded opportun-
ities for training and employment, improved
housing and more adequate community facilities
State Trust Funds:
State Trust Funds:
FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
PLANNED AND EXPENDED TIME BY PROGRAM AREA
Fiscal Year 1971
Planned** Expended Total
Program Area Mandays % of Total Mandays % of Total Audience
Beef 3,402 4.26 3,560 3.37 123,222
Dairy 2,012 2.52 2,055 1.94 42,790
Horses 784 .98 903 .85 21,408
Poultry 1,368 1.71 1,501 1.42 32,242
Swine 1,439 1.80 1,308 1.23 21,671
Apiary Culture 244 .31 287 .27 19,427
Fruit Crops 3,233 4.05 4,170 3.94 79,153
Field Crops 2,014 2.52 2,961 2.80 68,687
Pasture and Forage Crops 1,299 1.62 1,557 1.47 20,659
Ornamentals 4,470 5.59 6,517 6.16 269,201
Vegetable Crops 2,991 3.74 3,164 2.99 38,783
Forestry 748 .94 793 .75 17,398
Community Resource Development 3,365 4.21 4,433 4.19 140,030
Family Stability 1,637 2.05 1,702 1.61 61,506
Consumer Competence 4,204 5.26 5,187 4.90 185,635
Family Housing 1,829 2.29 2,094 1.98 37,876
Family Health 2,507 3.14 2,643 2.50 112,153
Expanded Nutrition Program 6,694 8.38 7,754 7.33 64,910
Youth Work* 7,331 9.18 11,463 10.84 341,605
Marketing* 689 .86 1,033 .98 10,916
Engineering (Agriculture)* 1,036 1.30 1,562 1.48 31,495
Entomology and Nematology* 510 .64 1,116 1.05 10,535
Farm Management* 541 .67 1,045 .98 5,038
Plant Pathology* 342 .43 533 .50 2,020
Soils* 658 .82 659 .62 33,962
Veterinary Science* 274 .34 256 .24 1,632
General 24,012 30.06 35,173 33.27 438,145
Food Science 258 .33 314 .29 3,865
79,891 100.00 105,740 99.95 2,235,964
*Some of the work done in these program areas is reported under non-asterisk program areas.
**Only 80 percent of total available time was planned. Both planned time and expended time are based on an eight-hour day.
SUMMARY OF EXTENSION HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAM
Major Audience Types for which Home Economics Programs are Designed:
Family Members 543,959
Senior Citizens 8,336
Families with Pre-school Children 1,604
Extension Homemaker Club Members 85,539
Residents of Low-income Housing 9,737
Subprofessional Expanded Nutrition Program Aides 29,689
Major Subjects Taught by Extension Home Economists:
Family Living 20,826
Consumer Education 82,574
Family Economics 8,206
Food Buying 17,012
Donated Food 11,870
Food Stamp Program 2,324
Food Preparation and Service 47,491
Food Preservation and Storage 24,453
Home Furnishings/Textiles 16,141
Household Equipment 3,639
Home Grounds 105,300
Food Production/Gardens 6,850
Home Management 2,447
Human Development 83,796
Human Relationships 9,213
Areas Reached by Expanded Nutrition Program:
Counties Adult Programs 33
Indian Reservations Adult Programs 3
Counties Youth Programs 6
Extension Program Aides 424
Number of organized Extension Homemaker Clubs 565
Number of Extension Homemaker Club Members 15,886
Number of Individuals reached by leaders in Homemaker Clubs
and Special Interest Meetings 463,333
Number of Home Economics Subject Matter Leaders 3,704
SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB WORK
Number of 4-H Clubs 963
Number of 4-H Members:
4-H junior and teen boys 265
4-H junior and teen girls 778
Farm Members 4,152
Members in towns under 10,000 and open country 6,881
Members in towns and cities 10,000 to 50,000 3,664
Members in suburbs of city of over 50,000 2,133
Members in central city of over 50,000 658
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE FACULTY LIST*
Joe N. Busby, Ph.D., Dean for Extension
Jack T. McCown, Ed.D., Associate Dean for Extension
Forrest E. Myers, M.Ag., Assistant Dean, Personnel
Mrs. Olive L. Morrill, Ed.D., Assistant Dean, Human Resources Development
W. Travis Loften, M.S.A., Chairman, Agricultural & Extension Education Department
Shaw E. Grigsby, Ph.D., Training Specialist
Alto A. Straughn, Ph.D., Director Program Evaluation & Organizational Development
John H. Nininger, Jr., B.S., Administrative Assistant
David R. Bryant, Jr., B.A., Administrative Assistant
M. Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Communication Specialist & Chairman, Editorial Department
Kay B. Meurlott, M.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Douglas L. Buck, M.Ag., Assistant Communication Specialist
Roberts C. Smith, Jr., B.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Donald W. Poucher, M.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Miss Alma Warren, M.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Kenneth R. Tefertiller, Ph.D., Chairman, Food and Resource Economics Department
Edwin W. Cake, Ph.D., Economist, Farm Management
John Holt, Ph.D., Assistant Economist, Farm Management
Charles L. Anderson, M.S.A., Area Assistant Farm Management Specialist (Lake Alfred)
Charles Walker, M.E., Area Assistant Farm Management Specialist (Belle Glade)
Ralph A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Stanley E. Rosenberger, Ph.D., Marketing Specialist, Vegetable Crops
Kenneth M. Gilbraith, M.S.A., Vegetable Marketing Specialist
Charles D. Covey, Ph.D., Associate Economist., Marketing
Wm. K. Mathis, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Economist, Marketing
Marvin E. Konyha, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
George R. Perkins, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
Clisby C. Moxley, Ph.D., Economist
Donald E. Long, MS., Assistant Agricultural Economist
Vernon C. McKee, Ph.D., Associate Economist
Virgil L. Elkins, M. Ed., Area Program Specialist, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee
Timothy S. Hipp, M.S., Area Assistant Farm Management Specialist (Bradenton)
Willie T. Menasco, M.Ag., Area Assistant Farm Management Specialist (Quincy)
James C. McCall, M.Ag.Ed., Rural Area Development Specialist (Marianna)
James A. Brown, M.S., Rural Area Development Specialist (Live Oak)
E. T. Smerdon, Ph.D., Chairman, Agricultural Engineering Department
Thomas C. Skinner, M.Ag., Agricultural Engineer
Dalton S. Harrison, M.S., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Richard P. Cromwell, M. Eng., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
Lloyd B. Baldwin, M.A., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Chairman, Agronomy Department
David W. Jones, M.S.A., Agronomist
Wayne L. Currey, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
Elmo B. Whitty, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
James T. Johnson, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
Charles E. Freeman, M.S., Resident Instructor in Agronomy (Belle Glade)
James W. Strobel, Ph.D., Chairman, Ornamental Horticulture Department
Edgar W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist
Harry G. Meyers, M.S.A., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Graham S. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist -
Dennis B. McConnell, Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist (Apopka)
Willard T. Witte, Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
L. H. Purdy, Ph.D., Chairman, Plant Pathology Department
Robert S. Mullin, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Thomas A. Kucharek, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
Robert H. Harms, Ph.D., Chairman, Poultry Science Department
Carroll R. Douglas, Ph.D., Assistant Extension Poultryman
Lester W. Kalch, M.Ag., Associate Extension Poultryman
R. Bruce Christmas, M.S.A., Supervisor, Florida National Egg Laying Test (Chipley)
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Chairman, Soils Department
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Soils Specialist
John H. Herbert, Jr. M.S.A., Extension Conservationist
George A. Marlowe, Jr., Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist & Chairman, Vegetable Crops Department
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist
James Stephens, M.S.A., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
James R. Hicks, Ph.D., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
*List of faculty as of 11/71 on
Charles F. Simpson, Ph.D., Acting Chairman, Veterinary Science Department
George W. Meyerholz, D.V. M., Extension Veterinarian
Miss Izola F. Williams, M.S., Chairman, Home Economics Department
Mrs. Roberta H. Hall, M.S., Extension Home Furnishings Specialist
Mrs. Marie S. Hammer, M.H.Ec.Ed., Extension Home Economist, (E.N.P.)
Mrs. Beth Walsh, M.S., Extension Food Specialist
Miss Vervil L. Mitchell, M.S., Home Management & Family Economics Specialist
Mrs. Charla J. Durham, M.S., Home Management & Family Economics Specialist
Tony J. Cunha, Ph.D., Chairman, Animal Science Department
James E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
Robert L. Reddish, Ph.D., Associate Meats Specialist
Kenneth L. Durrance, M.A., Associate Animal Husbandman
Bill G. Jackson, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman
Harold H. VanHorn, Jr., Ph.D., Chairman, Dairy Science Department
Clarence B. Lane, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Extension Dairy Technologist
Barney Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Dairy Nutritionist
Daniel W. Webb, Ph.D., Assistant Extension Dairy Husbandman
W. G. Eden, Ph.D., Chairman, Entomology and Nematology Department
James E. Brogdon, M.Ag., Entomologist
John R. Strayer, M.Ag., Associate Entomologist
Donald W. Dickson, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
Donald E. Short, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
Danny R. Minnick, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Chairman, Food Science Department
Richard F. Matthews, Ph.D., Associate Food Technologist
John L. Gray, Ph.D., Director, School of Forest Resources and Conservation
Thomas G. Herndon, M.S.F., Extension Forester
Anthony S. Jensen, M.S.F., Assistant Extension Forester
Alfred H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Chairman, Fruit Crops Department
Fred P. Lawrence, M.S.A., Citriculturist
Calvin E. Arnold, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
Larry K. Jackson, M.S.A., Interim Assistant in Horticulture
Timothy E. Crocker, Ph.D., Extension Specialist
David P.H. Tucker, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist (Lake Alfred)
Wilfred E. Wardowski, II, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist (Lake Alfred)
Miss Elizabeth E. Mumm, M.P.H., Health Education Specialist
Mrs. Louise S. Chichester, M.S., Visiting Assistant Nutritionist (E.N.P.)
Miss Clara L. Gibson, M.S., Clothing & Textiles Specialist
Mrs. Mary N. Harrison, M.S., Consumer Education Specialist
Mrs. Lizette L. Murphy, M.S., Consumer Education Specialist
Miss Pauline Calloway, Ph.D., Extension Home Economics Program Development
Mrs. Yancey Walters, M.H.E., Extension Home Economics Program Development
Miss Sandra A. Claybrook, M.S., Extension Home Economist (E.N.P.)
Miss Evelyn A. Rooks, M.H.E., Hurman Development Specialist
Miss Lora A. Kiser, M.S., Extension Home Economist, Professional Development
Miss Emily King, Ph.D., Extension Home Economist, Resource Development
Miss Nadine Hackler, M.S., Consumer Education Specialist
Miss Glenda Humphries, M.S., Household Equipment Specialist
Woodrow W. Brown, M.Ag., State 4-H Club Leader
Grant M. Godwin, M.Ag., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
Billy J. Allen, M.A., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
Thomas C. Greenawalt, M.A., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Ruth L. Milton, M.S., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
Mrs. Susan R. Wall, M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Mrs. Gwendoline Angalet, M.S.A., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Linda L. Dearmin, M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Frank S. Perry, M.Ag., District Agent
Ernest R. Wheaton, D. Ed., District Agent
William H. Smith, Ed. D., District Agent
Earl M. Kelly, M.Ag., District Agent
*List of faculty as of 11/71
COLUMBIA COUNTY GILCHRIST COUNTY
Wilburn C. Farrell, M.Ag.
A. T. Andrews, M.Ag.
John E. Moser, B.S.A.
Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ahrano, B.S.
Mrs. Mable C. Dorsey, B.S.
A. Luther Harrell, M.A.
Mrs. Roberta C. Hicks, B.S.
Horace M. Carr, B.S.
Mrs. Eliza M. Jackson, B.S.
Mrs. Jane M. Brodie, B.S.
Bobby L. Taylor, M.Ag.
Miss Martha Sue McCain, B.S.
J. L. Loadholtz, M.S.
Sylvesfer A. Rose, MS.
J. V. Knight, B.S.A.
Mrs. Sue B. Young, B.S.
Mrs. Aurilla D. Birrel, B.S.
Mrs. Joy Wren Satcher, B.S.
Lewis E. Watson, M.A.
James F. Cummings, M.Ag.
George H. Newbury, M.S.A.
Mrs. Dorothy Y. Gifford, B.S.
Mrs. Sandra T. Alphonse, B.S.
Miss Mary T. Shepard, B.A.
Harvey T. Paulk, M.Ag.
Jerry A. Wyrick, M.S.A.
W. Lester Hatcher, B.S.A.
Quentin Medlin, B.S.A.
Mrs. Paula P. Stanley, B.S.H.E.
T. Jesse Godbold, B.S.E.
Mrs. Imogene D. Ritenburgh, B.S.
SMrs. Ann V. Prevatt, B.A.
Donald W. Lander, M.Ag.
James E. Bellizio, M.S.
Dallas B. Townsend, B.S.A.
Neal M. Dukes, B.S.
Richard H. Smith, M.S.
Mrs. Mary E. Anderson, BS.
Miss Katheryn L. Keith, B.S.
John D. Campbell, B.S.A.
Roy J. Champagne, M.S.
Louis J. Daigle, M.Ag.
Ralph W. Moore, B.S.
Joseph D. Dalton, Ph.D.
Nolan L. Durre,M.S.
Seymour Goldweber, B.S.
Richard M. Hunt, B.S.A.
Mrs. Runette Davis, M.A.H.E.
Mrs. Justine L. Bizette, B.S.
Miss Mary Alyce Holmes, M.S.
Miss Victoria M. Simpson, B.S.
Miss Dorothy A. Towers, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Elizabeth D. Clark, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Judy M. Thornberry, B.A.
Mrs. Grace R. Hauser, B.S.
Mrs. Frances H. Little, M.A.
Kenneth M. Sanders, M.S.F.
Mrs. Mary Ann Roe, B.S.
Thomas R. Burton, Jr., M.Ag.
James N. Watson, B.S.A.
Edward Allen, M.S.A.
Thomas H. Braddock, Jr. M.S.A.
Robert C. Lindstrom, M.S.
Harold C. Jones, M.S.
Mrs. Bessie J. Canty, M.S.
Mrs. Wyn W. Shoptaw, B.S.
Mrs. Emily G. Harper, B.S.
Mrs. Donna L. Druell, B.A.
Mrs. Eunice M. Littlejohn, B.S.
Mrs. Sarah M. Board, B.S.H.E.
E. J. Cowen,B.S.A.
James H. Walker, M.S.A.
Daniel E. Mullins, M.S.
Clifton H. Breeland, B.S.
Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson, B.S.
Mrs. Dorothy C. Cunningham, B.S.
Miss Mary Jane Home, B.S.
Donald F. Jordan, M.A.
James B. Estes, M.A.
John C. Russell, M.Ag.
Bernard H. Clark, B.S.A.
Mrs. Marjorie B. Gregory, B.S.
Mrs. Dicki D. Bentley, B.S.
Mrs. Ursula H. Williams, B.S.
James R. Yelvington, M.Ag.
B. O. Bass, M.S.A.
Cubie R. Laird
Rance A. Andrews, B.S.A.
Isaac Chandler, Jr., B.S.
Mrs. Wylma B. White, M.S.H.E.
Jack C. Hayman, M.A.
Mrs. Nannie M. Cochran, B.S.
Raymond H. Burgess, M.S.A.
Clayton E. Hutcheson, M.S.A.
Albert D. Dawson, B.S.A.
Miss Jeanette Meadows, M.S.
Bert J. Harris, Jr., B.S.A.
George T. Hurner, Jr., BS.A.
Jean Beem, M.S.A.
Paul E. Glasscock, B.S.A.
Clarence F. O'Quinn, BS.
James E. Richards, M.S.A.
R. Donald Downs, B.S.A.
Wayne T. Wade, M.Ed.
Milford C. Jorgensen, M.Ag.
Mrs. Mamie G. Bassett, B.S.
Miss Charlene Hampton, B.S.
Mrs. Helen P. Webb, B.S.
Mrs. Virginia H. Coombs, B.S.
Mrs. Ruth T. Penner, BS.
Mrs. Barbara Martin, M.Ed.
Lawrence D. Taylor, M.Ag.
James B. Morris, III, M.S.
Mrs. Mary J. Castello, B.S.
Forrest N. McCullars, B.S.
INDIAN WORK COUNTY
Jack W. Bass, M.Ag.
Woodrow W. Glenn, M.Ag.
William E. Collins, B.S.A.
Mrs. Jane R. Burgess, B.S.H.E.
Miss Mary E. Howell, B.S.
Albert H. Odom, M.Ag.
William C. Smith, Jr., M.Ag.
Mrs. Dona A. Ingle, M.S.
Jackson A. Haddox, M.Ag.
John L. Jackson, Jr., M.Ag.
Mrs. Marian Valentine, B.S.
Mrs. Jeanne M. Allen, B.S.
Miss Alice M. Blackburn, M. Retailing
Robert G. Curtis, B.S.A.
Mrs. Dorothy J. Classon, B.S.
Miss Mary G. Watson, M.S.
J. Lloyd Rhoden, M.A.
Damon Miller, M..
Paul J. Ziebart, Ill, B.S.
Michael E. Demaree, M.S.A.
Mrs. Betty Vernon, B. S.
Mrs. Martha M. Walker, B. S.
Mrs. Ann W. Parramore, B.S.H.E.
Leonard C. Cobb, M.Ag.
William R. Worrmble, B.S.A.
Mrs. Sharon Stonerock, B.S.
James M. Glisson, B.S.A.
O. R. Hamrick, Jr., M.A.
Arthur D. Alston, M.Ag.
James C. Miller, B.S.
Mrs. Mae M. Anderson, B.S.
Miss Deloris M. Jones, B.S.
Rollin H. McNutt, M.S.A.
W. Nelson Crews, Jr., M.S.
Robert T. Montgomery, B.S.A.
Mrs. Dorothy A. Fender, B.S.
Edsel W. Rowan, B.S.A.
Patrick R. Hamilton, B.S.
William J. Phillips, Jr., M.Ag.
Mrs. Postelle G. Dawsey, B.S.H.E.
Miss Linda D. Martin, B.S.
Mrs. Sarah K. Thomas, B.S.
PALM BEACH COUNTY PUTNAM COUNTY
Robert B. Whitty, B.S.A.
Mrs. Martha B. Norton, M.S.
Judson T. Fulmer, M.Ed.
Mrs. Sandra R. Jones, B.S.
Jack D. Patten, B.S.
Charles M. Walthall, M.S.
Mrs. Ann P. Jeter, B.S.
Mrs. Marilee M. Tankersley, B.S.
R. Kent Price, M.Ag.
Henry F. Swanson, M.S.A.
Bruce A. Barmby, M.S.
Oscar J. Hebert, Jr., M.S.
Salvatore E. Tamburo, Ph.D.
Mrs. Marjorie L. Williams, B.S.
Mrs. Mary A. Moore, M.A.T.
Mrs. Leala R. Collins, B.S.
Mrs. Linda W. Luman, B.S.
James B. Smith, B.S.A.
Mrs. Marilyn Tileston, B.S.H.E.
Robert S. Pryor, B.S.
Frederick E. Boss, M.A.
DeArmand L. Hull, M.S.
Raleigh S. Griffis, M.Ag.
John H. Causey, B.S.A.
Mrs. Arlen C. Jones, B.S.
Mrs. Marylou Shirar, M.Ed.
Mrs. Jeanette S. Cardell, M.S.
Mrs. Ruth A. Holmes, B.S.
Mrs. Ina S. Medler, B.S.
Luther L. Rozar, Jr., M.Ag.
Miss Clara A. Smith, B.S.
Mrs. Mary E. Ergle, B.S.
Mrs. Barmell B. Dixon, B.S.
Gilbert M. Whitton, Jr., M.Ag.
Charles E. Rowan, M.Ag.
Irving M. Perry, B.S.
Mrs. Dorothy E. Draves, B.S.
Mrs. Leah B. Hoopfer, B.S.
Miss Nancy B. Whigham, B.S.
Mrs. Katherine R. Keedy, B.S.
Mrs. Virginia D. Gardner, B.S.
Robert M. Davis, M.Ag.
Thomas W. Oswalt, M.S.A.
Ortis E. Carmichael, M.S.
Mrs. Alice Kersey, M.S.
David M. Solger, M.Ag.
Sidney L. Sumner, M.S.A.
Ronald P. Muraro, M.S.
Mrs. Ruth M. Elkins, B.S.
Mrs. Josephine Cameron, M.S.
Mrs. Becky E. Young, B.S.
Ralph T. Clay, B.S.A.
Mrs. Essie H. Thompson, B.S.
Mrs. Linnette T. Webster, B.S.
ST. JOHNS COUNTY
Paul L. Dinkins, M.Ag.
James D. Dilbeck, M.S.
Miss Nettie R. Brown, B.S.
ST. LUCIE COUNTY
Hugh C. Whelchel, B.S.
Mrs. Marguerite R. Brock, B.S.
SANTA ROSA COUNTY
William C. Zorn, M.Ag.
Jack James Spears, M.Ag.
Miss Fern Nix, B.S.
Miss Linda D. Bamburg, B.S.
Kenneth A. Clark, B.S.A.
Edwin S. Pastorius, B.S.A.
Frank M. Melton, M.Ag.
Mrs. Ruth Ann Miller, B.S.
Frank J. Jasa, B.S.A.
David A. DeVoll, M.S.A.
Mrs. E. Louise Gill, B.S.H.E.
Donald A. George, B.S.A.
Richard L. Bradley, B.S.A.
J. Paul Crews, B.S.A.
James W. Bearden, B.S.A.
Henry E. Jowers, B.S.A.
Mrs. Janice R. McRee, B.S.H.E.
Miss Meredith A. Creel, B.S.H.E.
Henry P. Davis, B.S.A.
Mrs. Ethel P. Thompson, B.S.
William J. Cowen, B.S.A.
T. Ralph Townsend, M.A.
Larry L. Loadholtz, M.Ag.
Mrs. Diane E. Yates, B.S.
Miss Frances E. Lee, B.S.
Bobby R. Durden, B.S.A.
Mrs. Marilyn J. Halusky, B.S.
J. Edsel Thomaston, M.Ag.
Mrs. Virginia C. Clark, B.S.
Johnnie E. Davis, M.Ag.
Lenzy M. Scott, M.A.
Miss Sue Elmore, M.S.