|UFDC Home||myUFDC Home | Help ||
|Marine advisory program|
|Florida A&M programs|
|Planned and expended time by program...|
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
|Table of Contents|
Unnumbered ( 1 )
Marine advisory program
Florida A&M programs
Planned and expended time by program area
The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Plorida Cooperative Exten
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SC C
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
1- I i- _
WIn Joa IM. DIUUy
Over the years the Cooperative Extension Service
has played a unique role in Florida as in other states,
taking scientific discoveries from the laboratories into
the field, demonstrating the benefits of new tech-
nology and encouraging its adoption.
These activities are made possible through a co-
operative effort of federal, state and local govern-
ments carried out on a county-by-county basis. The
base of authority is the Land Grant University and the
teams of Extension specialists and research workers in
academic departments provide the necessary technical
support for county teaching.
Extension agents at the county level are members
of the University faculty, but also are members of the
community, dedicated to helping the people of Florida
--commercial producers, small farmers, rural and
urban families, the youth of the state--improve their
lives both economically and socially.
In 1975 county Extension programs emphasized pro-
duction efficiency and management techniques in agri-
culture to help producers meet inflationary pressures
of higher machinery and energy costs. In addition to
the major emphasis on the production of food and
fiber, considerable effort was made to identify at
both local and state levels major problem areas af-
fecting people and to adjust Extension Home. Econom-
ics and Youth programs to help solve identified "peo-
A few of these many Extension programs in com-
merical agriculture, marine resources (MAP), commun-
ity resource development, home economics, 4-H and
youth and special Florida A&M programs have been
summarized in the report that follows.
I_ ^ I :
Florida Plan Service
During 1975 more than 10,000 plans were distrib-
uted to Florida residents in response to their requests.
Within this period 43 farm service plans and nine
house plans were added to the Plan Service. In ad-
dition, 61 "special" plans were prepared for various
IFAS units, including county Extension facilities and
Grain and Seed Drying and Storage
Drying and storage of grain and seed crops con-
tinue to increase in importance as acreage and/or
yields continue to increase. This increase in on-farm
and off-farm facilities was greater in 1975 than the
rate for recent years. This was especially true of facili
ties for drying and storing peanuts and corn. The in-
creased awareness of potential damage from aflatoxin
infested seed and grain has been a significant factor
in producer efforts to improve their processing and
Environmental Housing for Livestock
Interest in environmentally controlled or modified
housing is on the increase. During 1975 several re-
search and demonstration facilities for swine and
dairy cows were designed and constructed in coopera-
tion with Dr. Dennis Buffington, Mr. Barry Baldwin,
the Agricultural Engineering Department, and with
members of the Dairy Science and Animal Science De-
An irrigation system designed for maximum energy
and water savings was installed in a 3-acre peach
orchard on the University of Florida horticultural unit
near Gainesville, Florida. This is essentially a per-
manent underground system with above ground emit-
The experimental design consists of 2-row plots with
one, two and three emitters per tree replicated three
times. Maximum water use with one and three emit-
ters is 10 and 32 percent, respectively, of that used
with overhead sprinkler irrigation.
Power requirements for the 3-acre drip system is
0.50 h.p. compared to 2.75 h.p. for a sprinkler system.
Although peach trees showed no significant growth
difference in their second season as a result of the
number of emitters per tree, it is expected that the
additional water and distribution will influence both
growth and productivity as the trees get larger and
the root system spreads.
Power and Machinery
The program which has received considerable em-
phasis during 1975 is the training and certification of
pesticide applicators to comply with the Federal In-
secticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 1971.
Initially this law required that pesticides be catego-
rized as Restricted Use and Non-Restricted Use and
that the applicators of the Restricted Use Pesticides
be certified by October 21, 1976. The certification
deadline has been delayed until October 21, 1977.
The object of this program, adopted by the Pesticide
Program Coordinator Dr. John Strayer and his support
committee which included Mr. Richard Cromwell, was
to train county agents to instruct private users of Re-
stricted Use Pesticides (farmers applying these chem-
water conservation in irrigating strawberries being grown on poly-
ethylene mulch covered beds.
near High Springs. The need to increase and improve storage facil-
ities continues to grow as acreage and yields grow.
I ~ __ __ 1 ~___I _~ ~ 1
The Environmental Health and Safety Information Coordinator
explains the need for shielding of exposed belts.
icals on their own land or land under their control).
The appropriate state specialists will train and ex-
amine commercial applicators.
Approximately 120 county agents gathered in
Gainesville during December for a one-week training
program to become Certified Trainers of private ap-
The position of Environmental Health and Safety
Information Coordinator was filled August 28, 1975.
Activities of the coordinator have included liaison with
the National Institute for Farm Safety, local and na-
tional branches of the National Safety Council, Na-
tional Fire Protection Association, state and national
Farm Bureau Safety Divisions, Florida Fruit and Vege-
table Association, and the state Citrus Safety Associa-
tion internal divisions of IFAS and the University of
Florida. The coordinator is also taking an active role
in the standards development process of the Occupa-
tional Safety and Health Administration in Washing-
ton, D. C.
Several types of educational materials have been
and are being developed. These include safety news
releases, Extension Agricultural Engineering Reports,
TV tapes, a safety newsletter and slide/tape instruc-
A clipping service has been subscribed to as a
means of tabulating Florida farm accidents. In ad-
edition, preliminary steps have been taken to prepare
for a state-wide farm accident survey during 1976-77.
Energy Conservation and Management
Work on energy conservation and management has
been concentrated in developing educational materials
for use by county staffs. A slide set, "Checking your
Energy I.Q.," has been completed and made available
for loan to Extension personnel. Work on additional
three slide sets is in progress: "Understanding the
Energy Problem," "Fuel and Farm Machinery," and
"Solving the Energy Problem-A Family Affair." A
large fair-type exhibit, "Insulation and Weatherstrip-
ping," and a three-panel table-top exhibit, "Know
Your Appliances," have been prepared for use at
fairs and meetings around the state.
Five district meetings were held to acquaint Ex-
tension personnel throughout Florida with available
educational materials on energy conservation. Public
meetings on conservation were held in five counties.
Natural Resources and Environmental Quality
Pollution Control and Abatement
A tightening of the nation's economy has resulted
in an increased interest in operational efficiency in
livestock production. Waste management, made neces-
sary by concentrating livestock and pollution control
requirements, is a production cost that can be mini-
mized through well planned housing and simple flush-
ing devices. A demonstration of wide floor flushing
utilizing multiple dump tanks on a common axle was
installed at the University's dairy research farm. A
new swine barn built by a cooperator includes sloped
autters under nil elated floors which are flushed with
A Illgcman stem designed by agrlultural enginies aids with wt
management in a Florida dairy operation.
multiple plastic pipe siphons from roof mounted con-
Both systems work satisfactorily and, if desired,
can be automated to virtually eliminate daily manage-
ment or labor inputs.
Changes in the feed, feeder cattle and slaughter
cattle markets have caused a surge of interest in small
"custom" or local market slaughterhouses. Waste
management is an essential part of these businesses
which are usually located outside the areas served by
municipal sewage systems. Operational data for
lagoon systems which ultimately return wastes to the
soil have been assembled for consideration, where ap-
plicable, by prospective slaughterhouse operators.
Consultation with many owners and their engineers
has helped to develop several prospects for demon-
stration projects. An engineering report is ready for
distribution to county Extension staffs, the state's De-
partment of Environmental Regulation, and others.
As the state moves into the first stages of imple-
menting solid waste management and recovery plans
which deal primarily with garbage and refuse, Ex-
tension agents are being asked about the feasibility
of disposal to the soil, the acceptability of various
rural collection systems, and other questions. Material
explaining pertinent legislation and some of the basics
of solid waste management has been prepared and
distributed to county staffs. A technical report on re-
search with water control at a landfill site (which was
assisted by Extension) has also been made available.
During 1975 the Agricultural Engineering Depart-
ment gave leadership to 4-H projects in safety, auto-
motive care and safety, petroleum power and small
gas engines, electricity and energy conservation. A
leader training program in electricity and automotive
care and safety known as the "Watts and Wheel
Camp" was attended by more than 100 adult and
Agronomy Extension programs are designed to dis-
seminate routinely information on forage and field
crop production and to emphasize particular problem
In 1975, Agronomy Extension programs contributed
to more efficient utilization of forages in cattle opera-
tions. The depressed beef cattle market caused most
producers to seek information on using pastures more
effectively. Since grain prices have increased, dairy-
men have become more interested in using silage in
their feeding programs. To assist these producers,
cow-calf clinics were held on a multi-county basis and
covered all aspects of cattle production. Corn silage
demonstrations were conducted to determine varieties
and other practices best suited to dairy operations.
The Extension sugarcane specialist initiated com-
puterized reporting of soil test results and fertilizer
recommendations, to save time and reduce errors.
This was the first such use of a computer by the Uni-
versity of Florida. Practically all Florida weed control
information for field crops and ornamentals was gen-
erated through research and demonstration trials by
the weed control specialist. Also a new Extension
program in aquatic weed control was initiated with
the filling of a new position.
Changes are being made in Extension methods.
More area or multi-county programs are being con-
ducted on specific crops. This change allows a com-
plete discussion of all aspects of producing the partic-
ular crop or feed for animals. Greater use also is
being made of monthly newsletters, fact sheets and
other means of rapidly and economically dissemi-
nating Extension information.
Results of the Extension agronomy efforts can be
measured by the utilization of information and the in-
creased yields of crops. Sugarcane, peanuts and
tobacco yields set records in 1975. Cattlemen have
a better understanding of alternative methods of for-
age and feed production and are practicing these
methods. Weed control programs and the use of
herbicides are expanding at a rapid rate, hopefully,
as a result of reliable information presented through
Extension agronomy programs.
During 1975 two Extension agricultural engineers
and the meat specialist met with 50 or more prospec-
tive builders of meat plants. The surplus of cattle
and the low price of cattle encouraged producers and
others to develop alternate methods of marketing cat-
Probably less than five percent of these prospective
builders have built meat plants or will build meat
plants. Those who have successfully built and oper-
ated meat plants are under official inspection. They
are operating at a profit and providing a useful serv-
ice to the community. These additional plants have
enabled producers to sell cattle and calves directly to
Cattlemen attend the Chiply Beef Demonstration Unit field day.
the consumers, retailers and processors.
Additional meat plants under official inspection
have helped Florida producers utilize a new and dif-
ferent marketing procedure.
The Florida baby beef program has continued to
increase in number of calves slaughtered, has im-
proved quality and has brought additional retailers
and processors into the business. This status has been
accomplished by Extension workers, the Florida meat
and livestock industry and Florida consumers utilizing
Some national chains operating in Florida have
begun to increase baby beef sales throughout the
state. A baby beef promotion program in September
and October convinced this chain store group that
they should sell baby beef. "Price Wise" baby beef
at the wholesale carcass level now is selling for more
than ever before. This price increase occurs at a time
when "fed beef" is lower in price than it has been
since baby beef entered the market in August 1974.
Baby beef educational programs have proved to the
Florida meat industry and Florida consumers that baby
beef has an advantageous place in the Florida meat
AM munty uexinmin lrveacK spec alm oemonstrates planting
calves with a growth stimulant to increase weaning weights.
The Twenty-Fourth Annual Beef Cattle Short Course
was held at the University of Florida on May 1-3.
Approximately 800 cattlemen and industry representa-
A training program for County Extension Directors
and agents for beef was held at the University during'
the week of May 19, 1975. Twenty-seven agents at-
tended this training program.
Nine one-day area Cow-Calf Clinics were held dur-
ing 1975. All departments in IFAS, related to beef
cattle production, assisted in making these clinics a
The Southern Beef Conference at Sarasota on April
14-15 attracted 267 people from 13 Southeastern
Production testing data was processed on more
than 10,000 calves during 1975. Eight new coopera-
tors joined the program.
A field day at the Chipley Beef Demonstration Unit
on April 22 drew 90 people.
Ten years of testing was completed at the Florida
Swine Evaluation Center with 2167 head evaluated.
The following data indicates the progress:
Feed per Avg. % lean cuts value in value car.
100 Ibs. daily Backfat Car. Loin of chilled Pen feed conv. improve./
gain gain thickness Ig. eye car. wt. index /hd. hd.
340 1.68 1.5 30.37
1.34 30.33 4.72
1974-75 299 1.83 1.2 31.24 4.89
-- -1 .---_~i._ i---r-r. c: -; =;-i-; .- --.----C1,1-_. CZ.-il
The Annual Swine Field Day was attended by 190
participants. High swine prices during the year stimu-
lated interest in this event and all facets of the swine
The state swine specialist was selected for member-
ship in the National Test Station Association. He at-
tended meetings in St. Louis- to set up national rules
and regulations for test stations.
A task force of agricultural engineers and the Ex-
tension swine specialist completed plans and served
in an advisory capacity for a new farrowing-weaning
house at the Dee Dot Ranch in Jacksonville Beach.
These new houses have innovations that improve both
sanitation and ventilation. Data from these houses
will be made available next year for use in evalu-
ating units of this type with a view to establishing a
large production-line system in swine raising.
Florida's 4-H Livestock Judging program hit a new
high in 1975 when the Levy County team representing
Florida at the national contest in Louisville, Ky., placed
8th overall. This is the highest place that any Florida
team has achieved in livestock judging.
Adult Horsemanship Schools for leaders, agents and
interested horse owners were held at Timpoochee 4-H
camp and Welaka Research and Education Center.
More than 100 enthusiastic adults, agents and leaders
attended the training sessions to gain knowledge on
teaching methods and the care and management of
horses. 4-H organization and future area horse man-
agement short courses and clinics were discussed.
Approximately 441 4-H youth from 44 counties
learned how to manage better themselves and their
horses under the expert guidance of their leaders,
agents and horsemanship school instructors. The
week's program also included guest lecturers and
demonstrators in nutrition, horse health, selection and
judging, selection and care of tack and equipment,
horsemanship and other subjects of interest.
The newly developed facility at Welaka, which in-
cludes three 24-stall barns, three teaching arenas and
miles of trails, became an area of intense activity for
four weeks during June and July. As the need and
demand for this type of experience with horses and
people increases, it is our hope that additional learn-
ing facilities and expanded living quarters will be
provided to meet this need.
The State 4-H Horse Show and Judging Contest at
Ocala on July 10-12 attracted 225 exhibitors. This
number was a tremendous increase over last year's
competitors. Alachua County was the high scoring
county for the show. All four of the top awards went
to Alachua County 4-Hers.
The Extension horse peoialist trains 4 H leaders.
In August, 30 of Florida's high point winners at-
tended the Southern Regional 4-H Horse Champion-
ships at Jackson, Mississippi. The Horse Public Speak-
ing and individual and team Horse Demonstration
winners also attended. The judging, contest was
entered by 17 teams with Sarasota County winning
handily and Alachua County finishing second. The
Sarasota County team represented Florida at the Re-
gional competition in Jackson, Mississippi.
The Florida team that attended the regional cham-
pionships represented the State 4-H Horse program
very well. Florida had the winning team demonstra-
tion, the 5th place individual demonstration and the
4th place public speaker. The Horse Judging team
placed 9th out of 18 teams. The Horse Show ex-
hibition did well. Florida 4-H'ers had the grand
champion Quarter horse gelding and placed well in
nearly all performance classes.
A series of area Horse Short Courses were started in
1975. The first short course at Pompano Park had
one session planned for trainers and other race track
personnel and a second session designed for local
pleasure horse owners. The second short course at
Deland was for owners, breeders and trainers as well
as other interested people. Short course subjects in-
cluded nutrition and feeding, breeding, herd health,
other management topics and training sessions.
These area short courses will be finished in the spring
Planning horse programs for the year has been ac-
complished by a series of five area (multiple 4-H dis-
trict) meetings, attended by agents and 4-H leaders.
At these meetings dates and places were set for Area
Horse Short Courses, Area Judging Seminars and Area
4-H Horse Shows.
What horse owners, 4-H'ers, leaders and agents
need from state specialists was discussed. Plans were
made to help meet these needs. These meetings have
been instrumental in keeping the state office informed
so that specialists can better aid horse owners, breed-
ers, youth-4-H and agents.
Florida Extension agents have used the 4-H meat
program information to supplement other 4-H pro-
jects. The following youth projects have utilized meat
information and meat demonstration in area and state
1. Know Your Beef
2. 4-H Food Programs
3. Cowbelle Demonstration
4. Youth Livestock Projects
5. Youth Fair Exhibits.
Last year 13 4-H teams competed in the 4-H meats
contest during 4-H Congress. Scores for the top five
teams were only a few points apart, indicating agents
and 4-H leaders had been working to learn as well
as compete in the contest.
At present meat market managers readily act as
4-H leaders in the 4-H meat projects because they
realize this service helps the youth, the industry and
Bees and Their Products
Florida's 1975 honey production of 24,480,000 Ibs.
of honey was 51 percent more than the 1974 crop.
Florida fell short of being the number one honey-pro-
ducing state in the nation by only 20,000 Ibs. This
production occurred in spite of the loss of good agri-
cultural bee sites and lack of total cooperation be-
tween beekeepers and other facets of agriculture and
One particular area of major concern during 1975
was an effort to control and to reduce the numbers of
melaleuca and the brazilian pepper tree in Florida.
This movement is being backed by several organized
groups. This move creates problems for beekeepers
since a great deal of honey is produced from these
Efforts have been continued to improve overall pub-
lic awareness of the beekeeping industry. Television,
radio and newsletters have been used to reach more
The Annual Beekeepers' Institute keeps beekeepers
and other interested groups up-to-date on pertinent
problems of major concern. Success also has been
accomplished in the 4-H bee program which receives
funds from the Florida State Beekeepers and from the
American Beekeepers Federation. Entomological and
apicultural 4-H presentations have progressed. Efforts
are constantly being made to promote hobby bee-
keepers in the state. Letters, publications and other
public contact have helped to create public awareness
of the need for apicultural education. Several com-
munity colleges now are offering training in apicul-
Apiculture has added one new service, resulting
from needs of Florida vegetable growers. Extension
specialists in the Vegetable Crops Department en-
couraged growers to report that they were unable to
obtain enough bees to provide mandatory pollination
of certain crops. The efforts of the apiculturist with
the beekeepers and Vegetable Crop's efforts with the
growers led to the establishment of a growing list of
beekeepers who are willing to commit hives for pol-
lination purposes. The apiculturist maintains an up-
dated list of beekeepers and addresses that is fur-
nished upon request to interested farmers or county
The three Extension dairy specialists work with the
dairy industry through county Extension agents, allied
industry representatives, DHI supervisors, dairy organ-
izations and, frequently, directly with dairymen. Edu-
cational programs provided for the industry include
county and area dairy schools, workshops, personal
contacts, seminars, field demonstrations and research,
tours, surveys, telephone communications, correspon-
dence and many types of publications, newsletters and
popular magazine articles.
Feeding and Nutrition
The program developed in feeding and nutrition
has been favorably accepted by dairymen in Florida.
The program is continuous, requiring continuous input
because of new technology and improved manage-
ment techniques. The computer program developed
for least-cost rations at the University of Florida is
operational but not yet fully utilized by dairymen. A
lack of understanding of the system and the compli-
cated printout of material may account for this fact.
During 1975 Florida participated in a regional com-
puter program for least-cost rations and feeding man-
agement. The program will become operational in
January 1976 and will be tested in a number of Flor-
ida herds during 1976. The program offers Florida
dairymen 10 options for formulating dairy rations.
Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) Program
The DHI program operates in Florida as a coopera-
tive effort of dairymen (DHI association members) and
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Extension
leads and directs the program as an educational,
demonstrational and research effort. Data realized
from the program are used to make on-farm manage-
ment decisions, to ascertain trends in performance of
cows and groups of cows for profit, to select animals
(sires and dams) of superior genetic merit and to moni-
tor phases of dairy management including repro-
duction, feed efficiency and economic return.
DHI records are useful to dairymen in making
management decisions. Performance of Florida DHI
herds and all Florida herds are compared below.
Average Milk Production
(Pounds per cow, yearly)
All Milk Lbs. $
Data obtained nationwide from the DHI program
have made possible accurate evaluation of dairy
-sires in artificial insemination (Al) service. This evalu-
ation has provided dairymen tools for more accurate
selection of sires than before. Genetic progress has
been made to the extent that milk production has in-
creased to an annual level of about 200-300 pounds
of milk per cow.
The program involves primarily schools and clinics
held in conjunction with the Extension Veterinarian.
Educational programs are held in classrooms and at
Dairy farms to include the proper use of milking equip-
ment, the identification of good disease preventative
*programs and the teaching of good milking practices.
Eight such educational programs were held in 1975.
Dairy Cattle Breeding and Reproduction
Information on sire selection is made available by
tabulation of DHI-USDA sire summary data. These
summaries are distributed to all herds enrolled in the
Extension programs continue to emphasize the importance of
automated dairy waste disposal systems.
DHI program and to county Extension agents for distri-
bution to their clients. In recent months, emphasis
has been placed on communicating the revisions of
sire summary procedures to those using the informa-
tion. Changes implemented in recent months serve
to make the information more useful in evaluating
Emphasis toward reproduction has been placed on
determining causes of poor efficiency and deterrents to
its improvement. County and area educational ses-
sions have been held to consider methods for monitor-
ing reproductive performance and increasing effi-
ciency. A survey-type study was completed of DHI
cooperating herds indicating poor heat detection, de-
layed first service and lack of well defined goals by
dairy herd managers.
Organization and Personnel Management
A relatively new program is receiving increased
emphasis to demonstrate the need for good organ-
ization and personnel management. A number of
seminars have been held for dairymen to stress the
importance of labor management.
A survey was conducted during 1975 to establish
the relationship of milking practices to certain man-
agement practices. The results have been compiled
and are to be made available to dairymen in 1976 In
the form of a Dairy Personnel Management Guide.
Dairy Technology society meetings were conducted
in Jacksonville, Tampa and Miami. Educational
topics covered at the meeting included ultra-pasteur-
ization of dairy products, CIP cleaning, and consumer
problems facing the dairy industry.
- . .i.. . .
A field trial on the washing of bulk milk transports
was concluded and the results made available to
members of both the Florida and National dairy in-
dustry. From this study, guidelines for washing milk
tankers have been developed and are now being used
by members of the industry.
Ultra high temperature pasteurization of cream
products has become commonplace in the dairy in-
dustry. Educational programs have been initiated to
evaluate the effectiveness of this process to improve
the quality of cream products at the consumer level.
New problems such as heat stable quality deterio-
rating enzymes, also become a problem because of the
extended shelf-life of these products. Educational
programs have been initiated to make processors
aware of this potential problem and inform them of
methods to detect these enzymes. Consumer accept-
ance of UHT pasteurized fluid milk products will be a
concern of the future. Programs to evaluate the ac-
ceptance of these products have been initiated and the
information gained will be made available to the
The Extension dairy technologist has been ap-
pointed to the National Conference of Interstate Milk
Shipper Committee on Abnormal Milk and the Amer-
ican Dairy Science Association Nominators Committee.
Both appointments carry responsibilities that concern
individuals at both the federal and state level.
Dairy 4-H Projects and Activities
Considerable emphasis was placed on the develop-
ment of 4-H publications in 1975. These publications
1. 4-H Dairy Animal Project.
2. 4-H Dairy Goat Project.
3. Feeding the 4-H Dairy Animal. 1975. L. W.
Whitlow and B. Harris, Jr. 4-H 252.
4. 4-H Dairy Health Care. 1975. L. W. Whitlow
and B. Harris, Jr. 4-H 254.
5. Financial Management of the 4-H Dairy Project.
1975. L. W. Whitlow and B. Harris, Jr. 4-H 258.
6. Milking the 4-H Dairy Cow. 1975. L. W. Whit-
low, D. W. Webb, and B. Harris, Jr. 4-H 255.
7. 4-H Dairy Goat Record Book. 1975. L. W.
Whitlow and B. Harris, Jr. 4-H 264.
8. DY 75-38, Fitting and Showing 4-H Dairy Goats.
1975. B. Harris, Jr.
9. 4-H Dairy Record and Ledger. D. W. Webb and
L. Whitlow. 4-H 232.
10. Selection and Management of your 4-H Dairy
Animal. D. W. Webb and L. Whitlow. 4-H 251.
11. Breeding Management of Your 4-H Dairy Ani-
mal. D. W. Webb and L. Whitlow. 4-H 253.
12. Fitting and Preparing Your 4-H Dairy Animal
for show. D. W. Webb and L. Whitlow. 4-H
13. Training and Showing Your 4-H Dairy Animal.
D. W. Webb and L. Whitlow. 4-H 257.
14. Basic 4-H Dairy Cattle Judging. D. W. Webb.
In addition to developing 4-H literature, a State 4-H
Dairy Goat Show was established during the year.
The first annual show is scheduled for Orlando in
Entomology and Nematology
The Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act and
the Florida Pesticide Application Act require that users
of restricted pesticides be certified. Extension has the
responsibility for training both private and commercial
applicators to meet the requirements. Considerable
time and effort have been devoted to developing or
obtaining training aids such as slide sets, video tapes,
tape cassettes, films and publications to assist in the
task. Extension agents from all counties were brought
to the University for a week of intensive study to be-
come certified trainers. They have the responsibility
for training private applicators.
Two USDA funded Integrated Pest Management
Pilot Projects received considerable attention during
the year. The Citrus Pest Management demonstration,
now in its third year, continued to show promising
results. The Pest Management blocks of round or-
anges grown for the processing market received one
less spray application than the comparable grower
controlled blocks on a complete spray program. This
practice resulted in an average savings of $25.85
per acre with no significant difference in the average
in fruit size, yield, quality or spring flush growth re-
sponse. Greasy spot control showed comparable re-
A second Pest Management Project which involves
corn, peanuts and soybeans is being conducted co-
operatively with Alabama and Georgia. This pro-
gram, which also involves plant pathology, nema-
tology and weed science, was begun in the spring.
A full-time pest management specialist has been em-
ployed for the project and 10 farmers with approxi-
mately 3,100 acres of monitored crops are involved.
The program has been successful to the point that
many non-participating growers now have expressed
a desire to enter the program. Although funds are
not available at this time to expand the project, train-
ing sessions have been initiated to help these growers
establish and maintain their own programs.
The Department of Entomology and Nematology
received a new position in July to work on Imported
Fire Ants. It is designed to be 70 percent Research on
non-chemical control and 30 percent Extension. The
Extension work in 1975 has been primarily to keep
county Extension agents informed with periodic re-
ports and by working in counties with them.
The Nematode Assay Laboratory processed 6,310
samples of soil and/or roots for plant parasitic nema-
todes-30 percent more than the preceding year.
Supervision of the laboratory and making nematode
control recommendations on the basis of assay reports
required much of the Extension nematologist's time.
Extension entomologists made a concerted effort in
1975 to work closely with various associations whose
members deal with insect management and control.
Thirty regional and state-wide workshops were con-
ducted in conjunction with the Florida Pest Control As-
sociation, Florida Seedsmen and Garden Supply As-
sociation, Horticultural Spraymen's Association of Flor-
ida, Florida Golf Course Superintendent's Association,
Florida Mosquito Association, Florida Turf Grass As-
sociatikn and Florida Nurserymen and Grower's As-
sociation. Approximately 1,800 persons attended.
Field research and demonstrations were conducted
by Extension entomologists in the following areas:
household cockroaches, insecticide resistance in house
flies, distribution of poultry mites, bionomics and con-
trol of arthropod pests of domestic animals, analysis
of ultra low volume insecticide aerosols, mole cricket
control in pastures and turf, biology and control of the
Applicators of restricted pestioides must be certified according to imported twig beetle, ground pearls in turf, insecticide
law and Extension has the -resonsibility for training them to phytotoxicity to foliage and woody ornamentals,
meet the requirements. IFAS specialists started gearing up for this evaluation of insecticides, predators and parasites of
tea scale and control of the sweet potato weevil.
Food and Resource Economics
Community and Rural Development
Extension personnel provided leadership for a state-
wide conference on land use planning and a nation-
wide conference on rural underdevelopment and pov-
erty. Training meetings were held with county per-
sonnel on agency resources for community develop-
ment. A community resources conference focused on
information about programs for the consumer, the
elderly and the disadvantaged. Additional mini-
workshops were held with county personnel on com-
munity development programming. A number of
meetings and working sessions were held with local
and regional agencies to work on planning and de-
velopment issues. Publications, slide sets, TV and
radio programs, and other educational materials were
completed or begun on community change, the need
for planning, land and water use, solid waste man-
agement, poverty, housing, small, farm management
and economic information.
Late in 1975 a farm management economist was
added to the community development effort in the
area of small farm problems. Activities in the small
farm area included an evaluation of the feasibility of
a rural training center for small vegetable producers,
establishment of contacts with the 1890s program in
record keeping and enterprise analysis, and formula-
tion of long range program goals and objectives.
The development and dissemination of commodity
outlook information remained one of the major re-
sponsibilities of Extension economists during a year of
volatile commodity prices and rising costs. Outlook
information was provided through the newly estab-
lished Florida Food and Resource Economics News-
letter, mailouts to county Extension personnel, pre-
sentations at County meetings and industry field days,
and articles in popular periodicals.
A major shift in the supply-demand relationship in-
::liri-r--ri;- iii~*;ri-ut~-iri-lilr*l .;c.e ~i iiir .--i-li---;ri~- I -- .--- ..- .-,.m. .r- :.,;--. ri~..i ;t- ;-r- -.- : -.: ~- ... ..;...
the cattle industry and the squeeze between declining
prices and rising costs in cattle and citrus led to com-
plex decisions by growers and ranchers. Educational
materials were prepared explaining and giving ex-
ample of cattle and citrus marketing options. A joint
effort of livestock marketing and farm management
economists led to a regional task force which prepared
a report on management and marketing options for
southern beef producers.
A citrus marketing school was conducted in the
mqjor citrus counties for citrus growers. An Extension
economist was requested to present marketing alterna-
tives for citrus growers to the Florida Senate and
House Agricultural Committees.
A futures market workshop explaining the basics of
the operation of the futures market was presented to
beef cattle and swine producers, soybean and corn
growers, feed manufacturers and bankers from a four-
county area. A publication explaining how citrus
growers could use the futures market was prepared
A feasibility study of beef cattle cooperative mar-
keting which was initiated by Florida economists and
economists from the Farmer Cooperative Service is part
of a southeastern regional study and will be com-
pleted in 1976.
Assistance was given by Extension economists to
both producer and consumer groups interested in es-
tablishing cooperatives. Collective action for broiler,
lobster, field crop, vegetable and ornamentals pro-
ducers was explored as well as the cooperative pur-
chasing of farm supplies.
Concentration of activity in the red snapper-grouper
fishery began with a symposium on the problems of
this group. Data were gathered with the help of an
Area Marine Agent from 10 commercial fishing ves-
sels and seven party boats along the Northern Florida
coast on the production and costs of their operations.
Results of these data were combined with those on the
marketing and price trends of red snapper and
grouper to enable a presentation on the economics of
this particular fishery to the Gulf States Marine Fish-
Further activity developed when commercial fisher-
men operating out of Tarpon Springs and John's Pass
requested similar information be developed on their
vessels. Working with the County Extension Director
in Hillsborough County, production and cost records
were obtained from 10 vessels and analyzed. These
results were made available to the commercial fisher-
men in a presentation in John's Pass.
Initial results indicate a much higher economic re-
turn to vessels operating along the northern Gulf than
from those operating around Tarpon Springs and
John's Pass. Returns to the captain and owner ranged
from $15,331 for 42-47 foot vessel to $44,454 for 57-
59 foot vessels as compared to around $7,000 for ves-
sels from John's Pass and Tarpon Springs. This pro-
vides an example of spin-off in activity from one area
A recently completed study of the shrimp processing
industry in Florida also has received a favorable re-
sponse from industry people. This study, done by re-
search members of the department, has been the sub-
ject of several Extension publications.
Members of several industry groups along the lower
East Coast reported in late 1974 that damage to nets
and gear and fish losses caused by interference by
porpoises in fishing activity was resulting in sub-
stantial economic losses. These fishermen requested
help from the Florida Sea Grant Program to determine
the most effective deterrents to porpoise interference.
To determine economic losses, the department con-
ducted a survey, the results of which indicated that the
King and Spanish mackerel fishermen in the four-
county area were losing about $440,000 annually in
gear, fishing time, and fish. Losses were evenly di-
vided between netters and hand-liners in total, al-
though individually the net fishermen suffered greater
economic losses. Average losses for each net fisher-
man was $1,640 per year and to handline fishermen,
North Florida farmers are faced with potential
changes in the peanut program and some new crops
which may call for a changed cropping mix. A linear
programming model was developed for the area
which was used to evaluate such things as Maryland
tobacco and Southern peas grown for processing in
combination with different levels of peanut prices.
The results give Florida farmers a "feel" for these
changes and how they might affect their farms.
Farm management specialists provided up-dated
information about the returns to land available from
ranching. This information was presented to the
property appraisers and is being used in the assess-
ment of more than 12 million acres of Florda grazing
A joint task-force of the Southern Extension Farm
Management and Marketing Committees has devel-
oped a way to provide decision-making information
for Southern beef cattle producers. The committee
publishes each spring and fall a report which tries to
anticipate likely prices and then analyzes beef cattle
alternatives with those prices. The report is incor-
porated in the work of the Extension beef cattle
specialists in the southern states.
Potatoes and cabbage have been the farming main-
stay in the Hastings area for many years. More re-
cently the net return per acre has declined for both
crops. Responding to the need to increase net farm
income, county Extension agents for the last four years
have scheduled grower meetings which provide tech-
nical and economic information about the production
of alternative crops, principally corn and grain sor-
ghum. This year, area farmers have planted some
5,000 acres of corn and 3,000 acres of grain sorghum,
up from about 1,000 acres four years ago. These new
crops will generate about $1.5 million in gross Income
for the area farmers.
In 1975 an Energy Conservation Short Course was
presented for the food industry. Major topics for this
three-day course included (1) energy resources--out-
look for Florida, (2) energy demand and conservation
in food processes, (3) energy savings in heat ex-
changers and evaporation processes, (4) in-plant con-
servation of energy and (5) materials handling. More
than 75 participants received expert guidance on this
critical subject. Florida food processors and major
out-of-state food processors were represented. In-
formation on energy conservation was disseminated
throughout the year.
The first Florida Food Processing Industry Conference
was held March 12-13. The program theme was
"Regulations and Their Cost to Industry." Specific top-
ics included nutritional labeling and nutritional guide-
lines, universal product code, regulations and require-
ments for waste management, energy costs and clear
Water costs. More than 100 representatives from
firms processing the major food commodities partici-
pated in the conference. The conference was co-spon-
sored by the Cooperative Extension Service and the
Florida Food Processors Advisory Council. The Food
The t wnel n fteed i ntiet instructs paticipant int the commun-
ity canning program on container inspection for canned foods.
Extension forestry during 1975 continued to keep
county Extension agents and the Florida public up-to-
Processors Advisory Council was formed in 1975 and
has representatives from the citrus, dairy, fisheries,
meat-packers, poultry, sugar-cane and vegetable pro-
In 1975 five tomato lye-peeling systems were in-
stalled by Florida tomato canners. Earlier Florida Ex-
tension demonstrations and research had shown the
lye peeling process to be a significant improvement
over the process that was in current use by the in-
dustry. The lye-peeling procedure results in improved
product yields and quality and reduces the processing
labor required. The adoption of this process by the
industry is the successful completion of the Extension
Twenty-two "Seafood Preparation and Preservation
Workshops" have been presented in cooperation with
county home economics agents and the MAP Multi-
County-Florida DNR agents to acquaint the public with
the nutritional and economic value of an increased
consumption of seafood. Demonstrations concerned
with methods of catching, proper handling to preserve
quality, proper preparation, and proper preservation
I winu umaw lyu-pun m. procu aown unr aruW 1 m unpro y
product yields and quality and rduces processing labor required,
according to Florida Extension demonstrations and researcir.
date on current forest resource developments and Is-
sues. Unfortunately, the Extension forester was on
II -rr.lr. r--~-- i- ---~- ---^ -.-;.. r
extended sick leave during most of 1975, so several
planned meetings and training sessions were post-
Emergency requests for assistance continued despite
planning efforts. Today local county and urban for-
esters handle most routine forestry problems and in-
formation requests. But tough problems such as for-
est nursery fertilization recommendations or outbreaks
of pitch canker disease in pines can be serviced only
by consulting personnel at University research facil-
ities. Here also numerous questions were answered
on frog farming and worm ranching.
TV shows, radio programs, exhibits, news stories
and printed forestry and wildlife reports continued to
communicate useful information to agents and land-
owners. Subjects developed during the year included
forest fertilization, poisonous snakes, common native
plants, tree diseases, tree growth and Christmas tree
farming. A unique new training system involved the
development of a special slide series on firewood for
use during a telelecture training session for west Flor-
More than 2,000 4-H members were taught basic
forest appreciation during the year. Twenty-five
teams of 4-H members participated in the successful
fifth annual 4-H Forest Ecology Contest during the
Forest Festival at Perry. In addition, Extension co-
hosted the National Conference of the Conservation
Leisure education and recreation consumer informa-
tion programs continued to develop statewide. County
mass media programs were supported by fact sheets,
individual updates and TV programs that were gen-
erated at the state level. A pilot six-week short
course in family tent camping was successful in
Alachua County and tentative plans have been made
by 22 counties for a similar course in 1976. Several
new program planning aids for county staff also were
initiated or continued in progress.
Recreation research results and resource manage-
ment information were disseminated to nine major
agencies and professional associations dealing with
parks, recreation, tourism and land management.
Formal meeting presentations and committee assist-
ance were used by the state outdoor recreation special-
ist to support and build a quality statewide continuing
education program for recreation land managers and
other professionals. In addition, three significant
planning and management demonstrations were either
completed or in progress for a unique wildlands park,
an industry forest management interpretation center,
and a foster home complex for boys.
Private land owners were assisted in evaluating
multiple use schemes including recreation to boost
productivity of their lands. A major effort focused on
the Florida commercial camping industry which con-
tinues to suffer during a period of economic adjust-
ment. An 8-month camping market study and anal-
ysis was undertaken that resulted in frequent sup-
port of the industry association and the development
of a research project to gather urgently needed market
The second in a continuing series of in-depth educa-
tional programs was conducted in 1975-The Second
International Citrus Short Course and Tour. This short
course explained the area of citrus water relations and
was attended by citrus growers from Florida, Texas,
California and several foreign countries. Three days
of lectures were followed by a 21/2 day field tour of
irrigation and drainage demonstrations. A proceed-
ings compiled from invited papers is currently in press.
It will be sent to all short course participants. Copies
of the proceedings will also be made available to
interested growers and research and Extension person-
nel who were unable to attend the meeting.
Short course programs were planned with the as-
sistance of an advisory committee of growers and re-
search and Extension faculty. Regular biennial meet-
ings of the Short Course series were held and were
Active Blueberry, Pecan, Peach and Grape Growers
Associations have' provided the keys to success to Ex-
tension efforts in deciduous fruits. Close working re-
lationships with these associations have created a co-
hesiveness in these fragmented industries. Field days
in each of the major commodity areas represented by
grower associations have further strengthened Ex-
tension programs at both the county and state levels.
In-service training for Extension agents in deciduous
fruit-producing areas have helped increase their ex-
The Annual Subtropical Fruit Institute played host
to larger number of growers than ever before. Trop-
ical fruit production is characterized by high returns
and high risks due to management problems in cul-
tural operation. Therefore, Extension expended con-
siderable time in local educational programs to bolster
A two and a nar day tourwor irrigation and drainage aemonstratons w
check a drainage system (left) which is part of the S. W. A. P. project
irrigation systems used in Florida groves (right).
grower knowledge in the culture of subtropical fruit
Training of agents in areas of tropical fruit pro-
duction was conducted this year to assist them in deal-
ing with increasing numbers of urban and commercial
Urban Fruit Crops
Ever-increasing demands on the time of Extension
agents and specialists by urban fruit growers has
necessitated the formation of an organized program
Interest in all facets of ornamental horticulture by
taxpayers, whether business or home oriented, con-
tinued at an all-time high during 1975 despite less
than desirable economic conditions. Increased de-
mands for service, coupled with reduced funding,
necessitated a critical review of previous methods for
Reported earlier was a trend by county Extension
staff toward pooling of personnel and technical ex-
pertise for use across county lines. During 1975, state
specialists in cooperation with county Extension per-
sonnel extended the pooling concept to include re-
gional meetings on a long-range, pre-planned basis.
The primary purpose of this approach was to in-
crease.audience numbers while decreasing program
duplication, expenses and travel by state specialists.
Efforts will continue during 1976 toward logical county
grouping for continued expansion of the "pooled/re-
Pooling was also applied to printed information
during 1975 in the form of an information packet dis-
tributed monthly by the Ornamental Horticulture De-
partment to all county Extension directors and agents
handling ornamentals. Included in the packet were
as a part or me econa international ultrus snor course. rartcipais
.t (soil, water, atmosphere and plant relationships), and one of several
for urban growers. Several mimeos have been pre-
pared for use by agents and more are on the way.
An Urban Horticulture Task Force composed of faculty
from Ornamental Horticulture, Fruit Crops and Vege-
table Crops has been assembled to assist with pro-
gramming at the county level and to provide ad-
ditional educational materials for agents' use. A joint
horticultural training school is planned for next fiscal
reprints of available research articles gathered from
Main and Branch station research personnel. Also in-
cluded was the OH REPORT, consisting of a News
Section containing items of general interest to all per-
sonnel which prefaced an Ornamentals Commodity
Section broken down into individual commodity fact
sheets on Foliage, Floriculture, Woody Ornamentals,
Urban Horticulture and Turf.
Of particular interest is the fact that individual fact
sheets were photo-ready for duplication and distribu-
tion by county Extension personnel. This approach
minimizes bulk mailing at the state level and un-
necessary duplication since segmented information
permits selection and duplication at the discretion of
county personnel to best fit program needs. An in-
herent weakness of this approach is that failure to
duplicate and distribute at the county level could
easily create an information bottleneck since state
distribution is limited to county Extension personnel.
Not included in this report are state meetings con-
ducted by state specialists and those in cooperation
with industry such as the Annual Florida Turfgrass
Association Conference/Show, National Tropical Foli-
age Short Course, Floriculture Short Course and the
.,-. -.---.:-~~; lii
Garden Club Short Course. This last short course is
co-sponsored by the Florida Federation of Garden
Clubs which lists 31,000 clubs in its membership.
Average attendance at individual meetings was more
than 600 conferees.
Approximately 50 talks were given at various meet-
ings, short courses, and schools in 1975. Discussions
of diseases of plants in all commodity areas reached
more than 7,000 people. These programs, in addition
to preparing or assisting in preparing approximately
20 publications such as circulars, Plant Protection
Pointers, technical papers and production guides, en-
abled Extension Plant Pathology to disseminate plant
disease control information to a large portion of Flor-
ida's population. In addition, the field crops and vege-
table sections of the "Florida Plant Disease Control
Guide" were completely revised. About 2,000 copies
of the Control Guide have been issued to people in
the United States and 35 foreign countries.
More than 1,200 plant disease specimens were re-
ceived in the Plant Disease Clinic during 1975. Many
of these specimens were submitted by the homeowner
or commercial grower, but the majority were from
Research demonstration test plots on soybeans, pea-
nuts, wheat and pearl millet resulted in new plant
disease control measures for Florida growers.
In a comprehensive review of the Plant Pathology
Department in the fall of 1975, it was concluded that
there was a pressing need for additional personnel
in Extension Plant Pathology. Apparently, this opinion
was unanimously held by the review committee and
research plant pathologists. Although the final re-
port has not yet been received, it is generally believed
that it will emphasize strongly the fact that two path-
ologists cannot adequately and efficiently carry out
.the Extension plant pathology program needed in
Emphasis has been placed on assisting poultry
feed manufacturers with ingredient quality control pro-
grams. Throughout the state, Extension education has
helped feed mill managers and personnel to look for
and eliminate problems caused by aflatoxins.
Feeding methods developed by Florida Poultry Sci-
entists to increase egg size during hot weather have
been brought to poultry producers in state conferences
and personal visits by the Extension staff. This de-
velopment has helped Florida egg producers reduce a
Through cooperative efforts with other IFAS depart-
ments, research results have been compiled into Ex-
tension literature on use of poultry manure for fertil-
izer on field crops. This useful information was de-
veloped to offset the shortage of inorganic fertilizer
for the benefit of the poultry producer and the farmer
growing field crops.
As a continuing program, 4-H and youth have been
assisted by the Extension poultryman in producing
quality pullets for their own use in small layer flocks
and to supply the demand from homeowners for qual-
ity pullets. This successful project has helped supply
the family with eggs and enabled the youngster to
participate in county and state poultry shows.
The total effort of the Extension poultry staff in 1975
has been to assist Florida poultry producers to con-
tinue to produce and make available to Florida con-
sumers quality poultry meat and eggs in an abundant
supply and at a reasonable price.
The critical supply and high cost of fertilizers and
liming materials are beyond doubt the reason that the
largest number of soil samples for any single year
were processed in 1975. More than 45,000 samples
from all 67 counties, including some research and
home or irrigation water samples, were analyzed.
The program served all commodity disciplines and
commercial agricultural enterprises as well as research
Faculty assisted with 27 programs for the Florida
Seedsmen and Garden Supply Association, Cow-Calf
Clinics, Forage and Beef Cattle Workshops and other
commodity groups concerning fertilizer materials, the
economic situation and soil testing.
This effort provides Extension agent training and
the opportunity to get current information to growers
for applications in their commodity operations. An
additional benefit is increased visibility of depart-
mental faculty and the awareness of Extension agents,
association members and growers that important soil
science information is available.
Test demonstration experimentation is continuing
tino cooperation with TVA, local county agents and
private landowners to evaluate the use of certain
agronomic practices within a given county and to
demonstrate these practices to local farmers. There
are four types of demonstrations. Two involve pas-
ture grass, clover and fertilizer and lime utilization.
Two involve soybeans and calcium materials. This
work will be continued.
Florida's Fifth Fertilizer and Lime Conference was
held in May. There were approximately 80 conference
participants representing middle and top level in-
dustry management. Their written evaluations
showed that the material presented filled a need,
particularly in view of the current economic situation.
It has been recommended that this conference be held
on an annual basis. The sixth conference is scheduled
and preparations are underway.
Several thousand 4-H members and other youth
from 37 counties took part in land appreciation school
and judging contests to improve their understanding
of Florida soils. Teams demonstrating the highest
competence in county contests were eligible to com-
pete at the state level.
The state level awards program was sponsored by
private enterprise and professional societies. Winners
received an expense-paid trip to represent Florida In
the national contest.
Benefits realized include increased technical com-
petence 'in team coaches, increased knowledge and
skill on the part of participants, an understanding of
the interrelationship of resources in the environment
and increased interest in higher education toward re-
The annual 4-H Conservation Camp, a program in
its 40th consecutive year, has as its objectives better
understanding of and appreciation for ecology, learn-
ing experiences related to conservation of both human
and natural resources, skills in satisfying out-of-doors
activities and development of leadership skills through
conservation action programs.
The program provides an opportunity to engage
older 4-H youth in natural resource explorations. One
of the more important potential results is the oppor-
tunity these older youth have to develop knowledge
and leadership skills to share with fellow club mem-
bers at home. Donors will continue to sponsor the ef-
fort with their characteristic generosity. Some new
and exciting prospects promise a significant expansion
of this approach to conservation education.
Vegetable Crops Department
A lively interest in producing stood at home has prompted extension
to develop a vigorous program in home gardening as a part of a
continuing effort to help Floridians.
Vegetables grossed a record $486 million for grow-
ers in Florida for the 1974-75 season. The increase in
gross value is largely attributable to increased yields.
Statistical data for the season shows a significant in-
crease in yield for 14 of the 15 major vegetables re-
ported. Yield alone does not tell the whole story.
With it has come a general improvement in grade and
The Vegetable Crops Department made notable
contributions to the industry in Florida in many ways
over the past year. Increases in yield result from im-
proved practices. Extension workers throughout Flor-
ida emphasized to growers the need to introduce the
most modern techniques in production in a continuing
effort to help keep the industry viable and growing.
Extension's greatest success probably lies in the ef-
fort to teach growers to economize as much as pos-
sible in production. Inputs have been reduced with-
out a loss in yield' The use of full-bed mulch, ac-
cording to experienced growers, has resulted in a 40
percent reduction in tractor use. A modified soil test-
ing program introduced by Extension more than a
decade ago demonstrated to growers that too much
fertilizer not only is costly, but also may reduce yields.
Old vegetable lands with high levels of residual phos-
phorus can produce excellent vegetable yields with
reduced applications of this nutrient element.
Growers are incorporating these money-saving prac-
tices into their programs at a very satisfactory rate.
These, as well as many other practices constantly
brought to the attention of vegetable growers, are
paying dividends as evidenced by three consecutive,
Efforts in the major commercial vegetable area have
been paralleled by an intensive program with the
marginal or small farm operators. Extension is work-
ing jointly with other IFAS scientists to help improve
the income of this group of Florida citizens.
Harvesting and Handling
The Extension program in harvesting and handling
placed emphasis on improving quality at the retail
and consumer level. Consumers have been very crit-
ical of the tomato quality available in supermarkets.
When the advantages of Florida's new variety for red-
ripe harvest were explained to a large group of super-
market executives, they responded enthusiastically
with inquiries about availability. However, Florida
tomato growers have shifted away from vine-ripe
harvests to less frequent and less costly picking of
green fruit. Since consumers claim they want better
quality and are willing to pay for it, there appears to
be a good opportunity for growers, handlers and re-
tailers to cooperate in providing for this consumer de-
In the area of Extension programs for home garden-
ers, the most significant accomplishments were (1) the
complete revision of the handbook, "Vegetable Gar-
dening in Florida" with more than 100 black and
white and 36 colored illustrations; (2) the conduction
of a series of statewide meetings, involving support
discipline specialists, to train garden supply store em-
ployees; and (3) promotion of the mass-media tech-
nique of telelecture as a way to reach home garden-
The economic situation and inflation have caused
animal owners to make a greater effort to conserve
resources and prevent losses from animal diseases.
Florida's losses from animal diseases are estimated to
be more than $100 million annually. With the de-
velopment of the new College of Veterinary Medicine,
the Cooperative Extension Service is trying to coor-
dinate and expand animal health educational pro-
grams with emphasis on preventive medicine or man-
agement practices that reduce the incidence of dis-
Animal disease prevention programs were outlined
in beef cow-calf clinics, dairy production schools,
horse seminars and other educational meetings. The
Veterinary Medicine Newsletter, Veterinary Medicine
Fact Sheets, farm press items, TV programs, audio-
visual aids, and other forms of communication were
utilized to disseminate information about animal
health to the mass media. Educational efforts also
focused on proper and legal use of drugs in the treat-
ment and prevention of diseases. Brucellosis eradica-
tion, equine infectious anemia, tuberculosis and other
diseases covered in regulatory programs were also
More than 5,000 members were enrolled in Veteri-
nary Science, Dog Care and Training and Pocket Pets
4-H programs. These programs were among the most
popular animal-related 4-H projects that give young
people a learning experience.
Educational programs in veterinary medicine also
emphasized animal diseases that are transmissable to
man, such as rabies, brucellosis, leptospirosis, viral
encephalitis and others. Reducing the incidence of
diseases in wild and domestic animals is essential to
public health. Pet population control and environ-
mental programs were supported in the interest of
public health and quality of life.
Continuing education programs for veterinarians
were utilized to keep practitioners informed about
new research results and techniques in veterinary
medicine. These programs help to improve the qual-
ity of veterinary services. Special attention is being
given to the availability of animal health care services
in rural areas.
Marine Advisory Program
Success Story-Shark Conference
Responding to an environmental threat to Florida's
multi-billon dollar tourist industry and commercial
fishing industry, the Marine Advisory Program orga-
nized, coordinated and conducted an international con-
ference, "Sharks and Man-A Perspective," at Kissim-
mee in November 1975. The objectives of the con-
ference, attended by more than 250 persons, from
three foreign countries and 15 states, were to examine
in depth these topics: the history of shark attacks on
man; the impact of sharks on commercial and sport
fishing and the tourist industry; the legal implications
of the shark hazard on beach communities; the popu-
lation dynamics and behavior of sharks; anti-shark
protective measures; and the potential for increased
commercial utilization of sharks as human and animal
foods and industrial products.
This was the first conference of such broad scope,
and it accomplished its objectives. Probably the prin-
cipal benefit was its impact on the press and elec-
tronic media who had, before the conference, treated
the few shark attacks with a sensational, science-
fiction approach, similar to that used in the book and
movie, "Jaws." This treatment transformed occasional
shark attacks into a near hysteria situation nationally.
Since the conference, there has been a conspicuous
absence of this type of reporting, probably because of
the factual evidence presented at the conference which
was accurately reported nationally. A post-conference
shark attack on Florida's East Coast was not even
given press or media coverage outside of the local
community. Even there, it was reported in a low key.
The conference also provided the opportunity to
demonstrate with national news coverage the qualities
of shark as a nutritious, appetizing and inexpensive
human food. Several commercial ventures are now
operative or being planned.
Another outgrowth of the conference is the increased
institutional and industrial interest in developing for
use in commercial fishing operations effective elec-
tronic devices that will reduce or eliminate the costly
Sand frustrating losses of fishing net damage by sharks
attracted to the commercially sought food fish.
Spearheaded by the Marine Advisory Program, the
conference included as co-sponsors the Florida Depart-
ment of Natural Resources, National Marine Fisheries
Service, Office of Naval Research, and the Coastal
Plains Center for Marine Services Development. A
principal speaker was Mrs. Beulah Davis, Director,
Natal (South Africa) Anti-Shark Measures Board, who
spoke on the effectiveness of shark protective devices
on the Natal border.
Participants at the shark conference, left, consumed 150 pounds of shark hours d'oeuvres. Chunks Were either breaded and deep fat fried or
sauteed In a garlic butter sauce. Reaction was favorable. In response to interest generated at the conference, the Marine Advisory Program
issued a publication, right, featuring answers to the most frequently asked questions about sharks.
Extension Home Economics
Florida families are faced with rising costs of all
major expenditures, with the most drastic increases in
the cost of food, clothing, housing, health care and
fuel for the home and for transportation. Since Ex-
tension Home Economics is committed to helping peo-
ple cope with day-to-day living problems, special
emphasis is placed on conducting educational pro-
grams that will assist them make the best possible
use of their incomes.
The challenge for Extension Home Economics is to
-make education meaningful to persons with real and
specific needs-the mother with young children, the
isolated rural dweller, the aged, the Spanish-speak-
ing citizeris, the inner city resident, the educationally
deprived, black minority, native Indian and others
who need information Extension Home Economics can
Recognizing that people who need educational as-
sistance can not be categorized into a few groups for
the convenience:of the educator, Extension Home Eco-
nomics chooses a variety of methods that focuses on
the needs of different clientele. As problems are
identified in the counties, the state specialists and
county home economics agents combine forces to ex-
pand the resources available to them. New ideas are
generated, materials are prepared and programs de-
veloped to provide education that is relevant to the
clientele's needs. These ideas are applied in their
everyday lives to improve their quality of living.
Florida Consumers Learning the Metric System
As America moves toward metrication, it is impera-
tive that consumers learn this measurement system.
During the past year 52 Extension Home Economics
agents met in area groups for training on the metric
system. To assist them, the specialist prepared a
metric teaching manual for agents attending.
Extension home economics agents are helping consumers leam the
metric system and understand the reasons for conversion.
In 24 counties emphasis was placed on special pro-
grams and activities designed to help county residents
understand the reasons for conversion and to teach the
basic metric units. In these counties 104 meetings -
were attended by 6,000 people. In 18 counties lead-
ers from Homemaker Clubs were given special train-
ing so they could teach the metric system to their re-
spective club members. In 15 counties programs were
presented to various audiences including Kiwanis,
Rotary, Sertoma, and Women's Clubs, vocational
schools, teachers, lunchroom workers, the general pub-
lic and church groups. In Walton County the Kiwanis
Club requested that the Home Economics Program
Leader give a program for homemakers. This pro-
gram generated considerable newspaper publicity and
favorable comment from the men who attended.
Three counties used fair exhibits as a method of
reaching thousands of people with metric information.
In five counties information about the metric system
was used in newsletters that are distributed to more
than 11,000 persons.
In Santa Rosa County 21 leaders representing 20
groups attended a three hour metric workshop taught
by the agent. These leaders presented programs to
850 people. The Extension Agent taught the metric
system to a graduate class of 50 students. She pre-
pared learning packets which are being used to train
teachers on a countywide basis.
Another county agent gave a special program on
metrication for the Holiday Rambler National meeting,
attended by people from across the nation. In an-
other small county the agent purchased a thousand
paper cups that have metric questions and cartoons
printed on them. She uses these for the beverages
served at meetings to create interest in and awareness
of the metric system.
The Home Economics Agent in Hernando County
was assisted by people who have recently lived irt
nations using the metric system. From their experi-
ence these people could explain the simplicity and
ease of using metric units. This helped dispel fears
of many in the audience about the metric system. In
Brevard County persons attending programs on met-
rication asked for additional classes. In another coun-
ty, a program participant remarked, "One great bene-
fit of programs on the metric system is that they
A Lake County Extension agent reported that pro-
gram participants "were surprisingly receptive to met-
rication." In DeSoto County a program participant re-
marked, "When I saw metric highway,signs and tem-
perature readings, I thought it was for the benefit of
foreigners coming over, now I find it is for people
In most counties learning was documented through
the use of protests and post tests. On an average,
scores increased about 55 points, from a low of 20 to
a high of about 75. Generally scores were highest
when workshops were longer. In all groups a definite
change of attitude was evident. Participants lost their
apprehension, replacing their concerns with a positive
attitude and, in some cases, anticipation.
Seven counties held special metric teaching pro-
grams with 4-H groups. In Volusia County under the
direction of the 4-H agent, 41 meetings reached 1,240
Florida will continue to prepare for metrication.
Twenty counties have already developed plans for 122
special programs on metrication for early 1976.
As a result of the economic situation, the emphasis
in housing concerns the process of reaching the low-
moderate-income audience with educational programs
on whether to buy, build, rehabilitate, repair or re-
model housing. Homeownership continues to be an
American goal. However, many people are not fully
aware of the responsibilities and costs involved in
homeownership. Current inflationary home prices are
creating problems in the financing of a home among
families in the middle and lower income levels. As a
result, many families are renting apartments or pur-
chasing or renting mobile homes because they can-
not accumulate the down payment or afford the
monthly costs of owner-occupied housing.
Low to moderate income families find only de-
teriorating and overcrowded housing because of
problems of cost, transportation, restrictive zoning,
lack of access to the decison-making process, unre-
sponsiveness of government units and other social
factors. Many young married couples must share fam-
ily accommodations until housing is available at a
price they can afford. Elderly people, facing adjust-
ments to limited income, changing physical stamina,
reduced social contacts, and new living patterns, are
unable to maintain their homes or to secure suitable
Families moving from sub-standard housing into
new or rehabilitated homes have particular educa-
tional needs in the use and care of facilities and
equipment, maintenance and repair, operation, man-
agement and consumer information.
Difficulties in bringing low to moderate income fam-
ilies into a group teaching and learning situation have
resulted in more one-to-one contact with the increased
use of paraprofessionals or program assistants.
In the four-county area of Lafayette, Suwannee,
Hamilton and Madison, program assistants are pro-
viding information to families in remodeling, repair-
ing and maintaining their homes. It is estimated that
in one county in four months, assistance to families in
the process of building, remodeling or repairing re-
sulted in more than $188,500 worth of improvements
A program assistant in Lee County has provided
educational programs for families in self-help housing
and low-income housing projects. Visits to individual
families have assisted them in all areas of home eco-
nomics programs. Follow-up visits indicate that stan-
dards of living have improved and families are in-
terested in continuing with other self-improvement
In five counties, locally recruited VISTA volunteers,
trained and supervised by the county Extension home
economist, are reaching families and, after individual
contact, are bringing them into group educational situ-
Four VISTA volunteers in Okaloosa County were
called to active duty at the disaster center following
Hurricane Eloise. The program assistants (VISTA) pre-
registered each person coming to the center, directed
the families to the registration table and the proper
agency, and checked applications of all persons leav-
ing the center to make sure they had the opportunity
to confer with the agency responsible for serving their
needs. Contacts were made by the program assistants
to provide for future audience participation.
Simple home repairs is an educational program
which creates much interest and is being taught to
low-income audiences and volunteer leaders as well
as groups. All family members are learning to repair
a leaky faucet, repair screens, replace a broken win-
dow, patch holes in wallboard or plaster, set tile, and
perform other household maintenance and repair
tasks. Seven audio-visual cassette tapes, which dem-
onstrate the step-by-step process in various simple
home repairs, are available from the state specialist.
Because mobile homes have become an alternate
housing source in Florida, another educational pro-
gram concerns mobile homes. Families who are buy-
ing or already have bought a mobile home are con-
cerned about these points: selecting and buying a
mobile home; understanding the mobile home life
style; learning how a mobile home is constructed and
how to purchase accordingly; and mobile home main-
Prehomeownership counseling, in cooperation with
Farmers Home Administration (FmHA) and the Depart-
ment of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is
being presented to families who have never owned a
home before. Responsibilities of homeownership that
are emphasized include the mortgage payment, neces-
sary fire insurance, paying yearly taxes, filing for
homestead exemption, and the items covered by the
new home warranty. Families also are assisted in
making a choice of housing to fit their specific needs.
In Escambia County, the agent has counseled 235
families. Just before Christmas, a mortgage company
in Montgomery, Alabama, learned of her work and
asked her to help an Escambia County family that was
about to lose its home. The husband had lost his job,
mortgage payments were overdue and telephone and
electric service had been discontinued.
After visiting and counseling the family, the agent
helped the husband find a job. Then with the help
of 4-H clubs and others, the family was presented
food and gifts for Christmas.
By late 1974, the income needed to sustain the life-
style of the average family rose more than 12.5 per-
cent higher than previous year. Home furnishings
costs rose 18.9 percent. This rise in cost of furnishings
made it even more important than before that people
learn to renovate present furnishings rather than buy
new ones. As a result, popularity of reupholstering
jumped sharply during the year. In Marion County
alone, Sarah Thomas, Extension home economics
agent, held five upholstery workshops In whichshe
taught 104 people the skills needed to select fabrics
and successfully reupholster a chair or couch.
An example of savings is shown in an evaluation
report developed from upholstery workshops in Okee-
chobee County. Note the comparisons of prices for
new chairs, costs for commercially reupholstered
chairs, the actual cost of reupholstering the chairs
which were done in the workshops, and the savings
over buying them new.
Chair Cost Commercially W
and fabric new upholstered
$ 89.00 $ 65.00
cost over new
$13.90 $ 75.10
From eight chairs reupholstered in the workshops,
the homemakers realized a savings of $741.45.
In addition to saving money that can be used for
other items, people who reupholster gain pride and
satisfaction from doing this job themselves.
Extension reached 25,909 people with home furnish-
ings information during the year, exclusive of mass
Suddenly in 1975 food preservation became a
popular subject in Florida. The deluge of telephone
calls to county offices was one major indicator of the
interest and need for programs on food preservation
methods and techniques. For example, during a peak
extension responded to a suaden increased interest in food preserva-
tion by educating people in proper methods and techniques.
30-day period, one Florida county responded to more
than 300 telephone requests for assistance in food
preservation. Another county averaged 100 calls per
week during the peak of the season.
Food preservation continued to gain popularity in
Florida throughout the year. Many young people,
with little or no previous experience in food preserva-
tion, were getting involved. It became increasingly
apparent that Extension could make a major contri-
bution by educating people in proper methods and
techniques of food preservation.
As a first step, the state food specialist conducted
training for all Extension home economics agents who
provide leadership for food and nutrition in their coun-
ties. Through cooperative efforts by the Extension
Home Economics Department and other IFAS depart-
ments, several agents also received additional training
in methods and techniques of preserving seafood and
beef. Many also received the technical training es-
sential for work in community canning centers. Later,
the state Extension home economics food specialist
conducted area meetings throughout the state to fur-
ther update the agents for their work in food preserva-
As another major step, all efforts were intensified to
provide adequate support materials. Public demand
was high for two publications, "Canning Florida Fruits
and Vegetables" and "Freezing Florida Fruits and
Vegetables." In 12 months, more than 35,000 copies
of these publications Were used. Several thousand
copies of miscellaneous food preservation materials
also were distributed.
The agents immediately launched their programs.
During the year 42 agents conducted 162 county pro-
grams on food preservation. The programs were pre-
sented to 6,337 participants, including Homemaker
Clubs, 4-H and other youth, adult groups and several
other audiences. During 1976, 41 agents already
have plans for 156 sessions on food preservation.
Safety was stressed in all food preservation lessons.
People began to see the relationship of time, tempera-
ture and technique to safety and other aspects of qual-
ity food preservation. In one county, the older ladies
were the best students in safe food preservation tech-
niques. They had been canning "like grandmother
did" and were amazed to know that many of the
methods they had been using were dangerous. They
are now carefully including safe techniques in their
food preservation efforts.
Many approaches were used to teach food preserva-
tion. Agents report reaching people through news-
letters, county fairs, television and radio and weekly
programs. Others participated through special inter-
est adult groups such as preserving foods for gift
items, equipment for food preservation, preserving
citrus products, making jams and jellies, how to freeze
Florida fruits, canning and freezing techniques for the
novice, and canning specific foods such as tomatoes
or green beans. Projects were also conducted for 4-H
or other youth. Many agents reached additional au-
diences through learn-by-mail classes and through co-
operative efforts with community canning centers.
For example, the Extension Home Economist in
Walton County increased her contacts with new audi-
ences by serving as a consultant for the County Can-
ning Center. Last year she worked with 2,000 fam-
ilies who canned 9,990 jars of food and prepared
3,512 packages of food for the freezer.
One Extension home economics agent in west Flor-
ida reported, "Jackson County is being CANNED,
FROZEN, PICKLED AND JAMMED!" The agent further
explained how she was successful in reaching large
numbers of homemakers, especially low-income home-
makers in this way:
"The first meetings were held in the auditorium
of our Agriculture Building. They were such a
success that I decided to 'hit the road' with my
jars and bags and spread the word throughout
the land. In trying to reach the greatest number
of homemakers, especially ENP (Expanded Nu-
trition Program), I am scheduling training sessions
in most towns and major communities. I some-
times feel like I'm back in the 'Dark Ages' of Ex-
tension, as many meeting places are without
stoves and sinks. I borrow my husband's truck,
load my trusty fish cooker, fill some jugs with
water, and ride off to conquer botulism.
"We had a little trouble at first in getting the
word out about our meetings. Then I realized
that since I'm competing for the homemakers
time as are many others, I had to really advertise.
After our 'jam session', I took jars of jelly to all
the radio announcers. You should hear the dif-
ference in how many times they give our meet-
ing announcements. The newspaper gives us
better spots in the paper with larger headlines.
We also put fliers in grocery bags and carts when
we're holding community meetings and place
posters in strategic spots. It's made all the dif-
ference in our attendance!
"Homemakers can't seem to wait for me to get
back to their area for other meetings in food
As reported by Duval County, interest in home food
preservation tripled in the past year because more
people had home gardens to help stretch the food dol-
lar; they could use food preservation as a wise leisure-
time activity; and could express their creativity by
preserving produce from their own gardens.
Extension home economists were well-prepared to
help Floridians develop the methods and techniques
of home food preservation for safe, attractive, palat-
Castoffs to Showoffs
The purpose of Castoffs to Showoffs is for people to
take a look at ways to save money by remaking some
garments for family members. Because of the dur-
ability of many of today's fibers, garments wear
longer; we have more types of garments in our ward-
robe; often they become too large or too small; and
fashion changes, so why not recycle. The current
economic situation has also influenced the importance
of "making something from nothing."
Recycling clothing has been emphasized this year
by a program called "Castoffs to Showoffs." In the
spring, Extension home economics agents from Or-
ange, Pinellas, Leon, Walton, Manatee, Calhoun, Tay-
lor, Broward, Polk, DeSoto, Duval, Brevard, Escambia,
Dade, Lake, Sarasota, Volusia, Seminole, Clay and
Suwannee Counties agreed to recycle one or more
garments. The garments were sent to the state office
to be photographed in the "before" state. They then
were returned to the agents to remake using their
imagination, creativity and sewing skills. During the
summer they were completed, returned to the state
office and photographed in their "new" look.
These garments were the beginning of a "Castoffs
to Showoffs" loan kit to be used by Extension home
economists in their county programs. Materials de-
veloped in support of this program included these:
a slide set of the before and after of 37 garments; a
slide set combining parts of slide sets from three other
states; 10 transparencies, three colorful posters, a
teaching outline that included objectives, suggestions
Imaginative recycling transforms an outdated garment (left) into a fashionable little girl's dress. Th
Showoffs program planned to assist people in saving money by remaking garments for family members.
for teaching, reference list and background informa-
Four informational leaflets are used as handouts--
Lengthening and Shortening, Maxi-Changes, Mini-
Changes, Trims; evaluation forms, both for the agent
using the kit and for the participants attending the
program. A media packet was prepared by the IFAS
Editorial Department that included three newspaper
articles, two black and white pictures and four radio
At the end of 1975, the loan kit had been used in
17 counties to assist people in recycling or remaking
clothing. It Is already scheduled to be used as a
teaching aid in 28 additional counties. Extension home
economists have used the kit and its information on
television, radio, in the newspaper, for the general
public and low-income, in leader training, with 4-H
youth and in a home economics class.
Homemaker Leaders Reach New Adiences
Hillsborough County Extension Homemakers say,
"Hit a person's wallet and you have hit his heart."
They think it is sad but true that most of our society
turns a deaf ear to the morals of drinking and even
to the slogan, "If you drink that is your business, but
if you drink and drive that is everybody's business."
This group of dedicated Homemakers decided to
help protect lives from people driving under the in-
fluence of alcohol by alerting the public of what a
first offense may cost. In Hillsborough County it
could amount to $1,587. Here is the sequence of
events, plus the cost involved, if you were stopped, ar-
rested and found guilty of driving while intoxicated
in Hillsborough County:
etnt Coot .
Sobriety Test at Roadside
Placed under Arrest
Car Impounded $ 25
Ride to Police Station
Jailed Minimum 4 Hours
I C--- --L _;~-r-~W-- ------- ~'----- r---- ----~C~-----l -
Secure A orney up to $500
Possible 6 months Jail
Possible Fine $25 up to $500
Drivers License Restricted or Revoked
If Sent to DWI Counterattack School $ 30
Interview ed by Counselor $ 30
Probatio for Minimum One Year
The Extension Homemakers sponsored and pro-
moted 'Alcohol Sunday." They contacted ministers of
churches in their communities, encouraging them to
warn embers of the cost of a first offense. The
Homemr kers distributed 17,750 brochures warning of
the da ers of drinking and driving and 87 churches
particip ted in the program. The Extension Home
Economics Advisory Committee assisted the Home-
makers in the distribution of the brochures.
Thro gh their concern for young people, the Exten-
sion Homemakers began contacting driver education
classes in the senior high schools. Often, they found
that this information was not provided for the stu-
dents. Brochures were taken to the high schools. An
essay contest on the effects of alcohol was sponsored
for sixth graders.
A display and quiz board were used at the County
Fair to get across the message on alcohol. The Home-
maker were present to talk with people and distribute
brochures. They estimate that they reached 3,000
In all, these Homemakers distributed 32,975 bro-
chures on drinking and driving and ten newspapers
carried releases regarding the program.
Maternity Clinic Snacks
Women who attend the maternity clinics in the state
once a week often wait for several hours to be checked
and see a doctor. Some come without breakfast or
lunch. A health educator contacted one of the Bre-
vard county Extension home economics agents, Mrs.
Aurilla Birrel, and asked if the Extension Homemaker
Clubs would be interested in serving nutritious snacks
to these ladies. The Titusville Club volunteered to ac-
cept the project for the north part of the county on a
pilot basis for January 1975. An enthusiastic report
from this club at the end of the month, encouraged
the County Extension Homemakers Council to adopt
the project. The Brevard County Nutrition Committee
and the Brevard County Health Department were con-
The project has grown and now three area clinics
in the county are included with 36 Homemaker Clubs
participating. Twelve Clubs serve each area on a
rotation basis during the year. The attendance aver-
ages about 25 per week in the central section, 25-35
in the southern and 20 in the northern area. Black
women compose about one third of the total attend-
The objectives of the Extension Homemakers are
these: to share with prospective mothers knowledge
and ideas of nutritious, appealing foods and attractive
service; to extend friendship and bring educational
information on various family livina problems: to in-
Hom makers Clubs in Brevard County serve nutritious snacks to women who attend the area maternity clinics. The purpose of the clubs is
to extend friendship and provide educational information on family living.
_ ii i
volve the groups in discussion; and to teach simple
The Health Educators have expressed their apprecia-
tion with letters of commendation to the clubs. They
report an increase in attendance at the clinic, less rest-
lessness and more openness in class discussion.
Also, they sense a more friendly attitude of the wo-
men toward each other.
Compliments have come from both patients and
staff about the content and display of the food; the
friendly manner of the Extension Homemakers and
their caring attitude; and their willingness to share
time, energy and money in this worthwhile project.
The Homemakers plan to continue their work with
4 H girl tries her hand at cooking as a part of a special summer
program sponsored by ENP funds.
The popular concept of the 4-H Program is that of a
highly effective and respected youth organization
which has two basic functions-conducting educa-
tional programs for youth and demonstrating youth
program methods and organizational patterns. The
modern youth program which survives the test of time
not only continues those methods and approaches
which have been successful, but also explores new
possibilities and remains relevant in the eyes of those
served by that program. Florida 4-H continues to
seek examine and implement promising and creative
methods, processes and curriculum offerings to reach
and Involve today's youth in a meaningful and
growth-producing educational experience.
Continuing 4-H Programs
4-H membership last year passed the 100,000 mark
with both Community Club membership and Special
Interest Club membership showing gains. The num-
ber of 4-H Volunteer Leaders also increased as inter-
ested adults gave thousands of hours to helping young
people learn new skills and develop people-to-people
relationships. In addition, other phases of the Flor-
ida 4-H program also expanded.
During the summer of 1975, 4,483 4-H PEP, "Please
Eat Properly," members in 10 counties participated in
444 camps provide many educational experiences for Florida youth.
special summer programs sponsored by Expanded
Nutrition Program funds. Nutrition was taught
through tasting sessions, tours, games, skits, songs
and activities. The programs emphasized nutrition
education, but combined other learning experiences
such as grooming, health, manners, leisure activities
and recreation. The programs were conducted in con-
junction with other agencies such as the Parks Depart-
ment and community schools. The programs were as
varied as the 10 counties, with young people "learn-
ing the importance of good nutrition and taking it
back into their homes and educating their parents."
These camps have increased programming in con-
servation and ecology awareness activities, creating
an increasing use of camping for educational exper-
iences rather than as a "reward" for past participa-
tion. A member of the staff on the state level has
been given major responsibility for the development
of improved camp programming and for providing
,leadership in county efforts to improve county par-
ticipation in educational programming using camps
Citizenship Short Course
To learn more about the functions of state govern-
ment, some 125 senior high 4-H members participated
anior nqin nern suay egslalive activities tlrsmana as a part of
the Citizenship Short Course.
as either lobbyist or State Representative in a three
and one-half day Citizenship Short Course. The 4-H
Legislature and lobbyists worked with six "bills."
They followed the legislative hearing committee pro-
cess, with each committee advised by a regular staff
member from the House of Representatives. Members
received firsthand information from Representatives
and other state officials, the news media and a lobby-
For the actual legislative session, the 4-H members
used the chamber and committee rooms at the Cap-
itol. In addition to the legislative sessions, tours
were made of the Supreme Court, the Governor's man-
sion, the Capitol and the Leon County Election Super-
visor's office where some participants had their first
opportunity to use a voting machine.
The short course gave these 4-H'ers an opportunity
to study state government firsthand. It helped them
to better understand the responsibility of the average
citizen to his state government as well as the responsi-
bility of state government to the individual.
This Florida 4-H activity relates to beautification,
environment and conservation programs. It is a pro-
gram in which youth and adults work together to
make their community a more attractive, safe and
healthful place to live. It is an action program. The
focus is on a specific project which will improve the
appearance, the human relationships or the quality of
services offered in a community.
This project is determined by the interest and needs
of the youth and adults in a community. Youth work-
ing together with adults can make a significant con-
tribution to community development and improvement
in the quality of our environment. Last year, 2,071
4-H'ers in 38 Florida counties wanted to improve a
portion of their communities and did: 4-H members
beautified community parks, renovated old buildings
for community meeting houses, cleaned old lots and
made community playgrounds, adopted foster grand-
parents, studied the history of their communities,
secured and painted trash barrels, landscaped school-
grounds, cleaned up old cemeteries, built benches for
bus stops, worked with handicapped children and as-
sisted with improving historical buildings.
Youth became more aware of community programs
and community resources. Young people worked with
adult community leaders in planning for community
betterment and in implementing their plans. They are
contributing to the overall attractiveness and develop-
ment of their communities. Adults are more aware
that our young people not only have ideas but the
ability and the desire to work toward community de-
Extension Youth Programs have made a concerted
effort to coordinate educational services and programs
of other agencies in providing an increasing variety
of activities for youth. Many public and private or-
ganizations have been involved in this cooperative
effort to marshall existing local programs for youth.
In cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service,
land-judging experiences were developed.
4-H members also were involved in putting on the
youth portions of county fairs. The Dade County
Youth Fair was selected for outstanding programming
by the National Association of County Fairs. This
"showcase" of 4-H Youth Programs provided a vehicle
for many to learn of 4-H and its educational program-
ming for youth.
Through renewed self-confidence and use of abil-
ities gained from participation as volunteer leaders,
some women have found new opportunities in the job
rvunru younas nave ine opporuniiy TO develop lano judging SKIIS
as a part of the 4 H program.
Outstanding Agents in 1975
Mr. Paul Dinkins, who has major responsibility for
S4-H in St. Johns County as the professional agent, re-
ceived recognition as a National winner in the 4-H
Environmental Quality Recognition Program from the
SNational Association of County Agricultural Agents.
Mrs. Joy Satcher, 4-H agent in Brevard county, re-
ceived the Distinguished Service Award from the Na-
tional 4-H Agents' Association, a first for Florida.
Mrs. Marylou Shirar, 4-H Agent in Palm Beach
.County, received the NAEHE Distinguished Service
SAward from the National Association of Extension
Looking Toward the Future
Using local "grass roots" committees, agents are
continuing to examine and question existing content
and methods with a view toward not only keeping
4-H Youth Programs relevant, but reaching out to in-
volve previously unreached youth in future-oriented
The same valuable growth-producing experience for
the individual is continuing. A county 4-H coordina-
There was a significant change in Paul from a
sullen, reticent, personally aggressive boy to a
smiling, receptive, energetic youngster, due large-
ly to his taste of success in 4-H.
This is happening to an increasing number of
youngsters in Florida, both in rural and in urban-
suburban areas of the state. Many don't start out as
sullen or reticent, but continue to build on already
established positive educational experiences obtained
in both the formal and informal educational programs
provided. In Florida, 4-H is seen as one of the most
highly effective and respected youth organizations
providing excellent informal educational experiences
for all Florida youth.
Members of th Brighton Indians 4 H
An increased interest in educational programs on horses and riding
has led to the development of this facility at the IFAS Research
and Education Center at Welaka.
Cooperative activity with the Extension Horse Spe-
cialist, offering educational programs for significant
numbers of youth and adults, has led to the develop-
ment of a facility at the IFAS Research and Education
Center at Welaka. Day camping experiences were
utilized, cooperating with other youth-serving agencies
including local recreational departments, the Red
Cross, Girl Scouts, Girl's Clubs and similar agencies.
St. Johns County produced national winners in the
Marketing Division of Horticulture with a presentation
on the promotion of Florida potatoes. The Production
Division entrant won national level competition with
a demonstration on terrariums.
4-H was included with several organizations in-
volved in assisting the Vietnamese refugees housed at
Florida's Eglin Air Force Base. Efforts were underway
to provide a significant increase in individual member
participation in this program when the rapid move-
ment from the housing area at Eglin occurred. The
program did not develop to its fullest potential, but
4-H was concerned and prepared to provide educa-
tional experiences for Vietnamese youth.
New Ideas in 1975
Basketball, eye testing, astronomy and studying
land formations are some of the new and somewhat
unusual curriculum vehicles utilized in youth develop.
ment through 4-H today. Consumer education gen-
erally, and specifically, the metric system, home judg-
Sing, banking, upholstering and similar subject areas
are emerging as attractive to many formerly un-
reached youth. Time-tested project areas such as
schoolyard and backyard gardening, career education,
clothing construction and similar production-oriented
topics as well as energy conservation are receiving
a new emphasis in the pressing economic situation
The bicentennial year preparation which began this
year saw a significant increase in interest in areas
A new series of marine science educational units places Florida
4 H in the forefront in this area of special interest programs. This
4 H girl demonstrates stone crabbing.
such as bread making, food preservation and "old"
crafts and almost forgotten American handicrafts,
songs and dances.
Several counties implemented significant activities
in the areas of bicycle handling, inspection and re-
pair, cooperating with community law enforcement
and commercial bicycle dealers and repair shops.
Other educational efforts utilizing local law enforce-
ment, public health and similar public and private
agencies have implemented the Cooperative Exten-
sion's efforts to educate the public about, and co-
ordinate utilization of, existing local resources to meet
An Outdoor Ecology Classroom
This classroom adjacent to school, including a
greenhouse to raise plants to beautify a community
in St. Johns County, enlisted the cooperative efforts of
the school, the local extension youth agents and other
Extension Specialists. The County Forester was invited
and, using this classroom, involved 2,825 youth and
adult leaders in conservation forestry study.
Marine Education Program
The Florida Sea Grant Program, the Marine Educa-
tion Station at Crystal River and the Extension Marine
Advisory Program cooperated with 4-H in the develop-
ment of a series of marine science educational units.
Member and leader materials being developed will
place Florida in the forefront in marine educational
program materials. In addition, materials for a Ma-
rine Educational Kit were selected and compiled and
will be distributed to the county staff for use in a
marine education program.
Youth themselves have become more involved in
program development. They are having a greater
voice in decision-making and in planning and imple-
menting 4-H Programs. The county, district and state
levels provide opportunities for council membership
Teen Leadership Forum
To strengthen the 4-H leadership program in Flor-
ida, 137 4-H'ers from 41 counties were involved in a
Teen Leadership Forum at the University of Florida in
June. During the four-day forum, the delegates were
involved in sessions which featured among other
things, Communicating with Others and Parliamentary
Procedure. Other sessions were held for 4-H'ers with
topics relating to their more specific needs. The teen
leader's section included sessions on Understanding
People and Techniques of Teaching. This was Flor-
ida's first experience in providing such a leadership
experience for the older 4-H'ers. Sections of the Forum
program have been duplicated for teen leaders at the
county and district levels. The positive response from
the 4-H'ers and agents indicate that the Forum was a
Work with Agents and Volunteer Staff
The evolution of the 4-H Program from one of pro-
duction-oriented education in agriculture and in home
economics, to one of youth development with a variety
of curriculum content and processes of providing the
educational experience, has led to a need for signif-
icant changes in the function of the Extension 4-H
youth professional. As a professional, the agent is
becoming more of a program and resource manager,
coordinating the activities being carried out by para-
professional and volunteer staff.
The Florida State 4-H Staff initiated and imple-
mented a major staff development effort labeled
"MAD"--Make A Difference. Agents were brought
together as professionals to consider their roles and
the directions of programming efforts to assure that
4-H youth programs in Florida continue to provide
meaningful and relevant growth-producing educa-
Youms nave a greater voice man ever before in decision-mal
program planning through membership in the 4 H Council.
Statr 4 H staff members meet to consider ways to direct program
efforts so that 4 H programs provide relevant educational exper-
iences for youths.
tional experiences for youth. This long term staff
development effort is continuing into 1976.
Increasingly, the larger communities are being in-
volved in the clarification and examination of com-
munity needs and problems which may be approached
through 4-H youth development programs. 4-H
Agents, working with adult and youth committee
members completed a "People Problems" survey in
each county. The information from these efforts is
being used to establish county and state level pro-
Recruitment activities at county fairs, development
of county 4-H Leader's Councils, monthly and week-
end leader preparation sessions have all provided
significant 'contributions in an increase in volunteer
participation and an increase in quality leader de-
velopment in 4-H Youth Programs.
S- "n MT puMrUUpla In H i In k..OLmr.rmnI r-rum 1o r nFUflnwn
leadership in Florida clubs.
Several counties have cooperated in a leadership
development weekend for older 4-H'ers at a 4-H camp
facility. In addition, personnel of several counties
made a concerted effort to increase parent participa-
tion in the 4-H experience for youth. These programs
included Parent-day picnics, contacts through radio
and television programs and local newsletters about
4-H. Many parents have been included in a catalog
of interests and special abilities of adults for eventual
utilization as resource persons in 4-H education ex-
periences. Several counties have developed Leader's
Handbooks to facilitate the involvement of adults who
have a desire to serve as volunteer educators of youth.
As additional spin-off, many adults benefit from
their participation as leaders or resource persons and
in other activities as volunteers in 4-H. Parents find
an increase in family communication and improved
family relationships through family cooperative efforts
in 4-H activities and events.
_ ___ i ~_ Y __II~^ ____l/i___/ 1~ /Y _~ _CI_~ i__lil~ __~_ ~_ ~I_ ____~_ ~ ___jfll_ ~ L_
Florida A&M Programs
The Florida A&M Programs provide specialized edu-
cational assistance to individuals, families and com-
munity groups with limited resources. These audi-
ences are provided specialized Extension programs in
community development, 4-H youth development, con-
sumer education, commercial agriculture and com-
munications. To conduct these programs, the Florida
A&M Extension unit coordinates the educational re-
sources of Florida A&M University, the University of
Florida and county Extension units.
County participation in the Florida A&M Programs
increased from four to 16 counties during 1975. This
expansion enabled Extension personnel to reach larger
numbers of low-income audiences with educational
programs to: improve community living environments;
develop leadership among youth and adults; manage
family resources; manage farm businesses; and utilize
Extension personnel provided assistance in leader-
ship development among residents of low-income
In Gadsden County, two adult community clubs
were instructed on the procedures for becoming a
chartered non-profit organization. As a result, both
of these clubs, serving the St. Hebron and St. Johns-
Robertsville communities, have been chartered by the
State of Florida. In Jefferson County, another group
assisted by personnel of the Florida A&M Programs is
taking the necessary steps to become a chartered com-
In addition, program assistants in Gadsden and
Liberty counties aided more than 250 people by refer,
ring their problems to numerous State and Federal
agencies. These referrals involved people who
needed Social Security benefits, day care services, food
stamps, employment, home financing, health services
and various forms of public assistance.
4-H Youth Development
The 4-H Youth Specialist provided in-service training
to county staffs, assisted in the recruitment and train-
ing of leaders, and helped establish new 4-H clubs in
During 1975, 20 new volunteer leaders were re-
cruited and trained in the target counties. The total
enrollment of 4-H membership increased by 200 in
Leon County, 47 in Jefferson County, 250 in Gadsden
County, and 85 in Liberty County.
In Pinellas County, Florida A&M Extension person-
nel assisted in training.nIne new program assistants to
i---- _-r.'--. ~;.. .;rliUziilC-WI1--slI -;-I~ rl..r; ..~ .- --.. r. I. --,.-- .-. --:.. -~.~;-~ ~ -..--.. ..,
reach and involve low-income youth in 4-H club activ-
ities. Also, 12 new program assistants were trained
to work with low-income youth in Calhoun, Leon, Jef-
ferson and Wakulla counties.
Programs in consumer education were added to the
Florida A&M Extension unit to provide consumer in-
formation that will enable low-income families to con-
serve income and cope with inflation through more
efficient use of available resources.
Forty-two capable and well-trained Extension pro-
gram assistants, supervised by Extension agents, are
reaching large numbers of rural and urban tow-in-
come families with information on money and resource
These programs, initially established in November,
are currently conducted from Extension offices in
Charlotte, Citrus, Hernando, Hillsborough; Lee, Levy,
Manatee, Pasco and Pinellas counties.
Program efforts in commercial agriculture focused
primarily on increasing production among small and
part-time farm operators. Extension instruction in the
application of approved management practices aided
45 small-farm operators to attain greater production
output in 1975.
In Gadsden County, meetings with farmers and
home gardeners resulted in the establishment of a
farmers' curb market. The market offered a variety of
vegetables and accommodated some 6,000 customers
during the summer and an additional 3,000 during
the fall season.
In Jefferson County, a demonstration plot was es-
tablished to provide first-hand information to low-
income farmers about practices that increase corn-
yields. The project demonstrated approved methods
of using fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides. As a
result of these methods, the demonstration plot yielded
40 bushels on less than half an acre compared to 20
bushels from an adjoining area the same size.
A peanut demonstration plot on land provided by a
cooperating farmer was also supported by the Florida
A&M Extension unit. The plot, located in Jackson
County, yielded 3,406 pounds per acre. The remain-
der of that farmer's crop averaged 1,688 pounds per
acre. The untreated section yielded 111 pounds per
acre more than was produced in 1974.
An Extension Communications Program was initi-
ated in February 1975 to develop techniques of pre-
senting educational information that will be more
readily utilized by audiences of low socio-economic
During 1975, Extension personnel were provided in-
service training in communication techniques for pre-
paring fact sheets and newsletters, and making audio-
visual, radio and TV presentations.
It is evident that the need for intensive educational
assistance will continue for Florida citizens of low
socio-economic status. Continued efforts will be made
to develop the potential of the Florida A&M Programs
for reaching low-income youth and adults with Ex-
tension programs that enable them to improve the
quality of life at home and in their communities.
# rgUuruu #aO m CxIEUnIUn WNG14
ii- ;i- '
Total Federal Funds
State & Trust Funds:
Total State & Trust Funds
Total Cooperative Extension Funds
Total Federal Funds
State & Trust Funds:
Total State & Trust Funds
Total Cooperative Extension Funds
* Includes salaries and travel for County Extension Agents only.
FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
PLANNED AND EXPENDED TIME BY PROGRAM AREA
Fiscal Year 1975
1 Citrus and Other Fruits
2 Vegetable Crops
3 Field Crops
4 Forage, Range and
5 Forest and Forest
13 Other Animals
14 Marine and Aquatic Prod.
15 Supp. Disc. Act.
21 Pollution Control
22 Wildlife and Fish
24 Environmental Esthetics
25 Supp. Disc. Act. (Nat.
Res. and Env. Quality)
31 Family Stability
32 Consumer Competence
33 Family Health
34 Expanded Nutrition
35 Family Housing
36 Community and Regional
37 Manpower and Employment
38 Supp. Disc. Act. (Human
Res. and Qual. of Life)
41 Extension Support and
52 International Programs
Mandays % of Total
*Only 78 percent of total available time was planned. Both planned time and expended time are
Sources: Retrieval Nos. 219 and 231
based on an
SUMMARY OF EXTENSION HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAM
Major Audience Types for which Home Economics Programs are Designed:
Family Members 509,145
Senior Citizens 16,711
Families with Preschool Children 1,593
Extension Homemaker Club Members 59,813
Residents of Low-Income Housing 6,585
Paraprofessional Expanded Nutrition Program Aides 13,890
Major Subject Taught by Extension Home Economists:
Family Living 14,601
Consumer Education 81,361
Family Economics 12,494
Legal Affairs 1,638
Food Buying 16,984
Donated Foods 0
Food Stamp Program 1,511
Food Preparation and Service 41,765
Food Preservation 25,187
Home Furnishings 25,909
Household Equipment 2,884
Home Grounds 182,751
Food Production/Gardens 35,045
Home Management 9,241
Human and Personal Development 192,334
Human Relationships 8,038
Areas Reached by Expanded Nutrition Program:
Counties Adult Programs 29
Indian Reservations Adult Programs 2
Counties Youth Programs 8
Number of Extension Program Aides Employed 329
Number of different families enrolled in ENP by Program Aides 14,384
Number of Persons reached by Extension Program Aids 348,774
Areas Reached by Extension Homemaker Clubs:
Number of Organized Extension Homemaker Clubs 443
Number of Extension Homemaker Club Members 13,679
Number of Individuals Reached by Leaders in 350,682
Homemaker Clubs and Special Interest Meetings
Number of Home Economics Subject Matters Leaders 2,356
SUMMARY OF 4-H YOUTH WORK
Number of Organized 4-H Clubs 871
Number of 4-H Special Interest Groups and Other 4-H Units 1,773
Number of 4-H Members:
4-H junior and teen boys 185
4-H junior and teen girls 475
4-H Members by Place of Residence:
Towns under 10,000 and open country 40,433
Towns and cities 10,000 to 50,000 18,973
Suburbs of cities over 50,000 5,429
Central cities over 50,000 16,066
4-H Members by Age Groups:
Under 9 6,180 15 years of age 4,653
9 years of age 8,385 16 years of age 3,598
10 years of age 15,742 17 years of age 3,271
11 years of age 17,754 18 years of age 612
12 years of age 13,630 19 years of age 132
13 years of age 10,004 Over 19 10
14 years of age 7,391
Major Audience Types and Number of Persons Reached for 4-H Youth Work:
Youth (4-H) 195,859
Youth (4-H TV) 9,114
Youth/Adult (4-H) 278,185
Youth (Other) 14,529
Youth/Adult (Other) 59,818
Expanded Nutrition Program Youth Phase
Eight counties with youth program 525
All Expanded Nutrition Program units in state 665
Total Number Youth Enrolled in Nutrition Groups:
Eight counties with youth program 6,817
All Expanded Nutrition Program units in state 9,836
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE FACULTY LIST*
Joe N. Busby, Ph.D., Dean for Extension
Jack T. McCown, Ed.D., Associate Dean for Extension
Raymond C. Andrew, Ph.D., Assistant Dean, Personnel
B. B. Archer, Ph.D., Assistant Dean, FAMU Programs, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee
James J. Brasher, Ph.D., Assistant Dean, Chairman, 4-H and other Youth Programs
Olive L. Morrill, Ed.D., Assistant Dean, Chairman, Home Economics
James L. App, Ph.D., Assistant Dean, Agricultural Programs
Forrest E. Myers, M.Ag., Assistant to the Dean
Alto A. Straughn, Ph.D., Director, Program Evaluation and Organizational Development
R. William Seiders, Ph.D., Extension Program Specialist
Emily E. King, Ph.D., Extension Program Specialist
Clifton Taylor, Ph.D., Extension Program Specialist
John F. Gerber, Ph.D., Director, Center for Environmental Programs
Todd L. Walton, M.S., Coastal Engineering Advisory Specialist
Melvin L. Upchurch, Ph.D., Director, Center for Rural Development
Jo Ann B. Pierce, M.A., Extension Publication Specialist, Acting Chairman, Editorial Department
M. Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Chairman, Editorial Department, Extension Communication Specialist
Robert C. Smith, Jr., B.A., Extension Radio Specialist
Marshall H. Breeze, M.A., Extension Communication Specialist, Radio and Television
Alma Warren, M.S., Extension News Specialist
Tom Leahy, Jr., M.S., Marine Advisory Communication Specialist
Robert E. Thomas, M.A., Assistant Professor
James H. Nehiley, M.A., Extension Communication Specialist
Leo Polopolus, Ph.D., Chairman, Food and Resource Economics Department
John Holt, Ph.D., Extension Farm Management Economist, 80% Extension
George O. Westberry, M.S., Extension Area Farm Management Economist, Quincy, 80% Extension
Lawrence A. Halsey, M.A., Extension Area Farm Management Economist, Belle Glade, 70% Extension
James C. Cato, Ph.D., Extension Marine Economist
James A. Niles, Ph.D., Extension Marketing Economist
Ralph A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Extension Marketing Economist
Danny Gunter, Ph.D., Extension Production Economist
William Colette, Ph.D., Extension Marketing Economist
Charles D. Covey, Ph.D., Extension Economist (Assistant Chairman for Extension)
Robert O. Coppedge, Ph.D., Extension Rural Development Economist
Clisby C. Moxley, Ph.D., Extension Rural Development Economist
Kenneth C. Clayton, Ph.D., Extension Economist, 50% Extension
Bennett Abbitt, M.S., Extension Area Resource Development Economist
Vernon C. McKee, Ph.D., Director of Planning and Business Affairs, 50% Extension
Virgil L. Elkins, M.S., Extension Area Program Specialist, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee
Lawrence Carter, M.S., Extension Rural Development Specialist, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee
John A. Otte, Ph.D., Extension Area Farm Management Economist, Bradenton
Gerald L. Zachariah, Ph.D., Chairman, Agricultural Engineering Department, 10% Extension
Thomas C. Skinner, M.Ag., Extension Agricultural Engineer
Dalton S. Harrison, M.S., Extension Agricultural Engineer
Richard P. Cromwell, M.Eng., Extension Agricultural Engineer
Lloyd B. Baldwin, M.A., Extension Agricultural Engineer, 80% Extension
Pat S. Shackelford, Ph.D., Extension Energy Specialist
Gary Erisman, Ph.D., Extension Environmental & Safety Information Coordinator
Coleman Y. Ward, Ph.D., Chairman, Agronomy Department, 10% Extension
David W. Jones, M.S.A., Extension Agronomist
*List of faculty as of 2/16/76
Wayne L. Currey, Ph.D., Extension Agronomist, 80% Extension
Elmo B. Whitty, Ph.D., Extension Agronomist, 90% Extension
Gerald Kidder, Ph.D., Extension Agronomist, Belle Glade
Vernon V. Vandiver, Ph.D., Extension Aquatic Weed Specialist, Ft. Lauderdale
J. K. Loosli, Ph.D., Acting Chairman, Animal Science
James E. Pace, M.S.A., Extension Beef Specialist
Robert L. Reddish, Ph.D., Extension Meats Specialist, 80% Extension
Kenneth L. Durrance, M.Ag., Extension Swine Specialist
Ben H. Crawford, Jr., Ph.D., Extension Horse Specialist
Robert S. Sand, Ph.D., Extension Livestock Specialist
Anthony Jilek, Ph.D., Extension Area Beef Specialist, Ona
Harold H. VanHorn, Jr., Ph.D., Chairman, Dairy Science Department, 10% Extension
Ronald L. Richter, Ph.D., Extension Dairy Technologist, 70 % Extension
Barney Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Extension Dairy Nutritionist, 70% Extension
Daniel W. Webb, Ph.D., Extension Dairy Husbandman, 70 % Extension
Fowden Maxwell, Ph.D., Acting Chairman, Entomology
James E. Brogdon, M.Ag., Extension Entomologist
Robert A. Dunn, Ph.D., Extension Nematologist, 80% Extension
Donald E. Short, Ph.D., Extension Entomologist, 80% Extension
Freddie A. Johnson, Ph.D., Extension Entomologist
Philip G. Koehler, Ph.D., Extension Entomologist
Kenneth G. Townsend, B.S., Assistant in Extension Entomology, Lake Alfred
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Chairman, Food Science
Richard F. Matthews, Ph.D., Extension Food Technologist
John L. Gray, Ph.D., Director, School of Forestry
Anthony S. Jensen, M. S. F., Extension Forester
Dennis R. Crowe, Ph.D., Extension Outdoor Recreation Specialist
Andrew A. Duncan, Ph.D., Director, AREC, Homestead
R. H. Biggs, Ph.D., Acting Chairman, Fruit Crops
Richard L. Phillips, Ph.D., Extension Horticulturist
Larry K. Jackson, Ph.D., Extension Horticulturist
Julian W. Sauls, Ph.D., Extension Horticulturist
Timothy E. Crocker, Ph.D., Extension Horticulturist
David P. H. Tucker, Ph.D., Extension Horticulturist, Area Citrus Specialist, Lake Alfred
Wilfred E. Wardowski, Ph.D., Extension Horticulturist, Area Fresh Fruits Specialist, Lake Alfred
W. J. Carpenter, Ph.D., Chairman, Ornamental Horticulture
Harry G. Meyers, M.S.A., Extension Turf Specialist
David Hamilton, Ph.D., Extension Ornamental Horticulturist
Benny Tjia, Ph.D., Extension Floriculturist
Richard W. Henley, Ph.D., Extension Ornamental Horticulturist, Apopka
James T. Midcap, Ph.D., Extension Ornamental Horticulturist
Robert J. Black, Ph.D., Extension Ornamental Horticulturist
L. H. Purdy, Ph.D., Chairman, Plant Pathology, 10% Extension
Robert S. Mullin, Ph.D., Extension Plant Pathologist
Thomas A. Kucharek, Ph.D., Extension Plant Pathologist
Robert H. Harms, Ph.D., Chairman, Poultry Science Department, 20% Extension
Carroll R. Douglas, Ph.D., Extension Poultryman
Lester W. Kalch, M.Ag., Extension Poultryman
Bruce Christmas, Ph.D., Extension Poultryman and Supervisor, Poultry Evaluation Center, Chipley
Henry R. Wilson, Ph.D., Poultry Physiology Professor, 10% Extension
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Chairman, Soils Department
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Extension Conservationist
Jerry B. Sartain, Ph.D., Soil Fertility Assistant Professor, 20% Extension
Jack F. Kelly, Ph.D., Chairman Vegetable Crops Department, 30% Extension
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist
James Stephens, M.S.A., Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist
Stephen R. Kostewicz, Ph.D., Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist
Susan D. Gray, B.S.A., Assistant in Vegetable Crops
George A. Marlowe, Jr., Ph.D., Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist, Bradenton
Robert K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulture Professor, 40% Extension
J. T. Johnson, Ph.D., Director, ARC, Live Oak
C. E. Cornelius, Ph.D., Chairman, Veterinary Science Department, 0% Extension
George W. Meyerholz, D.V.M., Extension Veterinarian
Roberta H. Hall, M.S., Extension Home Furnishings Specialist
Marie S. Hammer, M.S., Extension Home Economist (ENP)
Vervil L. Mitchell, M.S., Extension Home Management and Family Economics Specialist
Mary L. Lambing, Ph.D., Extension Health Education Specialist
Mary N. Harrison, M.S., Extension Consumer Education Specialist
Lizette L. Murphy, M.S., Extension Consumer Education Specialist (Mass Media)
Yancey B. Walters, M.H.E., Extension Home Economics ENP Coordinator
Glenda L. Warren, M.S., Extension Nutritionist (ENP)
Evelyn A. Rooks, M.H.E., Extension Human Development Specialist
Lora A. Kiser, M. A., Extension Home Economist
Nadine Hackler, M.S., Extension Clothing Specialist
Faye A. Plowman, M.A., Extension Housing Specialist
Patricia Wagner, Ph.D., Extension Human Nutrition Specialist
Margaret N. Walton, M.S., Extension Home Management and Consumer Education Specialist, FAMU
Barmell B. Dixon, B.S., Extension Agent II (ENP)
Billy J. Allen, M. Ag., Extension 4-H-Youth Specialist
Thomas C. Greenawalt, Ed.D., Extension 4-H-Youth Specialist
Ruth L. Milton, M.S., Extension 4-H-Youth Specialist
Linda Dearmin, M.S., Extension 4-H-Youth Specialist
James C. Northrop, Ed.D., Extension 4-H-Youth Specialist
Thearon T. McKinney, Ph.D., Extension 4-H-Youth Specialist
David D. Pyle, Ph.D., Extension 4-H-Youth Specialist
Damon Miller, M.S., Extension 4-H-Youth Specialist, FAMU
Pauline Calloway, Ed.D., District Agent
William H. Smith, Ed.D., District Agent
Earl M. Kelley, Ed.D., District Agent
John R. Strayer, Ph.D., District Agent
Adam T. Andrews, M.Ag.
Mrs. Marion L. Buckland, B.S.
Richard E. Bir, M.S.
Lelia Downing, M.S.
Aubrey L. Harrell, M.A.
Horace M. Carr, B.S.
Jeffrey A. Fisher, M.S.
Mrs. Eliza M. Jackson, B.S.
Mrs. Jane H. Jones, B.S.
Bobby L. Taylor, M.Ag.
James L. Parrish, M.S.A.
Mrs. Rebecca H. Giebeig, B.S.
J. Lowell Loadholtz, M.S.
Sylvester A. Rose, M.S.
Alfred B. Humphrys, M.A.
Mrs. Sue B. Bledsoe, B.S.
Mrs. Aurilla D. Birrel, B.S.
Mrs. Joy W. Satcher, B.S.
Lewis E. Watson, M.S.
James F. Cummings, M.Ag.
William R. Llewellyn, M.S.A.
Mrs. Dorthy Y. Gifford, B.S.
Miss Patricia M. Englebrecht, M.S.
Mrs. Elaine T. Klatt, M.S.
Miss Linda Watermolen, B.S.
James R. Yelvington, M.Ag.
Jerry A. Wyrick, M.S.A.
Mrs. Linda B. Barber, B.S.
Mrs. Patricia A. Smith, M.S.
Richard W. Gleason, B.S.
*List of faculty as of 2/16/76
Arthur D. Alston, M.Ag.
Mrs. Paula P. Stanley, B.S.
Thomas J. Godbold, B.S.E.
Mrs. Emily G. Harper, B.S.
Miss Janice D. Hand, B.S.
Donald W. Lander, M.Ag.
Dallas B. Townsend, B.S.A.
Mrs. Denise L. Coleman, M.S.
Charlie A. Lowery, M.S.
*List of faculty as of 2/16/76
Neal M. Dukes, B.S.
Mrs. Mary E. Anderson, B.S.
Mrs. Deborah M. George, B.S.
Willard L. Fink, M.S.
Roy J. Champagne, M.S.
Louis J. Daigle, M.Ag.
Ralph W. Moore, B.S.
Joseph D. Dalton, Ph.D.
Seymour Goldweber, B.S.
John F. McGuire, M.S.A.
William M. Stall, Ph.D.
Mrs. Justine L. Bizette, B.S.
Miss Mary A. Holmes, M.S.
Miss Victoria M. Simpson, B.S.
Mrs. Grace R. Hauser, B.S.
Mrs. Judy M. Dellapa, B.S.
Miss Janith K. Masteryanni, M.S.
Miss Margo G. Tavss, B.S.H.E.
Ms. Claribell G. Webb, B.S.
Mrs. Mary A. Roe, B.S.
Paul E. Castenson, M.Ag.
Edward Allen, M.S.A.
Thomas H. Braddock, Jr., M.S.A.
Harold C. Jones, M.A.
Ernest L. Stephens, M.S.
Mrs. Bessie J. Canty, M.S.
Mrs. Sarah M. Board, B.S.
Miss Tamer L. Britton, M.Ed.
Mrs. Carol A. Lotz, B.S.
Mrs. Duska M. Dorschel, M.S.H.E.
Mrs. Sandra L. McCoy, B.S.
Miss Helen Turk, B.S.
Edward J. Cowen, M.Ag.
James H. Walker, M.S.A.
Daniel E. Mullins, M.S.
Marvin F. Weaver, M.S.
Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson, B.S.
Miss Linda K. West, M.S.
Miss Vickie M. Brannon, M.S.
Miss Opal A. Lister, B.S.
George H. Newbury, M.S.A.
James B. Estes, M.A.
John C. Russell, M.Ag.
Bernard H. Clark, B.S.A.
Henry G. Grant, M.S.
Mrs. Dicki D. Bentley, B.S.
Mrs. Ursula H. Williams, B.S.
Mrs. Shirley T. Clark, B.S.
William L. Brown, B.S.
Billy O. Bass, M.S.A.
Cubie R. Laird, M.Ed.
Rance A. Andrews, B.S.A.
Isaac Chandler, Jr., B.S.
Mrs. Wylma B. White, M.S.
Jack C. Hayman, M.Ag.
Mrs. Nannie M. Cochran, B.S.
Raymond H. Burgess, M.S.A.
Mrs. Vicki S. Chipman, B.A.
Gary L. Wade, M.S.
John Brenneman, M.S.
Albert D. Dawson, B.S.A.
Ms. Helen H. Fleming, M.S.H.E.
George T. Hurner, Jr., B.S.
Jean Beem, M.S.A.
Paul E. Glasscock, B.S.
James E. Richards, M.S.A.
Wayne T. Wade, M.Ed.
Charles F. Hinton, 111, Ph.D.
Roger D. Newton, M.S.
Mrs. Helen P. Webb, B.S.
Mrs. Virginia H. Coombs, B.S.
Mrs. Ruth T. Penner, B.S.
Mrs. Mary B. Somers, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Ruth A. Fowler, M.S.
Lawrence D. Taylor, M.S.
William C. Taylor, B.A.
INDIAN RIVER COUNTY
Mrs. Judith A. Wakefield, M.S.
illiam E. Collins, B.S.A.
harles L. Brasher, M.S.
rs. Jane R. Burgess, B.S.H.E.
rs. Cathy M. Peel, M.S.
eonard C. Cobb, M.S.
arvin Barnes, B.S.
ichael Linker, M.S.
ames A. Nealy, M.A.
rs. Beverly N. Dusseault, M.S.
ames B. Morris, 11l, M.S.
ackson A. Haddox, M.A.
ohn L. Jackson, Jr., M.Ag.
rs. Marian B. Valentine, B.S.H.E.
iss Doris M. Taylor, M.S.
rs. Alice B. Ayers, M.Ret.
obert G. Curtis, B.S.A.
Aarlowe K. Iverson, M.S.
rs. Dorothy J. Classon, B.S.
rs. Charlotte W. Carr, B.A.
arvey T. Paulk, M. Ag.
ichael E. Demaree, M.S.A.
eorge C. Henry, Jr., M.Ed.
awrence A. Heitmeyer, M.S.
rs. Martha M. Washington, B.S.
rs. Ann W. Parramore, B.S.
rs. Elaine C. Shook, M.S.
amar T. Christenberry, M.S.
William R. Womble, B.S.A.
Mrs. Judith A. Lukowski, B.S.
John A. Baldwin, M.S.A.
Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr., M.A.
Leon R. Brooks, B.S.
Mrs. Mae M. Anderson, B.S.
Miss Deloris M. Jones, B.S.
Norman C. Alexander, M.S.
Robert T. Montgomery, M.S.
David D. Coughenower, M.S.
William J. Messina, M.S.
Miss Susan K. Shaw, B.S.
Richard M. Aalberg, M.S.
Travis Seawright, B.S.
Mrs. Elizabeth Fulmer, M.S.
Edsel W. Rowan, B.S.A.
William J. Phillips, Jr., M.S.
Robert L. Renner, Jr., M.A.
Mrs. Sarah K. Thomas, B.S.
Mrs. Jo M. Townsend, B.S.
Robert B. Whitty, M.S.
Mrs. Martha B. Norton, M.S.
Richard E. Warner, Ph.D., 75% Extension
Raymond H. Zerba, M.S.
Judson T. Fulmer, M.Ed.
Mrs. Sandra R. Jones, B.S.
Jack D. Patten, B.S.
Charles M. Walthall, M.S.
Mrs. Ann P. Jeter, B.S.
Mrs. Charla J. Cotton, M.S.
Rayburn K. Price, M.Ag.
Miss Brenda J. Cunningham, B.S.
Miss Rebecca Brock, B.S.
Henry F. Swanson, M.S.A.
Bruce A. Barmby, M.S.
Oscar J. Hebert, Jr., M.S.
Thomas J. MacCubbin, M.S.
Lester C. Lloyd, Jr., B.S.
Mrs. Marjorie L. Williams, B.S.
Mrs. Mary A. Moore, M.A.T.
Mrs. Leala R. Collins, B.S.
Mrs. Linda W. Luman, B.S.
James B. Smith, B.S.A.
Mrs. Marilyn B. Tileston, B.S.H.E.
PALM BEACH COUNTY
Frederick E. Boss, M.S.
DeArmand L. Hull, M.S.
Raleigh S. Griffis, M.Ag.
John H. Causey, B.S.A.
Eugene Joyner, B.S.
Mrs. Arlen C. Jones, B.S.
Mrs. Marylou W. Shirar, M.Ed.
Mrs. Ruth A. Holmes, B.S.
Mrs. Beverly B. Harrington, B.S.
Clayton E. Hutcheson, M.S.
Alicia Homrich, B.S.
James D. Sumner, B.S.A.
Miss Clara A. Smith, B.S.
Gilbert M. Whitton, Jr., M.Ag.
Charles E. Rowan, M.Ag.
Mrs. Dorothy E. Draves, B.S.
Miss Nancy B. Whigham, B.S.
Mrs. Virginia D. Gardner, M.S.
Mrs. Shirley R. Bond, M.S.
Klaus J. Geyer, B.S.
Miss Nan C. Jensen, M.S.
Robert M. Davis, M.Ag.
Thomas W. Oswalt, M.S.A.
Dan E. Schrader, M.S.
Sidney L. Sumner, M.S.A.
Ronald P. Muraro, M.S.
Mrs. Alice P. Kersey, M.S.
Mrs. Josephine M. Cameron, M.S.
Mrs. Ruth A. Miller, B.S.
Mrs. Gayle P. Jenkins, M.S.
Miss Juliann S. Martin, B.S.
Ralph T. Clay, B.S.A.
Mrs. Essie H. Thompson, B.S.
Mrs. Rosa L. Banks, B.S.
ST. JOHNS COUNTY
Paul L. Dinkins, M.Ag.
James D. Dilbeck, M.S.
Miss Nettie R. Brown, B.S.
ST. LUCIE COUNTY
Mrs. Marguerite R. Brock, B.S.
James C. McCall, M.S.
SANTA ROSA COUNTY
William C. Zorn, M.Ag.
Jack J. Spears, M.Ag.
Miss Fern S. Nix, B.S.
Miss Margaret M. Pitts, B.S.
Luther L. Rozar, Jr., M.Ag.
Edwin S. Pastorius, B.S.A.
Miss Jeanette Meadows, M.S.
Mrs. Betty M. McQueen, M.S.
John Yelvington, Jr., M.S.
Frank J. Jasa, B.S.A.
Reginald L. Brown, M.S.A.
Mrs. Louise L. Gill, B.S.H.E.
Donald A. George, B.S.A.
Mrs. Karen Simpson, B.S.
William C. Smith, Jr., Ph.D.
Henry E. Jowers, B.S.
Mrs. Meredith C. Taylor, B.S.
Henry P. Davis, B.S.A.
Mrs. Carole B. Mott, B.S.
William J. Cowen, B.S.A.
Larry L. Loadholtz, M.S.
George A. Hindery, Ph.D.
Mrs. Betty M. Vernon, B.S.
Mrs. Diane E. Yates, B.S.
Mrs. Joan S. Holt, B.S.
Miss Linda J. Brachhold, B.S.
Bobby R. Durden, B.S.A.
Mrs. Marilyn J. Halusky, B.S.
James E. Thomaston, M.Ag.
Mrs. Virginia C. Clark, B.S.
Mrs. Becky E. Young, B.S.
Johnnie E. Davis, M.Ag.
Lenzy M. Scott, M.A.
Miss Sue Elmore, M.S.
This public document was promulgated at a cost of $2,816.02, or 94 cents per copy to
inform Florida citizens on the activities of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
Institute of Food ad A Agrltural Sciences
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
Joe N. Busby, Dean