Historic note
 Front Cover
 Commercial agriculture
 Community resource development
 Home economics
 Youth programs
 Florida A&M programs
 Finanacial report
 Planned and expended time by program...
 Program summaries
 Faculty list
 Back Cover

Annual report - Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075776/00004
 Material Information
Title: Annual report - Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Abbreviated Title: Annu. rep.- Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida etc.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1974
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Florida   ( nal )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1970-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 04073979
lccn - sn 86012077
issn - 0890-2038
System ID: UF00075776:00004
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Commercial agriculture
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Community resource development
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Home economics
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Youth programs
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Florida A&M programs
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Finanacial report
        Page 41
    Planned and expended time by program area
        Page 42
    Program summaries
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Faculty list
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Back Cover
        Page 51
        Page 52
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Over the years the Cooperative Extension Service has played a unique role in Florida as
in other states, taking scientific discoveries from the laboratories into the field, demon-
strating the benefits of new technology and encouraging its adoption.
These activities are made possible through a cooperative effort of federal, state and
local governments carried out on a county-by-county basis. The base of authority is the
Land Grant University and the teams of Extension specialists and research workers in
academic departments provide the necessary technical support for county teaching.
Extension agents at the county, level are members of the University faculty, but also
are members of the community, dedicated to helping the people of Florida -- commercial
producers, small farmers, rural and urban families, the youth of the state -- improve their
lives both economically and socially.
As we review 1974, we see that it has been an important year for the Cooperative
Extension Service in Florida. With commercial agriculture receiving tremendous national
attention, there has been a refocusing of attention on this area at the state level. Extension
programs have been designed to help identify problems Florida's agriculture faces
because of the present economic and energy situation as well as problems related to a
growing world population and increasing demands for food production in a state that is
undergoing rapid urbanization.
This rapid urbanization also is producing a more intense effort by Extension to
identify "people" problems through broad programs in Home Economics and 4-H
and Youth. In addition, the realization that increased population, urbanization and
production places unusual stress on the environment has prompted Extension to redouble
efforts to protect that of Florida.
A few of these many Extension programs in commercial agriculture, marine resources
(MAP), community resource development, home economics, 4-H and youth and special
Florida A & M programs have been summarized in the report that follows.

FI r .



L U .3 _____________




Agricultural Engineering

Florida Plan Service
During 1974 over 10,000 plans were distributed to
Florida residents as a direct result of requests for
plans. Of this number some 2,000 were for house

Grain and Seed Drying and Storage
During 1974 the Extension Swine specialist and the
Veterinary Science Department tested the presence of
aflatoxin, a substance very detrimental to the health
of livestock and poultry, especially younger animals
and birds. Excessive levels were found in some 25
percent of samples tested. This testing program has
resulted in an intensive educational program to teach
county staffs and livestock and grain producers how
to handle the situation. Prevention basically involves
doing a good job of harvesting, drying and storing.
For several years an educational program to re-
duce levels of aflatoxin in peanuts has been carried
out. As a result, reported instances of aflatoxin in
peanuts was very low in 1974 as compared to recent
years. Infested peanuts could not be sold as edible
nuts, resulting in a heavy loss to producers with
aflatoxin infected nuts.

Mechanizing Hay Harvesting
Small farmers throughout Florida are continually
being forced out of business because their farming
operations aren't large enough to warrant purchasing

some of the equipment which enables larger farmers
to produce more efficiently and economically. Many
small farmers purchase hay for wintering small brood
cow herds from commercial hay producers. Because
producing hay in the standard 55 pound rectangular
bale requires considerable labor, the price of hay has
risen sharply while the price the farmer receives for
his cattle has plummeted.
Machinery has been introduced to make less ex-
pensive hay, but the hay packages formed by the
equipment are much larger than the conventional bale.
The package formed weighs anywhere from 600
pounds to 3 tons according to the type of machine
Many small farmers are unable to utilize hay in the
large packages because they lack equipment to move
the bales from a storage area to where they are fed to
the cows. The machines which make the smaller
"Large Packages" in the 600 to 1000 pound class
could be used by the commercial hay producer for the
small farmer's hay, if the farmer were equipped with
a low cost piece of equipment for the handling of the
hay package.
Commercial firms are offering equipment for han-
dling the bales, but it was decided to make one in the
Agricultural Engineering Shop which could be easily
fabricated by a farmer in his shop. A plan for this
bale-mover will be incorporated into the Florida Plan
Service and offered to farmers who want to save
money by building their own equipment.

*._,. .

Bale moving fork, left, mounted on lower links of a tractor lift. Right, tractor moves a 1000-pound bale with the fork.



Drainage of Flatwoods Soils
Some form of drainage is mandatory for crop pro-
duction in the Flatwoods of Florida. Ditches and
water furrows to remove surface water may be ade-
quate for some crops in a few areas, but more ex-
pensive subsurface drainage, such as tile drains may
be necessary for other crops.
Tomatoes, cabbage, potatoes, green peppers, sweet
corn, and citrus are high-value crops that respond well
to intensive drainage systems. Sugarcane, field corn
and grasses do not.
Most crops grown in the Flatwoods reach their
maximum yield potential when the water table is held
at about the 24-inch depth. With deeper water table
depths, yields are reduced because the surface soil is
overdrained. With shallower water table depths,
yields are reduced because root volume is restricted.
Crop yields on sandy Flatwood soils are highest when
water tables are held at the 24-inch depth. Only
grasses and sugarcane (on muck soils) appear to grow
equally well at water table levels ranging from 18 to
40 inches. For shallow-rooted vegetable crops on
muck soils, a 24-inch water depth appears to be best.
Extension efforts in soil and water are aimed at get-
ting the producer to install the drainage system that
produces the most for the least amount of money.
Two drainage demonstrations were installed in 1974
to demonstrate the importance of drainage.

Home Water Quality Control
This year special effort has been directed to helping
homeowners with problems concerning their domestic
water systems. Counties are encouraged to have
homeowners submit water samples to be analyzed for

mineral content and pH. The results, together with an
explanation of the results, are sent back to the ap-
propriate county staff and on to the homeowner. This
reply enables the homeowner to make an intelligent
decision regarding the improvement of his home water
quality. Approximately 400 homeowners used this
service in 1974. In addition, eight home water clinics
were conducted in Martin, St. Lucie, Sarasota and Bre-
vard counties. At these meetings causes and removal
of objectionable minerals are discussed and infor-
mation on water problems in the home, pumps and
wells is also presented.

A quarterly Extension Agricultural Engineering
newsletter kept county Extension agents informed on
the latest OSHA directives on farm safety. Auto care
and safety workshops were held in nine counties on 14

Energy Conservation
The energy shortage and higher energy prices have
made energy conservation and management critical in
production agriculture and the home. Twenty-six in-
formation sheets related to energy management have
been published by the Departments of Home Econom-
ics and Agricultural Engineering. "The Big Switch,"
a youth oriented packet of material on energy con-
servation, was used by 4-H Clubs and schools to edu-
cate young people. Research is being carried out on
the use of solar energy. Heating greenhouses at
night using water heated by the sun, and solar domes-
tic hot water heaters are two of the areas being in-

Agronomic Crops

Agronomic crops are vital to the national economy
as has been shown by the effects of recent shortages
and resulting higher prices of grains, soybeans, to-
bacco and sugar.
Extension agronomists conducted educational pro-
grams throughout Florida in 1974 to promote more
efficient production of agronomic crops. Special em-
phasis was given to forages, because low cattle prices
has forced many ranchers to keep animals that nor-
mally would be sold. These animals are being main-
tained on pastures that were designed for fewer
cattle. This situation has required pasture improve-
ment at a time when fertilizer and other production
inputs have become more costly. Extension special-

ists advised ranchers on management practices for
providing more efficient forage production.
The Extension weed control specialist, who has re-
sponsibilities for coordinating all of Florida's Extension
weed control activities, is assigned to the Agronomy
Department. Weeds are a major pest in Florida.
Losses to weeds add several million dollars to the
cost of producing food crops. Maintaining weed-free
turfs for roadsides, recreation and home lawns also is
expensive. Educational programs are designed to
lower these costs as well as beautify waterways,
homes and other landscapes.
Educational efforts of the Extension specialists in the
Agronomy Department including speaking at county


agent, producer, homeowner and industry meetings;
writing articles for publication in farm magazines,
newspapers, Extension circulars, bulletins and infor-
mation releases; participating in television and radio
programs; participation in field days and tours; con-
ducting research and demonstration trials; serving on
numerous committees; and consultation with individ-
uals. The ultimate audience of these efforts was the
farmer, rancher, homeowner or other person respon-
sible for making the decision on actions to be taken.

There have been several specific successes that can
be partially or wholly attributed to the agronomic
education program. Production of grains, soybeans,
tobacco, peanuts and other field crops increased in
1974 over the previous year. Forage production also
improved. Use of nematicides on corn increased in
1974. This recommended practice is based on results
from previous field trials conducted by an Extension
agronomist in cooperation with other specialists and

Thousands of acres of improved pasture have been
established in new grasses recently released by the
University of Florida. These new varieties, plus in-
creased use of other improved perennial as well as
annual grasses, have aided the cattlemen in becom-
ing more efficient in producing beef on pastures at a
time when feed grain costs are spiraling and beef
prices are the lowest in years. There are indications
from dairymen and ranchers participating in and at-
tending Extension silage demonstrations that acreages
devoted to this form of forage will increase.
The Extension weed control program has been very
effective in developing and disseminating information
on weed control in peanuts, soybeans, corn and other
crops. Smutgrass control in pastures has improved
greatly as a result of on-farm research conducted by
Extension agronomists, county agents and cooperating
ranchers. Nurserymen were spending an average of
$3,600 per acre for hand weeding, but this cost has
been reduced by 80 percent because of Extension and
grower cooperative trials with herbicides.

Animal Science

Beef Cattle
The Florida Beef Cattle Improvement Association
was incorporated as a non-profit organization in 1960
by 14 ranchers and representatives of the Cooperative
Extension Service and Department of Animal Science,
University of Florida. The objective of this association
is to promote the improvement of beef cattle in Flor-
ida primarily through keeping and using accurate
Since the association was formed, there have been
204 herds listed. Some of these herds are still active,
others have been sold or dispersed while still others
have moved from the FBCIA program to a record
keeping system sponsored by a breed association. In
nine of the herds which have 11 consecutive years
wean data, the average annual increase in weaning
weight (adj. 205 wt.) is 16.29 pounds per calf.
This increase in the average weaning weight of
each calf of 180 pounds after 11 years is a result of
improved selection of herd replacements and improved
management. On the average these ranches are pro-
ducing 18,000 pounds or nine tons more beef per 100
calves weaned than they were 11 years ago.
In addition to the weaning evaluation, a program
for evaluating post-wean performance at 265 or 550
days is available and used by the members.
The Annual Beef Cattle Short Course was held at
the University of Florida on May 2, 3 and 4, 1974.
This event was attended by over 800 cattlemen.

A Field Day was held at the Chipley Beef Demon-
stration Unit on April 11, 1974. This field day was
attended by 155 cattlemen.
Six Cow-Calf Clinics were held. These were held at
Madison, Ocala, Palmetto, Palatka, DeLand and Plant
City. These clinics were attended by a total of 570
In addition to the above events, a number of talks
were given by the staff to County Cattlemen's Associa-
tion meetings.

Exotic crossbred calves grazing cool season annual grasses at the
Chipley Beef Demonstration Unit.

The Annual State Swine Field Day was held in Live
Oak at the Suwannee Valley Research Center on De-
cember 5, 1974. Ninety-eight producers attended the
program which emphasized practical management
demonstrations and rural area development demon-
strations that are applicable to small parttime pro-
ducers. Topics covering herd health, management of
large swine operations and the major problem area
of mycotoxins in grain effecting swine were thoroughly
covered. Producers showed great interest in the topics,
particularly in the area of cutting costs since the in-
dustry is in a period of diminishing returns on pork
There has been a continued trend during the past
year of reduction in swine numbers and small in-
efficient producers going out of business. December
inventory shows that Florida has 292,000 head of
swine, a reduction of four percent since 1973. At the
same time, the value per head has dropped from $52
to $42.50 with the total value of the industry being
$12,410,000-a 22 percent reduction. The added
cost, due to inflation, without a corresponding increase
in swine and pork prices has left state swine producers
in a money losing situation at the end of 1974.
In the state the trend continues to larger units seek-
ing greater specialization and efficiency to help off-
set advancing overhead costs. At the same time, the
,% 111L,. / IMW -- I& .1

trend is for a reduction in numbers of small producers
(50 sows or less).
The Extension swine specialist is working with pro-
ducers to develop efficient housing, feeding and
marketing programs. With the trend to larger units,
building designs and management programs are be-
ing developed to assist those that have the capital and
ability to develop swine programs during this period
of reduced profits.
Continued information is being developed at the
Swine Evaluation Center through the testing program
to indicate the most efficient strains of animals for
greater efficiency by the producer back on the farm.

In recent years the horse industry in Florida has
recorded a phenomenal growth in numbers and rev-
enue. Numbers have increased more than 10 percent
per year for the past 10 years and are estimated at
160,000. State revenues derived have increased even
more rapidly. The thoroughbred industry has re-
corded increased income with record price being paid
for yearlings this past year. Increased costs have
limited expansion and profits in the horse industry.
The Extension horse specialists have worked with pro-
ducers and organizations to improve methods and
efficiency of production. Suggestions and assistance
regarding the needs of horses and horse enthusiasts

IriigW^.tVK "-" iiii--

Extension Horse Specialist Ben Crawford, right, conducts a youth-4-H clinic at Dade City.

for facilities to maintain and use horses without inter-
fering with other residents have been provided to
several promoters of horse oriented developments.
An agent training session was held to improve the
ability of the local Extension agent to work with horse
owners in their counties. The agents left the training
program with the increased knowledge and con-
fidence to improve their communication and contact
with horse enthusiasts.
Leaders and agent planning sessions were held on a
4-H district basis. Agents and leaders voiced their
opinions on ways to improve the total horse program.
Improving communication, subject matter publication,
adding area short courses, increasing the number of
youth and adult horsemanship schools and changes in
competitive programs such as shows and judging con-
test, also were discussed.
Thirty-eight 4-H'ers represented Florida at the South-
ern Regional 4-H Horse Championships at Baton
Rouge, Louisiana. For the third consecutive year a
Florida participant Sandy Hones, Alachua County,
earned the top English rider award. Other major
award winners included: Donna Adams, Washington
County, winner of Horse Public Speaking; Sharon
Jones, Brevard County, third in individual horse
demonstration; Dori Stuart and Leslie Durfka, Orange
County, fifth in the horse team demonstration contest;
and the Orange County Horse Judging team placed
tenth in that contest.
Baby beef is again in Florida meat counters be-
cause of a surplus of lightweight calves and a tre-
mendous educational program. The sale of baby beef
helps the meat and livestock industry and consumers.
Since baby beef sells for 15 to 30 cents per pound less
than regular beef and is leaner, it is an ideal meat
purchase for small families, low income families and
weight watchers.

Two meat market operators display economical cuts of Baby Beef.

Educational programs developed by the Florida Co-
operative Extension Service and cooperating industries
increased baby beef processing in Florida from zero
in August to 5,000 carcasses or 1,375,000 pounds per
week. The educational message directed to Florida
consumers via radio, television, live audience schools,
workshops, field days and demonstrations resulted in
new and repeat purchases throughout Florida. Con-
sumers were informed that baby beef is a bargain
and that it must be processed, stored, cooked and
utilized differently than regular beef.
A short course for Small Meat Plant Operators, Cus-
tom Slaughterers and Retailers was held at the Uni-
versity of Florida on November 6, 1974. During the
year these people were swamped with requests to
prepare meat for home storage. This event was at-
tended by 75 people.
A short course was held at the University of Florida
on December 11, 1974, for Meat Packers. This short
course was attended by 50 meat packers.
Throughout the year the Extension meats specialist
worked with county groups advising them how to get
the most for their money spent for meat.

Bees and Their Products

Florida again led the nation in total honey produc-
tion in 1973. However, this accomplishment has not
been without problems such as the constant loss of
good agricultural bee sites, the lack of cooperation
that exists between the beekeepers and other areas of
agriculture and government, the lack of public aware-
ness of the industry, and the movement of imitation
honey on the market.
Efforts have been directed to several areas of the
industry in order to improve the overall situation.
Television and radio have been and continue to be a
wide-range communication approach to make the
public more aware of apiculture and its problems.
Continued efforts through a bi-monthly publication

and an annual institute have been carried out to better
promote the cooperation of all concerned. A 4-H
program has been updated and continued in order
to draw young people into the industry. Entomolo-
gical-apicultural presentations were continued with
participation in low income youth camps.
High priority has been placed on promoting hobby
beekeeping particularly among Florida's large per-
centage of retired people. This has been achieved
through a total communications program including
radio, television, publications, camps, association
meetings and contacts by letters and personal con-

Dairy Science

Florida ranks first in average herd size (480) in the
nation and fifteenth in total adult dairy cows. Aver-
age annual milk production per cow for all adult dairy
cows in Florida is approximately 9,500 pounds as
compared to 11,000 pounds for dairy herds enrolled in
Extension recordkeeping programs. Several Florida
dairy herds are now averaging more than 14,000
pounds per cow per year.
Florida's Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program
saw several accomplishments during 1974. One major
accomplishment was the establishment of an auto-
mated milk-fat testing facility for analysis of milk
samples collected throughout the state by DHI super-
visors. The establishment of the laboratory was a
joint effort of the Florida DHIA Board and the Florida
Department of Agriculture. Implementation of this
new service is already strengthening the DHI program
through increased efficiency and performance of the
DHI supervisors working in the field.

The year 1974 was a bad year for dairymen pur-
chasing large quantities of feed. The computer used in
formulating least-cost rations for dairymen showed a
variation in ration costs during the year of $27 per
ton. Since Florida dairymen feed, on the average, one
pound of feed for one pound of milk, an increase of
$27 per ton of milk was needed just to offset the in-
creased feed costs. Florida dairymen, however, only
received a $12.20 increase per ton of milk during the
year. During 1974, the computer program was further
refined to print guidelines for levels of feed to feed
cows producing variable amounts of milk. Approxi-

mately 30 percent of the dairymen in Florida requested
help in formulating and evaluating feeding programs
in 1974.
The availability of good herd replacements has
caused many Florida dairymen to suffer greatly in
recent years. Educational programs were developed
and emphasized during 1974 on the importance of
raising and demand good replacements.
Reproduction, herd health and stress conditions con-
tinue to plague the Florida dairy industry. New and
existing programs were implemented during the year
to better equip dairymen with knowledge needed to
combat the situation.
A new program on personnel management was in-
augurated during 1974. The program is to be ex-
panded during the next five years.
A bulk milk transport cleaning study was com-
pleted during 1974. Knowledge gained will have
long range implications in developing methods to
clean tankers, eliminating a major problem in the
production of high quality milk.
A major program has been initiated to evaluate the
quality, problems, and methods of handling milk
served in Florida schools. This program involves 90
percent of the schools in Florida and is being con-
ducted in cooperation with the Florida Department of
Health and Rehabilitative Services, Dairy and Food
Nutrition Council of Florida and the Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Cur-
rently, over 500 samples of school lunchroom milk
have been evaluated.

Entomology and Nematology

A large part of the work in Extension Entomology
and Nematology was devoted to keeping abreast of
the changing pesticide situation. It was, and will
continue to be, extremely important to keep growers
and others up-to-date on cancellation of pesticide uses
and changes in patterns of use, to prevent illegal resi-
dues which may cause loss of agricultural products
and possibly legal action against the producer.
Concerted efforts have been made to remain up to
date of all developments of new regulations under
the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act of
1972. We have made numerous suggestions at meet-
ings, by personal contact and by correspondence to
the Federal Environmental Protection Agency about
these regulations.

Extension Citrus Pest Management Project continued
during 1974 with the number of demonstration groves
located throughout the citrus producing counties in-
creasing to 28. The groves were inspected at two-
week intervals and pest control procedures recom-
mended for the demonstration blocks. Indications
are that information from these blocks and research in
progress will make it possible to reduce the number
of applications of pesticides by developing more ef-
fective pest management practices resulting in savings
to the grower.
Insect pest management on soybeans has been
developed by Extension and Research entomologists
that shows the amounts of insecticides per application,
as well as the number of applications, can be reduced

and still control the insect problem effectively. This
information was made available to county Extension
agents and growers.
A project was initiated in cooperation with the
Rural Development Program to find alternative insecti-
cides to control the sweet potato weevil on sweet
potatoes with the cancellation of the only effective
insecticide that has been used for many years.
Leafminers have been abundant on celery during
the past few years. Efforts were made to get more
effective insecticides registered with EPA to help the

celery growers with this severe problem.
Extension demonstrations in cooperation with grow-
ers of field corn have shown the severe loss of stands
and yield by nematodes and lesser cornstalk borers.
Economical methods of control have been demonstra-
ted to growers through field days and publicized in
newspapers and other publications.

Demonstrations of nematode control in peanuts
have aided growers in one county in Florida to lead
the nation in yields per acre.

Farm Management

Adequate business management information has
been lacking for many different kinds of ornamentals.
Farm management economists provided analyses,
publications, magazine articles and management
shortcourses to increase manager's decisioh-making
ability. Publications were developed and the results
explained to growers of chrysanthemums, gladioli and
several kinds of container-grown ornamentals.
A tightening economy causes people to search for
ways to produce some of their own food supply or to
stretch their incomes by producing small vegetable
plots. A "Small Farm Management Handbook" was
developed to provide estimates of what would be
required and what could be expected from such ef-
Uncertainty brought on by the current economic up-
heaval greatly expanded public demand for eco-
nomic knowledge. Much effort was expanded with
growers, land investors and financial agents regarding
appropriate reactions to the new economic situation.
As a result, one land owner dropped land rental rates
from $12 down to $7 per acre. From the consumer's
side, several civic clubs asked Extension economists to

explain the rising cost of foodstuffs while farm in-
comes were declining.

Traditional analytical and educational roles were
modified in familiar enterprises such as citrus and
cattle. Decision-making rules of thumb about amounts
of fertilizers to apply and whether or not common
maintenance practices such as mowing would still pay
required analysis this year. The formal result of one
such effort was the publication of a procedure for the
treatment of smut-grass, and an analysis of the con-
ditions under which it could be afforded.

Declining incomes from beef cattle required the
modification of basic data used by appraisers in esti-
mating incomes to pasture lands. Farm management
specialists worked with both ranches and appraisers
to help them work out acceptable land evaluations
under the changed economic conditions.
Management shortcourses of a formal educational
nature were held on "Pricing Container-grown Plants,"
"Estate Planning," "Worker Motivation" and "Land-
spreading of Sewage Effluent."

Food Science

Florida industry uses millions of gallons of water
daily in the annual processing of over 160 million
boxes of oranges and 27 million boxes of grapefruit.
More than 100 million gallons a day of liquid waste
water is discharged. Water use must be restricted if
needs for the future are to be met. A sound program
of water management must be developed by each
processor to conserve water and to reduce waste. The
Extension specialist made plant visits and consulted
with industry personnel on water systems. An educa-
tional program was developed to provide information
on overall water management, water recycle systems,
potable and industrial water treatment and waste
utilization. Over 100 participants from industry com-
pleted the 3-day training session. The training ses-

sion was a significant factor in aiding processing
plants to improve their water management programs
and to reduce liquid waste from citrus processing.
Keeping food safe and wholesome during distri-
bution and delivery to the consumer is a major factor
in preventing foodborne illness. Our Extension pro-
gram emphasized food safety through mass media
and consumer presentations. A program on "Food
Safety and Regulation of Retail Stores," was presented
in Miami, Tampa and Jacksonville areas. All major
Florida food retailers had personnel participating in
this food safety program. State and federal regula-
tory officials discussed major sanitation and food
safety problems encountered in food warehouses and
in retail stores. About 190 food retail personnel re-

ceived this food safety training.
There was a resurgence of interest and activity in
home canning in Florida during 1974. A 4-day train-
ing program was presented in cooperation with Ex-
tension Home Economics on safe home food preser-
vation techniques. The program was very successful
with agents from most counties participating. Work-
shops in home canning and food preservation are now
being presented by these agents in their communities.
Processors were advised of new state federal regu-
lations for nutritional labeling and food additives
through industry meetings and direct contact. Nutri-
tional composition information on major Florida to-
mato varieties was developed and disseminated at
industry meetings and to consumers. Nutritional
composition information on Florida vegetables is of
considerable interest to consumers and industry in
improving the quality of the diet.
In 1974 high priority was placed on training lead-
ers of industry, government and consumer organiza-
tions in the proper sanitation practices and related
public health activities as these relate to the seafood
industry. A four-day "Seafood Quality Control Work-
shop" was developed to give laboratory and lecture
classes in food safety, microbiology and sanitation to
industry quality control personnel and State and Fed-
eral seafood inspectors.

Three-hour programs in seven different locations of
the State of Florida were developed with the county
Extension directors of Franklin, Wakulla, Dixie, Lee, St.
Johns, Brevard and Monroe counties. These "Florida
Seafood Workshops" presented topics in marine eco-
nomics, seafood quality control, marketing, distri-
bution, sanitation and microbiology. Speakers for the
programs were associated with the U.S. Food and
Drug Administration, Florida Department of Health
and Rehabilitative Services Seafood Sanitation Division,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Serv-
ices, Florida Department of Natural Resources and the
State University System Sea Grant Program.
The Extension seafood technologist presented
papers and seminars that discussed seafood sanitation
and safety before such groups as Organized Fisher-
men of Florida-Cortez Chapter; Florida Department of
Natural Resources Marketing Meeting, Atlanta, Ga.;
4-H Campers, Camp Cloverleaf, Fl.; "Food Preservation
Short Course", Gainesville, Fl.; National Marine Fish-
eries Service Shrimp Promotion Meeting, Atlanta, Ga.;
and programs in Pasco, Lee, Monroe, Hillsborough and
Monroe counties.
The major feedback from the commercial fisheries
industry was made to the total Florida Sea Grant Pro-
gram with suggested improvement of practices in
production, processing and sanitation.

Forestry and Forest Products

Extension forestry programs continued to serve a
wide and varied clientele during 1974. With raw
forest products prices reaching previously unheard of
levels of $30 to $50 per cord for pulpwood and $100
per thousand boardfeet for lumber, many landowners
began to realize for the first time the potential of com-
merical timber production. The new interest resulted
in many requests for forest management assistance
from many who had not used Extension help before.
The results in increased timber production and thus
increased income will be realized for many years to
A Forest Soils and Nutrition Shortcourse held during
the year was well attended and highly successful, as

was a Symposium, "Intensive Forest Management and
the Future of Forest Management in Florida."
Soils analysis, interpretations, and fertilizer recom-
mendation were made for nurseries, private and state,
producing more than 100 million forest tree seedlings
and for over 2,000 acres of seed orchards producing
genetically improved seed, the source of our future
forests of "supertrees."
Educational training was provided in the field of
forest ecology for over 6,000 4-H Club members, cul-
minating in a 4-H Forest Ecology Contest during the
Florida Forestry Festival in Perry, Florida. Twenty-
five teams of three to four members each from 12
counties competed.

Fruit Crops

At this time most Florida citrus growers are in a
rather trying situation. Production, harvesting and
processing costs are increasing at a rapid pace while
the price of fruit and fruit products remains at the
same level it has been for a decade. This condition
has resulted in a serious cost-price squeeze for pro-
ducers. This year Extension specialists in the Fruit

Crops Department have made a major effort to help
growers reduce production costs and alleviate eco-
nomic problems.
A comprehensive program, the Florida Program for
Economical Citrus Production, has been supplied to all
county Extension agents in citrus-producing counties
which furnishes agents, and they in turn furnish grow-

ers, with the latest economical production practices.
Every agent in major citrus producing counties has a
regular citrus newsletter designed to inform growers
of research results and recent innovations in an ef-
ficient and rapid manner.
In addition, agents in every major citrus producing
county have held one or more grower meetings this
year to keep their growers well-informed. At the state
level, specialists with the Fruit Crops Department an-
nually hold two meetings in the major citrus production
area. The Fruit Citrus Growers Institute, held in cen-
tral Florida, attracted growers representing almost 50
percent of the state's total citrus acreage. The other
state-wide grower meeting is the Indian River Citrus
Seminar which is held in January each year. It is
primarily for growers in the Indian River or east coast
citrus-producing area where problems are somewhat
different from the problems in central Florida.

Other Fruit Crops
Deciduous fruit crops in Florida have continued to
increase in importance. At present, several hundred
more acres of peaches are being planted in north Flor-
ida and a new blueberry industry is developing.
Plantings of grapes and other deciduous crops are
also on the upswing.
Most of Extension's efforts in the deciduous fruit
field has been to acquaint Extension agents and grow-
ers with the several new varieties of fruit crops which
have been released that are adapted to north and
central Florida. As more new varieties are developed
which will spread the season over a longer period of
time, it appears that Florida will have an extremely
important deciduous fruit industry. Florida's pecan
acreage now totals more than 10,000 acres. Peach
acreage is in excess of 7,000 acres. The on-farm
value of these crops alone is approximately $6 million.
The potential for other fruit crops, such as blueberries
and grapes, will raise this figure at least an additional
20 percent.
In the subtropical fruit field, production costs are
accelerating rapidly and Extension programs in south

r~'ff~'r:1- "-' A b

'.- _. -. : 1 -

The Florida Program for Economical Citrus Production is used by
Extension agents in citrus-producing counties to furnish growers
with the latest economical production practices.

Florida have been aimed at helping growers econo-
mize production and harvesting practices. It is in-
teresting to note, however, that the avocado acreage
is increasing rapidly in south Florida. Several hundred
acres of improved avocado cultivars are now being
planted in Collier county. If projected plans continue
at the current pace, the present avocado acreage of
some 7,000 acres will be doubled within the next
several years.
Extension is assisting growers in these areas with
production problems, trying to help them overcome
the many problems of the area that are not present in
the current commercial producing area of Dade

Marine and Aquatic Products

1974 was a year in which the Marine Advisory
Program (MAP) made a significant stride toward its
ultimate goal of providing a viable marine education
program for Florida's coastal communities and peo-
ples. Bolstered by both Sea Grant and state and
county funding, the MAP positioned four area marine
agents to provide near-complete coverage along the
806 mile Gulf coast from Key West to Pensacola.

This area is characterized by both burgeoning popula-
tion and industrial pressures as well as some of Flor-
ida's richest natural marine resources.
The area agents were located in Key West to cover
the Florida Keys, at Palmetto to cover the five-county
Naples-Bradenton area, at Largo to cover the three-
county Tampa Bay area, and at Panama City to cover
the eight counties from Panacea to Pensacola. Less


concentrated, but still effective application of MAP programs. This combined effort was reflected in the
attention was directed toward Florida's east coast, legislature's development of a comprehensive beach
particularly in the important field of coastal engineer- erosion control plan for Florida.
ing. This local coverage, combined with the com- MAP sponsored workshops and seminars, formed
munications experience provided by the 38 coastal and implemented local citizens advisory committees in
county Extension directors and staff, has facilitated 12 coastal counties, and published several bulletins,
user group input into the program, abetted more ef- reports and newsletters. Extensive use was made of
fective identification and priority of local marine-re- University of Florida radio and television facilities as
lated problems, and made for a more effective "feed- well as commercial stations, to provide citizens with
back" system whereby the university-based knowledge information concerning costal waters. Specialists from
resources can be applied to assist citizens in resolving MAP as well as Sea Grant researchers were involved
or lessening the problem. in these educational projects. Periodic press releases
Marine specialists in seafood technology, marine covering Florida Sea Grant research developments
economics, coastal engineering, and communications, were used by several large Florida newspapers and
supported by Sea Grant research specialists rendered also by federal, state and trade association publi-
both individual and group assistance in their respec- cations.
tive fields through personal visitations and consulta-
tions with individual fishermen and vessel owners, The combination of user participation, coastal
small fish houses, multi-million dollar processing county Extension staff and area marine agent local
plants, local governments, and mission-related state, contact, university based MAP marine specialists, and
federal, and private agencies and organizations and Sea Grant and otherwise funded university researchers
trade associations. The coastal engineering specialist is providing an educational linkage not available
provided consulting support to the State's Bureau of earlier. It vastly enhances prospects for the wise and
Beaches and Shores and the Coastal Coordinating systematic use of Florida's marine resources com-
Council in preparation for legislative consideration of patible with the state's anticipated population and in-
coastal zone management and beach preservation dustrial growth.

During 1974 Florida consumers and agricultural to reduce losses.
businessmen were all concerned with the behavior of Extension economists worked with a variety of
food and agricultural markets and prices and with marketing firms during the past year, including in-
ways to modify the risk and impact of sharp changes, tegrated citrus organizations, garden supply stores
Extension economists in the Food and Resource Eco- and meat plant operators. A management audit of
nomics Department engaged in a variety of marketing an integrated citrus firm was conducted, and mange-
educational work to assist Florida citizens in coping ment practices to improve efficiency were discussed
with 1974 developments, as well as with more typical with garden supply firm managers and meat plant
kinds of decisions. operators. Evaluation and comment by participants
Market outlook information was particularly em- revealed greater understanding of management prin-
phasized. Educational materials were prepared for ciples by all groups.
consumers explaining the reasons for food price in- Extension economists worked with several industry
creases and expected changes in food price levels, groups during the past year, including food distri-
Availability and expected prices for fuels, fertilizer bution industry leaders, bankers and citrus industry
and other inputs affected by the energy situation were leaders. A Food Marketing and Distribution Industry
particularly emphasized in outlook materials to pro- Conference, held on the University campus, involved
ducers, distributed through county offices, industry Florida food industry leaders in an IFAS program re-
field days and meetings, and articles in popular pe- view, evaluation and recommendation.
riodicals. State Extension specialists have for many years
Grain, soybean, beef cattle, dairy, citrus, swine and served as advisors to the citrus committee of the Flor-
sugarcane producers and feed, citrus and sugar pro- ida Bankers Association. This committee sponsors the
cessors were participants in a series of workshops on annual Citrus Forum and bank displays promoting
commodity futures and other marketing alternatives. citrus during Citrus Week in February.
The workshop series and other related meetings were Interest by consumers and farmers in the orga-
held in seven counties. Extension economists also nization of cooperatives to maximize income is higher
evaluated the feasibility of integrating several steps now than in several years. Consumer leaders in four
in livestock marketing in an effort to assist producers urban counties were assisted in planning. Several



farm groups progressed to the point of organization.
Tomato, leaf and radish growers were ready to start
the Florida Tomato Exchange and the Florida Vege-
table Exchange. At least four groups in south Florida
were ready to start cooperative buying of fertilizer,
agricultural chemicals and other farm supplies. The
cooperative market potential in those farm supplies
may be sufficient to save farmers as much as $25
million in the next decade.
The national "Project Consumer Concern" has the
objectives of improving food handling, storage and
distribution, especially at wholesale and retail points,
to insure safe and wholesome food for consumers.
Food Safety and Sanitation programs for operators of
independent food stores in Florida were held during
the past year. In addition, Extension specialists or-
ganized and helped conduct a series of meetings
between food retailers and regulatory personnel to
insure better understanding and communication be-
tween the two groups. Both now are better able to
carry out food sanitation policies and provide better

facilities and services to the public.
After more than a decade of talk and proposals,
the Florida citrus industry attempted to implement a
method of controlling orange supplies in the summer
of 1974. Pressured by greater than average crops for
two successive seasons, prospects for at least an aver-
age crop forthcoming, mounting inventories, and the
price-cost squeeze, a marketing order was put to a
grower-processor referendum.
The proposal called for controlling the quantity of
frozen concentrate marketed by establishing a reserve
pool. The intention was to alleviate a temporary sea-
sonal surplus of the product, and help develop the
export and school lunch markets.
County Extension personnel held meetings and of-
fered facilities where industry leaders discussed the
pros and cons of the marketing order. Material pre-
pared by Extension economists was distributed to
citrus growers. Extension personnel answered ques-
tions and aided in the distribution and collection of
the ballots.

Natural Resources and Environmental Quality
Pollution Control and Abatement Wildlife and Fish

Guidelines for limitation of pollutant discharge were
issued by the Environmental Protection Agency for the
feedlot, dairy products processing and red meat proc-
essing industries among others. In response to these
regulations, Extension issued a news-letter which in-
terpreted the requirements for Florida producers.
In addition, the new guidelines were presented and
discussed at meetings of producers and processors.
The Florida Department of Pollution Control is among
several state agencies studying water management
and pollution control in the Kissimmee-Okeechobee
Basin. Extension personnel at the state level and in
the affected counties have assisted in providing in-
formation about land use and agricultural practices in
the study area.
A major report, prepared primarily by Agricultural
Engineering for the DPC, reviewed the importance of
agriculture as a source of non-point pollution and
outlined the methods currently available for better
Tighter state and federal restrictions on pollutant
discharge have increased interest in landspreading
various wastes. Training was given to county Ex-
tension staffs to increase their competence in evalu-
ating certain aspects of landspreading systems. Sub-
ject matter was presented by state specialists from
Agricultural Engineering, Soil Science, Agronomy,
Ornamental Horticulture, and Food and Resource Eco-

This area of work took about 20 percent of the
time of one Extension specialist. Probably our biggest
contribution here, outside of educating many persons,
young and old, has been to prevent persons from
making unwise investments in catfish and bullfrog
production. Everyone seems to have the idea that
both are "get-rich-quick" enterprises when, in fact,
most such operations are money losers.
Earthworm production continues to thrive in Flor-
ida and probably produces $25-30 million for state
operators each year.

The Extension Outdoor Recreation program has con-
tinued to grow in breadth and depth. As a result of
pilot programs in earlier years, many requests for
assistance in recreation planning were received and
serviced last year. These requests came from 15
counties, from Monroe on the south to Nassau on the
north and Escambia on the west, and in between. In
addition, housing developments, industrial firms, elec-
tric utilities companies, and individuals sought such
assistance. One pulp company provided a $10,000
grant to the Extension Forestry Section to develop
plans for a Forest Industry Interpretive Demonstration
at the point of entry of Interstate 95 into Florida. The
plans have been completed and preliminary ground-
work on the site has begun.



The adage, "Man does not live by bread alone," is
typified by the fact that interest in environmental
aesthetics and ornamental horticulture continued at an
all-time high in 1974 despite flagging economic con-
ditions and general business gloom. Demands upon
county Extension personnel throughout the state have
intensified to the point where these personnel are,
presently spending 25 percent of their time working
on ornamentals and turf programs.
Demands for service by homeowners and com-
mercial enterprises were greatly magnified in highly
urbanized counties such as Dade, Broward, Palm
Beach, Hillsborough and Pinellas. This challenging
situation was met in a variety of ways by county Ex-
tension personnel, including extensive use of mass
media such as radio, television, newspapers and news-
letters as a means for rapid dissemination of informa-
tion. A multitude of horticultural educational clinics
with participation by state specialist broadened the
educational base and afforded many the opportunity
to ask questions first hand.
Of particular note is a trend by county Extension
staff toward pooling of personnel and technical ex-
pertise for educational purposes which cuts across
county lines. This approach has met with great suc-
cess in the Tampa Bay area which includes Hills-
borough, Manatee, Pasco, Pinellas and Sarasota coun-
Benefits accruing to area taxpayers have consisted
of greater numbers of horticulture education clinics
with broader informational bases, increased efficiency
in coverage of homeowner and commercial problem
solving and increased competency on the part of all
participating personnel resulting from continual ex-
changes of information.
Increased demands on county Extension personnel
combined with increased industry demands have in
turn intensified and increased pressure for Extension
assistance at the state level. These needs have been
met through increased direct participation by state

specialists in county programs and through use of
mass media such as radio, television and newspaper
articles. Additionally, newletters concerning flori-
culture, woody ornamentals and foliage are regularly
distributed to county Extension personnel for local in-
county distribution. Similar information regarding
turf is published directly through the state turf associa-
tion and sent free to all county Extension personnel
handling turf problems. The latter method of publish-
ing and distribution is accomplished with no cost to
State specialists worked very closely with state
organizations in 1974. They also were responsible for
organizing several state educational short course.
Events in both areas consisted of the Florida Turfgrass
Association Conference and Show which had over 750
conferees in attendance, 1974 Floriculture Short Course,
Garden Club Short Course, co-sponsored by the Flor-
ida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc. (which lists
31,000 garden clubs in its membership) and the 1974
National Tropical Foliage Short Course which more
than 700 persons attended.
Impact of information presented through state and
county educational programs is difficult to estimate
even though demand for this type of education and in-
formation is at an all time high. Perhaps the best
indication of need is the fact that Florida is ranked
second in the nation for value of its woody orna-
mentals and floriculture products production where as
the wholesale value of commercially grown foliage
plants is estimated to be $30 million. Additionally,
Floridians spent over $350 million in 1974 main-
tenance of 200,000 acres of homelawns and another
$200 million for maintenance of turf on golf courses,
cemeteries, parks and mobile homes.

The preceding value indicators all point to the fact
that ornamental horticulture is big business in Florida
requiring continual up-to-date information for its
maintenance. The challenge to Extension is obvious.

Plant Pathology

Approximately 40 talks were given at various meet-
ings, short courses and schools in 1974 and diseases
of plants in all commodity areas discussed with over
2,500 people. In addition, 16 television and 11 radio
programs were given. These programs, in addition to
preparing or assisting in preparing approximately 20
publications (i.e., circulars, Plant Protection Pointers,
technical papers, production guides) enabled Extension
Plant Pathology to disseminate plant disease control
information to a large portion of the population of
Florida. In addition, the field crops section of the
"Florida Plant Disease Control Guide" was completely
revised and part of the ornamental section developed.
About 1500 copies of the Control Guide have been is-
sued going to people in the United States and 35

foreign countries.
Over 900 plant disease specimens were received in
the Plant Disease Clinic during 1974. Many of these
were submitted by the homeowner or commerical
grower, but the majority were from county agents.
With the Environmental Protection Agency's pro-
gram of mandatory "Certified Applicator" heading
toward implementation in October of 1976, emphasis
has been placed on various phases of this program
which concern Plant Pathology. Extension's role in
training growers and applicators to meet the require-
ments of the State of Florida and the Environmental
Protection Agency will be extremely important to all
growers of Florida who use restricted pesticides.

Poultry Science

Extension's continuing role in conducting layer strain
evaluation trials at the Chipley Poultry Evaluation
Center has played an important part in Florida's rise
to a national ranking of seventh place in egg produc-
tion by providing constant in-depth evaluation of the
important economic characteristics of layer strains
available to Florida poultry producers.
In response to the potential problem of aflatoxin
producing molds in feeds and feedstuffs, training
meetings were conducted throughout the state in which
county Extension agents were educated in means of
recognizing and preventing development of aflatoxins.
Numerous poultry feed mills have been instructed on
the dangers of aflatoxin and how to prevent the prob-
lems which could be very costly through loss of chick-
ens or production.
Much assistance has been given in locations of high

Florida soils vary depending on the parent material,
climate, age and vegetation. There are four general
soil areas in the state-the loamy soils, the well-to-
excessively drained sand ridge, the flatwoods, and the
organic soils.
Land use planning decisions vary with soil charac-
teristics and the need today for sound land use plan-
ning is more important than ever. To help fill this
need, a series of Soil Identification Short Courses de-
signed for county Extension staffs were completed.
In addition, early; this year arrangements were
made to hold a workshop in Hillsborough county for
the Agribusiness and Natural Resources Education
(Smith Hughes) teachers. The workshop included a
tour which afforded participants an opportunity to see
typical profiles of the predominant soils of the area.
Comments made by the students stated that this
kind of short course is very beneficial in keeping
abreast of technology which was developed since

poultry populations, especially by the area Extension
poultry specialist in the settlement of zoning problems
to insure continued production of poultry and eggs
which are among Florida's most valuable agricultural
products. Work has been continuing with poultry
farmers to encourage them to be good neighbors by
controlling potential odor and fly nuisance problems.
Special projects were undertaken to develop and
make available more useful information in proper
utilization of poultry manure for fertilizer at a time of
shortage of inorganic fertilizer.
Through the total effort of the entire Extension
poultry staff, assistance has been given in 1974 to
Florida poultry producers, thus helping them to con-
tinue to produce and make available to Florida con-
sumers quality poultry meat and eggs in an abundant
supply and at an economical price.

their last formal training experience in the Soil Science
subject matter area. Additional workshops will be
scheduled in the future.
The Extension Soils Testing Laboratory processed in
excess of 36,690 samples which were received from all
67 counties of the state. This is a continuing program
which supports all commodity disciplines and com-
mercial agricultural enterprises as well as the research
programs underway.
Several thousand boys and girls representing 4-H
and other youth in 32 counties took part in land ap-
preciation schools and judging contests to improve
their understanding of Florida soils, their alternative
uses, and conservation needs. Benefits realized in-
cluded increased knowledge and skill on the part of
participants at all levels in science and technology re-
garding the relationships of natural resources in the
environment and increased interest in higher education
and employment in resource-oriented careers.

Vegetable Crops

Commercial Production
It is estimated unofficially that the vegetable pro-
duction season ending in mid-1974 may supercede
the $400 million gross of the previous year. Some
significant developments are worthy of note. Pro-
ducers of celery and late spring potatoes suffered dis-
astrously from depressed prices. However, other seg-
ments of the industry fared well. Tomato growers not
only produced bumper crops, but also received better
than average prices. Producers of other commodities
ranged in between these two categories from the
standpoint of yields and prices obtained. Labor was

plentiful but-comprised a major portion of the total
The vegetable Extension program placed consider-
able emphasis on efficient use of resources during the
period of shortages and high prices. An intensive
educational program in efficient usage of fertilizer,
without doubt, benefited most vegetable growers.
Another program receiving major emphasis was the
use of full-bed, plastic much culture for tomato, pep-
per, eggplant and other crops. It is estimated that
mulched acreage in 1974 more than doubled over the
previous year. Concurrently, average yields per acre

A field of tomatoes grown under the highly successful plastic-
mulched system.

rose significantly on the crops on which it was used.
Records show that a drop of almost 25 percent in
acreage resulted in less than a 9 percent drop in total
production of tomatoes from 1972-73 to 1973-74.
Special emphasis on this program, so successful in
1974, is continuing in 1975 in an effort to help keep
the Florida vegetable production profitable.

Harvesting and Handling
Extension efforts in harvesting and handling are be-
ginning to pay dividends to Florida's vegetable in-
dustry. Packinghouse sanitation has been improved
generally with the initiation of a priority program of
use of chlorination treatment of wash water. The pro-
gram benefits not only the shipper, who now loses
less produce in transit, but also the housewife who
buys the vegetables.
A program to expand markets for Florida tomatoes
was a success from the beginning. Tomatoes picked
"red-ripe" in the field, carefully handled and shipped
to local markets outsold regular tomatoes threefold
even at premium prices. Similar market development
and consumer preference work is being expanded to
other vegetable crops, too.

The Extension program in harvesting and handling
is also active in the area of packing for vegetable
crops. Receivers are demanding that vegetables be
packed in standardized containers which can be pal-
letized for ease of handling. To remain competitive,
Florida vegetable growers must be in a position of
leadership or suffer loss of some of their markets. Ex-

tension specialists are actively working with govern-
ment and industry agencies involved in research and
development of new materials and techniques needed
for packing and transporting vegetables in the future.

Vegetable Gardening
Recent developments in world food supplies, high
prices and "WIN" programs have resulted in a tre-
mendous upsurge in requests for vegetable gardening
information. The number of gardens in Florida has
increased manyfold in the past two years. Florida's
climate is ideal for gardening, but technical know-how
is needed to insure success.
The Extension program in vegetable gardening has
been expanded by the addition of a professionally
trained assistant. The program is turning out instruc-
tional information on vegetable gardening as fast as
it can. This includes pamphlets, TV tapes, news re-
leases, on-the-spot garden clinics and lectures. Gar-
deners are gobbling up these materials as fast as
they are produced and distributed. The results of this
program are hard to measure, but certainly are im-
pressive. Duval county reports that it now has over
70,000 gardens. An attendance record of 1,500 avid
gardeners at a Sarasota lecture attests to the value
placed on the programs. Gardeners all over the state
are reaping the benefits not only of nutritious, fresh
vegetables, but also of plentiful sunshine, fresh air
and healthful exercise.

Cucumbers being palletized in a packinghouse.

Veterinary Medicine

Fifteen to 32 percent of potential animal production
never reaches the market because of diseases. Ani-
mals fail to produce living young; animals die; valu-
able feeds are wasted with poor feed efficiency and
retarded growth; milk production fails to reach max-
imum potential and diseased animals are condemned
at packing plants.
To reduce these losses, the Florida legislature has
provided for the establishment of a College of Veteri-
nary Medicine at the University of Florida with con-
struction scheduled to begin in early 1975. The
Cooperative Extension Service has begun plans to
integrate this new resource into programs for the pre-
vention and control of diseases.
During 1974 beef cow-calf health clinics held in
strategic areas of the state helped cattlemen to reduce
disease losses in beef herds. Calf raising schools for
dairymen were designed to reduce the more than 20
percent death loss in dairy calves. Educational pro-
grams helped acquaint horsemen with new research
and regulations related to equine infectious anemia.
Most dairymen have adopted the practice of dipping

of teats after milking, a practice that reduces mastitis
losses by 20 to 50 percent. Calving percentages have
increased about 10 percent in the last five years.
Poultry and swine diseases were also given attention.
Fifteen slide-audio sets and films on animal dis-
eases were made available through county Extension
agents and practicing veterinarians for showing to
livestock groups, 4-H Clubs, and companion animal
owners. This method provides new opportunities for
local education programs and expands the productiv-
ity and effectiveness of University faculty at a min-
imum of cost during a time when conservation of
energy and resources is desirable. Printed informa-
tion on the prevention and control of animal diseases
also serves a similar purpose.

Realistically, the new College of Veterinary Med-
icine and expanded efforts in research and extension
programs can result in reduction of animal disease
losses by 20 percent by 1980-an approximate saving
of $32 million annually to the food production in-
dustry at a time when elimination of waste is vital.


I Ii1

Community Resource Developmenl


Community Resource Development

Every county in Florida is served by a community
development committee that gives advice and direc-
tion to county Extension personnel. Working with the
support of these groups and other organized bodies
the Cooperative Extension Service was able to make
a major impact on many community problems during
1974. These varied in magnitude from a water con-
tamination problem in Gadsden county affecting half
a dozen families to a water shortage problem af-
fecting about 20,000 people in Vero Beach. In the
latter case the Cooperative Extension Service helped
plan a canal to bring water from a storage area 22
miles away.
Water from a surface spring being used by families
in the St. Johns Community was collected by the Ex-
tension agent and tested by the health department.
Contaminants were found to be causing illness among
families in the community. Information from this
case was used in formulating support for a water bill
n9w in the Florida legislature.
A pressing community problem throughout Florida
is the disposition of sewage wastes. A promising
development is the use of open land for disposal of
the effluent. A good example is in the Tampa Bay
area where rapid urbanization compounds sewage
problems. One recently built plant is using 32 acres
for the treated effluent and local officials are consider-
ing the feasibility of adding additional acreage. Ex-
tension personnel cooperated in this project by pro-
viding information on soil structure (into which wells
are drilled to monitor movement of the nutrients) and
information and assistance on seeding, fertilizing, and
management of grasses grown on the area. Knowl-
edge gained on this and similar projects helped de-
termine the feasibility of land spread systems in other
communities. Extension personnel throughout the
state are monitoring such systems and giving technical
assistance as needed.
A sewage plant being constructed in Osceola county
will dispose 2 million gallons per day. The local
Extension director helped locate land suitable for
spreading the effluent and was instrumental in in-
volving the local land owner in the operation.
In Broward county Extension personnel are working
with the Fort Lauderdale city authorities on plans to
use both animal waste and waste from sewage plants
to improve soils in golf courses and airport instal-
lations. Animal waste from the race tracks is being
used for improvement of grass at the track and for
nursery plants in the area.
Dairy farmers in particular are receiving valuable
assistance from Extension with development of im-
proved ways of disposing solid wastes. In Indian

River county alone, four dairies have changed to sys-
tems of spreading and pumping effluent through ir-
rigation pipes. Another dairy has installed a com-
pletely new sediment system to dispose of the waste.
A problem faced by every community in Florida is
the need for improved housing, especially for low and
moderate income families. Extension personnel at both
state and county levels have conducted educational
programs to help bring about improvement in existing
homes as well as the establishment of new housing
developments. Extension Home Economics personnel
have provided families with educational programs on
how to care for new homes. This has been especially
helpful in protecting properties from misuse by fam-
ilies unaccustomed to modern home facilities.
Since Extension programs in community resource
development deal primarily with group decisions and
group action, a basic premise for the success of these
efforts is effective organization and enlightened lead-
ership. Extension programs in leadership develop-
ment have been especially effective with individuals
who, because of social, economic, ethnic or other rea-
sons, have refrained from involvement in community
problems or activities. Leadership schools for these
families were held in a dozen different communities in
rural Florida. Participants were shown how to func-
tion in groups in an acceptable manner. The major
thrust was to prepare individuals to move into outer
circles, to participate in established groups, and to
communicate effectively with others in the group proc-
Potential leaders from 16 different counties were
brought to the campus of Florida A & M University for
a three-day training workshop in leadership develop-
ment. Participants from the Robertsville Community
returned home to practice what they had learned on
problem identification and analysis, goal setting and
the application of workable solutions. They formed a
community improvement group to work on local prob-
lems. Encouraged by their initial effort to establish
road signs at all critical points in the community, they
moved on to obtain approval for plans to pave roads
where pavement has never existed before. Success
in applying the skills and principals learned in the
leadership training schools is encouraging the group
to attack more difficult problems.
As Florida's rapid growth creates severe develop-
mental problems, especially on the rural-urban fringe,
the Cooperative Extension Service is providing educa-
tional assistance in support of sound land use plan-
ning. It is contributing to the process of preserving
the best agricultural lands for agricultural use and
promoting orderly growth for other types of develop-

F I r .i

I Home Economics


_ __

_ ___ __

Extension Home Economics

Impact on Families
Florida's semi-tropical climate, and its national
reputation as a vacation and retirement center of the
United States has swelled its population to an esti-
mated record high of 7,845,092 in 1973. Though it
is noted as a retirement state, only 15 percent of Flor-
ida's residents are 65 or over. Minority representa-
tion of numerous ethnic, racial, and cultural groups
further diversify Florida's population. The onrush of
people to Florida has brought with it the need for
educational programs to enhance and develop this
human resource. Extension Home Economics con-
tinues to serve this purpose. In 1974 programs were
developed on themes of focus areas that were estab-
lished by a national task force. These were family
stability, health, resource management, and home en-

Family Stability
Promoting Adequate Child Care
The need for emphasis on child care in Florida re-
sulted form an increased number of children under
the age of five, an increased number of employed
mothers, and more understanding of the significance
of the early years as crucial in a child's development.
Through various means the Florida Cooperative Ex-
tension Service promoted better child care in 1974. In
23 counties, educational programs were conducted to
enlighten parents and others who work with children
regarding the physical, cognitive, social and emotional
developmental process of children. In several coun-
ties Extension Home Economics agents serve as con-
sultants for child care center personnel to assist them
regarding provision of an environment for individual
growth of children in a group child care facility.
Child care center personnel in a number of counties
have received training to improve their competence in
providing a stimulating environment for children.
Education for future parenthood was provided through
projects and activities undertaken by 4,000 youth.
Involving Florida's Retirees
Literally thousands of retirees migrate to Florida
every year to make it their home. Helping these per-
sons to find a place in our continuing programs and
developing new programs to meet their special needs
has been emphasized in the Extension Home Econom-
ics Program. Extension Home Economics agents from
25 counties received training in psychological adjust-

ment to aging and financial planning and manage-
ment for retirees. Sixty volunteer leaders represent-
ing 44 counties received training that has helped them
create educational programs aimed at helping retirees
and other special groups become actively involved in
projects that meet their needs. As a result of such pro-
grams, low-income youth were provided summer
camping experiences; isolated, immobile older resi-
dents were provided with such services as delivery of
meals and daily contacts with other persons; fixed in-
comes of retirees have been subsidized through pro-
visions of outlets for goods produced; psychological
adjustment to death has been studied; social needs of
individauls have been met; and interest in the con-
tinuing educational process has been established.

Based on the Consumer Price Index, the cost of
medical care has increased approximately 25 percent
since 1970 and food costs have increased 43 percent.
Maintenance of health constitutes a considerable seg-
ment of the family budget. Emphasis is placed on
helping people realize their personal roles and re-
sponsibility in maintaining health, as well as devising
ways to provide adequate nourishment for their fam-
ilies with the dwindling dollar.

Extension focuses attention on educational programs that promote
utilization of Florida's resource of "grand people" to develop the
state's 616,000 "little people."

Alleviating Major Health Problems

The Home Economics Food and Nutrition Section
undertook a major program in Food Sanitation entitled,
"Sanitation Unlimited" and developed a companion
program for 4-H club members. And increased oc-
currence of disease due to lack of sanitary practice has
brought national attention to the need for educating
people about the necessity of sanitation as an im-
portant factor in disease prevention. In one rural
county alone, 40 food handlers representing 15 food
establishments were trained in sanitation and an ad-
ditional 200 homemakers received training on the

Emphasizing Food Safety and Sanitation

Other programs were planned and implemented to
alleviate some of Florida's health problems. Educa-
tional programs concerned with the problem of breast
cancer and arteriosclerotic heart disease have been in-
itiated. At the state level 1,500 people were trained
in the BSE program. In addition, Extension has
trained leaders to coordinate programs involving other
health agencies to focus on reducing cardiovascular
As a result of the state training, 54 county volun-
teers are activating programs at the local level. Nine
counties reported implementing and carrying out a
hypertensive screening program with approximately
3,500 people being tested.
Other innovative programs have been conducted at
the local level on low-cholesterol meals, changed eat-

Extension Home Economics teaches careful selection of food to
economize and provide nutritional requirements for family members.

ing habits, and exercise programs essential to the
well-being of potential heart disease victims. In 1971,
16.1 males and 9.6 females per 100,000 nonwhites
died of hypertension and a high percentage of heart
related deaths were attributed to arteriosclerotic heart

Coping With the Cost of Living
The growing complexity of the national economic
situation suggests the need for continuing education
for all segments of the population regarding better
management of human and non-human resources. In
response to many requests from budget minded home-
makers, a state-wide food preservation workshop was
conducted jointly by the Food Science and Home Eco-
nomics Departments for 60 county home economics
agents. Homemakers, in an effort to provide better
nutrition for their families, are growing more gardens;
taking advantage of the increasingly popular u-pick
fields; and freezing or canning these fresh products.
Sixty-seven county home economists were also trained
in "Timely Food Topics", providing up-to-date infor-
mation to help consumers understand economic trends
and legislation affecting market decisions.
Persons living within fixed budgets and low income
families are experiencing the brunt of the rising cost
of living. Extension's Expanded Food and Nutrition
Program is charged with helping families in poverty
or near poverty to improve their diets and manage
resources more effectively. In 1974, the program pro-
vided intensive training for 12,865 program families
of which 33 percent were on welfare, 52 percent re-
ceived food stamps, and 45 percent had incomes of
$3,000 or less.
In addition, 8,395 youths in the state were involved
in experiences related to the improvement of diets,
nutrition, and personal development. Training for
families and youth included such areas as designing a
realistic budget, meal planning, food shopping, label-
ing, alternate protein sources, food for various age
groups, storage of foods, food safety and sanitation.

Resource Management
Each year the average family uses the equivalent of
2,276 gallons of gasoline in various forms of energy.
Families are using about 30 percent of the nation's
total energy around homes and for travel. The fuel
shortage and the continued rising cost of living pointed
up the need for educational programs in the area of
resource management.

Conserving Energy
"Saving Energy Can Save Money" was a major
home economics program for homemaking clubs and
special interest groups. The state home economics

Approximately 36,000 energy conservation cards, printed in Spanish
and English, were supplied to motels and hotels in Florida to remind
guests to conserve energy while visiting the Sunshine State.
specialists prepared 15 energy conservation leaflets,
slide sets and scripts, cards and stickers. Using these
materials, volunteer Extension Homemakers in 38 coun-
ties presented over 200 educational programs, and
assembled and distributed over 5,300 booklets to the
offices of doctors and dentists, beauty shops, libraries,
chambers of commerce, and other public lobbies where
people may wait for appointments.
Topics dealt with were: Cooling, Heating, Home
Lighting, Laundrying, Building and Remodeling, Auto-
mobile Insulation, Weatherstripping, Keeping Warm in
a Crisis, Home Furnishings, Econo-Pot Cookery and

Improving Management Skills

A learn-by-mail series was developed and sent to
counties to reach young marrieds. The "For Richer,
For Poorer" series included the following topics: Plan
Your Future Now; How to Live on What You Make;
The Cost of Raising a Child; How To Feel You're Get-
ting Your Money's Worth at the Supermarket; and The
Art of Using Credit. In addition, over 163,437 young
people were enrolled in consumer competence and/or
resource management projects.
Mass media has proven effective in reaching new
audiences with consumer information. The "Con-
sumers Ask" news column is released weekly to 31
newspapers that are circulated to 2 million readers
throughout the state. Packets of mass media infor-
mation for use on radio, TV and in newsletters is dis-
tributed quarterly to Extension Home Economics
agents. Monthly newsletters on clothing and con-
sumer education are sent to counties. A low-reading
level publication is produced and distributed to
168,000 households each year.

Home Environment
According to the 1970 census, 19.5 percent of Flor-
ida families have annual incomes of less than $4,000.

For this population the problem was to find ways to
remodel, repair, refinish, replace equipment and fur-
nish the home with low-cost items.

Maintaining the Home

Do-it-yourself projects have been emphasized this
year. Each county providing training in this area
selected a home in need of repair to demonstrate in-
expensive insulation materials and how to wallpaper,
paint, weatherstrip, repair walls, lay carpet, repair
faucets and repair screens and broken windows. One
county reported a total of 46,143 contacts through
newspaper, radio, special workshop meetings and TV
programs on ways individuals can save money by
doing their own home repairs.

Teaching Responsibilities of Home Ownership

In the area of housing, Extension Home Economics
is providing pre-homeownership educational programs
for low-income families who are receiving FmHA 502
interest credit loans to buy a home. Responsibilities
of homeownership are stressed, including the repay-
ment of the loan or mortgage, the necessity of main-
taining a suitable fire insurance policy, paying yearly
taxes, filing for a homestead tax exemption, and war-
ranty agreement for a new home. Maintenance and
management are also emphasized when families oc-
cupy new homes.
Educational materials are also provided in other
areas of housing such as financing a home; sources of
credit; choosing a mobile home; and factors to con-
sider in selecting a condominium.
Home Economics para-professionals worked with
low-income level families in home maintenance and
clothing. For example, aids in one county contacted
and worked with 1,488 persons in improving home-
making skills.

Promotion by Extension Home Economies of "Do-It-Yourself"
renovations and home maintenance helped Florida families to

I I F 11








Florida 4-H

A Youth Oriented Service of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service

Meteorology and climatology, oceanography, emer-
gency preparedness, personal development, career ex-
ploration, community development, international
study, public affairs education-do these sound like
4-H? One might question that these are the types of
activities envisioned by early leaders as developing
from the Corn and Tomato Clubs which originated 4-H
programming for American Youth. Even though con-
tent may be changing, apparently much of that which
accompanied participation in these early clubs still
works to assist young people in becoming responsible
productive adult citizens today.

What We're Learning about Youth
Emerging national studies are assisting in providing
opportunities for program revision and the develop-
ment of new approaches to meet the changing needs
of youth. Results reflect the concerns of young peo-
ple both in their everyday lives and in participation
in 4-H. They express concern over ecology and popu-
lation growth, over youth's voice in society's decision-
making process and in receiving help with decisions
such as education and career plans affecting their
Youth are concerned with problems of self-identity
and relating with others, including parents, and in
receiving help with personal problems. Obtaining
money and making good grades reflect achievement
and related concerns. The process of award achieve-
ment, and the value of competition, particularly as a
screening-out device are being questioned by youth
Responses to the question as to the kinds of com-
munity youth activities which need to be established
indicate the young people feel more activities are
needed. In addition, boredom and planning what to
do with their time are indicated concerns. Drug
abuse and alcohol concerns appear to be related to
several and possibly many of these issues facing
young people. There is significant need to increase
activities which will increase and maintain male
participation in 4-H.
Florida 4-H is moving to respond to these research
results and the resulting recommendations. Organ-
ized clubs and activities provide first, a setting for
young people to meet, make friends, talk, and do
things as a group and, secondly, a setting and pro-

gram where young people can obtain information and
assistance with questions and problems which are of
importance to them. This experience supplements and
reinforces in an informal way, the education of youth
in more formal programs.
A major challenge facing Extension 4-H Youth Pro-
grams today is balanced programming, or providing
Extension's services equally to the citizens with the
delivery of the services not based on income, race,
creed, sex, or location of residence. Youth from large
urban areas and youth from the more isolated rural
areas have received least in the way of 4-H program-
ming opportunities. It is this group of young people
who also have the fewest positive and productive free-
time activity alternatives available to them.
Florida 4-H is exerting a major thrust in this direc-
tion. Special interest groups, television program-
ming, a broader range of activities, and the directing
of staff efforts toward programming for unreached
rural and urban youth are included in these efforts.
Programming for contemporary youth includes
problem resolution in the areas of careers, education,
self-development and relationships with others. At-
temps are being made to provide an avenue for en-
trance into 4-H for youth who have no access or
limited access to 4-H.

Some 1974 Highlights
Young people in 26 Florida counties were turned on
to good nutrition this winter and spring. Their county
4-H programs participated in "Mulligan Stew," a

The Florida 4-H program in 1974 continued to offer education
opportunities for Florida youth through both traditional and
innovative activities.

television series developed by the Extension Service of
the United States Department of Agriculture. The six,
30-minute, full color shows combine a five piece rock
band, puppets, animated characters, and a daffy
character named Wilber Dooright. 4-H day camping
experiences in nutrition and related subjects such as
health and grooming were provided for inner city
youth. These activities resulted from the joint efforts
of 4-H county staff leaders, Expanded Nutrition Pro-
gram (ENP) leaders, ENP aides and school systems.
Many of the youth and leaders first reached through
these activities are now being involved in other phases
of the 4-H program.
Community pride projects such as park improve-
ment, ecology studies, community and historical build-
ing restoration, work with the elderly and retarded
are but a few of the 4-H activities designed to assist
in enlisting new target youth and in relating the in-
dividual to his community. Leon county 4-H youth
conducted a sight-saving community project, parti-
cipating in a "Home Eye Test for Preschoolers."
Volusia county had a significant increase in the par-
ticipation of low income and minority youth in 4-H
activities. Further studies will make some assessment
of the responsiveness from urban and isolated rural
young people participating in these kinds of current
and newly developing programs and approaches.

Sewing units were just one area of activity planned by 4-H to
highlight the program year.

New Roles for Agents and Leaders
The studies and indicated needs for program direc-
tion hold important implications for professional staff.
Edwin Kirby, Administrator, Extension Service, United
States Department of Agriculture, indicated to Exten-
sion 4-H agents at the Annual Meeting and Profes-
sional Conference, November 4, 1974:
"If these many resources in combination are to be
effective in Extension 4-H programs, one of your
challenges is to gain expertise in 4-H program
management and implementation. You are becom-
ing responsible for larger and more diverse 4-H
programs. You are becoming responsible for in-
creasing numbers of paraprofessionals and volun-
teers. You are responsible for needed subject mat-
ter expertise to fit the needs and interests of youth
and volunteers who work with youth. These trends
are bringing about a change in the role of Extension
4-H agents. You find yourselves becoming more
and more involved in program management. Con-
sequently, these responsibilities have resulted in the
need for upgrading and inservice training in 4-H
program management. A number of states have
held special seminars and workshops to improve
program management skills."

Many agents in Florida are gaining the expertise
required to revise their roles as 4-H agents. In ad-
dition, the state 4-H staff is developing and imple-
menting a series of workshops designed to enhance
agent competency in program management, devolp-
ment and implementation. At the November confer-
ence Kirby further noted:
"The long range future of Extension 4-H programs
depends upon the involvement and interest of local
people-particularly the volunteer 4-H adult and
youth leaders. These volunteers are an invaluable
resource and their enlistment, development, support,
and recognition should be one of our most im-
portant priorities."
The Southern Regional 4-H Development Committee
has strongly emphasized the importance of a well-
trained corps of volunteers in Extension 4-H youth
work. The Extension Committee on Organization and
Policy has pointed out that training at the county,
district, state, regional and national levels is the key.
In addition to the many county and area leader train-
ing sessions, the first Florida 4-H Volunteer Leader
Forum was held at the University of Florida in con-
nection with the Florida 4-H Congress. The annual
Southern Region 4-H Volunteer Leaders Forum, held
at Rock Eagle, Georgia, was also popular with Florida
4-H volunteer leaders. Several who attended have

Through special workshops and meetings, 4-H agents and leaders are gaining the expertise required to enhance their competency in program
management, development and implementation.

joined in organizing and implementing leader's for-
ums for local leaders.
The social impact on adults who were involved in
the 4-H program has been evident. Community spirit
has developed as adults got together to work toward
a common goal-a 4-H club for the youth of their
area. Cooperation between leaders from several com-
munities to plan and carry out county-wide projects
was also an experience the leaders met with enthus-
iasm. Adults in the several communities have be-
come leaders-not only in 4-H, but have developed
confidence in their leadership ability that is helping
them to become involved in other community and
county leadership roles.

4-H in the Future
Omer Voss, Executive Vice President of International
Harvester and President of the National 4-H Service
Committee stated in a 1974 issue of International
"Everything about 4-H that can be quantified or
counted or measured or averaged or compared with
other years, everything that can be expressed nu-
merically has been computed and accounted for.

And it all adds up to a growing, vital, relevant,
progressive and successful program One thing
is certain and that is that 4-H really does work.
4-H continually attracts more and more young peo-
ple to participation or volunteers to leadership and
it constantly generates new and important pro-
grams. These are demonstrated facts It is not
the intent of 4-H merely to keep the kids occupied
and off the street, but to make a difference-for
good-in their later lives. How do we express it?
"To develop those qualities which boys and girls
must have to provide responsible leadership for the
future; to help youth establish real-life goals and
to become competent, productive citizens."
The Florida 4-H program continues to offer educa-
tional opportunities through the traditional and more
recent innovative activities. However, for 4-H in Flor-
ida, 1974 has constituted a year of examination and
questioning with an eye toward responding to studies
of youth involvement and response to 4-H program-
ming, to rapidly changing needs of youth in our soci-
ety and toward providing leadership in developing
and implementing innovative, effective, informal edu-
cational experiences for these youth.


I .U.m -

SFlorida A&M Programs

Florida A & M Programs

Cooperative Extension Programs were established at
Florida A & M University in 1972 to intensify efforts to
reach citizens whose socio-economic status indicate
they have not benefited from research, extension, or
community service efforts of the two Florida Land-
Grant Universities.
The Florida A & M Programs aim to carry further the
Cooperative Extension Service tradition of helping peo-,
pie to help themselves. Program goals also encourage
those who learn to help themselves to become helpers
of others. The target audiences of this specialized
effort include families, youth, farmers and other rural
To alleviate conditions associated with low socio-
economic status, educational programs are provided in
community development, youth development, family
resource management and management for small
farm operators. To conduct these programs, the Flor-
ida A & M unit utilizes the educational resources of
Florida A & M University, the University of Florida,
and county Extension units. Participating counties are
augmented with additional Extension agents, instruct-
ional resources and an emerging category of Extension
workers called program assistants. Program assistants
are community-based paraprofessionals who work in-
tensively with low-income groups to initiate and main-
tain their involvement in Extension activities.
Anticipated outcomes of these educational programs
are the improvement of living standards of families
and individuals and, consequently, the improvement
of the quality of life in their communities.
Program efforts in 1974 focused on training pro-
gram assistants, the involvement of youth and adults
in community development projects, and increasing
the income of small farm operators.

Community Development
During July 1974, nine program assistants were
employed and trained to work with low-income clien-
tele in Gadsden and Liberty counties. These Extension
workers have contacted 3,562 low-income residents to
identify their needs, interests and problems of their
An anticipated outgrowth of these community con-
tacts was the large number of people-problems un-
covered in trying to determine educational needs.
Program assistants in Gadsden and Liberty counties
aided 142 people by referring their problems to num-
erous state and federal agencies. These referrals in-
volved people who needed Social Security benefits,

day care services, food stamps, veteran benefits, em-
ployment, home financing, health services and various
forms of public assistance.
In Gadsden county, the Extension agent and pro-
gram assistants more than tripled membership in the
St. Johns Robertsville Community Club by increasing
membership in this club from seven to 25 during the
past six months.

Youth Development
Youth development efforts were aimed primarily at
reaching low income and minority youth who had not
previously participated in 4-H programs. Their lack
of participation is attributed to factors such as the
lack of transportation, money and motivated interest.
Extension agents and program assistants of the Flor-
ida A & M Programs increased countywide 4-H par-
ticipation by recruiting volunteer leaders. These lead-
ers facilitated activities of interest to low income youth
by working with parents and other interested individ-
uals in providing transportation to and from club
meetings and other 4-H events.
In Gadsden County 32 new 4-H volunteer leaders
were recruited by Extension program assistants. These
leaders represented 10 new community 4-H clubs with
a total enrollment of 234 members.
Overall, the work of Extension personnel conducting
the Florida A & M Programs gained a significant in-
crease in 4-H participation. During the past year
their efforts increased enrollment in 4-H Programs by
234 in Gadsden County, 184 in Jefferson County, 30
in Jackson County and 60 members in Liberty County.
These increases are, for the most part, low income and
minority youth who are being exposed to 4-H exper-
iences for the first time.

Commercial Agriculture
Program efforts in commercial agriculture focused
on increasing income among small farm operators.
Extension instruction in the application of approved
management practices to their farm enterprises has
enabled a number of farmers to attain higher levels
of production.
Jefferson county 4-H members interested in swine
production, took advantage of the new FmHA loan
program for youth. Six members were granted a loan
of $200 each to purchase registered Duroc bred gilts
to start a swine improvement program. The loans
were paid from the first litters. The gilts are being
served again by a registered boar bought by a group

of small farm operators as a part of the overall county
swine improvement program.
The Extension agent in Jackson county worked in-
tensively with a selected group of farmers to increase
their peanut production goals. An increase of 17
percent over last year's peanut yields was observed
for this group of farmers since their adoption of man-
agement practices recommended by the Extension
A curb market outlet was established in Quincy for
a group of small farm operators and gardeners who

offered a variety of vegetables for sale through the
curb market scheme. Produce sales were $428 on the
first day of curb market operation. During the initial
period of curb market operation, approximately 27,000
customers were accommodated.
Although the Florida A & M Programs are in the in-
itial stages of implementation, it is evident that the
educational benefits of these programs have great
potential for improving the quality of life for citizens
previously unreached by Extension and other educa-
tional methods.



Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended
Agricultural Marketing
Indian Affairs
Expanded Nutrition
1890 Program
Total Federal Funds

State & Trust Funds:
State Funds
County Appropriations
Total State & Trust Funds
Total Cooperative Extension Funds

Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended
Agricultural Marketing
Indian Affairs
Expanded Nutrition
1890 Program
Total Federal Funds
State & Trust Funds:
State Funds
County Appropriations
Total State & Trust Funds
Total Cooperative Extension Funds







Fiscal Year 1974

Program Area
1 Citrus and Other Fruits
and Nuts
2 Vegetable Crops
3 Field Crops
4 Forage, Range and
5 Forest and Forest
6 Ornamentals
7 Beef
8 Dairy
9 Swine
10 Poultry
11 Horses
12 Bees
13 Other Animals
14 Marine and Aquatic Prod.
15 Supp. Disc. Act.
(Commercial Ag.)
21 Pollution Control
22 Wildlife and Fish
23 Recreation
24 Environmental Esthetics
25 Supp. Disc. Act. (Nat.
and Renewable Res.)
31 Family Stability
32 Consumer Competence
33 Family Health
34 Expanded Nutrition
35 Family Housing
36 Community and Regional
37 Manpower and
38 Supp. Disc. Act. (Human
Res. and Qual. of Life)
41 Extension Support and
51 Administration
52 International Programs
53 Facilities
54 Editorial

Mandays % of Total























Mandays % of Total























*Only 74 percent of total available time was planned. Both
eight-hour day.

Sources: Retrieval Nos. 185 and 187

planned time and expended time are based on an












Major Audience Types for which Home Economics Programs are Designed:

Family Members
Senior Citizens
Families with Preschool Children
Extension Homemaker Club Members
Residents of Low-Income Housing
Paraprofessional Expanded Nutrition Program Aids
Major Subject Taught by Extension Home Economists:
Family Living
Consumer Education
Family Economics
Legal Affairs
Food Buying
Donated Foods
Food Stamp Program
Food Preparation and Service
Food Preservation
Home Furnishings
Household Equipment
Home Grounds
Food Production/Gardens
Home Management
Human and Personal Development
Human Relationships

Areas Reached by Expanded Nutrition Program:
Counties Adult Programs
Indian Reservations Adult Programs
Counties Youth Programs
Extension Program Aids
Number of Organized Extension Homemaker Clubs
Number of Extension Homemaker Club Members
Number of Individuals Reached by Leaders in
Homemaker Clubs and Special Interest Meetings
Number of Home Economics Subject Matters Leaders

Number of
Persons Reached




Number of Organized 4-H Clubs 840
Number of 4-H Special Interest Groups and Other 4-H Units 1,441

Number of 4-H Members:
Boys 36,787
Girls 50,144
TOTAL 86,931

Volunteer Leaders:
Adult 3,051
4-H junior and teen boys 139
4-H junior and teen girls 416

4-H Members by Place of Residence:
Farm 9,027
Towns under 10,000 and open country 32,080
Towns and cities 10,000 to 50,000 17,249
Suburbs of cities over 50,000 7,721
Central cities over 50,000 20,854

4-H Members by Age Groups:
Under 9 6,320 15 years of age 3,990
9 years of age 10,078 16 years of age 3,017
10 years of age 11,632 17 years of age 1,584
11 years of age 20,412 18 years of age 462
12 years of age 16,002 19 years of age 32
13 years of age 7,583 Over 19 14
14 years of age 5,805
TOTAL 86,931

Major Audience Types and Number of Persons Reached for 4-H Youth Work:
Youth (4-H) 168,861
Youth (4-H TV) 374
Youth/Adult (4-H) 227,973
Youth (Other) 24,697
Youth/Adult (Other) 75,345
Expanded Nutrition Program -Youth Phase
Volunteer Leaders:
Eight counties with youth program 332
All Expanded Nutrition Program units in state 463
Total Number Youth Enrolled in Nutrition Groups:
Eight counties with youth program 5,076
All Expanded Nutrition Program units in state 8,395

Joe N. Busby, Ph.D., Dean for Extension
Jack T. McCown, Ed.D., Associate Dean for Extension
Raymond C. Andrew, Ph.D., Assistant Dean, Personnel
B. B. Archer, Ph.D., Assistant Dean, FAMU Programs, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee
James J. Brasher, Ph.D., Assistant Dean, Chairman, 4-H and Other Youth Programs
Olive L. Morrill, Ed.D., Assistant Dean, Chairman, Home Economics
James E. Ross, Ph.D., Assistant Dean, Agricultural Programs
Forrest E. Myers, M.Ag., Assistant to the Dean
Alto A. Straughn, Ph.D., Director, Program Evaluation and Organizational Development
R. William Seiders, Ph.D., Extension Program Specialist
Emily E. King, Ph.D., Extension Program Specialist
Donald Y. Aska, B.S., Assistant in Agriculture (Marine Advisory Program)
M. Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Chairman, Editorial Department, 50% Extension
Mrs. JoAnn B. Pierce, M.A., Extension Publication Specialist, 50% Extension
Douglas L. Buck, M. Ag., Extension Television Specialist
Roberts C. Smith, Jr., B.A., Extension Radio Specialist
Marshall H. Breeze, M.A., Extension Communication Specialist, Radio and Television
Miss Alma Warren, M.S., Extension News Specialist
Thomas M. Leahy, Jr., M.S., Marine Advisory Communication Specialist
Leo Polopolus, Ph.D., Chairman, Food and Resource Economics Department, 30% Extension
John Holt, Ph.D., Extension Farm Management Economist, 80% Extension
Charles L. Anderson, M.S.A., Extension Area Farm Management Economist, Lake Alfred, 80% Extension
George O. Westberry, M.S., Extension Area Farm Management Economist, Quincy, 80% Extension
Lawrence A. Halsey, M.A., Extension Area Farm Management Economist, Belle Glade, 70% Extension
James C. Cato, Ph.D., Extension Marine Economist
James A. Niles, Ph.D., Extension Marketing Economist
Ralph A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Extension Marketing Economist
Harold B. Clark, Ph.D., Agricultural Economics Professor, 20% Extension
Charles D. Covey, Ph.D., Extension Economist (Assistant Chairmran for Extension)
William K. Mathis, Jr., Ph.D., Extension Marketing Economist, 90% Extension
Robert O. Coppedge, Ph.D., Extension Rural Development Economist
Clisby C. Moxley, Ph.D., Extension Rural Development Economist
Bennett Abbitt, M.S., Extension Area Resource Development Economist
Kenneth C. Clayton, Ph.D., Extension Economist, 50% Extension
Vernon C. McKee, Ph.D., Director of Planning and Business Affairs, 50% Extension
Virgil L. Elkins, M.S., Extension Area Program Specialist, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee
James C. McCall, M.S., Extension Area Resource Development Specialist, Marianna
James A. Brown, Jr., M.S., Extension Area Resource Development Economist, Swine Evaluation Center, Like Oak
Lawrence Carter, M.S., Extension Rural Development Specialist, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee
Gerald L. Zachariah, Ph.D., Chairman, Agricultural Engineering Department, 10% Extension
Thomas C. Skinner, M.Ag., Extension Agricultural Engineer
Dalton S. Harrison, M.S., Extension Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Extension Agricultural Engineer
Richard P. Cromwell, M. Eng., Extension Agricultural Engineer
Lloyd B. Baldwin, M.A., Extension Agricultural Engineer, 80% Extension
Pat S. Shackelford, Jr., Ph.D., Extension Energy Specialist
Coleman Y. Ward, Ph.D., Chairman, Agronomy Department, 10% Extension
David W. Jones, M.S.A., Extension Agronomist

*List of faculty as of 2/14/75

Wayne L. Currey, Ph.D., Extension Agronomist, 80% Extension
Elmo B. Whitty, Ph.D., Extension Agronomist, 90% Extension
James T. Johnson, Ph.D., Extension Agronomist and Center Director, Live Oak, 50% Extension
Tony J. Cunha, Ph.D., Chairman, Animal Science Department, 10% Extension
James E. Pace, M.S.A., Extension Beef Specialist
Robert L. Reddish, Ph.D., Extension Meats Specialist, 80% Extension
Kenneth L. Durrance, M.Ag., Extension Swine Specialist
Ben H. Crawford, Jr., Ph.D., Extension Horse Specialist
Robert S. Sand, Ph.D., Extension Livestock Specialist
Harold H. VanHorn, Jr., Ph.D., Chairman, Dairy Science Department, 10% Extension
Ronald L. Richter, Ph.D., Extension Dairy Technologist, 70 % Extension
Barney Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Extension Dairy Nutritionist, 70 % Extension
Daniel W. Webb, Ph.D., Extension Dairy Husbandman, 70 % Extension
Lon W. Whitlow, M.S.A., Interim Assistant in Extension Dairy Science
W. G. Eden, Ph.D., Chairman, Entomology and Nematology Department, 30% Extension
James E. Brogdon, M.Ag., Extension Entomologist
John R. Strayer, Ph.D., Extension Entomologist, 90% Extension
Donald E. Short, Ph.D., Extension Entomologist, 80% Extension
Freddie A. Johnson, M.S., Extension Entomologist
Robert A. Dunn, Ph.D., Extension Nematologist, 80% Extension
Kenneth G. Townsend, B.S., Assistant in Extension Entomology, Agricultural Research Center, Lake Alfred
Elzie McCord, Jr., M.S., Assistant in Extension Entomology
John L. Gray, Ph.D., Director, Forest Resources and Conservation, 0% Extension
Thomas G. Herndon, M.S.F., Extension Forester
Anthony S. Jensen, M.S.F., Extension Forester
Dennis R. Crowe, Ph.D., Extension Outdoor Recreation Specialist, 80% Extension
Alfred H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Chairman, Fruit Crops Department, 20% Extension
Richard L. Phillips, Ph.D., Extension Horticulturist
Larry K. Jackson, Ph.D., Extension Citriculturist, 80% Extension
Timothy E. Crocker, Ph.D., Extension Horticulturist
David P. H. Tucker, Ph.D., Extension Horticulturist, Area Citrus Specialist, AREC, Lake Alfred
Wilfred F. Wardowski, II, Ph.D., Extension Horticulturist, Area Fresh Fruits Specialist, AREC, Lake Alfred
Julian W. Sauls, Ph.D., Extension Citriculturist
Chairman, Ornamental Horticulture Department, Vacant
Harry G. Meyers, M.S.A., Extension Turf Specialist, 90% Extension
David F. Hamilton, Ph.D., Extension Ornamental Horticulturist
James T. Midcap, M.S., Extension Ornamental Horticulturist
Richard W. Henley, Ph.D., Extension Ornamental Horticulturist, ARC, Apopka
L. H. Purdy, Ph.D., Chairman, Plant Pathology Department, 10% Extension
Robert S. Mullin, Ph.D., Extension Plant Pathologist
Thomas A. Kucharek, Ph.D., Extension Plant Pathologist
Robert H. Harms, Ph.D., Chairman, Poultry Science Department, 20% Extension
Carrol R. Douglas, Ph.D., Extension Poultryman
Lester W. Kalch, M.Ag., Extension Poultryman
Robert B. Christmas, Ph.D., Extension Poultryman and Supervisor, Poultry Evaluation Center, Chipley
Henry R. Wilson, Ph.D., Poultry Physiology Professor, 10% Extension
Jack L. Fry, Ph.D., Poultry Production Techniques Professor, 10% Extension
Charles F. Eno, Ph.D., Chairman, Soils Department, 10% Extension
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Extension Soils Specialist
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Extension Conservationist
Jerry B. Sartain, Ph.D., Soil Fertility Assistant Professor, 20% Extension
J. F. Kelly, Ph.D., Chairman, Vegetable Crops Department, 30% Extension
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist
James M. Stephens, M.S.A., Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist

James R. Hicks, Ph.D., Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist, 70% Extension
Stephen R. Kostewicz, Ph.D., Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist
Andrew A. Duncan, Ph.D., Professor and Center Director, Homestead, 50% Extension
Mrs. Susan D. Gray, B.S.A., Assistant in Vegetable Crops
Robert K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulture Professor, 40% Extension
C. E. Cornelius, Ph.D., Chairman, Veterinary Science Department, 0% Extension
George W. Meyerholz, D.V.M., Extension Veterinarian
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Chairman, Food Science Department, 10% Extension
Richard F. Matthews, Ph.D., Extension Food Technologist, 80% Extension
William E. McCullough, Ph.D., Extension Food Technologist
Robert P. Bates, Ph.D., Food Processing Associate Professor, 10% Extension
Mason E. Marvel, Ph.D., Assistant Director of International Programs, 50% Extension
Mrs. Roberta H. Hall, M.S., Extension Home Furnishings Specialist
Mrs. Marie S. Hammer, M.S., Extension Home Economist (ENP)
Mrs. Beth H. Walsh, M.S., Extension Food Specialist
Miss Vervil L. Mitchell, M.S., Extension Home Management and Family Economics Specialist
Mrs. Mary N. Harrison, M.S., Extension Consumer Education Specialist
Mrs. Lizette L. Murphy, M.S., Extension Consumer Education Specialist (Mass Media)
Miss Glenda L. Warren, M.S., Extension Nutritionist (ENP)
Mrs. Yancy B. Walters, M.H.E., Extension Home Economics ENP Coordinator
Miss Evelyn A. Rooks, M.H.E., Extension Human Development Specialist
Miss Lora A. Kiser, M.A., Extension Home Economist
Miss R. Nadine Hackler, M.S., Extension Clothing Specialist
Mrs. Faye T. Plowman, M.A., Extension Housing Specialist
Billy J. Allen, M.Ag., Extension 4-H Youth Specialist
Thomas C. Greenwalt, Ed.D., Extension 4-H Youth Specialist
Miss Ruth L. Milton, M.S., Extension 4-H Youth Specialist
Miss Linda L. Dearmin, M.S., Extension 4-H Youth Specialist
James C. Northrop, Ed.D., Extension 4-H Youth Specialist
J. Michael Davis, Ph.D., Assistant Rural Sociologist, 30% Extension
Damon Miller, M.S., Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee
Pauline F. Calloway, Ed.D., District Agent
James L. App, Ph. D., District Agent
William H. Smith, Ed.D., District Agent
Earl M. Kelly, Ed.D., District Agent



Adam T. Andrews, M.Ag.
John E. Moser, B.S.A.
Mrs. Jeanette S. Brown, M.S.
Mrs. Marion L. Buckland, B.S.

Aubrey L. Harrell, M.A.

Horace M. Carr, B.S.
Jeffrey A. Fisher, M.S.
Mrs. Eliza M. Jackson, B.S.
Mrs. Karen K. Olson, M.S.

Bobby L. Taylor, M.Ag.
James L. Parrish, M.S.A.
Miss Kathleen E. Brown, M.A.

J. Lowell Loadholtz, M.S.
Sylvester A. Rose, M.S.
Alfred B. Humphrys, M.A.
Mrs. Sue B. Bledsoe, B.S.
Mrs. Aurilla D. Birrel, B.S.
Mrs. Joy W. Satcher, B.S.

Lewis E. Watson, M.S.
James F. Cummings, M.Ag.
William R. Llewellyn, M.S.A.
Mrs. Dorothy Y. Gifford, B.S.
Miss Patricia M. Englebrecht, M.S.
Mrs. Delores L. Verriett, B.S.
Mrs. Elaine T. Klatt, M.S.
Miss Linda Watermolen, B.S.

James R. Yelvington, M.Ag.
Jerry A. Wyrick, M.S.A.
Miss Linda D. Bamburg, B.S.

Mrs. Pctricia A. Smith, M.S.

Arthur D. Alston, M.Ag.
Mrs. Paula P. Stanley, B.S.

*List of county faculty as of 2/14/75

Thomas J. Godbold, B.S.E.
Mrs. Emily G. Harper, B.S.
Miss Janice D. Hand, B.S.

Donald W. Lander, M.Ag.
James E. Bellizio, M.S.
Dallas B. Townsend, B.S.A.
Mrs. Elizabeth Gratsch, B.S., 50% Extension

Neal M. Dukes, B.S.
Richard H. Smith, M.S.
Mrs. Mary E. Anderson, B.S.
Mrs. Deborah M. George, B.S.

John D. Campbell, B.S.A.
Roy J. Champagne, M.S.
Louis J. Daigle, M.Ag.
Ralph W. Moore, B.S.
Joseph D. Dalton, Ph.D.
Seymour Goldweber, B.S.
John F. McGuire, M.S.A.
William M. Stall, Ph.D.
Mrs. Justine L. Bizette, B.S.
Miss Mary A. Holmes, M.S.
Miss Victoria M. Simpson, B.S.
Mrs. Grace R. Hauser, B.S.
Mrs. Judy M. Dellapa, B.S.
Miss Janith K. Masteryanni, M.S.
Miss Margo 1. Greenberg, B.S.H.E.
Ms. Claribell G. Webb, B.S.

Clayton E. Hutcheson, M.S.
Mrs. Mary A. Roe, B.S.

Thomas R. Burton, Jr., M.Ag.

James N. Watson, B.S.A.
Edward Allen, M.S.A.
Thomas H. Braddock, Jr., M.S.A.
Harold C. Jones, M.A.
Ernest L. Stephens, M.S.
Mrs. Bessie J. Canty, M.S.
Mrs. Sarah M. Board, B.S.

Miss Tamer L. Britton, M.Ed.
Mrs. Carol A. Lotz, B.S.
Mrs. Duska M. Dorschel, M.S.H.E.
Mrs. Sandra L. McCoy, B.S.
Miss Helen Turk, B.S.

Edward J. Cowen, M.Ag.
James H. Walker, M.S.A.
Daniel E. Mullins, M.S.
Marvin F. Weaver, M.S.
Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson, B.S.
Miss Linda K. West, M.S.
Miss Vickie M. Brannon, M.S.

George H. Newbury, M.S.A.

James B. Estes, M.A.

John C. Russell, M.Ag.
Bernard H. Clark, B.S.A.
Henry G. Grant, M.S.
Mrs. Dicki D. Bentley, B.S.
Mrs. Ursula H. Williams, B.S.
Mrs. Shirley T. Clark, B.S.

William L. Brown, B.S.

Billy O. Bass, M.S.A.

Cubie R. Laird, M.Ed.

Rance A. Andrews, B.S.A.
Isaac Chandler, Jr., B.S.
Mrs. Wylma B. White, M.S.

Jack C. Hayman, M.Ag.
Mrs. Nannie M. Cochran, B.S.

Raymond H. Burgess, M.S.A.
Charlie A. Lowery, M.S.
Mrs. Vicki S. Chipman, B.A.

Albert D. Dawson, B.S.A.
Ms. Helen H. Fleming, M.S.H.E.
George T. Hurner, Jr., B.S.
Miss Joan A. Hoffman, B.S.

Jean Beem, M.S.A.
Paul E. Glasscock, B.S.
James E. Richards, M.S.A.
Robert D. Downs, B.S.A.
Wayne T. Wade, M.Ed.
Charles F. Hinton, Ill, Ph.D.
Roger D. Newton, M.S.
John C. Smehyl, M.Ag.
Mrs. Helen P. Webb, B.S.
Mrs. Virginia H. Coombs, B.S.
Mrs. Ruth T. Penner, B.S.
Mrs. Mary B. Somers, B.S.H.E.

Lawrence D. Taylor, M.S.
William C. Taylor, B.A.
Mrs. Mary J. Castello, B.S.

Forrest N. McCullars, B.S.A.

William E. Collins, B.S.A.
Charles L. Brasher, M.S.
Mrs. Jane R. Burgess, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Cathy M. Peel, M.S.

Albert H. Odom, M.Ag.
James A. Nealy, M.A.
Miss Beverly J. Nixon, M.S.

James B. Morris, Ill, M.S.

Jackson A. Haddox, M.A.
John L. Jackson, Jr., M.Ag.
Laurence A. Sistrunk, M.S.
Mrs. Marian B. Valentine, B.S.H.E.
Miss Doris L. Milligan, M.S.
Mrs. Alice B. Ayers, M.Ret.

Robert G. Curtis, B.S.A.
Marlowe K. Iverson, M.S.
Mrs. Dorothy J. Classon, B.S.
Mrs. Charlotte W. Carr, B.A.

Harvey T. Paulk, M.Ag.
Michael E. Demaree, M.S.A.
George C. Henry, Jr., M.Ed.
Lawrence A. Heitmeyer, M.S.
Mrs. Martha M. Washington, B.S.
Mrs. Ann W. Parramore, B.S.
Mrs. Lorraine T. Sanders, M.S.

William F. Marlow, M.E.

Leonard C. Cobb, M.Ag.
William R. Womble, B.S.A.
Mrs. Judith A. Lukowski, B.S.
Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr., M.A.
John A. Baldwin, M.S.A.
Leon R. Brooks, B.S.
Mrs. Mae M. Anderson, B.S.
Miss Deloris M. Jones, B.S.

Robert T. Montgomery, M.S.
Larry W. Harms, M.S.
David D. Coughenower, M.S.
William J. Messina, M.S.
Mrs. Dena K. Summerford, M.S.
Miss Susan K. Shaw, B.S.

Edsel W. Rowan, B.S.A.
William J. Phillips, Jr., M.S.
Robert L. Renner, Jr., M.A.
Mrs. Sarah K. Thomas, B.S.
Miss Barbara A. Cooper, B.S.
Mrs. Jo M. Carver, B.S.
Robert B. Whitty, M.S.
Mrs. Martha B. Norton, M.S.
Richard E. Warner, Ph.D., 75% Ex
Judson T. Fulmer, M.Ed.
Mrs. Sandra R. Jones, B.S.
Jack D. Patten, B.S.
Charles M. Walthall, M.S.
Mrs. Ann P. Jeter, B.S.

Rayburn K. Price, M.Ag.
Miss Brenda J. Cunningham, B.S.

Henry F. Swanson, M.S.A.
Bruce A. Barmby, M.S.
Oscar J. Hebert, Jr., M.S.
Thomas J. MacCubbin, M.S.
Lester C. Floyd, Jr., B.S.
Mrs. Marjorie L. Williams, B.S.
Mrs. Mary A. Moore, M.A.T.
Mrs. Leala R. Collins, B.S.
Mrs. Linda W. Luman, B.S.
James B. Smith, B.S.A.
Mrs. Marilyn B. Tileston, B.S.H.E.

Robert S. Pryor, B.S.
Frederick E. Boss, M.S.
DeArmand L. Hull, M.S.
Raleigh S. Griffis, M.Ag.
John H. Causey, B.S.A.
Klaus J. Geyer, B.S.
Eugene Joyner, B.S.
Mrs. Arlen C. Jones, B.S.
Mrs. Marylou W. Shirar, M.Ed.
Mrs. Rosalind W. Krueger, B.S.
Mrs. Ruth A. Holmes, B.S.
Mrs. Beverly B. Harrington, B.S.
Mrs. Josephine F. Lee, B.S.
Mrs. Suzanne Farmer, B.S.
James D. Sumner, B.S.A.
Miss Clara A. Smith, B.S.
Mrs. Barmell B. Dixon, B.S.
Mrs. Teresa W. Macrae, M.S.

Gilbert M. Whitton, Jr., M.Ag.
Charles E. Rowan, M.Ag.
Richard E. Bir, M.S.
William J. Herman, None
Mrs. Dorothy E. Draves, B.S.
Miss Nancy B. Whigham, B.S.
Mrs. Virginia D. Gardner, M.S.
Mrs. Billie J. Stewart, B.S.
Mrs. Shirley R. Bond, M.S.
Robert M. Davis, M.Ag.
Thomas W. Oswalt, M.S.A.
Dan E. Schrader, M.S.
David M. Solger, M.Ag.
Sidney L. Sumner, M.S.A.
Ronald P. Muraro, M.S.
Mrs. Alice P. Kersey, M.S.
Mrs. Josephine M. Cameron, M.S.

Mrs. Ruth A. Miller, B.S.
Mrs. Gayle P. Jenkins, M.A.
Miss Juliann S. Martin, B.S.

Ralph T. Clay, B.S.A.
Mrs. Essie H. Thompson, B.S.
Mrs. Rosa L. Banks, B.S.

Paul L. Dinkins, M.Ag.
James D. Dilbeck, M.S.
Miss Nettie R. Brown, B.S.

Hugh C. Whelchel, Jr., B.S.
Timothy P. Gaver, B.S.
Mrs. Marguerite R. Brock, B.S.

William C. Zorn, M.Ag.
Jack J. Spears, M.Ag.
Miss Fern S. Nix, B.S.
Miss Margaret M. Pitts, B.S.

Luther L. Rozar, Jr., M.Ag.
Edwin S. Pastorius, B.S.A.
Miss Jeanette Meadows, M.S.
Mrs. Betty M. McQueen, M.S.

Frank J. Jasa, B.S.A.
Reginald L. Brown, M.S.A.
Mrs. Louise L. Gill, B.S.H.E.

Donald A. George, B.S.A.
Miss Dorothy P. Hawkins, B.S.

William C. Smith, Jr., Ph.D.
Henry E. Jowers, B.S.
Mrs. Janice R. McRee, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Meredith C. Taylor, B.S.

Henry P. Davis, B.S.A.
Mrs. Carole B. Mott, B.S.

William J. Cowen, B.S.A.

Thomas R. Townsend, M.S.
Larry L. Loadholtz, M.S.
George A. Hindery, Ph.D.
Mrs. Betty M. Vernon, B.S.
Mrs. Diane E. Yates, B.S.
Mrs. Joan S. Holt, B.S.

Bobby R. Durden, B.S.A.
Mrs. Marilyn J. Halusky, B.S.

James E. Thomaston, M.Ag.
Mrs. Virginia C. Clark, B.S.
Mrs. Becky E. Young, B.S.

Johnnie E. Davis, M.Ag.
Lenzy M. Scott, M.A.
Miss Sue Elmore, M.S.

This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of $2091.35, or $.70 per copy,
to inform Florida citizens of the activities of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service.


JUN 9 19 977


(Acts of .ay 8 and June 30. 191 I4
( r peradnv-e Extension Service. IFAS. L '.-r:tvy f Fir ..
.and L 'red States Department of Agricu.turt. C'op.,ra.: .
Joe N. Busby. Dean