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Improving farm income
Planned and expended time by program area
The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
1973 Annual Report
1973 Annual Report
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
Florida's first industry is agriculture-an esti-
mated $10 billion-a-year business. Nationally, Flor-
ida ranks 12th in agricultural production and is
the fastest growing agricultural state. Relevant
Extension agricultural programs, therefore, are es-
sential to the well-being of the state.
These programs support balanced growth-
agricultural development in an increasingly urban-
ized state. Extension agricultural programs assist
the urban homeowner in maintaining attractive
homegrounds, the local government official in
making decisions concerning disposal of city waste,
the fisherman in increasing efficiency, and many
other individuals outside the traditional agricul-
Within commercial agriculture, Extension pro-
grams emphasize assistance not only to the larger
producer but also to the low-income farmer. In all
programs environmental quality is of prime con-
sideration. Another of Extension's major objec-
tives is to help the local population develop a com-
munity to suit their own needs. Extension agri-
cultural programs, therefore, concentrate on com-
mercial agriculture (including marine production
and low-income farmers), environmental quality
and community development.
Extension agricultural program accomplish-
ments were numerous in 1973. Among the major
achievements were those reported by subject-
matter area on the following pages.
IMPROVING FARM INCOME
L '- ,- -i .'-
During 1973 greater emphasis than in past
years was given to on-farm drying and storage of
grain and seed crops. The unusually high prices
received for soybeans and corn made many pro-
ducers aware of the economic advantage they have
if facilities are available that allow them to hold
their crops rather than sell at harvest.
There also was increased interest in the pro-
duction of silage, particularly by dairymen. Many
livestock producers are constructing new facilities
or remodeling old ones to make them more effi-
cient and to accommodate labor-saving machinery
The energy crisis became a reality in 1973. The
Agricultural Engineering Extension Department
published 16 Extension Information Sheets on
Florida has more than 1.8 million acres subject
to irrigation. This irrigation requires about 1.65
million horsepower. Considering the different kinds
of irrigation systems, the power each requires and
annual operating hours for each plus the power
for drainage, the annual energy requirements for
irrigation and drainage are about 50 million gallons
of liquid petroleum fuel and about 350 million
KWH of electrical energy.
Therefore, conservation of energy in operating
irrigation systems is being emphasized by Exten-
sion agricultural engineers. For example, operating
an irrigation system at night, rather than daytime
hours, can save as much as 25 percent in water dis-
charged for plant needs. Or a 40-acre citrus grove
using a permanent system requires about 530
acre-inches of supplemental irrigation annually;
by pumping at night and eliminating evaporation
and wind-drift losses, this demand could be reduced
to 400 acre-inches on an annual basis. The result
would be an energy savings of about $160 per
year, or $4/acre/year.
Drip irrigation also can save on energy and
water. The horsepower required to operate a drip
irrigation system may be only one-eighth that re-
quired to operate a permanent overhead type sys-
tem. This is because only a percentage of the area
is irrigated and the operating pressure required is
about one-fourth that needed for permanent sys-
tems. Total water applied in drip systems is about
30-50 percent of that applied through permanent
Special emphasis was placed on informing agri-
cultural leaders about the Occupational Safety and
Agricultural engineers modified a general purpose boom sprayer,
which is usually power-take-off driven, so that it could be hydrau-
lically driven by a tobacco harvester's hydraulic system. This mod-
ification made it possible to spray the tobacco crop with the har-
vester-sprayer unit, a job normally requiring a high clearance sprayer
costing $6,000 to $7,000. The hydraulically driven sprayer cost
Health Act (OSHA). Three issues of the Extension
Safety Newsletter were prepared bringing timely
information about OSHA and other safety subjects
to county and state Extension personnel.
A training program was developed for women
leaders on Car Care and Safety or What Every
Woman Should Know About a Car. Eighteen
workshops were conducted in 15 counties assisting
600 leaders. Instruction included financing (bank-
ers), insurance (insurance representative) and prin-
ciples of auto engines (agricultural engineer). Each
participant learned by doing simple preventive
maintenance tasks. These workshops produced
safer auto operators who are less likely to have
breakdowns or to be deceived.
For the 17th year special training was given
adult and youth leaders in electricity, automotive
and safety at the 4-H Watts & Wheels Camp. In-
structors were from the rural electric cooperatives,
Florida Farm Bureau and the University of Flor-
ida. This year 134 people from 16 counties partici-
One highlight of classes was the use of mini-
bikes to teach safe operation of these vehicles.
During recreation time the bikes were available
for supervised use by the campers. Sponsors of
this special camp are the Florida Electric Coopera-
tives Association and the Florida Farm Bureau.
Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act of 1972 set in motion implementation
of a nationwide permit system which ultimately
will affect most agricultural producers. During
1973 the Environmental Protection Agency com-
piled information leading to the establishment of
pollution control guidelines for many industries,
including animal production. It became evident
that containment and landspreading of animal
waste was to be a recommended control. Extension
programs have kept producers informed of these
developments. And demonstrations have been laid
out to show dairy, swine and beef producers ways
to manage wastes efficiently and legally. These
demonstration systems include laborsaving flush
facilities and lagoons.
Both federal and state goals to reduce pollu-
tant discharge to surface waters have caused in-
creased interest in landspreading treated sewage for
recycling and renovation. Extension and research
faculty have led in organizing workshops to provide
professional engineers with knowledge of soil and
plant capabilities as components in waste treat-
ment systems. Individual consultation also has
been provided to assist in establishing demonstra-
tion projects at key locations in the state.
In 1973 agronomic crops continued to play an
increasingly important role in Florida's agricul-
ture. Production of corn, soybeans, peanuts and
sugarcane was greater in 1973 than in 1972 and
farmers received higher prices for most crops. Be-
cause of increased prices for cattle, the value of
forage was greatly enhanced and ranchers became
more aware of the need for high quality feed. The
high cost of grain and protein feeds for livestock
also caused many cattlemen to look to the less ex-
pensive forages as a means of maintaining a profit-
Accurate and timely information was presented
by all available means to a high percentage of
growers either directly or through county Exten-
sion offices. Agronomists participated in meetings
that presented complete and detailed information
such as cow-calf clinics, crop production short
courses and other training sessions. Shorter meet-
ings were used to update farmers on recent changes
in crop production practices. Radio and television
were valuable in presenting information on specific
subjects. The trend in agronomic publications has
been to releases that cover a specific item and can
be easily revised periodically, for example, one on
Agronomy specialists utilize field days at Agricultural Research
Centers to demonstrate recommended production practices.
corn variety recommendations. Other publications
include crop production guides and articles in
New and useful information is the lifeblood of
Extension agricultural programs. Extension agron-
omists participated in the development of such in-
formation through research plots. Many of the
weed control recommendations, that are as up to
date as possible, were based on trials conducted
at IFAS Agricultural Research Centers and in
producers' fields. Cooperative trials among Exten-
sion specialists, research workers and farmers
have made Florida one of the first states to have
recommendations for nematicides on field corn.
And the use of applied research has enabled the
Extension agronomist to broaden his role from
that of strictly a messenger to that of developer
of information for Extension recommendations.
Selection of new herd sires is one of the most
important tasks the producer has in trying to im-
prove the production of his herd. Finding quality
production-tested bulls has been a problem. To
help alleviate this problem and to provide Florida
cattlemen an opportunity to test bulls in a uniform
environment, a central bull test was conducted at
Lykes Brothers' Feedlot, Brooksville. Bulls were
fed and managed so that genetic differences in
ability to grow and gain were demonstrated, but
so that they did not become too fat to be used in
a breeding herd following a short adjustment
period. Four breeders participated in the initial
A central bull test provides ani opportunity for
small breeders who cannot afford the investment
in facilities for an "on the farm test" to obtain
post-wean performance data on their bulls. It has
been estimated that this test will enable producers
of a small quantity of quality bulls will be able to
increase their income by $500 per bull.
In the continuing program to improve the
weaning weight and quality of' Florida calves
through production testing, 13 new ranches
started keeping records this past year. Weaning
data was processed on a total of 10,507 calves and
post-wean performance information was processed
on 502 head.
Five Cow-Calf Clinics attended by 750 cattle-
men were held on an area basis at Ocala, Palatka,
Madison, Marianna and Crestview. Several cattle-
men's schools also were held on an area and
The Annual Beef Cattle Short Course was
held at the University of Florida on May 3, 4 and
5, 1973. This event was attended by more than 800
More than 1,500 4-H Club members are en-
rolled in Beef Projects. These projects include
market steer, beef breeding and commercial steer.
Racing horses continue to be a leading money-
earning segment of the Florida horse industry with
an estimated impact of $25 million. Florida thor-
oughbreds at public auctions set new sale records
this past year. For example, the average price at
the Florida Breeders Sale of two-year-olds was
$18,549 in 1973 compared to $14,073 in 1972, an
increase of 23 percent. Other breeds of horses also
have shown increased sale prices. These increased
sale prices produce greater farm income and tax
returns to the state, making raising horses an even
more important industry.
Export sales continue to provide a significant
market for Florida horses. Last year 844 head,
valued at $3,376,000, were shipped to Central and
South America, Canada, Europe and Japan.
The State 4-H Horse Program continues to
grow with participants in the state show increasing
from 145 last year to 182 in 1973. There also was
increased participation in other phases of the 4-H
horse program, except camps where participation
was down because facilities were limited to one
camp in west Florida.
Horse program participants who earned the
highest point total at the state show in Ocala,
finished a busy summer with a successful trip to
the Southeast Regional Championship 4-H Horse
Show and Contests in Dallas, Texas. And the
judging team from Broward County earned the
opportunity to attend by winning the State 4-H
Horse Judging Contest. Participants in Horse
Demonstrations (team and individual) and Horse
Public Speaking won their respective events at the
State Congress in July.
The Florida team placed 9th out of 19 teams in
Horse Judging, and 5th in Horse Demonstration.
In the individual contests, Floridians placed 6th in
Public Speaking and 4th in Individual Horse Dem-
In the open contests Florida was well repre-
sented, placing 5th in Public Speaking and 3rd,
4th, 5th and 8th in Individual Demonstrations.
Florida also had the 6th place Open Team Demon-
stration and 3rd place Open Horse Judging team.
In the Championship Horse Show, Florida con-
tinued a winning performance started in 1972 by
taking 76 ribbons or trophies. In addition, Gayle
Cooper from Bay County won the English High
Point Saddle for the second year in a row. Martha
Turner of Bay County was runner-up.
When beef "yield grading," a cutability specifi-
cation, was initiated by the USDA in 1963 on a
voluntary basis, Florida packers became partici-
pants. This grading was in addition to grading for
eating quality as U.S. Prime, U.S. Choice, U.S.
Good, and U.S. Standard. In 1973, 122,980 car-
casses were graded in Florida for eating quality
and 34,775 carcasses were graded for "cutability"-
yield of boneless beef in the round, loin, rib and
chuck. The total cattle slaughter at Florida plants
grading beef was 265,798 carcasses. These numbers
were estimated from data calculated for a four
week period before January 1974.
This increase is significant because cutability
grading started from "scratch" and today accounts
for more than 28 percent of the Florida cattle
slaughter presented for grading.
Yield grading benefits producer, meat packer
and consumer in that it identifies and encourages
meatier beef and beef cuts. A continuous effort by
Animal Science Extension and Research personnel
have attained these results.
Some of the data for proving the yield grade
system was developed in Florida by the University
Meats Group before 1963.
Since the early 1960's, the Extension Meat
Specialist and Animal Science Extension Livestock
Specialist have conducted tours on yield grading,
short courses and workshops for producers, packers
and retailers. And 11 On Foot Beef Carcass Eval-
uation Contests and Beef Carcass Contests are
held annually with county Extension personnel,
Vocational Agriculture teachers and 4-H and FFA
Florida meat retailers, quantity food service
supervisors, some restaurants and some consumers
now use yield grading as a definite specification for
selecting and buying beef.
Improvement through selection has been given
an added dimension by producers' use of the Flor-
ida Swine Evaluation Center. The selection by
eye method has been improved upon by Florida
swine producers through use of information de-
rived from testing at the Swine Evaluation Center.
Animals placed on test by producers have shown
continuous improvement since the beginning of the
testing program in 1965. During that year's period
a 96.1 pig index score was average compared to 140
in 1973. Red meat compared to fat in the animals
has improved by 6.68 percent, a result produced
with 22 lbs. less feed per 100 lb. gain. Because feed
cost has increased rapidly during the past year, the
savings in feed, combined with improvement of
marketable meat, has allowed many producers
who identified these strains within their herds to
remain in business.
A problem causing reduced gains and death in
many swine herds in the state has been identified
by the Swine Extension Specialist and the Veteri-
nary Science Department as one produced by
moldy feed. Through meetings and individual con-
tacts, preventive measures have begun; however,
the problem will remain under constant surveil-
SSwine projects carried on by 4-H Club members
were completed for the Annual State Swine Show
in Tallahassee in November. More than 50 head of
outstanding market pigs were shown, displaying
the highest quality and numbers of any State
Swine Show in several years. The keen competi-
tion in showmanship by the participating 4-H'ers
indicated the time and effort they had given to
Marion County won the 4-H State Judging
Contest at the State Fair in February 1973.
Twenty-four counties participated in the event
which capped training in the art of livestock judg-
ing for several hundred youth throughout the
The Florida Dairy industry experienced many
ups and downs during 1973. The year started with
a rapid acceleration of feed prices in the feed in-
gredient market that placed dairymen in an un-
profitable situation. Many dairymen, unable to
cope with the situation, dispersed their herds. The
net- result at the end of 1973 showed 23 fewer
dairies-a new low of 437 dairies compared to 460
dairies at the beginning of the year. Although cow
numbers decreased during early 1973, a recovery
was made the last six months giving an average of
203,000 cows, a new high.
The recovery in cow numbers was produced by
an increase in milk prices to dairymen. To correct
the situation, considerable work was required on
the part of many people in the dairy industry. The
Extension Dairyman, with certain staff members
in the Food and Resource Economics Department,
cooperated with the three major Florida Milk Mar-
keting Cooperatives in arriving at a milk price rela-
tive to that received in early 1972. A formula was
developed, based on changes in the feed ingredient
market and in the industrial price index. The in-
formation the formula provided helped in negotiat-
ing new contracts and arriving at a fair market
price for milk each month.
A manager participation training program was
initiated during 1973 to increase the effectiveness
of Florida dairy managers in working with people.
The material prepared for presentation at the
sessions around the state during the next two years
should help managers and/or owners better under-
stand how to work effectively with people and how
to cope better with labor problems in months
Managers will be provided with the results of
many studies and successful principles of human
relations that have been demonstrated to be true
and effective most of the time. Factors will be dis-
cussed that are useful in motivating dairy em-
ployees and changing their attitudes from dismal
to optimistic. Such an educational program would
result in a more stable labor situation and an in-
crease of perhaps 25 percent in net profit by dairy-
men introducing better management techniques
through greater motivational programs.
During the year major emphasis was placed on
improving organizational structure of state DHI
associations. Considerable time was spent in con-
sultation with county Extension agents and local
DHIA officers on improving member participation
in association activities. Marked success has been
achieved in five of the 10 local DHIA's in that
major responsibility for business associations is
being assumed by association members rather than
Information. derived from DHI records con-
tinues to aid in on-farm management decisions;
Dairymen enrolled in DHI programs are making
use of their records in improved performance 'ef-
ficiency of reproduction, milk production, feed ef-
ficiency, animal identification and other manage-
ment areas. In 1973 herds on DHI averaged 1400
pounds of milk more per cow than did non-DHI
herds-an economic advantage of about $137 per
Information for selecting artificial insemination
(AI) sires was made available through county Ex-
tension personnel in January and -May, 1973.
These listings contained the latest production in-
formation on daughters of dairy'sires available in
Florida through AI. These sire proofs give dairy-
men accurate means of evaluating the genetic
worth' of AI dairy sites. Since the information is
tabulated by the Dairy Cattle Research Branch
of USDA from DHI records, it is unbiased.
An extensive effort has been initiated to con-
tinually 'evaluate. quality of pasteurized milk in the
northeast Florida area. This program has received
enthusiastic support and cooperation from the
Florida dairy industry. Each of 10 Florida dairy
processors submit one sample ofminilk per month to
university personnel. Each sample is examined for
flavor quality and shelf-life. The information ob-
tained from this program helps insure a better
product for consumers by keeping processors in-
formed of product quality. This program has en-
abled the Extension Dairy Technologist to help a
dairy processor solve a product shelf-life problem,
saving the processor several thousand dollars.
The Extension technologist, in cooperation
with Mary Harrison, Consumer Education Special-
ist, has completed a survey determining consumer
knowledge of Florida's open dating law and milk
handling practices. Nearly all respondents to the
survey believe milk and other dairy products
should be open dated. However, less than half
knew that dairy products were already open dated
and even fewer knew the meaning of the date. The
survey clearly defined areas in need of educational
programs. Less than half the respondents knew the
proper refrigeration temperature for dairy prod-
ucts. However, most reported they seldom had
problems with milk spoilage.
The study of bulk milk transport washing capa-
bilities, effectiveness and cost has been initiatedin
cooperation with the Florida Department of Agri-
culture (Dairy Division), Florida Department of
Health, T. G. Lee Dairy and the University of
Florida. The study will evaluate the effectiveness
of various cleaning systems by a comparison of the
physical cleanliness,- water usage, detergent costs
and waste disposal of each system. It is anticipated.
that this study will be completed before. August,
1974. The information from the study will be a
valuable asset to dairy processors in the economics
of bulk transport washing.
A Citrus Pest Management Project, supported
by funds from the Extension Service and the Ani-
mal and Plant Health Inspection Service of USDA,
was initiated during 1973. The major objective of
this project is to apply the least number of pesti-
cide applications that is consistent with sound,
economical pest control. The accomplishment of
this objective should result in minimum environ-
mental pollution and lower cost pest control to the
A Pest Management Specialist and four Survey
Monitors have been employed. The Pest Manage-
ment Specialist, cooperating with entomologists
associated with the previous IFAS econological re-
search survey, county, area and state Extension
personnel, and members of the Program Steering
Committee have selected demonstration groves to
be included in the program. Selection of the proper
grove is a very important process because groves
must have specific characteristics and the owner
must have an appreciation of the purpose of and a
willingness to commit his grove to the program.
Each grower is asked to furnish two 10-acre blocks
with as many characteristics common to both
blocks as possible. One block is to be used to moni-
tor various pest populations under the grower pest
control program. The second block will be moni-
tored on a regular basis and receive control rec-
ommendations according to information based on
scouting reports. By the end of 1973, 22 of the pro-
posed 30 groves had been selected.
All of the pest survey monitors now employed
are generally familiar with citrus production. How-
ever, each must learn the exact procedures and
techniques required to monitor pests in the demon-
stration groves. The Pest Management Specialist
has been training these four people so that each
monitor can learn to independently monitor the
demonstration groves. Training has been proceed-
ing well and will continue as other pests begin to
influence the eco-system of the groves.
The 22 demonstration groves were brought into
the management program as they were selected.
Formal pest surveys in the groves have been initi-
ated. Surveys have been done at two-week inter-
vals. Because of the time of the year and signifi-
cance of pests at this time, only citrus rust mites
have required surveying at present. Later other
insects, mites, pathogens, diseases, weeds and nem-
atodes will be monitored.
The survey data are recorded on field cards in
the groves, transferred to permanent record books
in the laboratory, graphically recorded on charts,
arid provided to growers as soon as possible, usu-
ally less than a week after collection. If the grove
data indicates any pest control decisions, plans for
execution are discussed with the owner.
The survey program was initiated late in the
calendar year when the 1973-74 crop was essen-
tially mature. Therefore, the impact of pests on
the yield and fruit quality virtually was passed
and was not considered in the 1973 project evalua-
Emphasis in 1973 was on keeping Florida the
number one honey-producing state in the U. S.
The importance of pollination and the honeybee
to our environment was promoted from 4-H youth
to commercial producers. The "Hum of the Hive"
was reinstated in January 1973 and has been pub-
lished bimonthly since that time. The Annual Bee-
keepers' Institute helped to supplement one of Ex-
tension's major goals: to promote better beekeep-
ing through unity and cooperation of all facets of
Work continued in vegetables and sub-tropical
insect control. Several meetings were held at
which up-to-date insecticidal recommendations
were made and proper usages, safety precautions
and changes in current pesticidal laws were dis-
Extension nematologists presented 25 major
talks and prepared 16 publications on nematode
control in commercial agriculture. They conducted
on-farm demonstrations for nematode control on
field corn and peanuts, with special emphasis on
control on field corn. They prepared one publica-
tion and held special meetings to inform growers
and agents of the serious nematode problems on
corn. Approximately 1500 soil samples were ana-
lyzed for nematodes.
Community Resource Development
Extension specialists gave 11 major talks on
nematode control. They held four regional training
meetings for nurserymen and garden supply dealers
in cooperation with the Florida Seedsman and
Garden Supply Association. These meetings in-
cluded nematode and insect control information
for the home gardener. And approximately 2300
soil samples were assayed for nematodes for home
Entomology specialists initiated and organized
the second biennial Pest Control Short Course for
state agency personnel. About 35 pest control and
grounds maintenance supervisors attended, repre-
senting the state hospitals, training schools, pris-
ons, parks and junior colleges. Topics included
plant diseases, nematodes, insects, rodents and
non-pest problems associated with turf and orna-
Project Safeguard was conducted in 26 north
Florida counties during 1973. This cooperative
EPA/ES project was designed to educate small
farmers and other agriculturally related persons of
the importance of safety in using the highly toxic
substitutes for DDT. Extension Agents were re-
sponsible for a concentrated effort to reach these
producers directly, through personal contacts,
meeting, and mass media. Contacts during the
six-month period included 11,054 farmers; 200 4-H
clubs; 64 Department of Agriculture county repre-
sentatives; 102 vocational agriculture teachers; 108
pesticide manufacturers and formulators; 99
health and veterinary officials; 27 newspapers; 46
radio stations; and nine television stations. More
than 53,000 copies of posters, booklets, fact sheets,
letter stuffers, radio and TV spots and other pesti-
cide safety materials were transmitted to pesticide
Project Safeguard resulted in greater safety
awareness among pesticide users. Project evalua-
tion indicated a need for a concentrated ongoing
pesticide safety program such as is emphasized al-
ways in Entomology and Nematology programs.
FOOD AND RESOURCE
Extension economists in the Food and Re-
source Economics Department conduct a variety
of educational programs in marketing with indi-
vidual producers and firms and many groups and
organizations in the state. Programs and materials
during 1973 helped producers and producer groups
with decisions, assisted marketing firms and or-
ganizations and consumers as well.
Outlook information was emphasized in Exten-
sion marketing programs during 1973. The behav-
ior of agricultural product and input markets last
year caused producers and marketing firms to be
unusually concerned with outlook and market in-
Outlook materials were developed and distrib-
uted to counties by Extension marketing special-
ists. The Southern Outlook Conference in October
was an important source of information for those
materials which were summarized and adapted for
Florida conditions. The National Outlook Con-
ference in December provided additional materials
and updated reports.
Availability and expected prices for fuels, ferti-
lizer and other inputs affected by the energy situ-
ation were emphasized in outlook materials. Out-
look information was distributed through mailings
to county offices, industry field days and meetings
and articles in popular periodicals.
Extension economists worked with producers
in other marketing efforts. Basic market factors
and price determinants helped beef producers to
understand beef markets better. Producers partici-
pating in the marketing session of a four-part
workshop indicated greater understanding of price
behavior and seasonal price patterns. Several
stated they intended to adjust their marketing pro-
grams to take greater advantage of price trends
Many producer marketing problems require
group action to improve individual producer posi-
tions. To this end Extension economists worked
with vegetable producers, flower growers and com-
Extension economists and county personnel
worked with a North Florida vegetable marketing
cooperative in financial analysis and management.
This cooperative has grown from an original capi-
tal of $2,200 to its present ability to buy a packing
facility and more than $100,000 in new equipment.
Cooperative members have been able to realize
greater incomes and more reliable marketing by
having the cooperative packing facilities with com-
Educational work in improving marketing of
cut flowers through technical developments and a
marketing cooperative was begun in one county.
Extension economists and county personnel started
educational programs with flower growers to help
them understand the requirements for and possible
gains from a cooperative. A similar explanation of
factors associated with forming a marketing co-
operative was given to commercial fishermen in a
coastal county. Cooperative organization and the
agricultural credit system were meeting topics dis-
cussed by a faculty member of the Food and Re-
source Economics Department.
Through a management audit program with
agri-business firms, Extension economists identify
strengths and shortcomings in key managerial
areas, recommend specific improvements and pro-
vide information on management functions and
responsibilities. Aided by county Extension per-
sonnel, Extension economists conducted an in-
depth management audit of a leading citrus co-
operative in 1973. This firm, one of the oldest
citrus cooperatives in Florida, has more than 325
members with citrus groves in seven counties.
The audit team identified important trends in
Central Florida and the citrus industry which will
affect the cooperative's future operations. Area
urban and recreational developments and escala-
ing land values have caused large acreages of citrus
grove to be removed from production. The coop-
erative needs long range planning to assure future
fruit supplies. In addition, the steadily declining
supply of citrus labor will require major decisions
Internal factors affecting the cooperative also
were identified by the audit team. Many members
and directors are relatively old and their participa-
tion, as well as membership and grove holdings,
may decline. A high percentage of key employees
is nearing retirement age and will be difficult to re-
place. Attracting capable younger employees to
citrus organizations is becoming difficult and a
common problem in most agricultural operations.
Key managerial functions and grove production
practices were also studied and recommendations
were made where appropriate. Economists isolated
the problem of coordinating the activities of the
major departments as it relates to the flow of fruit
from grove to market.
The findings of the management audit team
were presented to the Board of Directors and man-
agement. Many of their recommendations already
have been implemented. A special board committee
has been formed to review the audit, report in de-
tail and coordinate the implementation of the rec-
ommendations. A long-run planning committee has
been formed to give the cooperative guidance as
conditions change in the industry. Increased com-
munication has been observed between members
of the management staff in an attempt to smooth
the flow of the fruit.
An innovative feature has been introduced to
this management audit-provision for a follow-up
study in one to two years. This work will identify
and measure what changes have been made in the
cooperative's organization and functions and how
they have affected cooperative and member wel-
fare. Some members of the Extension audit team
will work with cooperative management in specific
areas on a continuing basis during the period be-
fore the follow-up study.
In recent years, the meat packing industry has
been subject to several regulatory decisions that
placed severe strains on the ability of small local
packing firms to continue operations. Some of
these new regulations pertain to humane methods
of killing, separate killing and processing areas for
each different species, new sanitation standards,
and tight environmental protection programs.
Many local meat packers and processors hhve
closed their plants because of the inability to ad-
just. Some packers still in business are making
capital investments in waste handling facilities
that exceed the original investment in their meat
Few managers of local meat packing plants
have adequate understanding of expense alloca-
tions or of productivity standards to cope with
the new and higher levels of operating costs that
confront them. Extension marketing specialists or-
ganized and conducted three programs for meat
packer management during the past year. These
programs centered on management information
systems, productivity evaluation, direct costing of
different products and management by objectives.
The educational programs for management of
meat packing firms have been well received by
people in the meat industry. However, some of the
concepts are new to operators who are accustomed
to managing on an informal basis, using past ex-
perience and rules of thumb. It will take time for
some of these new concepts to be implemented and
to produce profitable results. A continued cost-
profit squeeze generated in part by the 1973 price
ceilings on meat has further emphasized the im-
portance of sound management.
In July 1972, the USDA introduced "Project
Consumer Concern," a joint program also spon-
sored by industry groups and state Extension
Services. The objectives of the program are to pro-
duce improvements in food handling, storage and
distribution to insure safe and wholesome food for
Extension marketing specialists organized and
helped conduct two food safety and sanitation
programs for operators of independent food stores
in Florida in 1973. Topics included food safety
problems, microbiology and food borne diseases,
total store sanitation, and a proven sanitation pro-
gram for supermarkets.
This food safety and sanitation program was
given special recognition by the Extension Service,
USDA, and a report describing the event was dis-
During 1973, dairymen were the victims of a
shortage of feed ingredients that resulted in soy-
bean meal prices increasing more than 300 percent.
Corn prices advanced more than 50 percent in the
same period. Florida dairymen could go out of
business, save money on feed, and/or receive a
higher price for their milk. Those who wanted to
stay in business needed a powerful tool to help
them save on feed costs.
The Food and Resource Economics Depart-
ment developed a cost-saving program that is "as
practical as a pair of pliers," as one dairyman
phrased it. It not only computes least-cost rations,
but also determines how much feed should be fed
to groups of cows with different producing abilities.
Currently, it is saving users from 10 to 20 percent
on their feed bills. Since Florida dairymen spend
at least $50 million on feed annually, 10 percent
savings on this would be $5 million. Thus, if only
one percent of Florida dairymen use the program,
they will save $50,000.
In addition, farm management specialists de-
veloped a milk pricing formula with which Florida
Dairymen now price their milk. This approach led
to a $1 per hundredweight milk price increase re-
ceived by farmers. Florida sold 1.867 billion
pounds of milk last year. However, the increased
revenue is not a simple multiple of production
times $1 because the Federal Milk Order price (the
old price determinant) also increased last year.
But our pricing formula has led to directly in-
creased incomes-probably by at least a million
dollars during 1973.
Farm management work is not restricted to
land based "crops." Mullet fishermen also bene-
fited from economists' labors. Adequate financing
was difficult for mullet fishermen to obtain, so an
Area Economist developed cost and return data for
the fishermen's use as an aid in getting credit.
Ornamental nurseries now receive a computer-
ized analysis of their business and they get a re-
port which compares last year's data with this
year's analysis. This side-by-side comparison
makes it easy to see the effect of changes in man-
agement practices. And the analysis has provided
ornamentalists with an improved decision-making
Community Resource Development
During 1973 high priority was placed on train-
ing county Extension personnel and key leaders in
the Community Development Process, emphasizing
the achievement of community goals through
group action. The development of effective com-
munity leaders and organizations involved par-
ticipation by men, women and youth from all seg-
ments of society and the community. Strong em-
phasis was placed on involving people whose past
participation in community development efforts
had been minimal. Special attention was given to
youth programs and to projects that would en-
courage youth to participate in community de-
velopment activities so that their understanding
of the role and function of community institutions
might be enhanced. Youth are being invited and
encouraged to participate in community programs
on the same basis as adult members of the com-
Extension personnel of the University of Flor-
ida and Florida A & M University cooperated in
selecting four pilot counties for intensified efforts
to involve youth in community development. Ad-
ditional personnel at both state and county levels
were given specific responsibilities in these areas.
In 14 counties leadership training programs
were conducted specifically for low income people
and minority groups. Participants in these pro-
grams learned how the democratic process func-
tions through group action and were given in-
creased confidence to participate in community
and county-wide organizations. These training
programs helped create an awareness among the
participants of their role in the total community
and the need for their involvement in community
A good example of the success of this approach
was the interest, enthusiasm and exhibited abili-
ties of formerly unrecognized leaders in Taylor
county. When 90 community leaders formed a
community improvement organization, a 17-year-
old girl was elected vice-president. A black man
was chosen to head the committee on housing and
a black woman to chair the committee on health.
Local citizens who have historically carried the
burden of community leadership are finding valu-
able allies in these newly developed leaders. With
black and white, young and old working together,
a growing understanding is coming from their joint
With the disappeArance of, distinct:b boundaries'
between rural and urban areas, the need for
joint, rural-urban, planning is, increasing. Both
short and,.long range planning are..seen as neces-
sary, ingredients to, successful community growth
and ,improvement. Extension education programs
have encouraged discussion of both county and
multi-county planning. County rural development
councils have created committees, on planning
that point to the need for organized efforts to give
direction and .control,to developments taking place
in the state's rapidly changing environment..
Extension personnel have made major contribu-,
tions to regional soils studies, natural resource.
and open space..inventories, and cooperative nat-
ural resource open planning. Among other educa-
tional programs, the, Extension Service organized
and arranged for 10 educational forums through-
out the state for county, and city officials and
other leading citizens. .The open discussion gave
opportunities to present various aspects of multi-
county planning. Extension personnel are cooper-
ating with professional planners in educational
programs to, help increase public understanding
of comprehensive planning and provide support
for implementation of sound planning. Educa-
tional programs on county-wide planning have re-
sulted in the establishment of county planning
boards in 16 counties where none existed before.
An important part of Community Resource
Development is the improvement of community
services and facilities. Educational programs by
Extension were linked with financial assistance
from the Farmers Home Administration in build-
ing or enlarging water and sewer systems. Local
groups also were given information and advice on
alternative approaches to solving problems of solid
waste disposal. In some areas this has involved the
organization of groups who conducted recycling
programs for aluminum cans, paper and glass. In
some communities sanitary land fields and incin-
erators have been established.
Educational clinics and workshops were con-
ducted throughout the state to acquaint home-
owners with water quality problems and ways to
deal with them. At present this program has
reached an audience of about 60,000 homeowners
in 34 Florida counties.
In one small west Florida community, served
only by shallow wells and septic tanks, the bac-
teria count was dangerously high. The oyster in-
dustry, which is the major source of income, was
threatened with extinction. The Extension Service
helped to organize a water and sewage district that
obtained $1.3 million from Farmers Home Admin-
istration and Economic Development Administra-
tion for construction of water and sewage systems.
The community's dream of good water, adequate
sanitary facilities and a continuing prosperous
oyster industry now'appears to be a reality.
Extension helps people t6 be informed on vari-
ous housing programs and sources 'of assistance.
Improved housing continued to receive major em-
phasis' in most' community development programs
in 1973. Extension 'personnel' developed a state-
wide program of homeownershilp education. This
program was designed primarily for low income
families who applied to FHA for interest credit
mortgage loans, but all families are eligible to par-
ticipate. This gives valuable information on care
of homes and is especially beneficial to those who
are experiencing homeownership for the first time.
While the 'results of community development
programs are more easily documented in terms of
new water and sewage systems, improved man-,
power training facilities, increased job oiportuni-
ties and higher levels of living, it is equally impor-
tant that larger numbers of citizens are becoming
involved in community activities, feeling more re-
sponsibility for community improvement and be-
coming more skillful in working toward common
Since June, Extension marine economics has
been an integral part of the 18-month-old Marine
Advisory Program. Marine economics was one of
the topics covered as a part of training sessions for
county Extension personnel in Florida's 35 coastal
counties. This activity was the first major effort
to familiarize county personnel with marine activi-
ties and enable them to help commercial fisher-
men and related groups to organize marine advis-
ory committees and plan county Extension pro-
grams. Since that time meetings were held in Mon-
roe, Manatee, Brevard, Collier and Sarasota
counties to work with county marine advisory
committees. Individual contacts with committee
members were made in St. Lucie, Pinellas, Dixie
and Levy counties.
A major effort was made in Monroe County be-
cause the Cooperative Extension Service is new
Sea Grant researchers have found the University of Florida's flume-
the captive river operated by the Department of Civil and Coastal
Engineering-an ideal place to research methods for more efficiently
and economically netting food from the sea. The entire fishing in-
dustry could benefit from improved net structure and performance
shown being tested here.
there. Extension specialists addressed six civic
groups and made numerous individual contacts,
ranging from independent commercial fishermen
to owners of large shrimp fleets and processing
plants. They discussed the role of the Marine Ad-
visory Program and Extension Service.
Distribution of timely information also was ac-
complished in the program. Two detailed memos
were sent to coastal county directors giving de-
tailed information on field tax rebates and the
Mandatory Fuel Allocation Program. Time was
spent with executive directors of the Organized
Fishermen of Florida and the Southeastern Fish-
eries Association because these two groups repre-
sent the majority of commercial fishermen in
Florida. Articles on fuel tax rebates were prepared
for the monthly publications of these two organi-
Extension Economists presented papers that
discussed the importance of commercial fisheries
in Manatee, Brevard and Collier counties. They
distributed Marine Advisory Bulletins that out-
lined Extension programs in marine economics and
the availability of gasoline and sales tax exemp-
tions for commercial fishermen.
Major input through feedback from the com-
mercial fishing industry was made to the total
Florida Sea Grant Program. Suggestions on areas
of research were made to program leaders. Exten-
sion specialists are working directly on one project
designed to understand the current economic situ-
ation of commercial fisheries and suggest improve-
ments for production practices.
In 1973 Extension undertook a major program
on food product safety. The Extension food tech-
nologist prepared information on equipment and
procedures for safe thermal processing (canning)
of food and visited commercial producers through-
out the year to consult with processors on food
safety programs. As the year ended a four-day
food safety program on the principles of microbi-
ology and food preservation was presented for
commercial canners, state regulatory agency per-
sonnel and Extension Home Economics Agents.
The Extension program for marine and aquatic
products was expanded during this period. In co-
operation with county Extension personnel, as-
sistance was given in establishing Marine Advisory
Committees in Brevard, Franklin, Manatee, Mon-
roe, Levy, Dixie and Wakulla counties.
The seafood Extension specialist participated
in a state meeting of Organized Fishermen of Flor-
ida and the Southeastern Fisheries Association
and nationally in the Marine Extension Workshop
and New Orleans Fish Exposition. Newspaper ar-
ticles and TV appearances, plus speeches before so-
cial clubs, Boards of County Commissioners, a uni-
versity lecture series, County Planning Boards,
and MAP publications informed the public of im-
portant developments in seafood sanitation, sea-
food storage and seafood processing pollution con-
Because community canning and home canning
are increasing in importance, a program to improve
available information on processing techniques and
proper use of equipment was initiated. The Ex-
tension food technologist evaluated processing
time recommendations for home canning and con-
sulted with personnel at county canning centers
on their programs.
FOREST RESOURCES AND
When, where and how to market forest prod-
ucts was a frequent Extension forestry request re-
ceived this year. Soaring timber prices made obso-
lete old ideas of profits from planted pines. In cer-
tain areas of Florida where $10 per cord for pulp-
wood was an excellent price in past years, $20,
$25 and $30 per cord for wood was common, de-
pending on volume, location and competition.
With many pine plantations reaching a merchant-
able size and growing as much as two cords of
wood per acre per year, a 20-year-old plantation
could easily contain 40 cords of wood at $25 each-
$1000 worth of wood per acre. Truly, planted pines
pay more today than old-timers dreamed.
There is no shortage of pine pulpwood growing.
The paper shortage today is due more, perhaps, to
an energy shortage at the mill, price control on
domestic paper (much of the production goes for
high prices overseas), or a shortage of timber har-
vesters. With the present emphasis on production,
current high prices and the coming Forest Incen-
tive Bill, there is little doubt pines will be planted
by the millions in Florida for many years to come.
This year has seen a sizable increase in the
number of special interest 4-H members who com-
pleted a unit in 4-H Forest Ecology. County per-
sonnel used various methods of instructing 4-H
members for the required minimum time of five
contact hours. In many cases the Assistant Exten-
sion Forester presented the session on introduction
to Forest Ecology while Extension agents, wildlife
biologists, county foresters, SCS technicians and
others followed up with sessions on specific sub-
jects relating to ecology.
One unique way to complete a 4-H Special In-
terest series in one day proved successful in a sit-
uation where proper preparation, planning, super-
vision and cooperation were available. This method
consisted of an all-school or all-class environmen-
tal education day. The school day from 9 a. m. to
3 p. m. was given to nature study and ecology.
Children in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades were taken
to a natural area for participation in a series of
classes on plants, soil, wildlife, nature crafts, living
off the land and nature hikes. Lunch was served
on the site. Because a new state law requires all
Florida school children to receive environmental
education, most county school systems are hiring
environmental teaching coordinators. Therefore,
this "environmental day" method could have
widespread use throughout the state.
Sixteen teams from nine north Florida counties
participated in the annual state 4-H Forest Ecol-
ogy Contest during the Florida Forest Festival.
This relatively low number of participants does
not accurately reflect the interest or time spent by
the Extension Foresters, County Agents and local
leaders in training 4-H members for this event.
Many other 4-H members were trained in identifi-
cation of trees, plants, forest insects and diseases,
but were unable to compete at Perry because the
October date of the contest conflicted with other
events and the distance to Perry posed a major
travel problem for many members and leaders. All
4-H members who studied forest ecology or sub-
mitted an essay in the ecology essay contest were,
in a sense, winners in that they became more fa-
miliar with the natural communities of Florida.
As Florida's population grows, so does her need
for open green space and recreation land and
water. During 1973 Extension Forestry continued
to provide leadership and technical assistance to
help public and private groups from all levels in
the state to identify, designate, preserve, develop
and manage rural and urban open space and recre-
ation lands. And in response to changing energy
supplies, the Recreation specialist has mounted a
new consumer and leisure industry program to
help Floridian's adjust to rapid change and make
the most of changing leisure and business oppor-
While six on-going projects and result-demon-
strations have been temporarily stopped or slowed
due to changes in firm and agency management, a
number of on-the-ground projects have continued
toward completion or have been initiated during
the last reporting period. Efforts ranged in charac-
ter from a Gadsden County rural minority group
park survey to a completed preliminary design for
a Key West city landscape park. Assistance given
varied from a bibliographic study of forest recrea-
tion site restoration for the Southeastern Corps of
Army Engineers to a lecture before 200 Broward
County residents on "Citizen Involvement for
Open Space and Recreation." The latter is part of
a continuing project dealing with open space pres-
ervation and management in urban southeast
Continued design and management assistance
was made available to commercial campgrounds, a
quasi-public recreation day camp, and a planned
amenity environment housing subdivision. Prelim-
inary studies have been initiated on a 477-acre
Levy County tract that will lead to preparation of
development plan and management recommenda-
tions for a wilderness nature park and environ-
mental education center. In addition, initial ef-
forts have begun on demand estimation and site
planning for a park on land owned by a major
utility in Manatee County.
A pilot project demonstrating forest multiple
use land management has progressed on schedule.
Planning the Rayonier Forest Industry Interpre-
tive Demonstration recently has been facilitated
by an unheard of $10,000 Extension Demonstra-
tion Grant. This will enable the Recreation spec-
ialist to hire a half-time graduate assistant for the
project as well as finance a number of inputs from
consulting specialists in other fields.
As a member of a newly formed northwest
Florida rural development recreational planning
resource team, the Recreation Specialist presented
invited papers and led discussion before several re-
source development steering committees. The need
for county-wide planning for open space and rec-
reation as a component of comprehensive plans
was stressed at each meeting. Stemming from this
series of meetings was a request by Jefferson
County for assistance in formulating such an open
space and recreation plan. Rural northwest Florida
will look to this pilot study for a useful planning
methodology that can be adopted by other coun-
ties. The planner will focus on citizen input to de-
termine needs and goals and land capability and
recreation adaptability potential for evaluating fu-
ture choices among land uses.
Historically, Florida has maintained a top-
level research and educational program for its
agricultural producers, especially its citrus growers.
Even so, 1973 must be listed as a banner year be-
cause, in addition to the customary citrus insti-
tutes, OJ breaks, field days and demonstrations,
With all the comforts of a fine Extension tour-field crates to sit on
and ample frozen orange juice dispensed by the Citrus Queen from
the "Rolling Orange"-growers from around the world listen to
Dr. Don Hutcheson explain USDA rootstock research at the First
International Citrus Rootstock Short Course.
the First International Citrus Rootstock Short
Course was held September 23-28. This short
course featured in-depth information on citrus
rootstocks prepared especially for commercial
citrus producers. It culminated three years of plan-
ning by the Department of Fruit Crops' Extension
staff and a citrus advisory committee of 15 growers
and production managers.
Sponsored by the Department of Fruit Crops,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, the
short course included three days of classes, fol-
lowed by a two-day field trip that covered 500
miles of travel through Florida citrus orchards.
The short course also featured these five out-of-
state speakers who are world authorities on citrus:
Drs. W. P. Bitters and E. C. Calavan, University
of California at Riverside; Mr. D. A. Newcomb,
one of the world's largest citrus nurserymen,
Thermal, California; Professor A. A. Salibe, Sao
Paulo, Brazil; and Dr. Heinz Wutscher, Weslaco,
Texas. Ten other outstanding researchers from
Florida, representing IFAS, USDA and the State
Department of Agriculture, explored other root-
A copy of the proceedings will be sent to each
of the 160 participants who came from Brazil,
South Africa, Venezuela, Trinidad, Sicily, Costa
Rica, Mexico, Peru, California, Texas, North Caro-
lina, Georgia and Florida.
Significant progress was made in deciduous
fruits in 1973-a good year for bringing people to-
gether. Directors of the Florida Peach Growers As-
sociation and the Florida Blueberry Growers As-
sociation met with Extension and research per-
sonnel to informally discuss grower problems and
research results. These meetings were informative
workshops that, through research demonstration,
will be very beneficial to these two new industries.
In addition a record number of growers at-
tended the Pecan Field Day, Peach Short Course
and Blueberry Short Course.
The First International Citrus Rootstock Short Course, which focused
attention on information for commercial producers, featured a two-
day field trip through Florida citrus orchards after three days of class
Avocados, mangos and limes continued to be
the big money crops in subtropical Florida. Thanks
to improved decay control procedures and newly
developed fungicides-brought to the growers
through Extension demonstrations, newsletters,
TV and radio shows and summarized during the
yearly subtropical institute-growers' income has
reached the highest level in history. As an ex-
ample, avocado production has increased from
500,000 bushels produced on 5,300 acres to 750,000
bushels on 5,400 acres. The value of this produc-
tion has increased from about $3 million annually
to more than $6 million annually. The appearance
and shelf life of these fruits have been greatly im-
proved, resulting in stronger demand at signifi-
cantly improved prices. This situation has been
particularly true of limes because of better control
of stylar-end rot.
STo assist urban growers and home owners, the
state staff participated in 30 TV and 45 radio
shows and answered thousands of letters and
phone calls requesting information.
Florida's year-round semitropical climate and
8,426 miles of indented coastline have established
its world-wide reputation as a vacation state. Like
few other states, Florida is directly dependent on
environmental esthetics for its continued growth
and popularity. Because of its attractive climate,
abundant natural resources and pleasing natural
and man-made environments, Florida attracts
more than 25 million visitors each year. Many of
these tourists decide to move to Florida. In fact,
Florida has the greatest rate of population growth
of any state in the U. S.
At present there is an unprecedented awareness
and concern for the environment with people be-
coming more and more interested in "environmen-
tal esthetics." Development of public awareness of
the importance of plants and the fostering of im-
proved ways to use ornamental plants are essen-
tial components of environmental esthetics.
In the last two decades Florida has changed
from a relatively rural state growing at a moder-
ate rate to a fast-growing state that is showing
marked changes in natural resources and environ-
ment because of this population increase. These
changes are usually at the expense of natural re-
sources, resulting in deterioration of our environ-
ment. Alarmed citizens are beginning to organize,
study and demand changes to improve and pro-
tect our environment. Ornamental horticulture
has always had a prominent role in improving
man's environment and in pollution control, a role
that is now growing in importance.
That landscape plantings create pleasing situ-
ations in both urban and rural situations is well-
known. Less well-known is the value of ornamental
plants for reducing noise, glare and dust pollution
near areas of heavy traffic, for screening ugly ob-
jects and areas, for controlling heat, wind, erosion,
and for altering climatic factors to improve man's
environment. Ornamental plants enhance not only
man's physical environment, but also man's men-
tal well-being. Environmental psychology has in-
dicated beneficial effects through horticultural
therapy and use of plants in interior and exterior
environments. Thus, ornamental horticulture helps
people learn how to live as well, as how to make a
Extension specialists in Ornamental Horticul-
ture serve as sources of factual information for
both pollution control and environmental esthet-
ics. Information releases, bulletins, mass media
presentations, and talks before industry groups,
garden clubs, service and civic organizations, youth
groups and low income groups are some of the
means used to disseminate this information.
Special materials prepared for commercial pro-
ducers and homeowners are adapted for use by
leaders of 4-H and other youth groups in preparing
and conducting ornamental horticultural, environ-
mental quality and pollution control programs.
These programs result in community clean-up,
highway beautification, landscaping, gardening,
plant sales, city beautification and tree planting.
The increased use of ornamental plants in en-
vironmental enhancement demands continued ef-
forts to assist production of adequate quantities of
quality products and to foster effective use of or-
namental plants in all environments.
In ornamentals production certain pollutants
and waste by-products such as animal manures
and sewage effluents are economically useful in
production and maintenance of beautiful plants
and flowers-an example of real life flower power.
Horticultural beauty plays an important eco-
nomic role in Florida's tourist business because of
its general esthetic value. This is particularly sig-
nificant with turf since it forms the major portion
of any landscape design and also has functional
value in outdoor recreation and sports. Current
estimates indicate 1,262,000 acres of turf in Florida
by 1975 and a 10 to 15 percent increase of that
figure by 1980.
For several years Florida has led the nation in
new golf course construction by building more
than 30 new courses per year. At present there are
500 to 600 golf courses in Florida. The fairways,
if linked end to end, would permit golfing tourists
to play around Florida's 1,200-mile coastline with-
out leaving golf course property.
The value of the turf industry is difficult to es-
timate since the only marketable commodity is cut
sod and the vegetative propagating material that
comprise less than six percent of the total turf
acreage in the state. This small quantifiable por-
tion, however, had sales of $13.5 million in 1968.
Turfgrass, unlike most commodities, is not
"consumed" during its use since it is in a constant
state of regeneration when properly maintained.
Maintenance of recreational turf is usually a ne-
cessity for its survival, use requirement or desired
quality. Initial installation costs, therefore, may be
quite small when compared to long-term mainte-
nance costs for recreational turf.
The dollar value of turf and associated agri-
business has been conservatively estimated at more
than $200 million.
Florida is outranked only by California in value
of woody ornamental production. There are more
than 4,000 nurseries in Florida with an estimated
gross acreage of 17,200 acres and a net acreage de-
voted to plant production of 12,060 acres requiring
more than 15,000 full-time employees. About 80
percent of Florida's nursery production is in con-
tainers and about 20 percent is field grown. The
average container nursery is about four acres and
requires about six full-time employees. The aver-
age field nursery comprises 44 acres and is operated
by an average seven full-time employees. The esti-
mated farm value of Florida-produced woody orna-
mental nursery stock in 1971-72 was $52 million.
The rapid expansion of Florida's nursery indus-
try can be attributed to a favorable climate, but
also is closely tied to several other factors. Increase
in new construction, homes, apartments and con-
dominiums has been important as has been in-
creased population and per capital income and the
emphasis on improving man's environment. How-
ever, the same conditions and factors responsible
for increases in production and use of ornamental
plants are also responsible for many of the prob-
lems plaguing Florida nurserymen. These condi-
tions include the scarcity, increasing cost and re-
duced productivity of labor; the scarcity, high
cost, low quality or poor location of land; the
scarcity, poor quality and increasing cost of soil
and soil mixture components; the quality, pollu-
tion and increased salinity of water; and effects of
pollution regulations and control on the use and
availability of fertilizers and pesticides needed for
the economical production of nursery stock.
Florida ranks second only to California in total
production of floriculture products. The state is
first in gladiolus with two-thirds of U. S. produc-
tion, first in chrysanthemum cuttings, second in
pompoms and potted chrysanthemums, and third
in standard chrysanthemums. In addition produc-
tion of minor crops has been increasing rapidly.
Total area under production last year was
more than 11,200 acres with a total wholesale
value estimated at $42.3 million. Greenhouse pro-
duction of potted and cut flowers is scattered
through the state and mainly fills the demands of
the local market with some specialist growers ex-
porting their products out of state.
Cut chrysanthemums and gladiolus production
declined slightly in recent years. The domestic out-
look for cut flower production is tempered by the
expanding volume of imports into U. S. markets
from Colombia and other South American coun-
tries. The almost certain prospect of continued
inroads by imports will likely inhibit capital in-
vestments by growers.
Besides imports, the growers face many external
problems over which they have little or no control.
Increased regulation of pesticides under FEPCA
will have an adverse effect on production and
quality, unless' labeling guidelines for ornamental
crops are eased at the federal level. Most large
producers on the lower West Coast and the East
Coast Strip, as well as others, are faced with
rocketing land values, high taxes, zoning problems
and relentless pressure to sell out to developers.
Urbanization is engulfing some farms in Stuart,
for example, where most flower farms are in the
city limits. Increased traffic by residents and toufr-
ists on farm-to-market roads in these areas create
uncertain delays in transporting the product to
meet shipping point schedules. In Ft. Myers pro-
posed plans for a multi-lane highway to the beach
have accentuated producers' fears. With rapid ur-
banization has come a rapid increase in salt water
intrusion. Many wells have become contaminated
with salt water making them unsuitable for irri-
If the flower farms of Florida are forced from
the favorable winter microclimates they now
enjoy near the bays and coastlines, the risk of
winter freezes or cold temperature delay will in-
crease tremendously for the profitable mid-winter
market. In the case of gladiolus, a crop grown in
extensive field culture like corn, little could be done
to remedy this situation. For the intensively cul-
tured crops such as chrysanthemums, heaters and
covered structures offer a possible solution but
would require large capital outlays and would de-
crease profit margins to the extent that marginal
producers could not survive .
This is an industry that requires much hand
and semi-skilled labor extending over a longer por-
tion of the year than any other agricultural enter-
prise. Labor is in short supply and growers must
learn personnel management practices that will in-
sure employee productivity. There is also an in-
creasing number of regulations on employment of
personnel and on their safety.
The Florida foliage industry has undergone
rapid growth in the last five years. In 1968 the
estimated wholesale value of Florida foliage plants
was $15 million. Projected value of commercially
grown foliage plants for 1973 is $30 million.
Extension programs of the Department of Or-
namental Horticulture have provided leadership in
helping the industry grow and produce better
quality plants and in providing additional employ-
ment for Florida residents.
More than 500 people representing 37 states
and four foreign countries registered in January
for the 1973 National Tropical Foliage Short
Course in Orlando. The short course was sponsored
by the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Dr.
Dennis B. McConnell State Extension Specialist
with the Department of Ornamental Horticulture
served as program coordinator.
The two and a half day short course was di-
vided into four sections emphasizing utilization,
improving interior environments, production and
world-wide use of foliage plants. Each section fea-
tured speakers who have gained national promi-
nence in their fields. County agents served as short
With the tremendous population surge has
come a proportionate rise in public requests for
more and better information on landscaping and
culture of all types of ornamental plants-lawns,
trees, shrubs, ground covers, vines, flowers and
houseplants. These statements from selected
County Progress Reports summarize the present
"The problems of homeowners continue to
be the main concern of ornamentals in our
"Our county is experiencing a literal popu-
lation explosion. Ornamentals-their culture,
care and selection-have become a major pro-
gram demand on the Extension staff."
"Some 15,000 people retire or vacation in
our city each year, in addition to which there
are 18,000 full-time residents. These people
make many demands on my office for informa-
tion on properly establishing and maintaining
their home grounds."
"Many of the new people moving into our
county are retired and have much leisure time
for gardening. This group, plus other home-
owners, have indicated a great demand for
gardening information because most of them
are not familiar with local plant and plant care
for this region."
Extension is faced with increased demands
from typical suburban homeowners. In addition,
the demands of small farmers, condominium,
apartment and mobile home dwellers and other
groups-through an increased awareness of Exten-
sion services-are creating new opportunities for
If this present trend continues, as no doubt it
will, increased requests for verbal and printed in-
formation on environmental esthetics will broaden
the job responsibilities of both the county and
To assist the Florida poultry industry to pro-
duce and market food more abundantly and ef-
ficiently, the Extension poultry staff inaugurated
three new Extension poultry programs in 1973.
These special statewide in-depth workshops in-
cluded a one-day game bird conference to give a
growing industry much needed educational help.
More than 100 producers from Florida and other
southern states heard discussions on quail feeding,
disease prevention, management and processing.
Service and supervisory personnel, representing
about half of Florida's egg and broiler production
attended a two-day Serviceman's Workshop in
Gainesville. Problem areas such as health manage-
ment, personnel management, basic anatomy and
physiology were discussed. Because many persons
attending the workshop had not been formally
trained in poultry, this basic education program
A third timely workshop was designed to assist
poultry feed manufacturers with feed formulation
in view of critical shortages of such ingredients as
phosphorus. The results of 12 years of research by
the Florida Poultry Science Department was pre-
The Poultry Serviceman's Workshop was attended by many persons
not formally trained in poultry; therefore, such basic features as the
correct handling of a bird, here demonstrated by L.W. Kalch,
associate Extension poultryman, was helpful.
More than 50 talks at meetings, short courses
and schools reached about 2,000 people with in-
formation on diseases of plants in all commodity
areas in 1973. These talks, plus the preparation of
15 circulars, Plant Protection Pointers, technical
papers and Production Guides, enabled Extension
Plant Pathology to disseminate plant disease con-
trol information to a large part of the Florida pop-
ulation. In addition, the vegetable and field crops
sections of the "Florida Plant Disease Control
Guide" were completely revised. About 1,100 copies
of the guide have been issued to people in the
U. S. and 26 foreign countries.
Research-demonstration plots also have been
stressed. Among the significant results that have
been obtained from these plots during the year
Work was conducted with a large food
growing and processing organization that was
treating the seed for about 2,000 acres of
spinach in Florida, and in other states, with a
fungicide for seedling disease control that
was proving inadequate. Extension Plant
Pathologists achieved much better control
with another material on the research-
Extension personnel also worked with a com-
paratively small nursery that has for several
years been experiencing poor growth and
dying of Pittosporium and other plants
grown for cut foliage. Examination of plants
failed to indicate the causal organism be-
cause of rapid root rotting and poor root
growth. Plots were established using chemi-
cals that we believed would control the fungi
most likely to be involved. Several months
elapsed before tangible results could be seen,
but the treatments proved successful in im-
proving appearance and size of growth of-
both top and root system.
Peanut leaf spot control plots were con-
tinued in 1973. Control data were encourag-
ing and essentially similar to previous results.
However, it. is desirable to, continue these
plots at least one more year to be sure of the
Approximately 900 plant disease specimens
were received in the- Plant Disease Clinic, during
1973. An unusually, Jlarge number of these: came
directly from the commercial grower or home-
During the Seventh Annual Pest Control Con-
ference in Gainesville, talks centered on control of
plant diseases, nematodes, weeds, insects, and
wildlife pests, as well as plant breeding and pesti-
cide application. About 175 workers in various
phases of agriculture attended the two-day meet-
The Extension Soil Testing Laboratory proc-
essed 38,280 soil samples in 1973. Some research
samples were included in this number. The large
number of samples from low-income farmers may
be attributed to the efforts of county Extension
Four training sessions on soils and environ-
mental quality were held for garden supply store
dealers and their. personnel throughout the state.
The 300 people who attended wrote evaluations
indicating that the information was valuable and
would be used in their businesses.
Four Soil Identification Short Courses for
county staffs were offered and two more are
scheduled. Seven TV shows were made dealing
with soil and environmental quality information.
Florida's Third Fertilizer and Lime Conference
was held in May. Written evaluations of this con-
ference indicated that it was even more valuable
to the industry and contained more timely infor-
mation than the previous two conferences.
The Soil Science Department Extension Sec-
tion was asked to provide fifth grade students and
their teachers in Lafayette County and St. Johns
County public schools with information on the
importance of natural resources to the environ-
ment. While this request represented a distinct
challenge, those evaluating the effort believe that
the classes taught and materials provided will pro-
mote in the students a sense of inquiry and curi-
osity about our natural resources and in the
teachers, improved ability to direct student efforts.
The annual 4-H Conservation Camp provided
an opportunity to engage older youth in environ-
mental quality exploration. The sessions began
with methods for identifying problem areas and
then locating.them on a state map. As a result, the
campers began identifying problems in their home
areas and developed an awareness of sources of in-
formation as well as agency responsibility.
At a regional public school teachers workshop,
information was exchanged on source materials
and methods of presenting environmental quality
information within existing curriculums K
through 12. Some of the materials exchanged will
be adapted for use in the 4-H special interest effort
and conventional projects.
Efforts were continued to assist with develop-
ment and maintenance of the overall 4-H youth
program. The organizations that currently provide
support of incentive awards programs in conser-
vation of natural resources were kept informed of
program content and progress. These organizations
include WTVT-TV, Channel 13, Tampa; DoLime
Minerals, Bartow; Florida Federal Land Bank As-
sociations; Florida Production Credit Associations;
The Florida Association of Soil and Water Con-
servation Districts; and the Florida Chapter of
Soil Conservation Society of America. All of the
donors pledged long-term continuing support
amounting to $1,650 annually. Because of in-
creased need based on rising costs, negotiations for
additional support from another donor are under-
It is significant when growers recognize prob-
lems facing them in crop production and take steps
jointly to solve them. This recently was the case
among Florida lettuce growers. They requested as-
sistance from Extension and research workers who,
after intensive study, suggested a program similar
to that used in California. Essentially, the program
will exclude lettuce mosaic infested seeds from two
major lettuce producing areas in Florida. Growers
elected three from their group to represent them
on the committee that included members from
IFAS and the Plant Industry Division of the Flor-
ida Department of Agriculture. Grower members
spent considerable time in committee work, at-
tending many meetings and traveling to California.
It now is almost certain that a regulation con-
cerning mosaic infested seeds will go into effect for
the 1973-74 season, benefiting the industry in the
future. However, another important benefit is that
growers as a group recognized their problems, initi-
ated action and followed through.
Harvesting and Handling
Overlapping size classifications in U. S. stan-
dards for fresh tomatoes that allowed unfair label-
ing and trade practices were removed from the re-
vised standards adopted December 1, 1973. Exten-
sive evaluations by the Florida Cooperative Exten-
sion Service were largely responsible for the sizing
revision when it was shown that no overlap was
needed with a 10 percent tolerance.
About 200 tomato growers, shippers, repackers
and receivers attended a meeting and adopted six
size classifications with minimum and maximum
limits to replace the standards where actual fruit
sizes within classifications varied with demand and
prices. Florida tomato shippers are using the U. S.
standards for size. Also, the net weight per package
is limited to two pounds more than designated
To initiate 4-H expansion through the public
school system, state Extension specialists were
called upon to develop Special Interest Projects.
Volusia became a pilot county to test a project
relating to vegetable plants and seeds. Briefly, the
project included six hours of lecture-demonstra-
tion-participation exercises in eight 45-minute
classes. Extension supplied teachers with required
materials such as vegetable seeds, peat pellets,
cups, paper towels and fertilizer.
Volusia County enrolled 2,700 fourth and fifth
graders for the first time and other counties uti-
lized the project with varying degrees of success.
More than 9,000 students participated in the proj-
ect during the year.
With the world food shortage, increased costs
of livestock and poultry production, higher food
prices at the supermarket, and the need to con-
serve valuable resources such as energy and feed,
the livestock industry and consumers are becoming
increasingly aware of economic losses from animal
diseases. Fifteen to 30 percent of our potential
production never reaches the market because of
disease. Animal diseases result in deaths, failure to
produce living young, decreases in milk and egg
production, losses caused by retarded growth and
poor feeding efficiency, and indirect losses caused
by carcass condemnations and decreased quality.
Reducing these losses is essential to a healthy live-
stock economy to assure an adequate supply of
quality meat, milk and eggs at the lowest possible
cost to consumers.
Florida's Cooperative Extension Service pro-
vided educational services to livestock and poultry
producers and practicing veterinarians to promote
control and prevention of animal diseases. Area
cow-calf health clinics brought information to
about 550 cattlemen. Methods of reducing calf
losses were included in dairy calf raising schools.
Animal health information was distributed to live-
stock and poultry producers. Continuing educa-
tion opportunities were provided for practicing
veterinarians to acquaint them with the latest re-
search and techniques for controlling diseases.
Educational support was given by Extension to
state and federal animal disease control and eradi-
Veterinary Science Extension activities in-
cluded educational programs in public health and
environmental quality. Improved sanitation,
proper disposal of animal waste and dead animals,
and proper use of drugs in controlling animal dis-
eases serve to minimize pollution and protect the
safety and quality of the food supply. The respon-
sibility of pet ownership and recreational utiliza-
tion of companion animals also received attention.
The Veterinary Science 4-H Program, Dog Care
and Training 4-H Project and Pocket Pet 4-H
Project served to give youth an educational experi-
ence with animals and scientific knowledge relating
to animal health.
Through a variety of educational methods and
experiences, knowledge about animal diseases and
their control was disseminated. More efficient pro-
duction of meat, milk and eggs, protection of pub-
lic health, and utilization of pet and recreational
animals contribute to raising the standard of living
and quality of life.
EXTENSION HOME ECONOMICS
The Challenge of Transition
For better or worse dramatic changes in life-
styles are taking shape in America today. The
challenge of transition is being met by innovative
Extension home economics agents, dedicated vol-
unteer homemakers and para-professionals whose
main concern is helping individuals and families
get more out of life.
Soaring prices, shortages and a general slacken-
ing of the economy is necessitating a certain loss
in mobility. Today, more than ever, people want
Extension to help them find ways to cope with
their problems. There is a yearning to get back to
the basics of old-fashioned home gardening, cook-
ing and food preservation. The emerging readiness
to change eating patterns for the sake of stretching
both money and food often is essential. A new de-
sire to understand more about the value of food
comes from the advent of nutrient labeling and
Specific groups and individuals squeezed by in-
flation are grateful for any help Extension has to
offer. Among these groups are operators of day
care centers-especially those on small budgets-
school food service kitchen workers, those en-
gaged in congregate feeding of the elderly, and per-
sons on fixed incomes.
For families on limited incomes home owner-
ship in housing developments is often accompanied
by increased responsibilities. Often the new home-
owner is not aware of what homeownership im-
plies. In 1973 Extension offered to help these fam-
ilies differentiate between wants and needs and
find new ways to improve life-styles through
money management and work simplification.
Push Button Technology
Push button technology has created a need
for individuals to develop their own imagination
and artistic skills. Use of this potential has in-
creased interest in selection, use and care of fabrics
for both home and personal use.
Energy and Realism
The energy crisis stimulated a realistic ap-
proach to dealing with energy conservation that
has gained momentum throughout the state. Our
network of county Extension groups, armed with
energy crisis materials, have adopted action plans
that include special interest programs, mass media
coverage and the distribution of leaflets to doctor's
offices, beauty shops, motels and other focal points
where they will be read.
Developing the Human Potential
Developing human potential and improving in-
terpersonal relationships has become a vital task
in helping people to help themselves. Extension is
involved in this task through leadership develop-
ment, counseling, and helping people to make max-
imum use of available resources to cope with the
complexities of modern living. These stimuli help
to create an independent spirit competent to meet
today's "challenge of transition."
HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAMS
This report features only a few of the many
Extension programs in Florida. They are:
On Becoming a Person
New Talent Increases Income
Food Preservation Pays Dividends
A Woman and Her Car
Health-Your Part and Mine
Women War Against Theft
Homemaker Service Program
Facilities and Abilities Merge
Wanted-People to care
On Becoming a Person
Hard-to-reach families, many subsisting on
annual incomes of $3,000 or less, have felt the
brunt of soaring food prices and shrinking dollars.
Extension's Expanded Nutrition Program with
its primary objective of assisting families to im-
prove the quality and adequacy of family diets,
has taught homemakers in Florida basic manage-
ment skills and budgeting principles. Families with
tight food budgets welcome money saving tech-
niques in order to provide food for their families.
Low income families particularly have felt the impact of soaring
food prices and shrinking dollars. Extension home economists are
assisting such families to improve the quality and adequacy of fam-
ily diets and to learn basic management skills and budgeting prin-
Extension's Expanded Nutrition Program has reached more than
130,000 people in Florida in the last five years. Here a paraprofes-
sional worker helps a young mother understand the importance of
good nutrition to her child.
Extension's concentrated nutrition education
effort with low-income families has reached more
than 130,000 people in Florida since its inception
in 1968. Para-professionals have kept abreast of
changes, trends and fads affecting low income peo-
ple. Extension home economists have taught les-
sons on meat extenders, standardized meat cuts,
meat alternates, open code dating, labeling, new
ways with vegetables, food sanitation practices,
simplified cleaning methods and energy conserva-
tion. Aides have presented these materials to
homemakers using innovative individualized ap-
proaches in diversified teaching situations.
Significant social and economic changes have
occurred in the program. Though it is difficult to
measure changes in behavior, the changes never-
theless are real to home economists and para-
professionals who have witnessed them.
New Talent Increases Income
Both men and women are becoming skilled in
the art of chair caning and reupholstery. Such Ex-
tension classes are growing larger each year all
over the state. A number of individuals have
turned this interesting hobby into a profitable
venture. In one case the income supplements a
small retirement income.
The interest in canning and freezing food at home has increased along
with food costs. During 1973 Extension home economists answered
a flood of questions on safe methods of food preservation.
Food Preservation Pays Dividends
Statewide interest in food preservation has hit
an all-time high with every evidence that this in-
terest will mark a major trend. The Gadsden
County Canning Center processed 87,000 pints of
food this year. And more and more people are
canning and freezing food at home. Much com-
munity interest stems from Expanded Nutrition
families throughout rural Florida who are growing
home gardens. Para-professionals encourage home
food production and assist in problems that arise.
Questions on safe methods to preserve foods are
pouring into county offices.
A Woman and Her Car
Previously, many women just "filled up" and
"drove." Now they are finding it necessary to rec-
ognize and identify mechanical problems and make
minor repairs. These new skills stretch the car
dollar and assure more effective maintenance.
Since more women than men own cars, Extension
Home Economics has taken the lead in helping
Florida women become better shoppers for trans-
portation and better powder puff mechanics.
Extension home economists have taken a leading role in helping
Florida women know more about their cars and how to identify
automotive problems and make minor repairs, thus stretching their
Health, Your Part and Mine
Extension homemakers have initiated this cam-
paign in more than half the counties to help fam-
ilies understand the seriousness of high blood
pressure and become aware of how they can pre-
vent the complications of hypertension. Since the
effect of high blood pressure is more pronounced
among blacks causing a higher death rate, a special
effort has been made to reach black families as
well as white.
Women War Against Theft
Reports of personal property losses through
theft from Hillsborough County appalled Exten-
sion homemakers in 1973. Immediately this group
embarked on a program to discourage those
tempted to steal by learning how to engrave their
social security numbers on valuable household
items and encouraging their friends and relatives
to do the same. To reach a large number of peo-
ple, the group demonstrated this skill and other
ways to make homes more secure against theft at
the Hillsborough County Fair and Strawberry Fes-
Homemaker Service Program Started
A need has been felt for several years for a
Homemaker Service Program for the Elderly in
Polk County. About 10 years ago an attempt was
made to organize such a program, but it did not
materialize because of lack of funding. In 1973
A special 1973 program of Extension homemakers was designed to
create an awareness of the seriousness of high blood pressure. The
campaign stressed ways to prevent the complications of hypertension
among both black and white families.
a second attempt was made and the Polk County
Division of Family Services, in cooperation and
consultation with the Extension Home Economics
Agent, established this service.
The Home Economics agent-ENP supervisor
has consulted with agency representatives in set-
ting up program guidelines including establishing
training format, setting community boundaries,
enlisting or referring workers. Twelve homemaker
aides have been employed and have received train-
ing in budgeting, nutrition, food stamps and
quicker clean-up by the Extension home economics
staff. These aides work with people who are more
than 60 years old and need special help with
grocery shopping, transportation to doctors, meal
preparation or other problem areas for the elderly
or convalescent homemaker. The homemaker serv-
ice program has complimented the Expanded Nu-
trition Program for its work with senior citizens.
Facilities and Abilities Merge
The recent influx of senior citizens in Brevard
County has brought civic-minded people to the
forefront. A manager of one of the large shopping
plazas recognized the need for older persons to
have an outlet for their time and abilities. Exten-
sion honored a request to help initiate a program
to satisfy these needs. A number of senior citizens
have put on demonstrations for the public. A sur-
vey of 240 persons who attended revealed that 33
were interested in joining homemaker clubs; 75
wanted to meet new people, and 86 enrolled for
an Extension class. Many indicated that they
would like a place to read Extension literature. As
a result, the plaza management made a room
available to senior citizens between 10 a. m. and
2 p. m. and a committee has been formed to sched-
ule classes and publicity.
Wanted-People to Care
Harlem, a small community deep in the heart
of the sugar country, has local people who care.
Through the efforts of a social worker and tenants
association, the services of the county Extension
home economics agent was requested to set up a
five-week workshop stressing such topics as
Quicker Clean-Up, Home Care and Decoration.
Sugar company representatives were impressed
with the program and asked for additional help
in working with families that live permanently in
labor camps. The families related, "It's nice to
know that there are people who care!"
In Harlem and in other communities throughout Florida, Extension
workers are among the people "who care about people" and lend a
helping hand with information and programs to show families how to
improve their lives.
USDA Photo by Larry Rana
4-H-Youth work in Florida during the past year
took on some new dimensions. The goal-to help
young people develop into worthy citizens-remained
the same, but new segments of Florida's youth were
reached. Through both new school programs and new
single project clubs, 4-H brought extra curricular,
educational programs to thousands of low-income,
inner-city and minority-group young people. In this
way membership in Florida 4-H grew from
approximately 20,000 to 75,000 members.
The new programming during the past year
was designed to demonstrate that 4-H could at-
tract and could be made meaningful to non-farm,
non-rural young people. At the same time, it was
the intent of Extension youth-professionals
throughout the state to continue to offer those
traditional educational programs necessary to keep
the agriculturally-interested youth actively in-
volved in 4-H work. On balance, it is felt that the
plan has worked. The department intends to con-
tinue to make modifications in techniques and
methods, believing that 4-H can be of service to all
of Florida's young people.
CAMPING WITH 4-H
A primary target of the 4-H Department has
been to expand the use of five camping facilities,
located geographically throughout the state. Re-
ceiving priority use of these camps were local and
county 4-H groups and state-wide special purpose
camp groups. As an example, during the summer
eight Florida counties participated in special 4-H
happenings sponsored by Expanded Nutrition
funds. County personnel wrote proposals for the
programs and the better ones were funded.
These programs ranged from one-time day
camps to an overnight camping experience. The
curricula emphasized food and nutrition and such
areas as grooming, manners, gardening, getting
along with others and money management. A total
of 1,144 youth were involved. Responses by parents
have been enthusiastic, expressing a desire for
their children to continue similar programs. A large
number of the youth are presently involved
through newsletters, 4H-ENP groups and other
4-H groups and activities.
In addition to Extension-connected groups, the
facilities accommodated other organizations and
agencies ranging from U. S. Forest Service to
youth and adult church groups. Through this ex-
panded usage of the camping facilities an addi-
tional 4,398 persons and a total of 6,659 camper
days were logged.
An effort also was made to upgrade the educa-
tional-recreational program offered to the regular
season campers. A special grant was used to pur-
chase equipment that would standardize each
camp program and offer graduated recreational ac-
Through traditional 4-H programs, County Ex-
tension 4-H Coordinators long have sought to en-
courage youth through experiences in leadership,
citizenship and personal development. The long-
standing community clubs, with their local volun-
teer leaders, judging teams and special activities,
still remain the backbone of 4-H. However, 4-H
coordinators have felt the need for expansion.
Working with Extension specialists, they have in-
corporated the use of 4-H Special Interest Pro-
grams to reach more youth. The setting is mainly
the classroom; the 4-H Special Interest members
are students; their leaders are adult volunteers;
and the outcome has been a new and exciting ex-
The purpose of Special Interest 4-H projects is
to provide a variety of beneficial learning experi-
ences to a greater number of youth and at the
same time to enrich classroom offerings. Such
learning experiences have contributed to a better
understanding and appreciation of citizenship
rights and responsibilities, our free enterprise sys-
tem and the profit motive, and environmental
problems. In addition such experiences have de-
veloped leadership skills and provided opportuni-
ties for members to participate in the solution of
problems. Major project areas have been these:
Exploring Your World, which includes banking,
money management, shopping and supermarkets;
Money Mastery; Maxi Uses for Mini Appliances;
Forest Ecology; Signs of the Times, which deals
with traffic safety; Teen Consumer; Adventures in
Food Science; For Happier Happenings Be Well-
Groomed; Pocket Pets; Citizenship; Plant Science;
and the Big Switch, which concerns the energy
4-H CITIZENSHIP SHORT COURSES
For the past 10 years Florida has been sending
50 to 90 4-H'ers to the National 4-H Citizenship
Short Courses each summer at the National 4-H
Center in Washington, D. C. Here the emphasis
has naturally been on citizenship from a national
viewpoint. 4-H members also have had an oppor-
tunity in their home counties to study city and
county government. The missing link, therefore,
has been the study of state government. Realizing
that 4-H'ers need to, deveblp a better understand-
ing of the responsibility df state government to the
citizen and become familiar with the responsibility
of the citizen to his' government, the first State
4-H Citizenship Short Course was held in August
at the Capitol in Tallahassee.
Using the facilities of Florida State University
and the chamber and committee rooms of the
House of Representatives, 100 older 4-H'ers and
representative Extension agents participated in
the program. The 4-H members were divided
equally into two groups-Representatives and Lob-
byists who represented twelve citizen groups. The
4-H Legislature worked with six "bills" with each
committee advised by a regular staff member from
the House of Representatives. Subjects covered
by the bills included these:
A severance tax to be placed on the cutting
A tax on advertising in the state.
Open burning in the state.
Construction of a new limited-access high-
Establishment of emission standards for all
Construction of sewage treatment and dis-
posal plants within proposed areas of new
residential and industrial construction.
In addition to the legislative sessions, tours
were made to the offices of the Florida Cabinet,
Governor's mansion, Supreme Court, Consumer's
Agriculture Laboratory, and the Leon County
Election Supervisor's office, where some partici-
pants had their first opportunity to vote. The
short course also gave governmental officials an
excellent opportunity to become better acquainted
with 4-H while the young people publicly exhibited
4-H and studied state government first hand.
RECOGNITION OF ACHIEVEMENT
The practice of recognizing outstanding
achievement among 4-H youth has always been
an integral part of the Florida 4-H Program. Many
4-H'ers have received a variety of awards for out-
standing achievement through the years. However,
1973 was an unprecedented year in that the Na-
tional 4-H Recognition jProgram honored Florida
4-H'ers with two sectional trips to the National
4-H Congress in Chicago, four National scholar-
ships totaling $3,000, and a Silver Tray Citation
presented on behalf of the President of the United
States. The 4-H Program areas upon which these
awards focused were leadership, dress revue, safety,
poultry and public speaking. The 4-H'ers receiving
these awards were from Brevard, Okaloosa, Mar-
ion, Manatee and Levy counties.
This accomplishment represents a significant
breakthrough for Florida 4-H'ers brought about in
part by a concerted 4-H Records training program.
The state 4-H department coordinated record
clinics, workshops, and seminars that were held
throughout the State to better acquaint 4-H'ers
with the correct methods and techniques of con-
structing an accumulative statistical and narrative
account of their 4-H work.
Total Federal Funds
State & Trust Funds:
Total State & Trust Funds
Total Cooperative Extension Funds
Total Federal Funds
State & Trust Funds:
Total State & Trust Funds
Total Cooperative Extension Funds
FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
PLANNED AND EXPENDED TIME BY PROGRAM AREA
Fiscal Year 1973
Planned* Expended Total
Program Area Mandays % of Total Mandays % of Total Audience
1 Citrus and Other Fruits and Nuts 2,986 3.70 4,079 3.85 74,077
2 Vegetable Crops 2,509 3.11 3,657 3.46 53,710
3 Field Crops 1,555 1.92 2,503 2.36 49,698
4 Forage, Range and Pasture 1,213 1.50 1,681 1.59 26,867
5 Forest and Forest Products 663 .82 566 .53 7,161
6 Ornamental Plants 5,026 6.22 7,245 6.84 270,069
7 Beef 2,812 3.48 3,841 3.63 102,208
8 Dairy 1,651 2.04 2,075 1.96 33,581
9 Swine 1,000 1.24 838 .79 19,337
10 Poultry 1,030 1.28 1,338 1.26 34,566
11 Horses 739 .92 966 .91 38,170
12 Bees and Their Products 211 .26 114 .11 1,662
13 Other Animals 15 .02 .22 .02 541
14 Marine and Aquatic Prod. 87 .11 476 .45 4,476
15 Supp. Disc. Act. (Commercial Ag.) 3,653 4.52 4,834 4.57 71,215
21 Pollution Abatement and Control 902 1.12 697 .66 26,561
22 Wildlife and Fish 44 .05 43 .04 358
23 Recreation 85 .10 312 .29 3,496
24 Environmental Esthetics 188 .23 160 .15 10,070
25 Supp. Disc. Act. (Nat. and Renewable Res.) 582 .72 594 .56 21,003
31 Family Stability 6,283 7.78 7,994 7.55 325,997
32 Consumer Competence 3,990 4.94 5,302 5.01 160,169
33 Family Health 2,214 2.74 2,132 2.01 62,689
34 Expanded Nutrition Program 6,829 8.46 6,688 6.32 61,530
35 Family Housing 1,868 2.31 2,214 2.09 34,216
36 Community and Regional Development 2,842 3.52 2,969 2.80 72,343
37 Manpower and Employment 109 .13 139 .13 2,961
38 Supp. Disc. Act. (Human 5,433 6.73 8,380 7.92 363,122
Res. and Qual. of Life)
41 Extension Support and Maintenance 21,881 27.09 30,884 29.18 226,475
51 Administration 1,220 1.51 1,585 1.50 8,510
52 International Programs 91 .11 135 .13 3,193
53 Facilities 132 .16 273 .26 1,234
54 Editorial-Communications 920 1.14 1,107 1.05 6
80,763 99.98 105,840 99.98 2,171,271
*Only 76 percent of total available time was planned. Both planned time and expended time are based on an eight-hour day.
Source: Retrieval Nos. 155 and 160.
SUMMARY OF EXTENSION HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAM
Major Audience Types for which Home Economics Programs are Designed:
Family Members 350,616
Senior Citizens 12,868
Families with Pre-school Children 2,744
Extension Homemaker Club Members 69,777
Residents of Low-income Housing 4,678
Paraprofessional Expanded Nutrition Program Aides 5,733
Major Subject Taught by Extension Home Economists:
Family Living 28,284
Consumer Education 42,438
Family Economics 14,448
Legal Affairs 903
Food Buying 21,777
Donated Foods 0
Food Stamp Program 1,356
Food Preparation and Service 18,965
Food Preservation 21,478
Home Furnishings 23,671
Household Equipment 4,786
Home Grounds 135,855
Food Production/Gardens 9,605
Home Management 3,959
Human and Personal Development 124,449
Human Relationships 44,848
Areas Reached by Expanded Nutrition Program:
Counties-Adult Programs 28
Indian Reservations-Adult Programs 3
Counties-Youth Programs 7
Extension Program Aides 258
Number of organized Extension Homemaker Clubs 496
Number of Extension Homemaker Club Members 14,335
Number of Individuals reached by leaders in 259,190
Homemaker Clubs and Special Interest Meetings
Number of Home Economics Subject Matter Leaders 2,857
SUMMARY OF 4-H YOUTH WORK
Number of Organized 4-H Clubs
Number of 4-H Special Interest Groups and other 4-H Units
Number of 4-H Members:
4-H junior and teen boys
4-H junior and teen girls
4-H Members by Place of Residence:
Towns under 10,000 and open country
Towns and cities 10,000 to 50,000
Suburbs of city of over 50,000
Central city of over 50,000
4-H Members by Age Groups:
9 years of age
10 years of age
11 years of age
12 years of age
13 years of age
14 years of age
'15 years of age
16 years of age
17 years of age
18 years of age
19 years of age
Major Audience Types and Number of Persons Reached for 4-H Youth Work:
Youth (4-H TV)
Expanded Nutrition Program-Youth Phase
Seven counties with youth program
All Expanded Nutrition Program units in state
Total Number Youth Enrolled in Nutrition Groups:
Seven counties with youth program
All Expanded Nutrition Program units in state
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE FACULTY LIST*
Joe N. Busby, Ph.D., Dean for Extension
Jack T. McCown, Ed.D., Associate Dean for Extension
Raymond C. Andrew, Ph.D., Assistant Dean, Personnel
B. B. Archer, Ph.D., Assistant Dean-FAMU Programs, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee
James J. Brasher, Ph.D., Assistant Dean, Chairman-4-H & Other Youth Programs
Olive L. Morrill, Ed.D., Assistant Dean, Chairman-Home Economics
James E. Ross, Ph.D., Assistant Dean, Agricultural Programs
Forrest E. Myers, M.Ag., Assistant to the Dean
Alto A. Straughn, Ph.D., Director, Program Evaluation and Organizational Development
Emily E. King, Ph.D., Program Specialist
Shaw E. Grigsby, Ph.D., Program Specialist
Donald Y. Aska, B.S., Assistant in Agriculture (Marine Advisory Program)
John H. Nininger, Jr., B.S., Administrative Assistant
M. Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Communication Specialist & Chairman, Editorial Department
Douglas L. Buck, M.Ag., Assistant Communication Specialist
Roberts C. Smith, Jr., B.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Miss Alma Warren, M.S., Assistant Communication Specialist
Thomas M. Leahy, Jr., M.S., Assistant in Editcrial (Marine Advisory Program)
Leo Polopolus, Ph.D., Chairman, Food and Resource Economics Department
John Holt, Ph.D., Assistant Economist, Farm Management
Charles L. Anderson, M.S.A., Area Assistant Farm Management Specialist (Lake Alfred)
George O. Westberry, M.S., Area Assistant Farm Management Specialist (Quincy)
Charles Walker, M.S., Area Assistant Farm Management Specialist (Belle Glade)
James C. Cato, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
James A. Niles, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
Ralph A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Stanley E. Rosenberger, Ph.D., Marketing Specialist, Vegetable Crops
Kenneth M. Gilbraith, M.S.A., Vegetable Marketing Specialist
Charles D. Covey, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
William K. Mathis, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Economist, Marketing
Robert O. Coppedge, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
George R. Perkins, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
Clisby C. Moxley, Ph.D., Economist
Vernon C. McKee, Ph.D., Director of Planning and Business Affairs
Virgil L. Elkins, M.S., Area Program Specialist, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee
James C. McCall, M.S., Rural Area Development Specialist (Marianna)
James A. Brown, M.S., Rural Area Development Specialist (Live Oak)
Richard A. Levins, M.S., Area Assistant Farm Management Specialist (Bradenton)
Thomas C. Skinner, M.Ag., Agricultural Engineer
Dalton S. Harrison, M.S., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Richard P. Cromwell, M.Eng., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
Lloyd B. Baldwin, M.A., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Chairman, Agronomy Department
David W. Jones, M.S.A., Agronomist
Wayne L. Currey, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
Elmo B. Whitty, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
James T. Johnson, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
Charles E. Freeman, M.S., Resident Instructor in Agronomy (Belle Glade)
Tony J. Cunha, Ph.D., Chairman, Animal Science Department
James E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
Robert L. Reddish, Ph.D., Extension Meats Specialist
Kenneth L. Durrance, M.Ag., Associate Animal Husbandman
Ben H. Crawford, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman
Robert S. Sand, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman
Harold H. VanHorn, Jr., Ph.D., Chairman, Dairy Science Department
Ronald L. Richter, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Technologist
Barney Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Dairy Nutritionist
Daniel W. Webb, Ph.D., Assistant Extension Dairy Husbandman
W. G. Eden, Ph.D., Chairman, Entomology and Nematology Department
James E. Brogdon, M.Ag., Entomologist
John R. Strayer, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
*List of faculty as of 3/11/74
Donald W. Dickson, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
Donald E. Short, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
Freddie A. Johnson, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Kenneth G. Townsend, B.S., Assistant Extension Entomologist (Lake Alfred)
John L. Gray, Ph.D., Director, School of Forest Resources and Conservation
Thomas G. Herndon, M.S.F., Extension Forester o
Anthony S. Jensen, M.S.F., Assistant Extension Forester
Dennis R. Crowe, Ph.D., Assistant Extension Forester
Alfred H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Chairman, Fruit Crops Department
Fred P. Lawrence, M.S., Citriculturist
Larry K. Jackson, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
Timothy E. Crocker, Ph.D., Extension Specialist
David P. H. Tucker, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist (Lake Alfred)
Wilfred F. Wardowski, II, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist (Lake Alfred)
James W. Strobel, Ph.D., Chairman, Ornamental Horticulture Department
Harry G. Meyers, M.S.A., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Graham S. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Willard T. Witte, Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Richard W. Henley, Ph.D., Associate Ornamental Horticulturist (Apopka)
L. H. Purdy, Ph.D., Chairman, Plant Pathology Department
Robert S. Mullin, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Thomas A. Kucharek, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
Robert H. Harms, Ph.D., Chairman, Poultry Science Department
Carroll R. Douglas, Ph.D., Associate Extension Poultryman
Lester W. Kalch, M.Ag., Associate Extension Poultryman
Robert B. Christmas, Ph.D., Assistant Extension Poultryman and Supervisor, National Egg Laying Test (Chipley)
Charles F. Eno, Ph.D., Chairman, Soils Department
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Soils Specialist
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Extension Conservationist -
J. F. Kelly, Ph.D., Chairman, Vegetable Crops Department
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist
James M. Stephens, M.S.A., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
James R. Hicks, Ph.D., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
Stephen R. Kostewicz, Ph.D., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
C. E. Cornelius, Ph.D., Chairman, Veterinary Science Department
George W. Meyerholz, D.V.M., Extension Veterinarian
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Chairman, Food Science Department
Richard F. Matthews, Ph.D., Food Technologist
William E. McCullough, M.S., Assistant Food Technologist
William M. Sensabaugh, M.S., Assistant Engineer and Coastal Oceanographic Engineer
Mason E. Marvel, Ph.D., Assistant Director of International Programs
Mrs. Roberta H. Hall, M.S., Extension Home Furnishings Specialist
Mrs. Marie S. Hammer, M.S., Extension Home Economist, (E.N.P.)
Mrs. Beth H. Walsh, M.S., Extension Food Specialist
Miss Vervil L. Mitchell, M.S., Home Management & Family Economics Specialist
Mrs. Charla J. Durham, M.S., Home Management & Family Economics Specialist
Miss Elizabeth E. Mumm, M.P.H., Health Education Specialist
Mrs. Mary N. Harrison, M.S., Consumer Education Specialist
Mrs. Lizette L. Murphy, M.S., Consumer Education Specialist
Miss Glenda L. Warren, M.S., Food and Nutrition Specialist (E.N.P.)
Mrs. Yancey B. Walters, M.H.E., Extension Home Economics Program Development
Miss Sandra A. Claybrook, M.S., Extension Home Economist (E.N.P.)
Miss Evelyn A. Rooks, M.H.E., Human Development Specialist
Miss Lora A. Kiser, M.A., Extension Home Economist, Professional Development
Miss R. Nadine Hackler, M.S., Clothing Specialist
Mrs. Faye T. Plowman, M.A., Housing Specialist
Grant M. Godwin, M.Ag., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
Billy J. Allen, M.Ag., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
Thomas C. Greenawalt, Ed.D., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Ruth L. Milton, M.S., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Linda L. Dearmin, M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Damon Miller, M.S., Assistant State 4-H Youth Development Specialist, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee
Pauline F. Calloway, Ed.D., District Agent
Ernest R. Wheaton, Ed.D., District Agent
William H. Smith, Ed.D., District Agent
Earl M. Kelly, Ed.D., District Agent
Wilburn C. Farrell, M.Ag.
Adam T. Andrews, M.Ag.
John E. Moser, B.S.A.
Mrs. Jeanette S. Cardell, M.S.
Aubrey L. Harrell, M.A.
Mrs. Roberta C. Hicks, B.S.
Horace M. Carr, B.S.
Mrs. Eliza M. Jackson, B.S.
Mrs. Karen K. Olson, M.S.
Bobby L. Taylor, M.Ag.
Miss Kathleen E. Brown, M.A.
J. Lowell Loadholtz, M.S.
Sylvester A. Rose, M.S.
Alfred B. Humphrys, M.A.
Mrs. Sue B. Bledsoe, B.S.
Mrs. Aurilla D. Birrel, B.S.
Mrs. Joy W. Satcher, B.S.
Lewis E. Watson, M.S.
James F. Cummings, M.Ag.
William R. Llewellyn, M.S.A.
Mrs. Dorothy Y. Gifford, B.S.
Mrs. Sandra T. Alphonse, B.S.
Mrs. Karen B. McNeil, B.A.
Mrs. Elaine T. Klatt, M.S.
James R. Yelvington, M.Ag.
Jerry A. Wyrick, M.S.A.
Miss Linda D. Bamburg, B.S.
William ,L. Hatcher, B.S.A.
Quentin Medlin, B.S.A.
Mrs. Paula P. Stanley, B.S.
Thomas J. Godbold, B.S.E.
Mrs. Ann V. Prevatt, B.A.
Mrs. Emily G. Harper, B.S.
Donald W. Lander, M.Ag.
James E. Bellizio, M.S.
Dallas B. Townsend, B.S.A.
Mrs. Nancy K. Golonka, M.S.
Neal M. Dukes, B.S.
Richard H. Smith, M.S.
Mrs. Mary E. Anderson, B.S.
Mrs. Deborah M. George, B.S.
John D. Campbell, B.S.A.
Roy J. Champagne, M.S.
Louis J. Daigle, M.Ag.
Ralph W. Moore, B.S.
Joseph D. Dalton, Ph.D.
Seymour Goldweber, B.S.
John F. McGuire, M.S.A.
William M. Stall, Ph.D.
Mrs. Justine L. Bizette, B.S.
Mrs. Mary A. Holmes, M.S.
Miss Victoria M. Simpson, B.S.
Mrs. Grace R. Hauser, B.S.
Mrs. Judy M. Dellapa, B.S.
Miss Alice R. Blair, B.S.
Miss Janith K. Masteryanni, M.S.
Mrs. Mary R. Bohan, B.S.
Mrs. Shirley R. Bond, M.A.
DE SOTO COUNTY
Kenneth M. Sanders, M.S.
Mrs. Mary A. Roe, B.S.
Thomas R. Burton, Jr., M.Ag.
James N. Watson, B.S.A.
Edward Allen, M.S.A.
Thomas H. Braddock, Jr., M.S.A.
Harold C. Jones, M.A.
David L. Lawrence, M.S.
Ernest L. Stephens, M.S.
Mrs. Bessie J. Canty, M.S.
Mrs. Sarah M. Board, B.S.
Miss Tamer L. Britton, M.Ed.
Miss Carol A. Lotz, B.S.
Mrs. Duska M. Dorschel, M.S.H.E.
Mrs. Sandra L. McCoy, B.S.
Edward J. Cowen, M.Ag.
James H. Walker, M.S.A.
Daniel E. Mullins, M.S.
Marvin F. Weaver, M.S.
Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson, B.S.
Miss Mary J. Home, B.S.
Miss Linda K. West, M.S.
Mrs. Vicki B. Cobb, M.S.
George H. Newbury, M.S.A.
James B. Estes, M.A.
John C. Russell, M.Ag.
Bernard H. Clark, B.S.A.
Henry G. Grant, M.S.
Mrs. Marjorie B. Gregory, B.S.
Mrs. Dicki D. Bentley, B.S.
Mrs. Ursula H. Williams, B.S.
Arthur D. Alston, M.Ag.
B. O. Bass, M.S.A.
Cubie R. Laird, M.Ed.
Rance A. Andrews, B.S.A.
Isaac Chandler, Jr., B.S.
Mrs. Wylma B. White, M.S.
Jack C. Hayman, M.Ag.
Mrs. Nannie M. Cochran, B.S.
Raymond H. Burgess, M.S.A.
Clayton E. Hutcheson, M.S.
Mrs. Rosemary A. Hunter, M.S.
Albert D. Dawson, B.S.A.
Miss Rita A. Davis, B.S.
Bert J. Harris, Jr., B.S.
George T. Hurner, Jr., B.S.
Jean Beem, M.S.A.
Paul E. Glasscock, B.S.
James E. Richards, M.S.A.
Robert D. Downs, B.S.A.
Wayne T. Wade, M.Ed.
Charles F. Hinton, III, Ph.D.
Roger D. Newton, M.S.
Mrs. Mamie G. Bassett, B.S.
Mrs. Helen P. Webb, B.S.
Mrs. Virginia H. Coombs, B.S.
Mrs. Ruth T. Penner, B.S.
Mrs. Johnnie H. Johnson, B.S.
Lawrence D. Taylor, M.S.
William C. Taylor, B.A.
Mrs. Mary J. Castello, B.S.
INDIAN RIVER COUNTY
Forrest N. McCullars, B.S.A.
Mrs. Vicki S. Chipman, B.A.
Woodrow W. Glenn, M.S.
William E. Collins, B.S.A.
Charles L. Brasher, M.S.
Mrs. Jane R. Burgess, B.S.H.E.
Albert H. Odom, M.Ag.
James A. Nealy, M.A.
James B. Morris, III, M.S.
Mrs. Dona A. Ingle, M.S.
Jackson A. Haddox, M.A.
John L. Jackson, M.Ag.
Laurence A. Sistrunk, M.S.
Mrs. Marian B. Valentine, B.S.H.E.
Miss Doris L. Milligan, M.S.
Mrs. Alice B. Ayers, M.Ret.
Robert G. Curtis, B.S.A.
Mrs. Dorothy J. Classon, B.S.
Miss Charlotte A. Wise, B.A.
Harvey T. Paulk, M.Ag.
Michael E. Demaree, M.S.A.
George C. Henry, M.Ed.
Lawrence Heitmeyer, M.S.
Mrs. Martha M. Walker, B.S.
Mrs. Ann W. Parramore, B.S.
Mrs. Lorraine T. Sanders
Leonard C. Cobb, M.Ag.
William R. Womble, B.S.A.
William F. Marlow, M.E.
Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr., M.A.
James C. Miller, B.S.
John A. Baldwin, M.S.A.
Mrs. Mae M. Anderson, B.S.
Miss Deloris M. Jones, B.S.
James L. App, Ph.D.
Robert T. Montgomery, B.S.A.
Larry W. Harms, M.S.
William J. Messina, M.S.
Miss Marne D. Kirby
Miss Susan K. Shaw, B.S.
Edsel W. Rowan, B.S.A.
William J. Phillips, Jr., M.S.
Robert L. Renner, M.A.
Mrs. Sarah K. Thomas, B.S.
Miss Barbara A. Cooper, B.S.
Mrs. Jo M. Townsend, B.S.
Robert B. Whitty, M.S.
Mrs. Martha B. Norton, M.S.
Phillip B. Moore, Ph.D.
Richard E. Warner, Ph.D.
Judson T. Fulmer, M.Ed.
Mrs. Sandra R. Jones, B.S.
Jack D. Patten, B.S.
Charles M. Walthall, M.S.
Mrs. Ann P. Jeter, B.S.
Mrs. Marilee M. Tankersley, B.S.
Rayburn K. Price, M.Ag.
Miss Brenda J. Cunningham, B.S.
Henry F. Swanson, M.S.A.
Bruce A. Barmby, M.S.
Oscar J. Hebert, Jr., M.S.
Thomas J. MacCubbin, M.S.
Lester C. Floyd, B.S.
Mrs. Marjorie L. Williams, B.S.
Mrs. Mary A. Moore, M.A.T.
Mrs. Leala R. Collins, B.S.
Mrs. Linda W. Luman, B.S.
James B. Smith, B.S.A.
Mrs. Marilyn B. Tileston, B.S.H.E.
Robert S. Pryor, B.S.
Frederick E. Boss, M.S.
DeArmand L. Hull, M.S.
Raleigh S. Griffis, M.Ag.
John H. Causey, B.S.A.
Mrs. Arlen C. Jones, B.S.
Mrs. Marylou W. Shirar, M.Ed.
Mrs. Ruth A. Holmes, B.S.
Mrs. Beverly B. Harrington, B.S.
Luther L. Rozar, Jr., M.Ag.
James D. Sumner, B.S.A.
Miss Clara A. Smith, B.S.
Mrs. Barmell B. Dixon, B.S.
Mrs. Teresa W. Macrae, B.S.
Gilbert M. Whitton, Jr., M.Ag.
Charles E. Rowan, M.Ag.
Richard E. Bir, M.S.
Mrs. Dorothy E. Draves, B.S.
Miss Nancy B. Whigham, B.S.
Mrs. Virginia D. Gardner, B.S.
Mrs. Marilyn A. Lanctot, M.A.
Mrs. Billie J. Stewart, B.S.
Robert M. Davis, M.Ag.
Thomas W. Oswalt, M.S.A.
Ortis E. Carmichael, M.S.
David M. Solger, M.Ag.
Sidney L. Sumner, M.S.A.
Ronald P. Muraro, M.S.
Mrs. Alice P. Kersey, M.S.
Mrs. Josephine M. Cameron, M.S.
Mrs. Ruth A. Miller, B.S.
Mrs. Gayle P. Jenkins, M.A.
Ralph T. Clay, B.S.A.
Mrs. Essie H. Thompson, B.S.
Mrs. Rosa L. Banks, B.S.
ST. JOHNS COUNTY
Paul L. Dinkins, M.Ag.
James D. Dilbeck, M.S.
Miss Nettle R. Brown, B.S.
ST. LUCIE COUNTY
Hugh C. Whelchel, B.S.
Timothy P. Gaver, B.S.
Mrs. Marguerite R. Brock, B.S.
SANTA ROSA COUNTY
William C. Zorn, M.Ag.
Jack J. Spears, M.Ag.
Miss Fern S. Nix, B.S.
Miss Margaret M. Pitts, B.S.
Kenneth A. Clark, B.S.A.
Edwin S. Pastorius, B.S.A.
James L. Parrish, M.S.
Miss Jeanette Meadows, M.S.
Mrs. Betty M. McQueen, M.S.
Frank J. Jasa, B.S.A.
David A. DeVoll, M.S.A.
Mrs. Louise L. Gill, B.S.H.E.
Donald A. George, B.S.A.
Miss Dorothy C. Perkins, B.S.
William C. Smith, Jr., M.Ag.
Henry E. Jowers, B.S.
Mrs. Janice R. McRee, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Meredith C. Taylor, B.S.
Henry P. Davis, B.S.A.
Mrs. Carole B. Mott, B.S.
William J. Cowen, B.S.A.
Thomas R. Townsend, M.S.
Larry L. Loadholtz, M.S.
George A. Hindery, Ph.D.
Mrs. Betty M. Vernon, B.S.
Mrs. Diane E. Yates, B.S.
Bobby R. Durden, B.S.A.
Mrs. Marilyn J. Halusky, B.S.
James E. Thomaston, M.Ag.
Mrs. Virginia C. Clark, B.S.
Mrs. Becky E. Young, B.S.
Johnnie E. Davis, M.Ag.
Lenzy M. Scott, M.A.
Miss Annie S. Elmore, M.S.
List of county faculty as of 3/11/74
This public document was promulgated at an annual cost
of $1977.95, or sixty-six cents per copy, to inform the .
people of Florida concerning Extension Service activities.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
Joe N. Busby, Dean