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Improving farm income
Community resource development
Planned and expended time by program area
The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
A NNUA HUME ULBRAR
190E fAR.f USEP 21 a97 \
I.F.A.S.- Univ. of Floida
PLtRa A COOPERATIVE EXTNBIMON llCRVI
Institute of Food and Agriculturamlla nces 'Univertfty Ma
A disastrous outbreak of Southern corn blight
which not only resulted in a direct loss of income
to Florida farmers but a serious threat to the
state's livestock industry -
A record citrus crop for 1970-71 again threaten-
ing to depress prices and cause a serious marketing
New emphasis on agriculture's role in environ-
mental problems, complicated by the constant
state of change in approval and recommendation of
agricultural chemicals -
More and more pressure from the public on
government in general for relief from taxes and
inflation, fair treatment in the market place, and
improved services -
These were some of the major challenges that
faced the Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Extension also opened the decade of the '70s
with a major move to analyze all programs in
relation to projected future problems, and plan
shifts in emphasis. This was done in conjunction
with the research and teaching arms of the Insti-
tute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS)
through the Planning, Programming and Budget
System, and a major self-study report compiled in
conjunction with the University of Florida's
10-year re-accreditation study.
Most of the-major problems were tackled by
several disciplines. For example, the threat of de-
pressed citrus prices is directly a marketing prob-
lem involving agricultural economists, but gets the
attention of food scientists attempting to improve
product quality and develop new products, and the
attention of production-oriented specialists who
carried out programs to help growers lower produc-
As our technology advances, more and more
problems of society both economic and social -
are attacked on a multi-dimensional, in-depth basis.
It is impossible to summarize more than a frac-
tion of the efforts of Florida's Cooperative Exten-
sion Service over a year. Emanating from the UF
campus in Gainesville, these efforts diffuse
throughout the entire state, reaching into every
county and directly or indirectly affecting
almost every citizen. Thousands of man-hours by
the off-campus faculty of IFAS help the agricul-
tural industry become more efficient and produc-
tive, and improve the quality of the environment
and the living standard of our citizens.
Some highlights follow.
IMPROVING FARM IN
I *, -.. ? -- -Y v, f ^ l e- l
Southern corn leaf blight destroyed much of the
southeastern corn crop in 1970. Florida's average
yield of 25 bushels per acre was the lowest in
several years. Extension agronomists joined plant
pathologists, animal scientists, and economists in
Florida and other states in obtaining and present-
ing information on the disease as well as possible
alternative crops that could be planted as cash
crops or for feeding livestock.
Twelve variety, fertility and spacing trials on
corn, sorghum, soybean, aeschynomene, bahiagrass
and pigeon peas were established to obtain more
information and demonstrate to growers the poten-
tial of new crops, varieties and cultural practices.
Studies involving growth regulators and calcium
sources for peanuts were conducted at Experiment
Stations near Marianna and Gainesville.
Emphasis .was placed on producing forages for
Florida's multi-million dollar livestock industry.
Pasture and silage information was presented to
cattle and swine producers at shortcourses and
field days, and two new specialists joined the Ex-
tension agronomy staff to give added emphasis to
forage and grain production and to weed control.
Major advances were made in peanut, soybean
and flue-cured tobacco production. Florunner, a
new peanut variety developed by the University of
Florida, was available to growers for the first time
and it promises to be the most successful variety
ever released in the United States. The Florunner
variety, good weather and improved leafspot con-
Agronomists look over results of serious corn blight attack.
trol contributed to record peanut yields. Soybean
acreage expanded to new areas, and record yields
were maintained as growers were urged to select
suitable soils and use recommended cultural prac-
tices. Flue-cured tobacco growers established
record yields while also increasing the superiority
in quality that is associated with Florida tobacco.
The 1970 value of all field crops (excluding
pastures) in Florida increased by about 8 percent
over the 1969 value.
THE CITRUS INDUSTRY
One key to combating the threat of lower prices
caused by an abundant crop is to lower production
cost a matter of increasing efficiency.
The Economical Citrus Production Program,
developed by Extension fruit crops specialists, is
designed to reduce inefficiency and encourage
Florida's 15,000 citrus growers to adopt more
efficient methods. Studies indicate the cost of in-
efficiency may run in excess of $100 million each
While there are many phases of the Economical
Citrus Production Program, weed control, use of
irrigation, and proper fertilization are three major
areas. The use of herbicides as opposed to conven-
tional, high-labor cultivation if adopted industry-
wide could save growers $14 million each year.
Similar savings would be effected by proper fertili-
zation methods and use of irrigation with those
varieties that respond best.
Herbicides could potentially save citrus industry $14 million
... -~ jr514
The program is carried out through citrus
specialists located in the counties of the citrus belt,
and through area specialists. They receive a week
of intensive training each year, and the program
manual is updated to incorporate new practices.
New charts and slide sets are issued for use by
these county and area specialists for grower
demonstrations and use with the mass media.
It is estimated the program, when followed
faithfully, allows most citrus producers to cut cost
of their operations by 15 to 20 percent.
Many of the methods used in cost reduction are
developed by Extension economists working in
farm management. For example, these economists
determined that using muriate of potash instead of
dolomite as a soil amendment would save citrus
growers about $7 per acre. This change adopted by
one major grower saved $107,000 the first year.
On another front, Extension food science
specialists devoted a major part of the annual food
processors shortcourse to use of specialized addi-
tives which can lead to new citrus products. Repre-
sentatives of the citrus processing industry made
up the major portion attending the 1970 short
Development of new citrus products is one
answer to the record crops produced when there
are no major freezes. Special additives are neces-
sary for products utilizing citrus fruit because of
the high acid content.
New packaging methods were also covered
during the short course, and packaging is important
to improving marketing methods.
The processing industry utilized 89 percent of
the '68-'69 orange crop and 65 percent of the
grapefruit crop. To visualize the importance of new
products, new packaging methods and improved
marketing, an increase of one percent in utilization
of the citrus crop adds about $4 million to cash
income and uses 1.7 million boxes of citrus.
Entomology looseleaf handbook has been a valuable tool to com-
mercial growers and spray men.
INSECT AND NEMATODE CONTROL
Because of the temperate and sub-tropical
Florida climate, insects and nematodes are a major
problem both to agricultural and ornamental crops
and to homeowners urban as well as rural.
Extension entomologists and nematologists have
produced major loose-leaf handbooks on both in-
sect and nematode controls for commercial appli-
cation, and these must be updated constantly with
changes of regulations and clearances on various
pesticides and chemicals.
Even with current information and clearances in
printed form, it is necessary to work directly with
people both in agriculture and the commercial pest
control industry to assure maximum understanding
and compliance with chemical recommendations.
During 1970, Extension Entomologists held 6
workshops for pest control operators and com-
mercial ornamental and lawn spraymen. Almost
500 representing 179 companies attended at stra-
tegic locations throughout the state.
The 4th Annual Agricultural Pest Control Work-
shop Conference was held on campus. The 2-day
program included talks on control of insects, plant
diseases, weeds, nematodes, pest wildlife and appli-
cation of pesticides. Approximately 250 dealers,
spraymen, agents, researchers, salesmen, produc-
tion managers, manufacturers, formulators and
related professional agricultural workers attended.
The nematology program includes a Nematode
Assay Laboratory aimed at informing commercial
growers, homeowners, and golf course superin-
tendents of their nematode problems. This pro-
gram has proven highly popular with growers, with
over 4,000 samples submitted for processing last
year a 27% increase over 1969. This service helps
producers determine if treatment is necessary, and
often uncovers undetected nematode problems.
Research and demonstration trials on nematode
control were conducted on peanuts, potatoes,
ornamentals, turf and pine plantations last year.
In February 1970, Donald Downs, Hillsborough
Extension Agent-Vegetables, discovered "red
stele", a disease caused by the fungus, Phyto-
phthora fragariae, in several Plant City area straw-
berry fields. As far as can be determined, this was
the first field occurrence of the disease in straw-
berries in Florida apparently introduced on un-
certified plants received from northern California.
It was not found in plants grown in Florida or in
certified plants shipped in from other states.
Fields in which the disease was found, must be
checked in 1971 to see if the disease will persist in
Florida soils. Red stele is an extremely damaging
disease of strawberries, and in most areas, once in
the soil, remains for 5 or more years even in the
absence of a host. Its persistence in Florida soils
must be determined.
Another disease detected during 1970, by Ex-
tension pathologists in conjunction with county
Extension agents, was wheat soil-borne mosaic
virus. This disease was observed in Escambia
county for the first time in Florida. Test plots
showed that grain yield was significantly reduced
by the disease. Other plots are presently estab-
lished to evaluate different breeding lines and
varieties for resistance to this disease.
Extension Plant Pathology assisted in work on
corn blight by identifying the cause, and was active
in determining the corn hybrids with T-male sterile
cytoplasm as being more susceptible to the pre-
dominant strain of the pathogen. Cooperative work
with veterinary science showed that corn infected
with the fungus was not toxic when fed to animals.
The Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic processed
approximately 800 samples for Florida growers
and homeowners an increase of more than 38%
over the samples processed in 1969. The increase
indicates greater awareness of plant diseases by
county Extension personnel, growers, and
Not all pollution is directly injurious to the
health. One of the most bothersome problems
facing people especially as we become more
urbanized is sight pollution. The beauty of the
countryside falls before steel and concrete, neon
signs, television antennas and utility poles. And
with the migration of people from older sections of
the central cities to suburbs, slums develop through
neglect and old age.
Extension ornamental horticulturists are viewing
the problem of sight pollution as an exciting new
challenge. There are three immediate goals:
1. Landscaping can help restore some of the
natural beauty which has given way to urbani-
zation and highway construction.
2. Beautification of home grounds and im-
proved upkeep both of which can be inexpensive
- offers many opportunities to improve the atti-
tudes and outlook of low income families.
3. Establishing "green belts" in and around
cities can help counteract air pollution. Trees and
plants absorb carbon dioxide and discharge oxy-
gen. They can, in effect, help cleanse the air of
emissions from industry and automobiles.
For two years Extension specialists have been
working cooperatively with highway engineers on
landscaping a 16-mile section of Interstate 10 in
One major new project was initiated in Jackson-
ville which may serve as a model for community-
wide projects in other Florida cities. Duval county
Extension horticulturalist Ed Allen secured the
cooperation of WJXT-TV and the northeast
Jacksonville Mayor Hans Tanzler awards community service citations to Channel 4 and assistant Extension agent Ed Allen (right).
J. W- IL
/ 1, '
Florida chapter of the Nurserymen and Growers
Association to make Jacksonville the "Flowering
Tree City of the South."
Plans for the promotion were formulated over
an 8-month period, and January, 1971 was desig-
nated as the tree-planting month. Channel 4 began
actual promotion with spots in December and
there was immediate widespread response from
commercial nurserymen, garden clubs and civic
organizations. Dogwood, redbud and 5 other
flowering trees were selected, and cooperating
nurserymen agreed to discount the retail price by
10 percent for the month.
Posters, sale tags, and cards with planting in-
structions were printed and distributed to the nur-
series. Mayor Hans Tanzler was presented a tree by
a kindergarten class and proclaimed January 15 as
"Plant a Flowering Tree Day".
Jacksonville's 137 garden clubs with their
3,000-plus members pledged to plant one tree per
member and 5 trees per club.
The ecological benefits of trees were stressed in
addition to the beautification approach. One
mature tree produces enough oxygen each day for
a family of 4 in addition to purifying air, abating
noise and preventing erosion.
Alien, who is a multi-county agent, estimated
that the promotion would have cost over $100,000
including cost of television time.
Watermelons are grown commercially in more
counties in Florida than any other vegetable crop.
Research and Extension workers over the years
have teamed up to help watermelon growers pro-
duce good yields at the lowest cost possible. In an
attempt to reduce fertilizer costs by eliminating
costly organic nitrogen, researchers observed that
watermelon yields were severely reduced. Upon
checking closely, it was found that copper present
in the organic nitrogen source was necessary for
best growth. They subsequently determined that
the copper could be supplied cheaply in fertilizer.
County Extension agents with the assistance of
state specialists relayed this information to water-
melon growers shortly after it was discovered by
the Experiment Stations.
Watermelon growers throughout Florida are now
generally aware of the copper deficiency problem,
its relation to organic nitrogen sources, and how
good crop yields can be maintained at lower costs
than would have been possible otherwise.
Growing vegetables for home use has been pro-
moted during the past few years to help youngsters
become more aware of high quality and thereby
become better consumers, and in some cases as a
means of helping low income families put more
vegetables in the diet.
Two Marion county 4-H'ers receive fertilizer for the 4-H vegetable
A special promotion was conducted in Marion
county during 1970 when a garden supply store
agreed to sponsor a project for 50 4-H'ers to grow
their own gardens.
The project, set up as a competition by state
specialist Jim Stephens, Marion Extension agents
Jim Glisson and Bill Phillips, and a local leader,
provided each youngster with a kit containing 50
pounds of fertilizer, seeds for 8 vegetables, garden
labels, and an insecticide-fungicide dust with
Seminole Stores, which sponsored the project,
also put up award money.
Gardens were inspected midway in the season,
and competition during harvest time allowed each
4-H'er to enter 4 vegetables. Judging included the
vegetables entered in addition to the overall gar-
den. This highly successful project produced not
only ribbons and plaques for the winners, but 50
proud youngsters with a better understanding of
the qualities of outstanding vegetables.
LIVESTOCK, DAIRY AND POULTRY
Continually increasing production costs make it
imperative that all cows kept in the herd be profit-
able. The production of each cow must be evalu-
ated on a dollar and cents basis.
Through Extension's Production Testing Pro-
gram, cattlemen can evaluate the production of
each cow in the herd. Also, in single-sire com-
mercial herds and in purebred herds, sires can be
During 1970, data was processed on 33,000
calves for Florida farmers and cattlemen. At
present, 77 farmers and cattlemen are actively
enrolled in the Production Testing Program.
Ten beef carcass contests and beef carcass evalu-
ation contests held annually in Florida provide
training and education for the producer, retailer
and consumer. The steer show audience evaluates
12 live steers on the basis of carcass yield (bone-
less, edible beef) and carcass quality (U.S. Prime,
U.S. Choice or U.S. Good grade).
A demonstration on beef carcass evaluation and
selection by a University animal scientist explains
how to determine yield and quality in live steers.
The winners are awarded prizes in the form of
retail beef cuts for first, second or third place
winners. 4-H and FFA exhibitors benefit also, if
their steers are meaty and high in quality. Exten-
sion specialists judge and evaluate all the steer
show carcasses. Alachua 4-H and FFA exhibitors
receive cash awards (checks) sponsored by a local
All persons attending the steer show and sale
receive carcass information on each steer entered in
Wholesome Meat Short Course
The Wholesome Meat Act of 1967 promised the
consuming public more and better wholesome
meat for everyone. In October of 1970, the
Federal-State coordinator began a final round of
evaluating Florida meat plants including the small
custom firms doing business primarily for farmers.
Extension held a short course to explain the
requirements of this Act to these small firms.
Topics included requirements for buildings, slaugh-
tering, sanitation, processing and inspection.
Federal, state and county inspection and regula-
tory officials also attended.
Improved breeding stock on Florida's swine
farms has increased rapidly during the past year.
Much of this improvement can be traced to the
testing program carried on at the Florida Swine
Evaluation Center in Live Oak.
During the 5 years from September 1, 1965 to
August 31, 1970, 281 sire groups representing
1124 pigs have been evaluated. Sires that produced
the right kind of market animals have been identi-
fied,and this information has been applied by pro-
ducers to the improvement of their breeding herds.
Continued progress has been shown in the past 5
years as indicated by reduced amount of fat and
increased red meat production from animals tested.
The number of sires with ability to produce im-
proved carcasses and feed efficiency has increased
Consumers and producers both benefit from this
testing program since the information helps pro-
ducers reduce the amount of fat and improve the
amount of red meat in animals furnished for mar-
ket, and the consumer in turn has a better oppor-
tunity to acquire a higher quality product in
greater quantities. Consumers have reacted to this
improvement by increasing pork consumption per
capital during the past year.
Emphasis was placed on improving rate of repro-
duction and on increasing the use of horses bred to
run. Summer racing dates were approved providing
48 days of racing during the warm season, allowing
many stables to run and train year around in
Florida. With more racing days, the income from
racing to the state and to the allied agricultural
industries should increase greatly.
A distinct effort was made to introduce new and
better practices in broodmare and stallion manage-
ment in order to increase the conception rate of
mares bred. One practice which showed great
promise was the use of artificial insemination in
the breeding program. Several Florida farms co-
operated in trial programs which resulted in con-
ception rates of from 80% to 93% on the farms
when artificial insemination was used to supple-
ment natural service.
Information on improved feeding and manage-
ment methods was provided dairy farmers through-
out the year through daily correspondence, tele-
phone conversations, dairy production letters,
articles and farm visits. Eighteen schools or work-
shops were held covering nutrition, herd health,
records and management. Reports from individual
herds of savings in feeding amounted to several
thousand dollars (in many herds over $1,000 per
The Forage Testing Program was continued in
cooperation with the State Department of Agricul-
ture as a means of recommending more accurate
supplementary feed rations and as a measure of
forage quality for future improvement.
A pilot herd has been run on a "least cost
ration" project by electronic data machine proces-
sing. Further development is expected in this pro-
The DHIA project has been carried out as a
continuing fact-finding result demonstration. Most
members utilize improved practices with the re-
cords providing guide lines for decisions on herd
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DHIA herbs have made significant production advances since 1960.
practices. The DHIA project has been broadened to
include more herds on an unofficial record pro-
gram useful in herd management.
The 20,105 cows on official DHIA for the year
ended September 30, 1970, averaged 233 pounds
more milk and $22 more income above feed cost
per cow than the previous year.
A fair appraisal of the value of DHIA to partici-
pating herds might be the comparison of the in-
crease made over a period of years by DHIA herds
and that of other dairy herds. Both DHIA herds
and all dairy herds taken together have made good
advancement during the past decade. The data
below show that DHIA herds made greater im-
provement from 1960 to 1970 than the herds as a
Per Cow Averages
Milk per cow, 1970
Milk per cow, 1960
1970 over 1960
Greater increase of DHIA herds ........ 718 lbs.
Sale value of the increased milk @ $7.00 per cwt
Greater gain in yearly income of the DHIA cows
1970 over 1960 per cow ............... $50.26
This $50.26 is the value of the amount of milk
that the DHIA cows increased in excess of what all
dairy cows increased and shows the faster rate of
improvement made by DHIA cows. Applied to the
20,015 cows completing a year's test last year, this
amounts to $1,010,477 yearly for the greater in-
crease made the last decade.
Hot cars and cold milk don't mix. That's the
conclusion of dairy scientists, after conducting pre-
liminary experiments to show the effects of brief,
high-temperature storage conditions on milk keep-
ing quality. They found that milk stored for short
periods of time in a hot car can significantly de-
crease the product's shelf life. This information is
being used in conjunction with a Florida Dairy
Products Association consumer education program
which will help housewives handle dairy products
more effectively and efficiently resulting in
fewer consumer complaints. The end result could
be increased sales of milk.
During 1970, Florida's poultry producers made
an organized effort to avoid a surplus in egg pro-
duction during times of decreased prices. Florida
again led all states in export of baby chicks. Due to
this favorable outlet for sales, there was an 8%
increase in the number of baby chicks hatched.
A very important area of effort by Extension
has been in the area of profitable utilization of
poultry manure. Extension workers in 2 counties
have conducted field trials to determine the value
of poultry manure. In Dade county, Extension
workers cooperated with farmers in the use of
poultry manure on grain sorghum. Results showed
a very favorable response to its application in this
area of high rainfall.
Extension workers in Pasco county very success-
fully demonstrated the value of poultry manure for
establishing sod along highway rights-of-way which
had been especially difficult to establish. In addi-
tion to the primary value of these tests the
benefit to crops there is a secondary value of
utilizing a waste product and possible pollutant.
State and county Extension personnel contri-
buted significantly to several State-Federal animal
disease eradication and control programs. The
brucellosis eradication program overcame legal bar-
riers and testing was nearly completed by the end
of 1970 (the final herd in the state was tested
January 27, 1971 to complete qualification of
Florida as a modified-certified brucellosis-free
state). Work of Extension agents with local com-
mittees and regulatory officials was instrumental in
completing each county and individual herd.
Dissemination of information about hog cholera
eradication helped establish Florida as a hog
cholera-free state (a new outbreak began in early
A circular on the "Quality Milk Program and
Mastitis," aided dairymen in complying with leuco-
cyte standards in producing Grade A milk.
Education meetings with livestock producers
during 1970 were designed to reduce the $66 mil-
lion loss from animal diseases. Control of internal
parasitism, infertility in cattle, vaccination pro-
grams to prevent diseases, sanitation and manage-
ment to reduce disease hazards, internal parasite
control in swine, and mastitis control in dairy
cattle were some of the problem areas receiving
major attention. In addition to the meetings, 9 fact
sheets were prepared for dissemination to support
educational efforts to reduce animal disease losses.
Two monthly newsletters were also used to give
continuity and educational support to extension
personnel and practicing veterinarians. Extension
efforts to reduce animal disease losses help to
insure that the consumer will receive safe and
wholesome meat, milk, and eggs at the lowest
Extension engineers and soil specialists, and the
state staff of the Soil Conservation Service served
as a committee during 1970 to formulate an
"Engineering Standard for Animal Waste Treat-
ment Lagoons in Florida." The standard is sched-
uled to be formally accepted by the Florida De-
partment of Air and Water Pollution Control as the
basis for design of these systems in the state.
The lagoon system of handling animal wastes
offers an economical solution for large operators in
particular. Many producers have asked for assis-
tance in designing lagoons, and the standards are
already in use. We expect to refine design criteria
as research, currently underway, provides more
knowledge of the operation of this type facility in
Florida. To date some 50 dairy and other livestock
producers have been assisted with designs for waste
Efforts were directed on several fronts to the
overall problem of mechanization in agricultural
production. The high cost and inefficiency of hand
labor demand such mechanization if parts of the
industry are to survive.
Extension engineers organized a demonstration
of the new inverter-type harvester for the annual
peanut field day. This digger removes the plants
from the soil and inverts them, leaving the root and
nut zone facing upward. This improves drying con-
ditions, reduces harvesting losses, and produces
higher quality nuts.
A Dade county tomato producer has begun util-
izing a mechanical plant thinner for use in seeded
fields. This electro-hydraulic thinner was originally
designed for use with beets, but works perfectly
well with tomatoes. The competition from im-
ported tomatoes produced with extremely cheap
labor has dictated total mechanization of tomato
production as soon as possible.
Extension specialists also located machines for
use in producing ferns. Ornamentals production is
one of Florida's most important parts of the indus-
try. These machines were located and brought in
for demonstration at meetings of growers. Several
have been purchased.
While Florida is blessed with a plentiful supply
of underground water, much of it contains objec-
tionable minerals or is acid water.
During the past 10 years, Extension engineers
have conducted an aggressive program to help
homeowners who, because they are removed from
municipal systems, utilize home water supplies.
This program has included test and evaluation of
equipment designed to purify water in the home
system, testing of water supplies, conducting
clinics for homeowners throughout the state on
water quality and home systems available, and
production of a publication on water quality.
It is estimated 50,000 homeowners have been
assisted by this program.
The Extension marketing staff emphasized edu-
cational programs to alleviate both industry-wide
problems and to create efficiencies within indivi-
dual marketing firms.
Industry-wide problems included developing in-
formation on alternative market strategies for
Florida's beef cattle producers; market price analy-
sis for both cattle and swine; personnel develop-
ment programs in food wholesaling and retailing;
the development of efficiency standards for the
garden supply industry; preparation of supply-price
information for Florida's tomato industry; and the
implementation of a survey designed to assist cen-
tral Florida peach producers.
Extension continued to emphasize in-depth
management audits with existing individual firms
and feasibility studies to determine the need for
new marketing organizations.
Analysis of alternative market strategies is part
of a continuing educational program in livestock
marketing. This program uses information from
research programs, area economists and other
sources to provide members of the Florida live-
stock industry with examples and relevant data
pertaining to different marketing arrangements.
For example, a rancher may wish to change his
marketing program from selling all his weaned
calves in the fall to some other system that will
make better use of his resources or take advantage
of more favorable market conditions. Several com-
binations of different breeding programs, retaining
ownership, and custom or contract growing or
feeding are open to the producer. The analysis of
various market strategies, and educational pro-
grams to disseminate findings will help producers
improve livestock industry performance.
A major problem facing both the wholesale and
retail food industry is the lack of qualified person-
nel. Extension economists, working with an Indus-
try Educational Advisory Committee, developed
formal training programs for both the Junior Col-
lege and University levels. A Food Marketing and
Distribution curriculum is now being offered in the
Department of Agricultural Economics. Over the
intermediate and long-run pictures these formal
training programs will help greatly in alleviating
personnel problems at both levels of trade.
Improvement in operational efficiency within
the garden supply industry has been hampered by
the lack of industry-wide standards by which effi-
ciency can be measured. During 1970 Extension
assisted industry representatives organize a Gar-
den Supply Dealers Improvement Association to
develop and improve standards of performance on
an industry-wide basis.
For the past 3 years Florida tomato producers
have operated under a state-wide marketing order
program. A prime objective of this program is to
regulate the marketing of Florida tomatoes so that
producers will receive fair prices. This phase of the
program has not been as effective as it could be
due to a lack of adequate supply-price information
on which decisions can be based. At the beginning
of the 1970-71 season Extension economists de-
veloped a procedure which will furnish industry
leaders with reliable information.
In cooperation with 12 large shipping organi-
zations, the Federal-State Inspection Service and
the Florida Department of Agriculture,daily infor-
mation on total Florida supplies, total U.S. Sup-
plies and prices received for each grade and size of
tomatoes is being furnished to the industry. Exten-
sion carried on a concurrent program on how in-
dustry leaders can best use the information in
making marketing decisions.
In working with individual marketing firms, Ex-
tension economists conducted an in-depth manage-
ment audit for a large sub-tropical fruit firm during
1970. The management audit program involves a
team approach by Extension staff members who
analyze the firm's structure from three stand-
points. The first is to determine the "management
philosophy" of the firm's decision-makers at all
levels the board of directors, executive and
operational. The second task is to review finance
and accounting procedures to see that proper con-
trol measures are furnished all management levels.
Finally, the team analyzes the organizational struc-
ture of total operations from the standpoints of
proper lines of communication, areas of responsi-
bility, delegation of authority, job descriptions,
standards of performance and methods of evalua-
tion. Reports are prepared for use in making
current needed adjustments and for long-range
The basic goals of farm management specialists
are to provide information which can be used to
improve management decisions, and to upgrade the
decision-making ability of managers. Results were
obtained by utilizing research findings to establish
the profitability of new production practices; ana-
lyzing production practices of a major crop; deter-
mining the income potential of crops which can be
substituted for blight-prone corn; and by using
innovative teaching to upgrade the decision-making
ability of managers.
In addition to working on the studies substi-
tuting potash for dolomite on citrus, and studies of
alternative crops because of the corn blight prob-
lem, Extension economists worked with shade
tobacco producers who were faced with rising costs
and decreasing acreage. They need information
which could be used to determine the costs of
present practices. A study was initiated and com-
pleted before planting time came again. County
agent and area economist participation was vital in
the rapid completion of this study.
Managers, even good ones, often make "seat-of-
the-pants" decisions. To help managers improve
their decision-making process, area economists
taught a citrus management seminar to grove
managers. The approach involved in-depth training
about how to solve common management prob-
lems. The results? One manager summed up how he
had benefitted, "by a clearer picture of just how to
tackle problems of how to spend available funds."
Another manager added that the seminar "made
me conscious of my lack of planning far enough in
What constitutes a good buy in the supermarket
or department store for Florida consumers? How
does the consumer determine what is considered a
bargain on the sale table or rack during sales day
promotions throughout the state?
With the cost of living constantly going up at a
faster pace than wages the consumer needs to be
more aware of how to stretch the food, clothing or
shelter dollar a little farther to give the family the
best returns for money spent.
The Cooperative Extension Service through
Home Economics programs at both the state and
county levels is constantly seeking improved
methods and techniques to reach the largest num-
ber of consumers with sound, research-based infor-
mation on making good buying decisions.
Extension Home Economics in Florida is vitally
concerned with all aspects of consumer education.
Fourteen subject matter specialists build programs
and lend support to 115 extension home eco-
nomics agents who promote educational programs.
This year 67,700 persons received assistance with
some aspect of consumer information presented by
agents at the county level.
There are 3394 volunteer leaders who received
training from the extension home economics
agents in all areas of consumer education. These
leaders in turn reached 37,197 persons this year
through programs presented at club meetings,
special interest meetings, workshops and forums.
In addition to the volunteer leaders, there are
440 expanded nutrition aides who teach the hard-
to-reach poor better food buys and preparation of
inexpensive dishes which provide balanced meals.
A total of 1,938 man hours was spent by home
economics agents and specialists in public infor-
mation. Bulletins, news stories, radio and TV pro-
grams were all prepared and used at both state and
The editorial staff provides service to seven TV
stations, 100 radio stations, 175 daily and weekly
newspapers, with consumer information prepared
by specialists. Public service announcements deal-
ing with consumer information are provided for
250 radio stations.
At the county level, extension home economics
agents write regular newspaper columns for 36
weekly and three daily newspapers. Weekly radio
programs are presented over 15 stations, daily
programs over seven stations and monthly pro-
grams over four stations.
There are 16 counties which participate in TV
programs on a regular basis.
Newsletters dealing with topics such as truth in
lending, and impulse buying have wide circulation
with Florida consumers. Extension home econo-
mics agents in 53 counties write newsletters.
Forty-two write newsletters on a monthly basis
and 11 at other intervals.
In order to reach businesses, chambers of com-
merce and other industry-related groups 18 agents
do special newsletters. Another eight prepare news-
letters for special audience types such as brides,
senior citizens and working women.
County home economics agents answer hun-
dreds of calls daily about consumer issues. Ques-
tions on fraud and truth in lending are a focal
point of concern to the public.
Bumper stickers and telephone labels were part of consumer education week.
Accurate, research-based information is stressed in consumer pro-
Annually September is designated as Consumer
Calling month when concentrated efforts are
placed on reaching the public with the latest infor-
mation on a number of topics. This year for the
first time bumper stickers and telephone stickers
called attention to the month and referred con-
sumers to the home economics agent office for
Special emphasis was placed on preventing
frauds by alerting the consumer to possible decep-
tions in the "fabulous bargains" and "free gift"
advertising used throughout the state by fly-by-
night operators selling sewing machines, wigs, etc.
The need for dealing with reliable firms was
In addition to mass media and special interest
meetings, workshops and other special programs
are designed for various audiences. Working
women, young homemakers, teens, senior citizens,
hard-to-reach poor and families are among the
Examples of consumer information taught are as
follows: If a consumer buys at a sale, the best
merchandise is available the first day of the sale
but the best price is probably to be obtained the
last day of the sale. When is a sale a bargain this
depends on the item being sold and the use the
consumer can make of this item. Whether a large
box or small box is a better buy is determined by
the price per unit of measure. How soon the item
will be consumed before the quality deteriorates or
whether there is adequate storage space helps
determine whether an item is a real bargain.
Expanded Nutrition Program was extended to many new counties
Consumer education involves the teaching of
concepts for everyday living so that the consumer
can achieve full benefit of his income. It is a
growing venture and all Florida consumers need to
know how to make the best buy for their money.
Consumer education problems are many, so are
Florida consumers. Millions of people live, work,
and look for the best buy each day. Through
educational programs the Florida Cooperative Ex-
tension is striving to reach these consumers with
the best possible information.
Although consumer education has been given
primary emphasis, Extension Home Economics
programs include a broad range of subject matter
designed to help young families, youth, low in-
come families and homemakers in general, improve
the quality of living for Florida families. The major
teaching topics presented through meetings, work-
shops, TV, radio, newsletters and news articles
were: managing the family income, use of credit,
selecting a house plan, retirement housing, best
methods of home laundering, improving under-
standing between teenagers and their parents,
selecting and using Florida fruits, making children's
clothing, shopping for men's and boys' clothing,
modern meal management, family meals with
appeal, selecting rugs and carpets, and making a
foam mattress. The Expanded Nutrition Program
begun in 1969, was extended in 1970 to reach
5,538 more low income families in 24 counties.
During the year 425 program aides worked inten-
sively with 9,204 low income homemakers to im-
prove the nutritional adequacy of their families'
The purpose of the Extension 4-H Program is to
provide learning experiences from which young
people develop understandings, attitudes, and skills
to enable them to be effective citizens in a demo-
cratic society. The uniqueness of 4-H is that it is
committed to helping young people change their
own behavior in relation to their needs, interests
The main features of the educational offerings in
agriculture, home economics, and related programs
available to Florida's 4-H young people are the:
1. Almost unlimited project and activity oppor-
2. High level of subject matter competencies to
provide professional leadership and educa-
3. Uniqueness of Extension organization that
facilitates the staffing of 66 County Exten-
sion Offices with University of Florida faculty
4. Vast resources of the University of Florida to
support county 4-H programs
5. Outstanding private and public support to
club, county, district, state, and national 4-H
6. Thousands of volunteer adult leaders who
contribute time and talents in giving direct
supervision to participating 4-H members in
community, neighborhood, and project clubs
as well as special interest groups in rural and
7. Camping facilities available through five state
4-H camps geographically located with staf-
fing and living accommodations at each for
8. Flexibility of organization and subject matter
to serve young people regardless of race,
color, creed, or place of residence
Projects, activities, and events are the basic edu-
cational tools used in 4-H programming to provide
our young people with "Learn by Doing" develop-
mental experiences. Participation may be on an
individual or group basis depending upon the needs
and interest of members as well as their places of
residence. Since 4-H is a voluntary, non-dues, and
tax-supported organization, project selection is
largely self-determined and is in keeping with pre-
vailing financial situation of the particular family
involved. However, counsel and guidance on pro-
ject selection and participation in acitivites and
events are provided by professional Extension
workers and trained Volunteer Adult Leaders.
Education which helps people learn to live in a
changing world has to be flexible. 4-H strives to
build its learning experiences upon the real-life
situations of the boy or girl. This builds certain
important attitudes toward education. Young
people see that education makes sense, it is prac-
tical and can be applied; education is useful and
can help solve problems; it is fun and satisfying to
In the sixties, 4-H began to expand its reach to
serve new youth audiences regardless of social,
economic or cultural backgrounds. Now, 4-H is
focusing on the following concerns that educa-
tional programs, both formal and informal, can
assist in solving:
1. Changing moral and social values that are
causing a higher rate of illegitimate births,
venereal diseases, use of drugs, etc.
2. The widening generation gap and the alien-
ation of certain groups.
3. Increasing rate of juvenile crimes.
4. Societal pressures that are causing youth to
develop gastric disorders, mental break-
downs, and increased suicides.
5. Lack of opportunities for constructive
6. Incomes of less than $3,000 for 28% of
7. Lack of experience and opportunities for
8. Nutritional deficiencies, health problems,
and general lack of physical fitness of
9. Poor choices by youth in use of leisure
10. Lack of "know-how" for decision-making.
A great deal of progress has been made this year
in the realization of significant results and accom-
plishments relative to 4-H goals and objectives. The
resultant forces which mold and shape 4-H are
widespread; however, in an effort to document
results and pinpoint accomplishments, the fol-
lowing success stories are introduced as repre-
sentative evidence for 1970:
Three Expanded Nutrition Program Camps were
held during June 1970 for urban low income
youngsters. Three hundred forty-five youngsters of
ages 9-12 attended from Dade, Hillsborough,
Pinellas, Palm Beach, Orange, and Marion counties.
Individual toothbrushes, toothpaste, shampoo, and
soap were given each camper upon arrival at camp.
The objectives of the camps were to provide
1. good nutrition and good nutrition education
2. ner friendships
3. physical activity and education
4. recreational opportunities, including swim-
5. grooming and etiquette, education, social
These Expanded Nutrition Program Camps,
"Food and Fun Camps", were the first held in
Florida for reaching youngsters of low income
families. Specialists from the Florida Extension
Service taught courses in nutrition, grooming, and
crafts, and there were also classes in nature study
and swimming. One group toured a dairy.
Lining up for swimming lessons at the lake or
scouring the woods for leaves for nature study, the
boys and girls looked like any other groups of
campers, except they may have been enjoying
themselves more. The ENP children were different
from other campers, though, in that they have
more new experiences to absorb. One of the teen-
aged girls working as a counselor described the first
night at camp: "We had a lesson on grooming", she
said, "and all of the girls in my cabin decided to
wash their hair. Some of them had never seen
shampoo before and used too much before I knew
it, and the lather just kept coming", she said. "But
everybody had a good time."
There have been requests for more Expanded
Nutrition Camps next year. Even though it is hard
to evaluate the success of such a short stay, it was
thrilling to see the growth in the youngsters during
each day of camp.
4-H'ers learn by doing even those elected to govern.
The County 4-H Coordinators from District VIII
sponsored a unique type of leader training -
Cloverpower Conference. The morning session was
for all leaders and the topics covered were "Citi-
zenship in Your Club" and "Demonstration Tech-
niques". During the afternoon session the leaders
chose one of three subject areas: Horses, Clothing,
or Foods. Fifty-six leaders from five counties
attended the event in the Agricultural Center in
Bartow. The Forum was structured to give training
in over-all areas of Citizenship and Demonstration
Materials, and to cover individual project areas -
clothing, foods, and horses.
The especially unique feature of the Conference
was that the resource people were predominately
from the district. In this manner the leaders were
offered a variety of training that would have been
difficult to obtain in each county. By pooling
resources and interests, agents were able to offer
leaders in-depth training in project areas that not
all agents had a high degree of proficiency in. The
leaders were most enthusiastic about this type of
training. Attendance at the Conference is expected
to double next year due to all the "talking up" the
leaders are doing back in their home counties. The
4-H Coordinators were most pleased with their first
COMMUNITY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
The development of Florida's non-urban com-
munities is a cooperative effort by community
leaders with assistance from private and public
agencies. Major goals include the improvement of
living standards through higher per capital incomes
and fuller employment in both agriculture and
non-agricultural jobs and more adequate com-
munity facilities, including provisions for raising
skill levels of the work force. The Cooperative
Extension Service makes a major contribution in
providing educational and organizational assis-
tance. Community programs and priorities are
established by local leaders and vary among dif-
ferent areas depending upon resources available,
relevant problems, and major objectives.
Extension service personnel from the Depart-
ment of Agricultural Economics have been utilized
in a series of study seminars sponsored by local
groups and citizens interested in community im-
provement. These seminars which usually meet
three to five evenings involve broad representation
from economic and ethnic groups scattered
throughout the county. The participants usually
include officials from county and city government,
civic and business organizations, educational and
health institutions, and both farm and non-farm
people. They are open to the public for all citizens
interested in community improvement. The groups
discuss the county's resources and opportunities.
They study changes taking place and analyze
trends, comparing the home county with other
counties in the area and with the state and nation.
During these discussions problems are delineated
and opportunities for progress are agreed upon. At
the end of the study seminars action committees
are formed to implement whatever programs the
group deems desirable and feasible. In some cases
these groups have strengthened and expanded
existing development organizations and in other
cases new groups or coordinating councils have
been formed. Resource economists of the Coopera-
tive Extension Service continue to follow through
by assisting the groups working on various aspects
of community improvement.
Several counties in northwest Florida have con-
centrated on increased employment through ex-
pansion or establishment of industry in the area. A
local development group in Graceville constructed
a garment plant which employed about 80 new
people during 1970. In Holmes County funds from
the Small Business Administrations were used to
increase the facilities of a shirt company, making it
possible to hire '70 additional workers. In Mari-
anna, a furniture company expanded operations to
add a hundred new jobs. Nearby Sneads added 20
new jobs through expansion of a boat manufac-
turning concern. Another Jackson County project,
the Marianna Convalescent Center began staffing in
1970, hiring 15 people, with an additional 100 jobs
expected when it reaches full capacity in 1971. A
grant and loan from the Economic Development
Administration helped construct two new berths
for ships in Panama City and a public storage
warehouse, adding 75 to local payrolls. In Dixie
County a new wood product plant has gone into
operation employing about 100 people with an-
other 50 to be hired when the plant is in full
In Madison County, Extension personnel and
4-H clubs played a major role in the environmental
improvement campaign. Individual families co-
operated with local groups in taking cans, bottles,
and other litter to designated dump grounds. An-
other Madison County project was organization of
a year-round recreation program. Each community
organization sponsored games for the youth and
the county recreation center provided swimming
instruction and life-saving classes.
Another successful county-wide clean-up cam-
paign was conducted in Lafayette county. Local
companies donated equipment to haul everything
from light trash to abandoned automobiles. The
Board of County Commissioners are purchasing
sites in all communities and constructing sanitary
The Levy County Board of Commissioners and
Rural Area Development Committee sponsored a
series of meetings and discussions which resulted in
support for county-wide planning. The county plat
law was updated and the county planning board
has made application for a grant to complete a
county-wide plan for development.
An agricultural exposition was held in Live Oak
offering a showcase for agricultural industries to
display the latest in farming equipment and
methods. The three-day event was sponsored by
the Suwannee Rural Area Development council
and Chamber of Commerce. Nearly 2000 persons
saw 50 exhibitors showing new and improved
methods of increasing and improving production in
all phases of agriculture.
The Youth Committee of the Suwannee devel-
opment council sponsored a summer employment
service to help match employers' needs with youth
looking for work. About 100 young people were
given summer employment while contributing to
the seasonal needs of agriculture in the area. Local
students are requesting a continuation of this ser-
vice during the coming year.
The Extension Service program in labor manage-
ment completed in 1970, involved a total of 29
short courses, each consisting of six 2-hour ses-
sions. The classes were attended by a total of 14
owner employers, 114 top managers, and 450 first-
line labor supervisors. These enrollees represented
Broad community support is the key to successful rural areas development programs.
137 different firms who employ more than 42,000
Florida workers. The commodity groups served
included citrus, vegetables, forestry, ornamental
horticulture, sugar cane, other field crops, poultry,
dairy, beef cattle, horses, and swine. The topics
covered by the course included motivation of
workers, worker-supervision relationships, com-
munications, personnel problems, worker training,
and work simplification. Labor supervisors who
took the course and their employers have reported
observable improvement in worker-supervisor rela-
tionships, higher morale, less absenteeism and in-
creased productivity. More highly motivated and
better trained workers will be able to earn higher
wages. Increased incomes and improved living con-
ditions will have a stabilizing effect on the
State Trust Funds:
State Trust Funds:
FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
PLANNED AND EXPENDED TIME BY PROGRAM AREA
Fiscal Year 1970
Pasture and Forage Crops
Community Resource Development
Community Resource Development
Expanded Nutrition Program
Mandays % of Total
Mandays % of Total
*Some of the work done in these program areas is reported under non-asterisk program areas.
**Only 76 percent of total available time was planned. Both planned time and expended time are based on an eight-
SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB WORK
Number of 4-H Clubs 966
Number of 4-H Members:
4-H junior and teen boys 273
4-H junior and teen girls 704
Farm Members 4,433
Members in towns under 10,000 and open country 8,435
Members in towns and cities 10,000 to 50,000 4,593
Members in suburbs of city of over 50,000 2,079
Members in central city of over 50,000 1,261
SUMMARY OF EXTENSION HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAM
Number of organized Extension Homemakers Clubs 534
Number of Extension Homemakers Club Members 14,402
Number of persons assisted Individually and in Groups
by Extension Agents 383,313
Number Individuals Reached by leaders in Homemakers Clubs
and Special Interest Meetings 382,682
Number of Home Economics Leader Training Meetings Held 7,425
Number of Home Economics Subject Matter Leaders 3,487
Number of Special Interest Meetings Held
by leaders in Home Economics 2,508
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE FACULTY LIST*
Joe N. Busby, Ph.D., Dean for Extension
Jack T. McCown, Ed.D., Associate Dean for Extension
Mrs. Olive Morrill, Ed.D., Assistant Dean for Extension
Forrest E. Myers, M.Ag., Assistant Dean for Extension
Alto A. Straughn, Ph.D., Assistant Director
John H. Nininger, Jr., B.S., Assistant in Administration
David R. Bryant, B.A., Administrative Manager
M. Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Communication Specialist; Chairman
K.B. Meurlott, M.A.J., Assistant Communication Specialist
Douglas L. Buck, B.S., Assistant Communication Specialist
Roberts C. Smith, Jr., B.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Donald W. Poucher, M.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Miss Alma Warren, M.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Harold H. VanHorn, Jr., Ph.D., Chairman Dairy Science Dept.
Clarence B. Lane, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Extension Dairy
Barney Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Extension Dairyman
Tony J. Cunha, Ph.D., Chairman, Animal Science Dept.
James E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
Robert L. Reddish, Ph.D., Associate Meats Specialist
Kenneth L. Durrance, M.A., Associate Animal Husbandman
Bill G. Jackson, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman
George T. Edds, Ph.D., Chairman, Veterinary Science Dept.
George W. Meyerholz, D.V.M., Extension Veterinarian
Alfred H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Chairman, Fruit Crops Dept.
Fred P. Lawrence, M.S.A., Citriculturist
Calvin E. Arnold, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
Larry K. Jackson, M.S.A., Interim Assistant in Horticulture
David P. H. Tucker,-Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist (Citrus Exp. Sta.)
Wilfred F. Wardowski II, Ph.D., Extension Horticulturist (Citrus
Timothy E. Crocker, Ph.D., Extension Horticulturist
George A. Marlowe, Jr., Ph.D., Chairman, Vegetable Crops Dept.
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist
Mason E. Marvel, Ph.D., Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist
James M. Stephens, M.S.A., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
Thomas G. Hart, Ph.D., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
James W. Strobel, Ph.D., Chairman Ornamental Horticulture Dept.
Edgar W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist
Charles A. Conover, M.S.A., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Harry G. Meyers, M.S.A., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Graham S. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Dennis B. McConnell, Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Robert H. Harms, Ph.D., Chairman, Poultry Dept.
Lester W. Kalch, M.Ag., Associate Extension Poultryman
Carroll R. Douglas, Ph.D., Assistant Extension Poultryman
Robert B. Christmas, M.S.A., Supervisor, Florida National Egg-
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Chairman, Food Science Dept.
Richard F. Matthews, Ph.D., Associate Food Technologist
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Chairman, Agronomy Dept.
David W. Jones, M.S.A., Associate Agronomist
Charles E. Freeman, M.S., Interim Assistant in Agronomy
(Everglades Exp. Sta.)
Elmo B. Whitty, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
Wayne L. Currey, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
James T. Johnson, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
Miss Izola F. Williams, M.S., Chairman Home Economics Dept.
Mrs. Roberta H. Hall, M.S., Extension Home Furnishings Specialist
Mrs. Beth H. Walsh, M.S., Extension Food Specialist
Miss Vervil L. Mitchell, M.S., Home Management and Family
Mrs. Charla J. Durham, M.S., Home Management and Family
Miss Carolyn J. Combrink, M.S., Housing and Equipment Specialist
Mrs. Mary N. Harrison, M.S., Consumer Education Specialist
Miss Nadine Hackler, M.S., Consumer Education Specialist
Miss Glenda Humphries, M.S.H.E., Household Equipment Specialist
Miss Pauline F. Calloway, Ph.D., Extension Home Economist,
Miss Susan C. Camp, M.S., Extension Nutrition Specialist
Miss Emily King, Ph.D., Extension Home Economist, Resource
Mrs. Yancey B. Walters, M.H.E., Extension Home Economist,
Miss Lora A. Kiser, M.S., Extension Home Economist, Professional
Miss Elizabeth E. Mumm, M.P.H., Health Education Specialist
Mrs. Marie S. Hammer, M.H.Ec.Ed., Extension Home Economist
Miss Althea R. Engle, M.S., Food and Nutrition Specialist
Miss Evelyn A. Rooks, M.H.E., Human Development Specialist
Miss Clara L. Gibson, M.S., Clothing and Textiles Specialist
Mrs. Lizette L. Murphy, M.S., Consumer Education Specialist
Woodrow W. Brown, M.Ag., State 4-H Club Leader
Grant M. Godwin, M.Ag., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
Billy Jay Allen, M.A., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
Thomas C. Greenawalt, M.A., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Ruth L. Milton, M.S., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
Mrs. Susan R. Wall, M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Linda L. Dearmin, M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Gwendoline L. Bain, M.S.A., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Frank S. Perry, M.Ag., District Agent
Ernest R. Wheaton, D.Ed., District Agent
*List of Faculty as of 12/31/70
Earl M. Kelly, M.Ag., District Agent
William H. Smith, Ed.D., District Agent
John L. Gray, Ph.D., Director, School of Forestry
Thomas G. Herndon, M.S.F., Extension Forester
Anthony S. Jensen. M.S.F., Assistant Extension Forester
E. T. Smerdon, Ph.D., Chairman, Agricultural Engineering Dept.
Thomas C. Skinner, M.Ag., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Dalton S. Harrison, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer
Richard P. Cromwell, M.Eng., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
Lloyd B. Baldwin, M.A., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
Larry M. Curtis, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
W. G. Eden, Ph.D., Chairman, Entomology Department
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
James E. Brogdon, M.Ag., Entomologist
John R. Strayer, M.Ag., Assistant Entomologist
Donald E. Short, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
L. H. Purdy, Jr., Ph.D., Chairman, Plant Pathology Department
Robert S. Mullin, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Donald W. Dickson, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
Thomas A. Kucharek, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Chairman, Soils Department
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Soils Specialist
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Extension Conservationist
Kenneth R. Tefertiller, Ph.D., Chairman, Agriculture Economics
Ralph A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Stanley E. Rosenberger, Ph.D., Marketing Specialist in Vegetable
Kenneth M. Gilbraith, M.S.A., Vegetable Marketing Specialist
Charles D. Covey, Ph.D., Associate Economist, Marketing
William K. Mathis, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Economist, Marketing
Clisby C. Moxley, Ph.D., Economist
Carl Farler, M.S., Interim Rural Resource Development Specialist
V. L. Elkins, M.Ed., Area Program Specialist, Fla. A & M Univ.,
James C. McCall, M.Ag.Ed., Rural Areas Development Specialist,
Edwin W. Cake, Ph.D., Economist Farm Management
John Holt, Ph.D., Assistant Economist, Farm Management
Charles L. Anderson, M.S.A., Area Assistant Farm Management
Specialist (Citrus Exp. Sta.)
Marvin E. Konyha, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
Vernon C. McKee, Ph.D., Associate Economist
Timothy S. Hipp, M.S., Area Asst. Farm Management Specialist
Willie T. Menasco, M.Ag., Area Asst. Farm Management
Donald E. Long, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist
James C. McCall, M.Ag.Ed., Rural Area Development Specialist
Charles Walker, M.B.A., Area Assistant Farm Management
Specialist (Belle Glade)
W. Travis Loften, M.S.A., Chairman, Vocational Agriculture and
Shaw E. Grigsby, Ph.D., Training Specialist
COLLIER COUNTY FLAGLER COUNTY
Wilburn C. Farrell, M.Ag.
A. T. Andrews, M.Ag.
Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ahrano, B.S.
Mrs. Mable S. Dorsey, B.S.
A. Luther Harrell, M.A.
Mrs. Roberta C. Hicks, B.S.
Horace M. Carr, B.S.
Mrs. Eliza M. Jackson, B.S.
Mrs. Jane M. Smith, B.S.
G. T. Huggins, B.S.A.
Bobby L. Taylor, M.Ag.
Miss Martha Sue McCain, B.S.
James T. Oxford, B.S.A.
Sylvester A. Rose, M.S.
Mrs. Aurilla D. Birrel, B.S.
Mrs. Sue B. Young, B.S.
Mrs. Joy Wren Satcher, B.S.
Jim V. Knight, B.S.A.
Lewis E. Watson, M.A.
James F. Cummings, M.Ag.
Mrs. Sandra T. Alphonse, B.S.
Mrs. Dorothy Y. Gifford, B.S.
George H. Newbury, M.S.A.
Mrs. Amy L. Russ, B.A.
Miss Mary T. Shepard, B.A.
Harvey T. Paulk, M.Ag.
Jerry A. Wyrick, M.S.A.
Mrs. Betty Williams Crowe, B.S.
W. Lester Hatcher, B.S.A.
Quentin Medlin, B.S.A.
Mrs. Paula P. Stanley, B.S.H.E.
Emmett D. McCall, B.S.Ag.Ed.
Mrs. Imogene D. Ritenburgh, B.S.
Miss Ann V. Prevatt, B.A.
Donald W. Lander, M.Ag.
Dallas B. Townsend, B.S.A.
James E. Bellizio, M.S.
Neal M. Dukes B.S.
Richard Smith, M.S.
Miss Katheryn L. Keith, B.S.
John D. Campbell, B.S.A.
Nolan L. Durre, M.S.
Seymour Goldweber, B.S.
Joseph D. Dalton, Ph.D.
Richard M. Hunt, B.S.A.
Roy J. Champagne, M.S.
Ralph W. Moore, B.S.
Louis J. Daigle, M.Ag.
Mrs. Runette H. Davis, M.A.H.E.
Mrs. Justine L. Bizette, B.S.
Mrs. Elizabeth D. Clark, B.S.H.E.
Miss Mary Alyce Holmes, M.S.
Miss Victoria M. Simpson, B.S.
Miss Dorothy A. Towers, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Grace R. Hauser, B.S.
Miss Judy M. Thornberry, B.A.
Miss Frances H. Little, M.A.
DE SOTO COUNTY
Kenneth M. Sanders, M.S.F.
Mrs. Mary Ann Roe, B.S.
Edward J. Cowen, B.S.A.
John E. Moser, B.S.A.
James N. Watson, B.S.A.
Edward Allen, M.S.A.
Thomas H. Braddock, Jr., M.S.A.
Ronald L. Wisener, M.Ed.
Mrs. Bessie J. Canty, M.S.
Mrs. Eunice M. Littlejohn, B.S.
Mrs. Emily G. Harper, B.S.
Mrs. Donna L. Druell, B.A.
Mrs. Sarah M. Board, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Wyn W. Shoptaw, B.S.
J. Lowell Loadholtz, M.S.
James H. Walker, M.S.A.
Clifton H. Breeland, B.S.
Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson, B.S.
Mrs. Dorothy C. Cunningham, B.S.
Mrs. Mary E. Anderson, B.S.
Daniel E. Mullins, M.S.
Donald F. Jordan, M.A.
James B. Estes, M.A.
Mrs. A.F. Taranto, B.S.H.E.
John C. Russell, M.Ag.
Bernard H. Clark, B.S.A.
Mrs. Marjorie B. Gregory, B.S.
Mrs. Dicki D. Bentley, B.S.
Mrs. Ursula H. Williams, B.S.
James R. Yelvington, M.Ag.
John E. Moser, B.S.A.
B. O. Bass, M.S.A.
Cubie R. Laird, M.Ed.
Rance A. Andrews, B.S.A.
Isaac Chandler, Jr., B.S.
Mrs. Wylma B. White, M.S.H.E.
Jack C. Hayman, M.A.
Raymond H. Burgess, M.S.A.
Clayton E. Hutcheson, M.S.A.
George M. Owens, Jr., M.Ag.
Mrs. Barmell B. Dixon, B.S.
Bert J. Harris, Jr., B.S.A.
George T. Hurner, Jr., B.S.A.
Miss Ellen Landfair, B.S.
Jean Beem, M.S.A.
R. Donald Downs, B.S.A.
Milford C. Jorgensen, M.Ag.
James E. Richards, M.S.A.
Paul E. Glasscock, B.S.A.
Mrs. Ruth T. Penner, B.S.
Clarence F. O'Quinn, B.S.
Wayne T. Wade, M.Ed.
Mrs. Mamie G. Bassett, B.S.
Mrs. Virginia H. Coombs, B.S.
Mrs. Helen P. Webb, B.S.
Miss Charlotte Hampton, B.S.
Mrs. Carolyn T. Creamer, B.S.
Lawrence D. Taylor, M.Ag.
Mrs. Sallie R. Childers, B.S.
James B. Morris, III, M.S.
INDIAN RIVER COUNTY
Forrest N. McCullars, B.S.
Jack W. Bass, M.Ag.
Woodrow W. Glenn, M.Ag.
William E. Collins, B.S.A.
Mrs. Jane R. Burgess, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Mary E. Howell
Albert H. Odom, M.Ag.
Miss Jeanette Meadows, M.S.
William C. Smith, Jr., M.Ag.
Mrs. Dona A. Ingle, M.S.
Jackson A. Haddox, M.Ag.
Royce C. Williams, M.A.
John L. Jackson, Jr., M.Ag.
Mrs. Jeanne M. Allen, B.S.
Mrs. Marian Valentine, B.S.
Miss Alice M. Blackburn, M. Retailing
James G. Hand, Jr., M.S.
Robert G. Curtis, B.S.A.
Ronald G. Shafer, B.S.A.
Mrs. Dorothy J. Classon, B.S.
Miss Mary G. Watson, M.S.
OKALOOSA COUNTY POLK COUNTY
J. Lloyd Rhoden, M.A.
Mrs. Martha M. Walker, B.S.
William L. Robinson, M.Ed.
Michael E. Demaree, M.S.A.
Mrs. Betty Vernon, B.S.
Mrs. Anne W. Parramore, B.S.H.E.
Damon Miller, B.S.
Paul J. Ziebart, III, B.S.
Leonard C. Cobb, M.Ag.
William R. Womble, B.S.A.
Mrs. Cora H. Meares, B.S.
Thomas J. Godbold, B.S.E.
O.R. Hamrick, Jr., M.A.
James C. Miller, B.S.
Mrs. Mae M. Anderson, B.S.
Miss Deloris M. Jones, B.S.
Arthur D. Alston, M.Ag.
Rollin McNutt, M.S.A.
Ronald I. Dickinson, M.S.
Robert T. Montgomery, B.S.A.
Mrs. Elisabeth B. Furr, B.A.H.E.
Mrs. Dorothy A. Fender, B.S.
Edsel W. Rowan, B.S.A.
James M. Glisson, B.S.A.
William J. Phillips, Jr., M.Ag.
Eugene P. Smith, B.S.A.
Mrs. Postelle Dawsey, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Sarah K. Thomas, B.S.
Mrs. Pamela C. Anders, B.S.
Levi M. Johnson, B.S.A.
Mrs. Martha B. Norton, M.S.
Judson T. Fulmer, M.Ed.
Mrs. Sandra R. Jones, B.S.
Jack D. Patten, B.S.
Charles M. Walthall, M.S.
Mrs. Ann P. Jeter, B.S.
Mrs. Marilee Tankersley, B.S.
Clifford R. Boyles, A.A.
Henry F. Swanson, M.S.A.
Bruce A. Barmby, M.S.
Ernest H. Cowen, B.S.
Oscar J. Hebert, Jr., M.S.
Salvatore E. Tamburo, Ph.D.
Mrs. Marjorie L. Williams, B.S.
Mrs. Mary A. Moore, M.A.T.
Mrs. Leala R. Collins, B.S.
Mrs. Linda W. Luman, B.S.
James B. Smith, B.S.A.
Mrs. Marilyn Tileston, B.S.H.E.
PALM BEACH COUNTY
Robert S. Pryor, B.S.
John H. Causey, B.S.A.
R. Kent Price, M.Ag.
Phillip B. Moore, B.S.Ed.
Raleigh S. Griffis, M.Ag.
Mrs. Marylou Shirar, M.E.D.Ed.
Mrs. Arlen C. Jones, B.S.
Mrs. Jeanette S. Cardell, M.S.Ed.
Luther L. Rozar, M.Ag.
Albert D. Dawson, B.S.A.
Mrs. Clara A. Smith, B.S.
Mrs. Mary E. Ergle, B.S.
Gilbert M. Whitton, Jr., M.Ag.
Charles E. Rowan, M.Ag.
Irving M. Perry, B.S.
Mrs. Dorothy E. Draves, B.S.H.E.E.
Mrs. Virginia D. Gardner, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Leah B. Hoopfer, B.S.
Miss Nancy B. Whigham, B.S.
Robert M. Davis, M.Ag.
Ortis E. Carmichael, M.S.
Thomas W. Oswalt, M.S.A.
James O. Phillips, Jr., M.A.
David M. Solger, M.Ag.
Sidney L. Sumner, M.S.A.
Mrs. Alice Kersey, M.S.
Mrs. Ruth M. Elkins, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Josephine Cameron, M.S.
Ralph T. Clay, B.S.A.
Bobby W. Wilson, B.S.
Mrs. Essie H. Thompson, B.S.H.E.E.
Mrs. Anne S. Dunson, B.S.
SANTA ROSA COUNTY
William C. Zorn, M.Ag.
Jack James Spears, M.Ag.
Miss Fern Nix, B.S.
Mrs. Mary G. Costello, B.S.
Kenneth A. Clark B.S.A.
Edwin S. Pastorius, B.S.Ag.
Frank M. Melton, M.S.Ag.
Mrs. Catherine H. Love, M.A.
Mrs. Ruth Ann Miller, B.S.
Frank J. Jasa, B.S.A.
David A. DeVoll, M.S.A.
Mrs. Louise Gill, B.S.H.E.
ST. JOHNS COUNTY
Paul L. Dinkins, Jr., M.Ag.
James D. Dilbeck, M.S.
Miss Nettie R. Brown, B.S.
ST. LUCIE COUNTY
Hugh C. Whelchel, Jr., B.S.
Mrs. Marguerite R. Brock, B.S.
Donald A. George, B.S.A.
Richard L. Bradley, B.S.A.
J. Paul Crews, B.S.A.
Jerry C. Scarborough, B.S.A.
Robert B. Whitty, B.S.A.
Miss Meredith A. Creel, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Janice R. McRee, B.S.
Henry P. Davis, B.S.A.
Mrs. Ethel P. Thompson, B.S.
William J. Cowen, B.S.A.
R. T. Townsend, M.Ag.
Larry L. Loadholtz, M.Ag.
Gerald Gray Martin, M.S.
Mrs. Edna E. Eby, B.S. Voc. H.E.
Mrs. Frances E. Lee, B.S.
Bobby R. Durden, B.S.A.
Miss Marilyn J. Halusky, B.S.
J. Edsel Thomaston, M.Ag.
Mrs. Virginia C. Clark, B.S.
Johnnie E. Davis, M.Ag.
Lenzy M. Scott, M.A.
Miss Sue Elmore, M.S.