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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal to Gover...
 Credits
 Report of the director
 Report of the state agent
 Report of the district agent for...
 Report of the district agent for...
 Report of the boys' agricultural...
 Report of the state home demonstration...
 Report of the poultry club...
 Report of the farmers' institu...
 Index














Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075775/00002
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1916
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: - 1916.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with 1914/15.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30.
General Note: Description based on: 1915.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46380724
lccn - 2001229380
System ID: UF00075775:00002
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal to Governor
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of the director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Report of the state agent
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Report of the district agent for east and south Florida
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Report of the district agent for north and west Florida
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Report of the boys' agricultural club agent
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Report of the state home demonstration agent
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Report of the poultry club agent
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Report of the farmers' institutes
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Index
        Page 67
        Page 68
Full Text







Cooperative Demonstration Work
IN

Agriculture and Home Economics
University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating
P. H. ROLFS, Director



REPORT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR
ENDING JUNE 30th, 1916


MARCH, 1917










CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA ..................................... 3
BOARD OF CONTROL........................................................................................ 4
EXTENSION STAFF ..... ......................... ... ............. .. ...................... 4
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD OF CONTROL..................... 7
REPORT OF DIRECTOR...................... ....................... ........ ........ 7
Introduction ................................. ......... 7
Financial Statement....................... .................. 12
Negro W ork ....................................................................... ................. 12
Publications ............ ... ...... ............................... ................... 13
REPORT OF STATE AGENT...... ...................... .................. ..... ............ 15
Field Meetings ................. .............................. 16
Hog Cholera Inoculation ............................... ................... 18
Bankers' Scholarship ....................................... 19
Activities of Extension Workers (tabulated).................................. 20
Negro W ork .... ... .... ...... ................................................ 25
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, EAST AND SOUTH........................................ 28
Character of Work .................................................................. ................ 29
Demonstrations in Truck........................................... 30
Demonstrations in Citrus Groves........................ ....... .......... 31
Demonstrations in Pineapple Culture........................ ................. 32
Financial Support from Counties .............................................33
Farmers' Cooperative Associations ......... .............. ..... .......... 34
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND WEST..................................... 36
Cotton .................... ..... ......................... ....... .................... 36
Velvet Beans ................... ............ ............... 36
Livestock .......................................... 37
Dipping Vats ............................................................... .... .. 38
REPORT OF BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT............................................ 39
Summary of Corn Club Work.................... ......................... 40
Pig Club W ork................................................ ........... ... 41
Boys' Club Meetings.................... ....................... 43
County Contests ............................. ...................... 44
REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT............................. ........ 47
Organization ............ ............................ 47
Girls' Club Work ........- -.......... ...................49
Fall Contests, Summary .......... .... ......................... 50
Women's Work........................ ... ....... ............. 53
Short Courses........ ...................................... ...54
State Meeting.......................................... 57
Statistical Report ...................... ........... .......... 58
Publications ...................................................... 59
REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB AGENT........... .......... .................. 61
FARMERS' INSTITUTES ...................................... ............ ............... 63
County Agents' Institutes............ ......... ................. 64
Field Institutes .... ........... .. .. .. ........................ ......... 64
W omen's Institutes ......... .. ............. ........... ................. 64






















Hon. Sydney J. Catts,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Fla.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of
the Director of the Extension Division of the University of
Florida for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman of the Board of Control.







4 Florida Cooperative Extension

BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Fla.
W. D. FINLAYSON, Old Town, Fla.
P. E. JENNINGS, Jacksonville, Fla.
J. G. KELLUM, Secretary, Tallahassee, Fla.

OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
BRADFORD KNAPP, Chief.
H. E. SAVELY, Agriculturist and Field Agent.
O. B. MARTIN, Assistant in Charge Demonstration Club Work.
I. W. HILL, Assistant in Demonstration Club Work.

COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND
HOME ECONOMICS STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University.
P. H. ROLFS, Director.
C. K. McQuARRIE, State Agent.
A. P. SPENCER, Assistant Director. (Since Nov. 1, 1916.)
AGNES ELLEN HARRIS, State Agent, Home Demonstration Work.
H. S. MCLENDON, District Agent for East and South Florida. (Since Jan.
1. 1917.)
E. W. JENKINS, District Agent for North and West Florida. (Since Feb.
15, 1917.)
G. L. HERRINGTON, Boys' Agricultural Club Agent.
MINNIE FLOYD, Poultry Club Agent.
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, District Agent for East and South Florida, Home
Demonstration Work.
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, District Agent for North and West Florida, Home
Demonstration Work.
A. H. LOGAN, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U.S.D.A.
C. L. WILLOUGHBY, Specialist, Silo Construction.
JOHN M. SCOTT, Lecturer, Animal Industry.
B. F. FLOYD, Lecturer, Citrus.
J. R. WATSON, Lecturer, Entomology.
H. E. STEVENS, Lecturer, Plant Pathology.
S. E. COLLISON, Lecturer, Soils and Fertilizers.
O. W. WEAVER, Editor.
BESSIE V. GLOVER, Secretary.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor.
COUNTY COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua........................... ....W E. Brown ...............................Gainesville
Baker..................................... S. S Johns.................................M acclenny
Brevard ............................. A. R. Nielson.............................. Melbourne
Calhoun................................ J. E. Yon .................................... Blountstown
Citrus ..................................W E. Allen ............................... Lecanto
Clay........................................W T. Nettles..............................Green Cove Springs
Dade....................................... F.J. M cKinley...........................M iam i
Duval..................................... W L. W atson...........................Jacksonville
Escambia..............................C. A. Fulford..............................Pensacola
Gadsden.................................M N. Smith................................River Junction
Hernando.............................. J. T. Daniel................................Brooksville
Hillsboro...............................R T. Kelley.........-----.........Plant City
Holmes.................................. J. Sechrist.............................. Bonifay
Jackson .................................. S. W Hiatt ................................. M arianna
Lake....................................... W m. Gomme ...............................Tavares







Annual Report, 1916 5

Lee......................................... J. M Boring ..............................Ft. Myers
Leon (colored)....................Frank Robinson......... ............Tallahassee
Levy..D.................................... D. P. Coffin ...........................Bronson
Liberty............................ .. W.,Turier ...................Bristol
Madison........ ...............C. W. Gunn............ :...................Madison
Manatee................................U. C. Zeluff................................. Bradentown
Marion.................-----......-...R. W. Blacklock.............:..-........Ocala
Nassau------...........................-.... James Shaw.....................-----.......... Hilliard
Orange............ ...... ......... .H. Baker...........-.................. Orlando
Osceola......................-.....B. E. Evans....... .................Kissimmee
Palm Beach-...... -- .....R. N. Wilson...........:-.................. West Palm Beach
Panco ............. ..... ..R. T. 'WVc- Dade City
Poll;... .... .... .. A.A. Lcwie linthleen
Putnam ..... ...L. C trel .Palatka
Santa PRoa .; ..E. Manning ................. Milton
Serninoae .. .. .. .-,Brr- ........---......-- ..-...Sanford
u' v.nnrr ... ..-:-. .,. ,' .0. W Cas,'ell .Live I :a
St. John... ..J.E. Ch-eatham Hantings
St. Lucie ... .Alfre Warrtn .Ft.Pierce
Tn lor ..... ..... R.I. M atth ws, ....:-.... .......Perry
oaluia .R. E. Lenfest.... DL. DLnd
Wal.ulla .... .... 'V. T. Green rran
Wa-4iington ....... "..-... 0. McQuacee ...Chipley

COUNTY iION E DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY -AGENT ADDRESS
Baker:.... .. .... .Miss Belle Davis:. ....................Macclenny
Bay .. ....... ... ....M r. Ettie M. Matthews...........Panama City
Bradford ...:.'.....-Mrs. T. E. Waldrup.................Lake Butler
Broward... ........... Mrs. Virginia D. Bryan............Ft. Lauderdale
Brevard..............................Mrs. W. W. Gay ....... ................Melbourne
Dade....-.............................. Miss Genevieve Crawford-....:...Miami
DeSoto-............................... Miss Allie Stribling..................Arcadia
Dual....................................Mrs. Effie Wellington...............Jacksonville
Escambia............................. Miss LonnyLandruni ...-.....- Pensacola
Gadsden........:...........-..........Miss Ruby McDavid................. Hinson
Hernando ............... ............. Miss Kate Townsend................Brooksville
Hillsboro-.............................. Miss Isabelle M. Story..............Tampa
Holmes.................................Miss Connie Robert DeVane....Bonifay
Jackson.................................Mrs. Ivey Tavlor Turnbull.......Marianna
Jefferson..............................Miss Jennie Carter...................Monticello
Lee.....................................Mrs. Enid Axtell Parker..........Ft. Myers
Leon...................................Mrs. Lillian Roberts..................Tallahassee
Madison................................Miss Edna Alethia'Smith.......Madison
Manatee-............................. Miss Eloise McGriff.................Bradentown
Marion.. ... Mrs. Caroline Moorhead...........Ocala
Oka:nlo-sn. .. .... Miss Margaret Cobb................-Milligan
Orange ....... rs. Nellie Wilson Taylor......Orlando
Oseola .......... .................. Miss Albina Smith -......-......... Kissimmee
Palm Beach-..--.............-.... Miss Elizabeth A. Hopkins......West Palm Beach
Pinellas............................... Miss Mary Ellen Keown-...-.....Clearwater
Polk.---....I.....-........ ...:..... .Mrs. Dora Russell Barnes-.......Lakeland
Putnam..-.....................- Miss Josephine Sipprell... ...... Florahome
Saata- Rosa-................... --Miss Janie Stroud..... ...............Milton
St.? Johns:........................- Miss Lois Godbev .....- ........ .. n A stine
Volusia--......-.....................Miss Mary K. Summers-......... DeLand
Walton-- --......................... Miss Winne Warren................ DeFuniak Springs
Washinecon .. ii- Siusie Sapp..........:............ Chipley









































Fig. 1.-Demonstration agents assembled on University campus, Gainesville.












Report for the Fiscal Year Ending

June 30, 1916


Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith my report on the
work and condition of the Extension Division of the University
of Florida for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, and I
respectfully request that you transmit the same, in accordance
with the law, to the Governor of the State of Florida.
Respectfully,
P. H. ROLFS,
Director.


INTRODUCTION
The Agricultural Extension Division of the University of
Florida concerns itself primarily with giving instruction and
practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to
persons not resident on the campus. The Smith-Lever Agri-
cultural Extension Act is the basis for this work. Thru it the
State of Florida receives annually $10,000. An additional sum
of $11,892.73 became available, July 1, 1916, on condition that
an equal amount be appropriated by the State.
The Legislature of Florida passed an Act, which was ap-
proved by the Governor, May 25, 1915 (Chap. 6839), accepting
these funds and the provisions of the Smith-Lever Act. The
Act provides for cooperation between the agricultural colleges
in the several states and the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
A quotation from it will show the general purposes of this Act:
That cooperative agricultural extension work shall consist of the giving
of instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home econo-
mics to persons not attending or resident in said colleges in the several
communities, and imparting to such persons information on said subjects
through field demonstrations, publications, and otherwise; and this work
shall be carried on in such a manner as may be mutually agreed upon by the
Secretary of Agriculture and the State agricultural college or colleges re-
ceiving the benefits of this act. "






Florida Cooperative Extension


In addition to the amount derived directly from the Smith-
Lever Fund, the U. S. Department of Agriculture has appro-
priated the sum of $23,800.
The principal work carried on with these funds is the county
cooperative demonstration work among farmers and the home
demonstration work in farm homes. The sum of $600 is
allotted to each county availing itself of this opportunity to
cooperate in the county demonstration work, provided the
county appropriates an equal or larger amount for this same
purpose. In the home demonstration work, each new county
cooperating is allotted $300 for the year provided an equal or
larger amount is appropriated by the county for augmenting
this work. In counties where home demonstration work has
made favorable progress, $400 is made available under the
condition that the county provides an equal amount. Provision
is made for carrying on the county demonstration work in the
general revenue bill (Chap. 6949) "to levy a tax of not more
than one-half of one mill for the encouragement and protection
of agriculture. The Legislature of 1915 passed (Chap. 6833)
an act authorizing county boards of education to make appro-
priations for home demonstration work.
Reports of the various departments or projects of the exten-
sion work are attached hereto and will show the work in detail.
ORGANIZATION
The Smith-Lever Act calls for the appointment of a director
as the head of this work. He is responsible to the Board of
Control and to the Secretary of Agriculture for carrying out the
mutually agreed plans. Reports of the work are made directly
to the Board of Control and to the United States Department
of Agriculture as to the policies and work pursued.
The state agent has direct supervision over the details of the
work in the counties. His work calls him to all parts of the
state and he is in contact with all the agencies employed in
the extension division. He has supervision also of farmers' in-
stitutes and farmers' gatherings arranged by county agents.
The state agent for home demonstration work has direct
charge of girls' clubs and women's rural clubs and is located
with the Florida State College for Women at Tallahassee.
District agents are employed to assist the state agent; assist-
ant agents work under the direction of the state agent for home
demonstration work among rural women. These agents visit
the counties to direct the plans and to assist the county agents.






Annual Report, 1916


It is their duty to see that the county agents are giving proper
direction to the agricultural extension work in the counties.
The boys' agricultural club agent has headquarters at the
University of Florida. He supervises the plans for carrying
forward the work.of boys' corn and pig clubs thruout the state.
These clubs are organized by the county agents or, where no
county agents are employed, by county home demonstration
agents, with the cooperation of the school boards and county
superintendents. -His special mission is to demonstrate correct
agricultural practices to the -members of these clubs, and to
encourage the study of agriculture in rural schools.
The county cooperative demonstration agent usually has his
headquarters at the county seat, with his office in the court
house. His principal work is conducting demonstrations on
small areas to establish by demonstration the best farming prac-
tices. The county agents work cooperatively with three differ-
ent classes of farmers. The first are known as demonstrators;
they each agree to take a small area, usually one to five acres,
and on this follow explicitly the directions of the county agent,
tilling the remainder of the farm in the usual way. Farmers
of the second class are known as cooperators; these follow the
general directions of the county agent but do not set aside any
special portion for demonstration. The third class of farmers
seek the advice of the county agent under special stress as in
the case of an outbreak of diseases, insect pests, severe drouth,
etc. The county agent acts here simply as an adviser.
The county home demonstration agents work toward organ-
izing and fostering girls' and women's clubs. Many of the home
demonstration agents have had special training for teaching
either in schools or in the home economics department of the
College. Their training has fitted them specially for this new
work.
All the county agents are required to make weekly reports
both to the Department of Agriculture and to the head of their
respective departments. Home demonstration work has proven
unusually attractive.
PLAN OF THE WORK
The whole work is being carried forward in several separate
lines, known as projects. These special lines of work are pro-
vided for by the law creating the fund, and the annual state-
ment as to the sources of the funds and the direction in which
they were expended will be found herewith.





Florida Cooperative Extension


Project I is designed to carry out the provision of this act.
It provides for the carrying on of the administrative part of
the work.
Under Project I-A are grouped salaries for clerical help and
expenses not directly chargeable to special projects. A total
of $4,286.15 was used for this purpose.
Under Project I-B are the expenditures for publications. The
law provides that not more than five percent of the Smith-
Lever fund shall be used for printing and distribution of pub-
lications. The amount used for this purpose was $594.54.
Project II is the demonstration work with adult farmers.
This project carries on demonstrations in all the principal crops
produced in the state, special attention having been given to
the improvement of staple crops. Close study is given to special
crops and their adaptability to conditions wherever such crops
seem promising. This project includes nearly the entire range
of activities on the farm, from the production of the crops and
stock to the improvement of the home. The expenditure under
this project from all sources was $49,946.25.
Project III includes the organization of boys' agricultural
clubs, and is confined to corn and pig clubs. This year's work
in corn clubs as herewith reported is especially noteworthy in
that a number of boys have produced more than 75 bushels, and
in a few cases more than 100 bushels of corn to the acre. The
average cost a bushel for the entire crop raised by the corn club
boys was 38 cents. The work in the pig clubs has been equally
successful. These clubs work in cooperation with the schools
of the counties. The county superintendent and teachers have
given generous and unstinted assistance. All of the agencies
connected with the extension work have cooperated to make this
project successful. The amount expended for this work was
$2,088.01.
Project IV has been called the home demonstration project.
This includes two lines of club work in rural districts, one for
women's clubs and the other for girls' clubs. The women's
clubs are organized to study the needs of the home, its sur-
roundings and improvement and sanitary measures for the
preservation of the health of the family. Girls' clubs are or-
ganized in all counties having home demonstration agents. This
part of the project works toward cooperation with the rural
schools. Girls' canning clubs are well organized in Florida,
as indicated by the excellent reports submitted herewith. The
amount spent for this work from all sources was $31,269.15.






Annual Report, 1916


Project V concerns itself with educational work in the best
methods of preventing and controlling hog cholera. A specialist
assigned to Florida from the Bureau of Animal Industry gives
it his full time and attention. This work is carried on cooper-
atively with the extension division of the University of Florida
in practically every county, but more especially in those counties
having agelits. The total expense of this project is borne by
the Bureau of Animal Industry.
Project VI concerns itself with the instruction of negro boys
and girls living on farms. It is carried on in cooperation
with the Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, at
Tallahassee. A special agent, with headquarters at the negro
College, gives his entire time.to the direction of home makers
clubs, which train negro boys and girls in better farming meth-
ods. His activities were confined principally to those counties
having the largest negro farming population. The expenditure
for this work during the last fiscal year was $1,182.49.
Project VIII deals with silo construction. This is a special
project designed to encourage the construction of silos. A
special agent was employed for only a portion of the year. The
farmers are especially interested in silo construction, or may
have them underway, just prior to the time when the silo crops


Fig. 2.-Stave silos on demonstration farm, Marion county.






Florida Cooperative Extension


are about to mature. It seems from this that the agent could
employ his time most profitably when the farmer is most in
need of his services. The expense of this project has been
$598.55.
SUPERVISION
The funds arising from the Smith-Lever act are strictly trust
funds that must be employed in accordance with the laws gov-
erning the appropriation. The. specific plans are spoken of as
projects. The method of accounting and the plans for the work
must be submitted to the U. S. Department of Agriculture be-
fore the year's work is begun. A Federal officer audits the
accounts .and inspects the .work underway. All of the funds,.
however, that have been used to supplement the Smith-Lever
fund have been expended and accounted for in the .same way
as the Smith-Lever fund.
Specialists from the United States Department of Agriculture
are sent to the state from time to time to aid in special work
and render valuable assistance in carrying out cooperative
demonstration work.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
The following table gives in tabulated form the sources of all
moneys and the purposes for' which they were expended. It
shows that the total expenditures from all sources for the ex-
tension work was $91,449.35.
STATEMENT
TABLE 1.
Smithi Lever ..
U.S.D.A. Feeral State College State County -Total

RECEIPTS ........ $25,000.00 $16,486.94 $6,486.94 $9,286.72 $5,000.00 $29,188.75 $91,449.35
EXPENDITURES
Administration .. ............... 3,815.63 470.52 .. ........ ...... .. 4,286.15
Printing, etc. ... ....... .. 94.54 ...... .. ............... .... 9454
County Agents .. 19,170.00 5,230.46 2,452.96 ......... .. 4,999.08 18,093:75 49,946.25
Home Economics 4,500.00 4,601.76 3,268.96 7,803.43 ......... 11,095 00 81,269.15
Boys' Club Work 1,300.00 604.17 147.84 .......... .. ......... .. .. 2,088.01
Negro Boys' W k 30.00 1,005.83 146.66 ................ ........... .... 118249
Silo Construction .:5............... 598.55 _...... .. 598.55
Balance .............. ...... ...... ..... ........... ... 1,483. *
Totals................. $25,000.00 $16,486.94 $6,486.94 $9,286.. i..... 1 i
. . . .


NEGRO ORK.
The negro work in Florida has been conducted in seven coun-
ties. Two agents have been employed, one in charge of the
home makers clubs, whose work has been chiefly with the boys.
The direction of this *is similar to the agricultural- clnbs for
white boys, but working with a different unit of acreage. This






Annual Report, 1916


agent reports to the boys' agricultural club agent and makes
his headquarters at the Agricultural and Mechanical College for
Negroes at Tallahassee, Florida.
A negro local agent is engaged in farm demonstration work
in Leon county. His work has been directed toward improved
farming for colored farmers in that county. His reports indi-
cate that he has been active in the organization of clubs for
rural betterment. 'He works cooperatively with the Agricultural
and Mechanical College for Negroes at Tallahassee, and reports
to the state and district agents for farmers cooperative demon-
stration work.
PUBLICATIONS
Five bulletins have been published and distributed by the
Extension Division of the University of Florida.
Bulletin
No. Title Edition
4. Dipping Vats for Hogs.................. .... ................................ 8,000
5. Subirrigation ................. ......................... 13,100
6. Peanuts in Florida............................................ ............ 30,000
7. Hog Pastures and Feeds....:... --....................-- 5,500
Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30th, 1915.
SUMMARY OF BULLETINS
4. Concrete Dipping Vats for Hogs and Calves.-This bulletin is an
eight-page folder prepared especially for the convenience of the county
agents and distributed chiefly to the hog raisers who are cooperating with
the county agents. It contains a diagram, specifications for building con-
crete dipping vats for hogs and calves, also recommendations for preparing
solutions for filling the vats.
5. Subirrigation.-This bulletin is the description of the subirrigation
system in use in the vegetable growing sections of Florida. It contains
diagrams, cuts and specifications, also statement of the conditions under
which such a system may be profitably installed. It also explains the
system as a drainage system and names the crops for which subirrigation
is best suited.
6. Peanuts in Florida.-This bulletin is a description of the best prac-
tice in growing peanuts in Florida and the best use of the Florida crop;
varieties, methods of cultivation, harvesting, place in rotation and its value
as stock feed. This bulletin also contains the description of curing sheds
for peanut hay, used successfully for two seasons in Florida.
7. Hog Pastures and Feeds.-This bulletin is a revision of No. 2 and
is an eight page folder, printed on heavy card board for the convenience
of the county agents to hang in office for reference. It specifies the crops,
date and methods of planting, stage of growth for feeding and the num-
ber of hogs an acre will support, with additional notes on hog raising.
CHANGES IN STAFF
Very few changes in the personnel of the staff have occurred,
the main changes being additions to the working force. On
October 1, 1915, G. L. Herrington assumed the duties of boys'
agricultural club agent, and on the same date A. A. Turner
(negro) began work under Project VI, instruction of negro
youth.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Dr. A. H. Logan succeeded Dr. G. F. Babb as veterinary in-
spector, hog cholera control work.
As the number of counties cooperating is constantly increas-
ing, there was an increase of both farm and home county dem-
onstration agents. County agents have also been transferred
from one county to another.


MAP or FLORIDA

MS indicates counties
having Farmers Cooperative
Demonstrotrio Work
during the fiscal year ending
June 30,1916.


Fig. 3.-Map of Florida showing counties employing county demonstration agents.






Annual Report, 1916


REPORT OF THE STATE AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the state agent for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1916.
This report shows that the interest in farmers' cooperative
demonstration work is being maintained and, in a large meas-
ure, increased. This is verified by the increased appropriations
from county sources made to supplement the salaries of the
county agents. The total appropriations from county sources
for next year's work has increased $11,660 over the amount
appropriated for the period covered in this report.
The increased appropriations were made largely thru efforts
to secure better equipped men who can command higher salaries
than were formerly paid to county agents. A few of the older
men in the work have resigned, and in most instances where
this has occurred, they have been replaced by men of better
training and who are able to enlarge the scope of the work
in their counties.
The average yield of staple crops for the state has increased,
notwithstanding the continued drouth that prevailed in the
spring and early summer, or the growing season for farm crops.
Where farmers prepared the land and planted according to
demonstration methods they suffered very little from this dry
weather. This provided an excellent demonstration of what
could be accomplished to overcome unfavorable weather condi-
tions by adopting the improved methods that the demonstration
work teaches.
On the 5th, 6th and 7th of July a West Indian hurricane














Fig. 4.-Cowpeas on a demonstration farm in Lake county.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 5.-Field meeting county agents. Polk county.
prevailed in the western counties. The wind attained a velocity
of 140 miles an hour, followed by heavy rainfall in all the terri-
tory west of the Apalachicola River, destroying or damaging
practically all crops. Corn was damaged from fifty to seventy-
five percent, and other crops similarly. In fact, some farmers
lost all their crops, and in several cases sustained a heavy loss
of livestock. Prompt assistance to these flood sufferers was pro-
vided in furnishing seeds to replant their damaged fields. The
agents in Walton, Jackson, Washington, Calhoun and Holmes
counties distributed sufficient seed to plant several hundred
acres to field and garden crops, which relieved the distressed
situation in a large measure.
FIELD MEETINGS
The agents' group field meetings were held this year as usual.
The west Florida county agents met at Chipley, Washington
county, February 28, and at Bonifay, Holmes county, February
29, visiting farms where winter cover crops and good livestock
could be seen. At Bonifay, the milling company's plant was
inspected, this being a new enterprise paying cash for farm
produce. It was interesting to study their methods of doing
business and to learn to what extent it could be adopted in
other counties. At Chipley an inspection was made of the
ginning company's plant.
March 1 was spent at Tallahassee in joint session with the
home demonstration agents .at the Florida State College for
Women, and later, visiting farms in Leon county.
March 2 was spent at Madison, Madison county, visiting dem-
onstration farms and assisting in the agricultural program of
the chautauqua.
March 3 was spent at the State Prison Farm, Raiford, where






Annual Report, 1916


the clearing of land, pulling stumps, breaking and farming land
with tractors and other modern implements is underway on
an extensive scale. We were entertained by the superintendent
and the visit proved interesting and valuable to all.
The agents of middle Florida met in Lake county on March
6 and 7 and visited farms and groves in the vicinity of Eustis,
Leesburg and Tavares to investigate Natal hay fields and citrus
groves sprayed under demonstration methods.
March 8 was spent in Seminole county studying the intensive
trucking system practiced in growing winter vegetables, chiefly
celery and lettuce. Subirrigation is practiced on nearly all of
the farms. The land has improvements of $1,000 an acre or
more, consequently an extensive system is necessary.
A special meeting of the agents in the citrus belt was called
at Lakeland June 2, under the auspices of the State Plant Board
to study the methods of applying pure cultures of whitefly
fungus (Aschersonia Aleyrodis) prepared and distributed by
the Board.
The annual meeting of the directors and state agents in the
farmers' cooperative demonstration work was held in Wash-
ington from November 10 to 14 inclusive, and was attended
by the director and state and district agents. The state agent
read a paper on "What Has Been Worth While in My State
in 1916."
The annual meeting of agricultural club agents was held in
Washington in December and was attended by the Florida club
agent and state agent in home economics.
Owing to the increased interest in livestock in Florida, the
.state and county agents are shaping plans to bring about the
best possible development in beef and dairy cattle and hogs,
and the building of dipping vats has made good progress in
nearly every county. Hog cholera control occupies a big share
of all county agents' time, but the results obtained have justified
the efforts. Systematic tick eradication, as conducted by the
Bureau of Animal Industry, is in charge of Dr. E. M. Nighbert,
and all plans for this work are directed from his office.
SILO WORK
Owing to the lack of funds we were not able to conduct very
lengthy campaigns on silo building. A specialist in silo con-
struction was employed for a short period and assisted in silo
construction work in Osceola, Seminole and Leon counties.






Florida Cooperative Extension


From his efforts a total of seven wood and two concrete silos
were built.
HOG CHOLERA INOCULATION WORK
The cooperative plan between the Bureau of Animal Industry,
U. S. D. A., and extension division of the University of Florida,
for educational work, project C, has continued thruout the year.
Dr. A. H. Logan, field veterinarian in charge of hog inocula-
tion work, has devoted his time to educational lectures and
demonstrations in sanitary methods in hog management and
administering hog cholera serum and virus. This work has
been valuable in getting the proper information before the
farmers of Florida for the control of hog cholera and has added
materially to the efficiency of county agents' service.
During the year this work has been conducted in practically
every county in Florida. Dr. Logan's report shows that one
hundred thirty-eight farmers' meetings have been held, with a
total attendance of 12,406. Twenty-six demonstrations of serum
alone and seven simultaneous treatment demonstrations were
made. Four hundred fifty-two people attended these demon-
strations and 746 hogs were treated. Two hundred sixty-one
visits were paid to farms during the year for the purpose of




















Fig. 6.-County agents receiving instructions in spraying pure cultures of
Whitefly fungus into citrus trees. Operator wearing the uniform
of citrus canker inspectors.






Annual Report, 1916


1ig. 7.--emonstrations: Uorn in background; sweet potatoes in fore-
ground. Clay county.
diagnosing hog cholera or observing conditions and giving ad-
vice, 2,989 farmers and hog raisers were personally interviewed,
and 87 individually instructed and equipped to properly ad-
minister the serum preventive treatment. Of this number 56
were hog owners.
COUNTY FAIRS
The state and district agents judged exhibits at each of
the thirteen county fairs held in Florida. These and similar re-
quests are complied with in so far as they do not interfere
with regular demonstration work.
FIELD MEETINGS BY COUNTY AGENTS
Field meetings arranged by county agents are proving to be
a satisfactory means of reaching farmers. The state or district
agents usually assist the county agent, also agents from ad-
joining counties assist in the discussions. This gives county
agents in adjoining counties an opportunity to exchange ideas
and to benefit from each other's results.
BANKERS' SCHOLARSHIPS
The State Bankers' Association is manifesting a keen interest
in the boys' club work. At their annual meeting in Daytona,
they voted a scholarship of $200 in the Agricultural College at
Gainesville for a member of the corn club producing the highest
yield of corn per acre.






20 Florida Cooperative Extension

Requests to appear before city and county boards of trade
are liberally complied with and the advantages to be gained in
keeping the commercial bodies in touch with the agricultural
educational work are fully appreciated.
These bodies are taking a deep interest in every phase of
cooperative demonstration work for both men and women and
are making a concerted effort to improve the farmer's position.
Their influence has been helpful in raising county appropria-
tions, as they fully appreciate the necessity of paying good sal-
aries when important undertakings are to be accomplished.

SCHOOL VISITS
Several visits to schools were made during the year. Speeches
were made at commencement exercises and lectures were given
to pupils studying agriculture. Visits were made to rural
schools to interest the children and teachers in club work.
Advantage is taken of opportunities to address teachers' insti-
tutes, to interest teachers and superintendents, all of which has
materially increased the interest of educational forces in dem-
onstration work.
A tabulated statement, covering the year's activities, is here-
with appended:
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Number of visits by county agents.................... -... --... 22,624
to demonstrators ....-----...--------..................- 6,900
cooperators .............-------------------------- .2,486
other farmers ---......... -------..------- -------. 7,134
business men.........~.-........ ....... -------.--- 2,681
boys' and girls' clubs members....... -----............... 3,423
Number miles traveled............151,904 Conference ............................ 9
Railroad .. ...... ---------..... .. 21,676 Miscellaneous ............... 3
Team ..--.............------------------- 77,323 Percent time in field work.... 81
Otherwise -..............------------ 52,905 Supervising demonstra-
Number calls on agents ....... 13,481 tions ..........-.... 34
Personal ..............-----....-... 9,601 Other farm visits........... 33
Telephone ..............------ 3,880 At meetings.................. 1
Percent time in office............ 19 Assisting short courses..... 6
Correspondence .........---...... 7 Organization ................ 7
EDUCATIONAL WORK
Farmers' meetings held.......... 399 U. S. D. A............................. 21,851
Meetings all kinds addressed 616 Univ. of Fla......................... 6,035
Attendance ............-.... 32,725 School visits relative to work 552
Field meetings held by agents 197 Schools, agrl. courses out-
Attendance ..... ...... 2,868 lined ................. ............. 37
Official letters written............ 12,039 Extension schools or short
Agri'l articles published...... 518 courses assisted................... 10
Circular letters mailed......... 970 Days engaged............... 56
Bulletins distributed................ 27,886 Attendance ...... ......... 835







Annual Report, 1916


MISCELLANEOUS
Farmers attending college Demonstrations truck or fruit
short courses as result Farmers keeping full cost
agents' efforts...................... 12 records ................................
Boys attending agri'l schools Part record ......................
or colleges result club work 47 Farmers induced to fall plow
County fairs held.................... 13 Farmers selecting seed..........
Demonstrators, cooperators No. growing improved seed
and club members exhib- for sale..........................
iting --..................-...-.... 3396 No. raising breeding stock for
sale .... ............................
IMPROVEMENTS SUPERVISED BY COUNTY AGENTS


Buildings erected......................
New building plans furnished
Farm buildings improved......
Buildings painted or white-
washed ...-- .......
Home water systems installed
or improved........... .........
Lighting systems installed....
Systems before work started
Number now ... ...........
Home grounds improved........
Sanitary conditions improved
Sanitary privies erected..........
Telephone systems installed..
Farmers adopting systematic
crop rotation .................
Acreage ...----................
New pastures established......
Old pastures renovated..........
Acreage -----...........................


61
25
80

68

21
27
3
31
50
144
93
69

54
2,283
116
24
608


Drainage systems established 43
No. draining farms.................. 197
Acres drained........................ 2,629
Farmers induced stump land 553
Acres stumped .-----........- 6,888
Average cost per acre........... $15
Total cost........................$103,320.00
Farmers terracing lands........ 45
Acres terraced...................... 480
No. home gardens planted.... 812
No. saving surplus produce.... 206
Road demonst's assisted in.... 14
No. miles improved.............. 391
No. sowing green manure
crops ................................. .. 388
Acreage ............................ 7,209
New implements bought......... 1,041
Approximate average cost.. $10


DEMONSTRATIONS AND COOPERATION


CORN
Number of demonstrators...... 443
Number reporting.............. 274
Total acreage........................ 2,520
Average yield, bu........... 34.3
Increased acre-yield over old
methods, bu...................... 10
Total increase, bu............ 30,970
Value at 90e bu...............$2,787.30
Increased acre yield over
State average, bu........... 19
Total increase, bu............... 54,206
Value at 90c bu...............$48,785.40
Total value of increase, 90c
bu .... ...............$51,572.70
Number of cooperators.......... 225
Total acreage................. 1,657
Average yield, bu................. 18.6
Increased yield over State
average ............................. 3.6
No. planting improved seed.... 187
Percent who will next year.... 43
No. induced to select seed...... 527
Amount seed selected, bu... 1,047
No. that fall plowed--......... 169
Percent ........................... 39


No. turned under cover crops 90
SPercent ................................ 20
Acres harvested for silage...... 452
Average yield, tons.............. 8
Value silage, $4 a ton....$14,464.00
Acres hogged down............... 391
Acres treated diseases, pests 211
Farmers using better meth-
ods this year................. 1,219
Total No. using better meth-
ods ..... ........................... 2,834


COTTON
Number demonstrators..........
Number reporting ..............
Acreage grown....................
No. planting selected seed......
No. to plant select seed..........
No. doing fall plowing............
No. turning under cover crops
Number cooperators.............
Acreage grown...................
Acres treated diseases, pests
No. using better methods......
Farmers using better methods


101
40
423
80
51
42
22
26
112
311
572
1,535







Florida Cooperative Extension


RYE
Number demonstrators.......... 42
Number reporting............ 28
Acreage grown.............. 328
Number cooperators -..........- 56
Acreage grown--............ 101
Acres grazed off................ 299
Acres turned under for soil
improvement -----.................. 213
No. farmers induced to plant 370

OATS
Number demonstrators.......... 105
Number reporting......-......... 80
Acreage grown................. 2,325
Average acre-yield, bu....... 22.8
Increased acre-yield over old
m ethods, bu.......................... 9
Acres threshed..................... 1,591
Acres cut for hay................... 626
Average yield, tons.............. 11/2
Increase over old methods,
tons ........---------.......................
Acres grazed off ...............- 265
Acres turned under for soil
improvement ....................... 122
Number cooperators................ 54
Acreage grown................... 217
No. farmers induced to plant 108
No. farmers planting ........ 776
Percent using better methods 27.5
Increased number bushels due
to agent's service............. 20,825
Value at 70c a bushel....$14,577.00
Value increased tonnage oats
and hay at $20................$-- 6,260.00
Total value of increase due
to improved methods......$20,837.00

MIXED HAY
Number demonstrators.......... 280
Number reporting........... 162
Acreage grown................ 2,064


Acres cut for hay................. 1,148
Average yield, tons............. 1
Increased acre-yield over old
methods, tons........................
Value increase at $20 T. $10,320.00
COWPEAS, VELVET BEANS
Number demonstrators.......... 331
Number reporting.............. 89
Acreage grown.....-.......-... 3,490
Number cooperators........... 139
Acreage grown---- .......... 2,570
Acres threshed for seed...... 480
Acres cut for hay.......... 420
Average yield, tons hay...... 2
Increased acre-yield over old
methods, tons................. %:
Value increase at $20 T. $52,350.00
Acres turned under for soil
improvement ........................ 3,070
IRISH POTATOES
Number demonstrators.......... 35
Number reporting................ 11
Total acreage grown....... 94
Average yield, bu............... 90
Average yield, old methods, bu. 70
Value increase at $1.50 bu...$1,128.00
Acres treated for diseases,
insects and pests........ ......... 245
Acres under improved methods 105
SWEET POTATOES
Number of demonstrators...... 78
Number reporting.. ........... 27
Total acreage grown--.......... 142
Average yield, bu................ 150
Average yield old methods, bu. 80
Value increase at 60c bu.....$5,994.00
No. acres treated for dis-
eases, insects and pests,
due to agent's influence...... 52
Number acres worked by im-
proved methods, due to
agent's advice........................ 292


PEACH ORCHARDS AND CITRUS GROVES

Demonstration orchards........ 140 I Orchards sprayed............. 170
Trees ..131,500 Trees ....................................161,202
Orchards inspected................ 373 Peach orchards wormed.......... 34
Trees .. -........ ............... 185,161 Trees .......................... 1,259
Orchards pruned.............. 69 Orchards planted ............. 40
Trees .............................. 42,923 Trees ...-- .................... 14,900
Number commercial orchards assisted in caring for, 131.
NOTE.-An important result was accomplished in Lake county in control
of citrus scab. In one ten-acre grove, 700 trees, the owner lost 75% of a
crop due to citrus scab. By systematic spraying, the grove had a full crop
in 1916 and practically clean, high-grade fruit. It required spraying
some months in advance of the crop to get such results. Hence, in this
particular case the demonstration began the previous year.







Annual Report, 1916.


DAIRY CATTLE
Purebred cattle bought.......... 172
Purebred bulls...................... 65
Value $75 each..................$4,875.00
Purebred cows or heifers.... 107
Value $100 each..............$10,700.00
Grade cows bought.................. 35
Value $75 each..................$2,625.00
Number purebred bulls when
work started.......................... 16
Number now.......................... 104
Percent increase................ 650
Number purebred cows when
work started.......................... 130
Number now.......................... 328
Percent increase.................. 250
Cows tested for butter fat
production ............................ 50
Farmers feeding bal. rations. 61
Number fed.......................... 947

BEEF CATTLE
No. purebred cattle bought.... 173
Purebred bulls...................... 89
Value $100 each..............$8,900.00
Purebred cows or heifers.... 84
Value $100 each................$8,400.00
Grade cows bought for breed-
ing .........----............................... 159
Value $50 each---....-..... $7,950.00
Breeding herds started.......... 10
Feeding cattle bought............ 600
Value $30 each..............$18,000.00
No. feeding demonstrations. 2
Number cattle...................... 118
Cattle fed under agent's ad-
vice ........................................ 2,090
Breeders' associations formed 3
Number members.................... 100
Number purebred bulls when
work started......................... 35
Number now.......................... 400
Percentage increase............ 1,140
Number purebred cows.......... 71
Number now.......................... 351
Percent increase.................. 500
HORSES AND MULES
Purebred stallions bought...... 7
Jacks bought ............................ 6
Brood mares bought....----.... 88
Demonstrations in feeding.... 3
Number fed .......................... 98
FERTILIZER
Farmers directed in its use.. 2,146
Number demonstrations........ 294
Tons used.............................. 1,145
Number associations buying
cooperatively ..................... 15
Value so bought..................$74,923
Amount saved to farmers $13,628


No. farmers home-mixing...... 288
No. farmers top-dressing oats
with nitrate of soda ......... 550
MANURE
Farmers induced, save manure 577
Number providing sheds........ 133
Number composting manure
and waste ........................ 716
Manure spreaders bought...... 73
Farmers reinforcing manure
with phosphate rock............ 567
Tons manure being saved......548,210
Value at $3 a T ............$1,644,630
LIVESTOCK DISEASES AND
PESTS
Stock treated for ailments.... 65,287
Cattle dipped, ticks and lice.. 16,981
Hogs treated for cholera........ 48,090
Value of hogs saved..........$192,320
Sheep treated for worms....... 25
Horses treated for various
ailments ......---.......-- --......... .. 191


POULTRY
Poultry demonstrations..........
Number chickens grown........
Number turkeys grown..........
Farms under improved meth-
ods .................--------------
Number birds-..---.......--..
Number f a r m s producing
non-fertile eggs...............
HOGS


2
677
47
41
2,782
11


Purebred hogs bought............ 710
Number boars................---- 208
Value $12 each.................... $2,496
Number sows or gilts.......... 502
Value $15 each..................- $7,530
Grade sows bought.................. 643
Value $8 each...................... $5,144
Number herds started............ 321
Feeding demonstrations.......... 68
Number hogs........................ 183
Farmers keeping records........ 42
Hog pastures started.............. 158
Farmers rotating grazing
crops .............. 580
Hogs raised, improved meth-
ods .............................-- ---- 6,715
Purebred boars when work
started ..................-............... 121
Number now..................... ... 672
Percentage increase............ 555
No. hogs when work started 32,566
Number hogs now................ 68,963
Percentage increase........ 211
Value of increase................$223,813






Florida Cooperative Extension


DIPPING VATS AND SILOS Percent increase, 2d year........ i00
Vats built, agent's influence.. 74 Percent increase, 3d year........ 50
Value vats, $100 each........ $7,400 ORGANIZATION
Vats filled, agent's direction 66 Farmers' clubs organized...... 46
Solutions tested for strength 61 Total membership.............. 1,551
Estimated cattle dipped.......... 65,855
Percent increase, 1st year.... 500 LIME ROCK
Percent increase, 2d year........ 100 Farmers applying lime.......... 500
Percent increase, 3d year........ 50 Tons ground limestone used.. 5,525
Silos built this year........... 44 Cost at $2.50 a ton..............$13,812
Value silos at $200 each.... $8,800 Acres limed (approx.).......... 3,567
Percent increase, 1st year.... 500 Applied per acre, tons...... 1%

VALUE OF COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK TO FARMERS
BY INCREASED CROP PRODUCTION
Increase of corn at 90c a bushel..................................$51,572.00
Increase of silage crop at $4 a ton............................. 14,464.00
Increase of hay at $20 a ton................................ 10,320.00.
Increase of oats at 70c a bushel...----..................... 20,837.00
Increase of cowpeas and velvet beans at $20 a ton 52,350.00
Increase of Irish potatoes at $1.50 a bushel ........... 1,128.00
Increase of sweet potatoes at 60c a bushel.............. 5,994.00
Total ............................-.. ....... $ 156,665.00
BY LIVESTOCK ADDED TO FARMS OR SAVED FROM DISEASE
Purebred dairy bulls at $75 each....................... 4,875.00
Purebred dairy cows or heifers at $100 each.......... 10,700.00
Grade dairy cows brought into counties.............. 2,625.00
Purebred beef cows or heifers at $100 each............ 8,400.00
Purebred beef bulls at $100 each............................ 8,900.00
Grade cows at $50 each..................................... ....... 7,950.00
Feeding cattle at $30 each........................................ 18,000.00
Hogs saved by treatment..................................192,320.00
Boars at $12 each.............................. .. ........... 2,498.00
Sows or gilts at $15 each................................................ 7,485.00
Grade sows at $8.00 each................................ .. 5,144.00
Increased number hogs owned by cooperating
farmers valued at..............................................223,813.00

Total ....................... ..... ..... .. .. 492,710.00
BY IMPROVEMENTS TO FARMS
Cost of stum ping.................................... ....................103,320.00
Value of improved implements and tools............. 10,410.00
Value silos at $200 each............... .................................... 8,800.00
Value dipping vats at $100 each-........ ...................... 7,400.00

Total .................................. .....129,930.00
BY FERTILIZER OR MANURE APPLIED
Value fertilizer bought cooperatively.--.................... 74,923.00
Amount saved to farmers.............................................. 13,628.00
Value manure at $3 a ton..........- -.................... ..1,644,630.00
Value ground limestone applied at $2.50 a ton.......... 13,812.00

Total ....................................... .... 1,746,993.00
Grand Total of Values......................................................... ...... ........$2,526,298.00






Annual Report, 1916


NEGRO WORK
The cooperative demonstration work for negroes has been
conducted under two divisions, the farm and home makers clubs
and demonstration work for negro farmers. As the Agricul-
tural and Mechanical College for Negroes is located at Talla-
hassee, headquarters for both divisions of the negro work have
been maintained in that institution. Both of these branches
are under the direct supervision of the extension division of
the University of Florida and weekly reports are made to the
state agent.
The farm demonstration work for negroes is conducted in
Leon county, under the supervision of a local agent. His work
has been similar to that conducted by county agents and his
report shows that practically all the crops used by the county
agents for demonstrations have been taken up in Leon county
by the local agent. This agent gives four days' time to farm
demonstrations and two days to the A. & M. College.
REPORTS
A report for the year's work shows that demonstration work
for negroes has been conducted with corn, cotton, tobacco, sweet
potatoes, oats, peanuts, velvet beans, cowpeas and a few small
plots of alfalfa and kudzu. In all, approximately one hundred
and fifty demonstrators were enlisted, with about one-half that
number reporting. These reports indicate that the average
yields are an increase over the usual productions, due largely
to the better farming methods, such as soil preparation, seed
selection, proper cultivation and harvesting.
This agent reports some difficulty in carrying out the plan
as fully as is desired, because most of the farmers with whom
he works are tenants, working on a share basis with landlords,
and must follow the landlord's instructions.
In livestock, the report indicates that an effort has been made
to increase the .value of hogs owned by negro farmers. Six
purebred breeding hogs have been purchased and the agent
has arranged with the Florida A. & M. College for negro farm-
ers to cross their sows with the pureblood boars owned by that
institution. Some fifty farmers have taken advantage of the
opportunity.
Considerable work also has been done in the control of hog
cholera. The local agent has administered the serum and has
instructed farmers in the sanitary methods for keeping their
hogs healthy. He has given instruction on rotation of pastures






Florida Cooperative Extension


for hogs and has provided the necessary feeds so that they may
keep a larger number than usual.
The work in dairying has been undertaken largely with the
object of inducing farmers to use the purebred dairy sires
owned by the A. & M. College and the keeping of better dairy
cattle and providing feed for them has been advocated.
This local agent has advocated the building of silos wherever
negro farmers can use them economically. One is constructed
on the A. & M. College grounds and three have been built in
the county at the instigation of the county agent. An effort
is being made to have every interested farmer inspect these
silos to determine the advantages.
SHORT COURSES
The A. & M. College, Tallahassee, held a short course for
negro farmers. The local agent and the agent for home makers
clubs assisted in this short course and were able to induce co-
operating farmers to bring in farm exhibits and livestock,
which gave a creditable farm display from negro farmers.
An appropriate program was arranged, in which the state,
district and boys' club agents gave lectures. During this short
course, and in the regular work of the local agent, twenty-seven
hundred agricultural bulletins were distributed among the
farmers of Leon and adjoining counties.
During the year this local agent traveled approximately 4,400
miles, conducted twelve field meetings, with a total attendance
of 2,000, lectured in county schools to a total attendance of
170, and assisted in demonstrations and contests arranged by
the agent in home makers clubs.
The following enrollment in negro boys' and girls' clubs is
reported from Leon county: Corn clubs, 22; tomato clubs, 18;
poultry clubs, 20; pig clubs, 14.
Farm and home makers clubs for the purpose of teaching
practical agriculture and home economics to negro boys and
girls was begun this year. The managing agent of this work
has his headquarters at the Agricultural and Mechanical College
for Negroes, Tallahassee, but works directly under supervision
of the extension division of the University of Florida.
The work has been assigned to seven counties, as it seemed
advisable to get the work well established in a few counties
before attempting to cover a large territory. These counties
were Leon, Gadsden, Jackson, Jefferson, Washington, Alachua
and Marion.






Annual' Report, 1916


The plan of work in negro boys' clubs is to have each member
select and cultivate one acre, half of it is planted to corn, one-
fourth to peanuts, and one-fourth to sweet potatoes. Systematic
records of the work are kept and at the end of the season
the managing agent collects and tabulates these reports. The
report forms, badges, and emblems are different from those used
by the white boys in the agricultural club work. This organ-
ization for the negro boys is known as the farm makers club.
The plan of work among negro girls is to have each one
grow one-tenth acre in vegetables, usually tomatoes. They are
also given instructions in canning and preserving and in
housekeeping. Their report forms, badges and emblems are
different from those used by the white canning club girls.
This organization for negro girls is known as the home makers
club.
Four hundred boys and girls were enrolled in the farm and
home makers clubs this year and reports were collected from
196.
Meetings and demonstrations were held for the purpose of
teaching the negro people the general methods and purposes of
the work. The results show that a good start has been made.
As the work grows, the boys will be instructed in raising
pigs and the girls in raising poultry, but until they become
familiar with the work as outlined, they will not take up new
lines.
Assistant agents have been appointed for the coming year
in each county where the farm and home makers clubs have
been organized. The work will continue to be organized
thru the negro schools, and a greater effort will be made
to have the teachers fully acquainted with the general plans
in order to secure their cooperation. The assistant agents are
teachers whose schools will close the first of March, 1917,
when they will assume their duties and continue during the
spring and summer, devoting all their time to the farm and
home makers clubs.
There is a great need for training of this kind among the
negro people. It will enable many of the boys to become
familiar with the better methods of producing farm crops.
It will teach the girls how to grow garden crops, raise poultry
and learn the fundamentals of household work.
Respectfully,
C. K. McQUARRIE,
State Agent.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT FOR EAST AND SOUTH
FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent
for East and South Florida for the fiscal year ending June
30, 1916.
The farmers' cooperative demonstration work in the district
of East and South Florida has been conducted in eighteen
counties during the past year. The work, with two exceptions,
has progressed, without serious interruption. The work in
Alachua county was without an agent from November 15, 1915,
until April 1, due to the agent's resignation, which seriously inter-
fered with the demonstration work in spring crops and in
the preparation for the season's planting. Consequently no
demonstrations in spring planted crops were possible and the
work was more or less unorganized. The Alachua county
agent again resigned November 1, leaving the work unfinished.
The accomplishments were only of a general nature, chiefly
the treatment of hogs with serum against cholera, and general
advisory work among farmers. A good part of the agent's
time was also taken up with plans for the Alachua county
fair, consequently many essentials were neglected.
In St. Lucie county the agent began work January 1 and
resigned after six months. This was the first year's work in
the county, therefore every phase of it was new. At the end
of this period the agent was just beginning to become estab-
lished and to get some demonstration work well in line. Leav-
ing the work at this period without an agent for three suc-
cessive months had a demoralizing effect that interfered se-
riously with the entire year's work. However, a new agent
was appointed October 1, who took up the work started by the
former agent and was able to make some progress even after
this interruption. In this county, the main agricultural in-
come was from the pineapple crop, where there are many new
people and a variety of agricultural problems.
In all the counties there has been steady progress from the
first, and at the close of the year an increased interest was
manifested when reappointments and appropriations for the'
coming year were necessary.
During the year, the district agent was able to make 105
official visits to the county agents in his district, spending
an average of one and three-fourths days at each visit. The






Annual Report, 1916


newer agents received more attention than did those of longer
experience in the work. It was possible to visit 237 farmers
accompanied by county agents. These farmers were repre-
sentatives of their communities and counties, and I was able
to see average conditions and to give the greatest assistance to
the county agent for his general work.
The enlargement of the work in each county and its intro-
duction into new counties has brought the agents face to face
with some definite problems that will require some time to
systematize from the demonstration standpoint.
CHARACTER OF THE WORK BY COUNTY AGENTS
The general diversification, particularly of staple crops, has
been urged by every county agent, also diversification of truck
and fruit crops wherever it is practicable. Most of the county
agents have been able to satisfy the demands of the farmers
and to meet the situation in a good way. Interest in staple
farm crops is not difficult to arouse among most of the pro-
gressive land owners, and business interests; but a large num-
ber of farmers, truckers and grove owners operate on such
a small scale and are so dependent on immediate returns from
their crops that their acreage is not sufficient to warrant the
equipment required to diversify farm crops or to undertake
livestock production to any appreciable extent. Many are
without means to clear land and buy the necessary improve-
ments and equipment to develop their farm operations even on
a reasonable scale. Where corn and forage crops are grown
by such farmers they must necessarily follow winter truck
crops and on a small acreage. These growers are urged to
follow winter crops with corn, sorghum, velvet beans, and
hay crops and some of the best yields in Florida have been
grown under such conditions. The agents' work has had
quite a marked effect on this and more farmers are planting
staple crops after winter truck than heretofore, and increased
acreages of corn are being grown in all of the doubtful corn
counties due largely to the county agents' influence.
The corn crop of this district shows a great increase. Farm-
ers are able to harvest twenty-five to forty bushels an acre on
lands that formerly produced fifteen bushels or less. This in-
crease is got largely thru better preparation of the soil and the
addition of vegetable matter to it, which has given a larger
average yield at a lower cost a bushel. Consequently good corn
is being produced at a profit on most of the demonstration plots.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The county agents have been more successful in getting farm-
ers and truckers to plant velvet beans than any other legume
crop. The shorter season varieties, which are less subject to
the attacks of insects and which can be removed from the land
in time to prepare for winter crops, fit into the system of crop-
ping and can be grown at comparatively small expense with a
far greater degree of certainty. The importance of a summer
crop to follow a spring crop has become more generally recog-
nized by farmers who follow the advice of the county agents.
Cowpeas and beggarweed also are more extensively grown.
Oats proved quite unsatisfactory last year in nearly every
county, due largely to the continued drought during March and
April. Consequently, oats are considered doubtful both by
agents and farmers and are recommended only as a winter
cover crop or pasture crop.
Rotations in pasture crops for hogs proved satisfactory in
the work of most of the county agents. The increased interest
in hog raising has brought pasture crops more forcibly to the
attention of the farmers. Pasture crops are also planted for
cattle which assists materially in cutting down the feed bill for
dairy herds, or it provides quick pastures for young stock that
would otherwise be pastured on the range and become badly
infested with cattle ticks.
Ensilage crops, chiefly corn, Japanese cane and sorghum,
have increased in acreage and importance in proportion to the
other improvements and the number of silos in use.
DEMONSTRATIONS IN TRUCK AND VEGETABLE CROPS
Demonstration work in vegetable crops has been chiefly con-
fined to the control of insects and diseases. A new and import-
ant project was introduced into Seminole county, at the sug-
gestion of the entomologist of the Florida Experiment Station,
that promises much for that section. The presence of root-
knot in celery and lettuce beds has been a serious problem for
many years. In two cases where demonstration work was
carried out, the plant beds had become so thoroly infested
with nematodes that more than fifty percent of the plants
were either killed or weakened so as to make them useless, and
the remainder were so badly infested that their growth was
slow and many required resetting, thus making the cost of
planting very expensive and the probability of getting a profit-
able crop quite uncertain. The treatment recommended for
the control of this insect is sodium cyanamid, applied to the





Annual Report, 1916


soil before the seeds are planted. If this remedy continues to
prove as satisfactory as it has this past season, it will save the
growers many thousands of dollars annually. The county
agent is one of the most successful growers and realizes the im-
portance of this, consequently, he is able to undertake the work
in a systematic way and bring many growers to him for sug-
gestions along other lines.
Other demonstrations for the control of aphids in water-
melons, cucumbers, and eggplant; worms in tomatoes; bordeaux
spray for Irish potato blight; fungus diseases of tomatoes,
celery, and eggplant; and the proper rotation of crops to pre-
vent bacterial diseases of tomatoes and eggplant, were con-
ducted. In the vegetable growing areas of South Florida much
of the county agents' time was taken up with advising truck
growers on the best methods of planting, fertilizing, cultivating
and packing for market.
SUMMER CROPS TO FOLLOW WINTER VEGETABLES
Wherever practicable, county agents have urged the growing
of summer feed crops on the highly fertilized truck lands to
take up the waste of worthless crops. In the Sanford area the
county demonstration agent has been able to arouse interest in
the erection of silos, these to be filled with corn that follows
the winter truck crops. Heretofore, the production of corn on
these lands has not been considered very profitable altho it was
generally practiced. The need of stable fertilizer for that sec-
tion is quite apparent, consequently, the use of silage for fat-
tening steers would mean profit from the sale of cattle and the
additional profit from the stable manure. This stable manure
is generally sold at $6 or $7 a ton in that section.
DEMONSTRATIONS IN CITRUS GROVES
In the citrus growing counties the agents are endeavoring to
improve the grade and quantity of fruit by systematic spraying
and pruning. Whitefly, scale and rust mites are the chief in-
sect pests; citrus scab, withertip, and melanose, the principal
fungus diseases.
When groves are placed under the supervision of the agent
a survey of the needs of the grove is made and definite plans
are outlined for a full season's spraying, to be modified accord-
ing to the variations caused by the weather or other influences.
to the variations caused by the weather or other influences.
Many groves are sprayed only once or twice a year to overcome






Florida Cooperative Extension


a single pest. The county agent is able to advise the best spray
and the best time to make the application. Foot-rot, gummosis,
etc., on trees are treated; budding, culture, and fertilization re-
ceive attention from the county agent.
Keeping tree records for the purpose of locating unprofitable
trees in the citrus groves was undertaken by the agent in
Osceola county. Two year records from one grove are avail-
able. Trees are numbered and the yield of every tree recorded.
LANDSCAPE WORK IN SCHOOLS
In Lake county the school board has sought the cooperation
of the county agent in laying out the school grounds with
concrete walks and planting shrubbery and trees to improve
the school property. This opens a useful field of service for
county agents who are qualified for such service.

DEMONSTRATION WORK IN PINEAPPLE CULTURE
Demonstration work in pineapple culture is confined to St.
Lucie county. During the last five years unsatisfactory yields,
due apparently to many causes, have been rapidly reducing the
pineapple acreage. After a survey of the situation, and con-
sultation with the best growers, the plant pathologist and en-
tomologist of the Experiment Station, the state, district and
county agents, mapped out a plan for the direction of the grow-
ers of pineapples. The county agent was advised to make the
following recommendations:
(a) The application of cyanamid to the soil before setting
the plants, to control root-knot.
(b) Modification in general planting and cultivation.
(c) Variation in the application of fertilizers.
(d) Turning under old vegetable plants to add organic mat-
ter to the soil before resetting the old fields.
(e) Selection of slips from healthy fields.
As it requires two seasons to produce a crop after planting,
it will be two years before definite results can be observed. If
by improved methods the pineapple soils of the East coast can
be brought back into profitable bearing it will re-establish the
pineapple industry that formerly provided the most important
money crop in St. Lucie county. Pineapple lands are usually
unsuited to general farming and trucking, or to citrus culture.
It is therefore very desirable that they should be brought back
to successful pineapple culture if possible.






Annual Report, 1916


FAIRS
The county and district agents have assisted in judging the
exhibits at county fairs. The agents of Duval, Clay, and
Alachua, had complete management of the fairs in their re-
spective counties; those of Lake and Osceola assumed complete
charge of the county exhibits at the Orlando and Tampa fairs.
This has added considerably to the ordinary duties of these
agents, nevertheless it has strengthened the agent in his work
and has stimulated interest and support from influential citizens.
Other county agents assisted in judging and in securing and
planning exhibits, and cooperated in every way that would stim-
ulate interest and promote agricultural development.

LIVESTOCK
There is a persistent demand on all agents to stimulate the
production of better livestock. The most effective work has
been in the distribution of purebred hogs thru the pig clubs,
control of hog cholera and parasites thru the use of serum and
sanitary methods of handling hogs; introduction of purebred
and grade breeding cattle; building of dipping vats, planting
pastures and food crops and the erection of silos.
FINANCIAL SUPPORT FROM COUNTIES
The appropriations from the county sources have made sub-
stantial increase each year. For the coming year six counties
appropriated the same amount as for the previous year; eleven
increased their appropriations; one reduced the appropriation;
and six made appropriations for the first time. The total ap-
propriations from the county sources are $24,450; average to
the county for 1916-17, $1,014.66, against an average of $790
for 1915-16.
All of the supplementary funds, with two exceptions, have
been appropriated by county commissioners when part of the
expenses of the county agents have been borne by boards of
trade. In several counties the total of one-half mill (maximum
permitted by law) was appropriated by the county commis-
sioners for the agricultural development. The part that was
not used for county agents' work was used for building dipping
vats, providing scholarships for agricultural students, prizes
for club work or support of the home demonstration work,
practically all of which was due to the influence of the county
agent.
f.c.e.-3






Florida Cooperative Extension


FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS
The county agents have made an effort to organize farmers'
clubs and cooperative organizations in almost every county.
Such organizations have been difficult to effect or to hold after
organization. Some have organized chiefly for cooperative mar-
keting of truck crops; these have been effective in securing
better prices by enabling truckers to ship collectively in carlots,
and reach a wider range of markets. Of these the most effective
has been the Lee county truckers' association, the agent being
one of the chief beneficiaries. Most of the truckers in Lee
county are trucking on a small acreage, growing early eggplant,
peppers and tomatoes and following them with winter Irish
potatoes. This association turns over its entire output to a
responsible commission firm on a commission basis who diverts
their products according to market demands. All shipments
are pooled. They are also enabled to purchase seed, insecticides,
fungicides, and part of their fertilizers, collectively, which not
only reduces the cost of materials, freight rates, etc., but se-
cures supplies well in advance of the time actually needed. This
organization has eighty percent of the truckers of the county
in its membership.
In Marion county an effort was made to establish a single
breed of hogs in the county. After a conference with the bank-
ers who loaned the money for the project, Hampshires were
selected, chiefly for the pig club boys. However, of the two
carloads of breeding stock purchased, about twenty were
bought by farmers.
Lake county has an organization known as the Lake county
chamber of commerce. It is organized for the general agricul-
tural development of the county, in which the agent takes an
active part. Thru the influence of the county board of trade,
the commissioners were induced to levy a half-mill to be used
for agricultural development and this money was turned over
to the board for expenditure. The plan submitted by this
board of trade is working toward tick eradication, encourage-
ment of dairies, erection of silos, distribution of purebred
breeding hogs, and the standardization and marketing of Natal
hay.
HOG CHOLERA
Hog cholera control still occupies an important part in all
the county agents' work. In the northern counties it takes
more time than any other single problem. The effects, how-





Annual Report, 1916


ever, from the past educational work are now quite appreciable
in that practically every hog raiser depends largely on the use
of hog cholera serum to prevent the spread of the disease. He
has also learned the importance of better sanitary methods so
that bad or negative results are seldom reported following the
use of serum. The losses of good hogs has been materially
reduced. The county agents are recognized as experts in hog
cholera control.
Virus has been used by many of the county agents with re-
markably good results. Explicit instructions given to the
county agents have been carefully followed and every precau-
tion taken to avoid errors.
When the free serum supply was exhausted it seemed prob-
able that the call on the agents to vaccinate would diminish but
on the contrary there has been no appreciable change in the
demand for their services in hog cholera control.

DIPPING VATS
Considerable progress has been made in the construction of
dipping vats in the entire district, but as the general super-
vision of all tick eradication work is directed from the Bureau
of Animal Industry, the agents have not attempted systematic
tick eradication. Thru their influence, however, dipping vats
have been built in nearly every county. The agents are called
upon to pick out a location for the vat and supervise its con-
struction, secure materials for making the dip, and fill the vat
for the first time to see that it is properly done.
Respectfully,
A. P. SPENCER,
District Agent.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH AND
WEST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for
North and West Florida for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916.
The severe tropical storm beginning July 5 and followed by a
period of excessive rainfall was very destructive to all crops in
West Florida. Agricultural interests were demoralized and at
that time the outlook for results in the year's work in those
counties was far from encouraging. However, all agencies
united to overcome the damage as far as possible. Seed fur-
nished by the U. S. Department of Agriculture was distributed
thru this territory by county agents. Farmers were urged to
use this and any other seed obtainable to replant the drowned
out lands. These late planted crops, consisting mostly of for-
age crops, helped very materially toward making up for the
shortage of those damaged by the storm. Demonstration plots
in most crops were badly cut up and many were abandoned.
COTTON
The cotton crop suffered from the wet weather conditions
and conditions that followed' probably more than any other
crop with which demonstrations were being conducted. The
rainfall was heaviest thru that portion of the district west of
the Apalachicola River. This was also the territory having the
heaviest infestation of boll weevils, the river being the eastern
boundary of the area having had the weevil two years or more.
Until the early part of July the outlook for the cotton. crop in
this territory was good. The farmers as a rule had learned
the methods necessary to make cotton in spite of the weevil and
were putting these methods into practice. The excessive and
continued rainfall caused the almost total shedding of squares
and bolls on the plants at the time. This wet weather, which
was so unfavorable for cotton, furnished almost ideal condi-
tions for the multiplication of boll weevils, so that when
weather conditions again became favorable and the cotton
plants began to put on new fruit, the weevils were present in
large enough numbers to puncture nearly all the squares set.
VELVET BEANS
The velvet bean has, for a number of years, been recognized
as a valuable crop for Florida, both as a soil builder and as a
forage crop. Within the .last few years the bean as a grain
feed has been coming more and more into prominence.






Annual Report, 1916


In a number of towns in West Florida feed mills have been
installed for the purpose of making mixed feed of velvet beans,
corn, and other products. Mixtures of equal parts by weight
of velvet beans in the pod and corn in the shuck ground to-
gether make an excellent feed for horses and cattle. This is
being sold to the trade from the mills, which indicates the be-
ginning of an important industry to take the place of cotton
growing. Large quantities of beans are fed whole, on farms
or in feed lots, in the pods either dry or after soaking for a
half day, and there is an increasing demand for such feed.
Thus, the bean is coming to be a staple article and farmers
bringing wagon loads to town find a ready market on the street.
County agents have done effective work both in getting an
increased acreage of velvet beans grown and in getting a
better utilization of the crop. Farmers are shown that they
get much better returns from their beans and vines and avoid
the usual waste when their large fields are divided by cross
fences so that the livestock are required to clean up one portion
of the field before being turned into another. Thru coopera-
tion with the Experiment Station a number of new promising
varieties are being distributed.
LIVESTOCK
Quite a large part of the activities of all county agents has
to do with fostering the production of more and better livestock.
The need of such work is very evident. Three factors are
materially aiding the agent in this work. These are: The
continued spread of the boll weevil; the ready sale for hogs
and cattle, due largely to the establishment of nearby packing-
plants; and the good prices being obtained for all classes of
livestock.
The work of the agents for the improvement in livestock pro-
duction includes the introduction of better blood by the use of
purebred males, the production of larger supplies of feed, and
the control of diseases.
HOGS
The demonstration work with pig clubs is aiding in the im-
provement of hogs. Agents have arranged for parties of
farmers to visit packing-houses where the different classes and
grades of hogs are being marketed. As this method of market-
ing is new to most farmers these visits are helpful; they em-
phasize the importance of good stock and proper feeding to
meet market demands. Due to the agents' influence, several
groups of farmers have sold their hogs cooperatively, enabling






Florida Cooperative Extension


those having less than a car-lot to load together and obtain a
carload of marketable hogs on the same day, and the county
agent arranges for buyers to purchase them at tMie shipping
point.
HOG CHOLERA
All agents give a good part of their time to the control of
hog cholera. Thru the assistance of the hog cholera specialist
they have full instructions and information on diagnosis of the
disease, and the use of serum and virus has consequently added
materially to the value of the herds in the district by preventing
or controlling hog cholera outbreaks. Farmers are instructed
in the use of the serum and are shown the advantage of equip-
ping themselves with outfits for administering it. The agent,
frequently having other engagements, is prevented from getting
to an outbreak as quickly as may be necessary to avoid the loss
of a good part of the herd, whereas, if the farmer has the outfit
he can administer the treatment promptly and avoid unneces-
sary losses.
DIPPING VATS
Demonstration agents are working with other forces in the
educational campaign leading to the eradication of the cattle
tick. This work has consisted in pointing out and explaining
the loss caused by the tick, also in giving aid in the construction
of dipping vats. Most of the dipping vats constructed under
agents' supervision this year are community vats. By means
of such vats some of the most effective tick eradication educa-
tional work is accomplished. The cattle owners in a community,
or within a radius of a few miles, join in constructing a central
vat, each one contributing either money or labor. Such citizens
thus feel that the vat belongs to them, they use it freely and
take pride in telling others of the merits of dipping cattle. The
sentiment thus created is much more wholesome than that which
sometimes follows the installation of a county or public vat
before the necessary educational work has been done. In the
latter case, the cattle owners sometimes resent the seemingly
outside interference into personal matters.
I have traveled 18,243 miles by rail and 2,890 miles by auto-
mobile, making a total number of'miles traveled 21,133. I have
attended 69 meetings, with a total attendance of 4,497. I have
paid 95 visits to agents and 112 visits to farmers.
Respectfully,
E. S. PACE,
District Agent.






Annual Report, 1916


REPORT OF THE BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the boys' agricultural
club agent for the year ending December 31, 1916.
The boys' corn club work extended into 41 counties with a
total membership of 1,191. Reports were, collected from 450
boys and the average yield to the acre was 42.1 bushels. The
corn was produced at a cost of 38 cents a bushel, or $15.99 an
acre. Rating it at 90 cents a bushel, the average net profit an
acre was $21.90. The total net profit from the 450 acres was
$9,850.00.
Several demonstrations created much interest in the commu-
nities where they were conducted. The highest yield was 119.6
bushels, produced at a cost of 26 cents a bushel. This was on
a fine sandy loam soil in Nassau county. The land was well
prepared, good seed corn was used and intelligent methods of
fertilizing and cultivating practiced.
The second best yield was 115 bushels, produced in Marion
county. This was on a muck soil, and naturally very, produc-
tive. No fertilizer was used, and the corn cost only 13 cents a
bushel.
A third best yield of 100.6 bushels was obtained in Hernando
county. This corn cost 31 cents a bushel. The land was a


Fig. 8.-Twelve boys at the short course who made more than
75 bushels of corn an acre.






40 Florida Cooperative Extension

dark sandy loam. The work on these three acres is mentioned
because yields of 100 bushels are seldom produced.
The following table gives details of the corn club work in
counties from which reports were obtained:

SUMMARY CORN CLUB WORK




COUNTY "
a): Oi MW 3Incu 5 5



Hillsboro .................... 40 43.33 $0.31 97.50 $0.15
Hernando ................... 37 50.00 .33 100.60 .31
Madison ...................... 34 42.20 .28 96.85 .17
Nassau ........................ 30 50.84 .33 119.60 .26
Marion ........................ 28 34.07 .37 115.00 .13
Polk .............................. 25 48.08 .32 82.00 .13
Washington ................ 20 43.43 .43 87.30 .45
Suwannee .................... 18 27.03 .65 52.04 .52
Taylor ........................ 16 32.90 .35 85.00 .14
Citrus .......................... 16 39.73 .44 75.49 .27
Sumter ........................ 15 54.83 .34 94.50 .24
Liberty ........................ 15 42.42 .36 57.35 .26
Putnam ........................ 14 39.30 .32 77.14 .16
St. Johns .................... 12 43.90 .34 71.00 .27
Clay .............................. 12 42.81 .37 71.00 .20
Escambia .................... 12 28.87 .52 72.85 .17
Duval .......................... 11 46.84 .52 88.00 .33
Leon ............................ 11 37.05 .32 63.25 .16
Holmes ........................ 11 30.20 .46 55.20 .27
Hamilton .................... 8 50.43 .43 72.00 .38
W alton ......-................. 8 45.30 .44 85.00 .35
W akulla ...................... 8 24.00 .49 36.00 .37
Jefferson ...................... 7 50.89 .36 81.00 .41
Calhoun ...................... 5 42.12 .27 76.10 .16
Pasco .......................... 5 35.94 .40 58.00 .26
DeSoto ........................ 5 32.50 .43 41.80 .42
Osceola ........................ 5 29.47 .59 40.00 .73
Volusia ........................ 4 51.80 .39 79.50 .27
Baker .......................... 4 45.64 .35 52.75 .33
Lake ............................ 4 40.04 .46 84.84 .23
Bradford .................... 2 65.17 .23 80.35 .16
Jackson ........................ 2 45.11 .34 46.22 .38
Columbia ...........-...... 2 31.85 .30 45.70 .21
Orange ........................ 1 42.07 .67 42.97 .67
Brevard ...................... 1 31.00 .75 31.00 .75

The club members realize the value of good seed corn, and 52
percent of the reports indicate that improved varieties were
used. The exhibits at the county contests and fairs show that
much progress has been made in selecting better corn for plant-
ing and for show purposes. Some have selected seed in the
field and -sold it for good prices.






Annual Report, 1916


Fig. 9.-Prize-winning exhibit in Marion county corn club contest.
We advise the planting of cowpeas or some other legume with
the corn for the purpose of building up the soil and furnishing
feed for livestock. More boys followed the instructions than
ever before. Valuable demonstrations in fall breaking and
planting winter cover crops have been conducted by club mem-
bers.
A few boys had adopted a two-year system of crop rotation.
While one acre was in corn this year another acre was being
prepared for a better crop of corn next year. Velvet beans
and cowpeas were grown and turned under in the fall. Oats or
rye was then sowed and used for winter pastures. In the
following spring when the winter crop is turned under the land
will be in ideal condition for a good crop of corn. The good
results of the club work are due to these painstaking efforts of
some of our most intelligent farmer boys.
THE PIG CLUB WORK
The plan of the boys' club work is to broaden and instruct
boys along all lines of farming activities. The pig clubs were
taken up as a new feature this year. Three hundred and thirty-
six boys have raised pigs. The general plan is for club mem-
bers to purchase purebred pigs about three months old and
care for them according to the rules of the club and under the
personal instruction of the county agents. The results of the
first year's work are even better than we had expected.
One hundred and two pigs were exhibited at county contests
and fairs and accurate reports were secured. They made an
average daily gain of three quarters of a pound, costing 4.7
cents a pound. This does not include the cost of labor. It was
not advisable in some counties to have the pigs exhibited, owing
to the danger from cholera and injury in transit.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 10.-Crop rotation. Velvet beans and cowpeas in foreground. Corn
club acre in background. Nassau county.

The pig club work in Suwannee county was quite successful.
Thirteen Poland Chinas made an average gain of 1.04 pounds
a day, at a cost of four and one-third cents a pound. Ten
Durocs made an average daily gain of 1.24 pounds and the
cost of production was four and one-third cents a pound. The
pigs were purchased when about three months old and had been
cared for five months when the records were compiled.
In Marion county 23 boys purchased bred gilts at a cost of
$40 each. These gilts farrowed an average of six pigs, and
all could have been sold at weaning time. If they had all been
sold at the average price paid for those that were sold, the net
profit over the cost of the sow and all other expenses would
have been $21.30 for each boy.
Hillsboro and Hernando were among the leading counties in
the pig club work. Other successful counties were Duval, Es-
cambia and Broward. The following table gives details of the
work in counties from which reports were obtained:

SOME PIG CLUB RESULTS


0 "a
Z I aS Cs
a U E-

Number of Pigs................ 30 9 2 23 8 24 6 102
Average daily gains, lbs. .66 .57 .58 1.24 .65 .65 .70 1 .75
Average cost per lb., cts. 4.1 8.6 6 4.3 4 4.5 5.1 4.7






Annual Report, 1916


It was not an easy matter to find pigs enough in the State to
supply the demand. The number of pigs of the different breeds
used are as follows: Durocs 182, Poland Chinas 38, Berkshires
35, Hampshires 33, Yorkshires 3, Tamworths 3, and grade
Berkshires 42.
The county agents have given very careful attention to the
pig club work. They assist the boys in making up balanced
rations, and require them to provide pastures or green feeds.
The pigs are kept free from lice and precautions are taken to
avoid the spread of contagious diseases.
We are fortunate in having the cooperation of the bankers
thruout the State. Any boy who complies with the rules can
borrow money from his local banker for a year and a half at
six percent interest and purchase a well-bred pig. This gives
time to carry it to maturity, raise a litter of pigs and sell
enough to pay the note by the time it is due. This plan affords
opportunities for many boys to join the pig club who would be
unable to do so otherwise. The following form is used as a
contract between the banker and club member:

,COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK
in
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
State of Florida
AGREEMENT BETWEEN MEMBERS OF THE PIG CLUB
AND.................................................................TRUSTEE.
-........................ ............. ......191.........
This is to certify that................................. ..has joined the
Pig Club in.....................................County, and has agreed to follow the
advice and instructions of the County Demonstration Agent with respect to
the care of one pig which has been purchased by..................... ............... .....as
Trustee for certain banks in.................................... ..................
If the club member fails to follow the instructions of the County Dem-
onstration Agent or neglects the pig in any way that will impair proper
growth and development, the County Agent may take the pig and dispose
of it in the best way to refund the banks.
In consideration of the confidence placed in me, I agree to pay............
................................. ..................Trustee, within 18 months from date
$................. ...... with interest at............% from date.
(Signature of club member)
This agreement, when properly signed by any club member selected by
the County Demonstration Agent, becomes an order for the amount named
therein.
............................................. ........Trustee.
BOYS' CLUB MEETINGS
One hundred and thirty-three boys' club meetings were held,
with a total estimated attendance of 9,191. This includes school






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 11.-Marion county Hampshires.
visits. In some counties regular monthly meetings were held
during the spring and summer in which the boys took an
active part. They presented papers on their work and other
subjects of interest to farmer boys.

COUNTY CONTESTS
The county contests were held in the fall. The corn club
work was judged according to the following scale: Yield 30%,
profit 30%, exhibit 20%, essay and record 20%. The rules
require that two disinterested parties measure the land and corn
and sign the boy's report. The pig club work was judged as
follows: Best pig 40%, lowest cost of production 25%, daily
gains 15%, record and essay 20%. The records were examined
and attested by two disinterested parties. By following these
rules every boy is protected and the results are accurate.
It is a custom to award prizes to the boys who make a suc-
cess of their work. The State Bankers' Association -gave as a
prize a $200 scholarship to the University. The Florida Fed-
eration of Women's Clubs gave $50 for the highest percentage
made in the corn club. The Florida East Coast Railroad gave
16 scholarships to the boys' short course in agriculture. Man-
dalay Farm, Middleburg, gave 28 purebred Duroc-Jersey pigs
in as many counties. Other valuable prizes in every county
were contributed by business men, railroads and county com-
missioners. The best prizes are scholarships, livestock, mer-
chandise, and implements.
BOYS' SHORT COURSE
Corn club boys have been attending the farmers' short course
in agriculture at the University heretofore, but the increased
attendance this year made it necessary to provide a separate






Annual Report, 1916


course for them. The boys' short course in agriculture was
held for one week in December when 73 successful and enthus-
iastic club members came from 31 counties. Lectures were
given every morning, and the afternoons were spent in the
laboratories of the Agricultural College and Experiment Sta-
tion studying and judging livestock. The entire meeting was
interesting and full of life. The Gainesville bankers gave the
boys a banquet the last night, and every one was given a
diploma, or certificate of honor and merit. The state prizes
were also presented at that time.
The boys' club agent made 122 visits to county agents and
gave much time to counties that have no agents. Three hun-
dred and eighty-three farms were visited. The distance trav-
eled by rail was 16,765 miles, by automobile and team 2,884
miles.
miles. Respectfully,
G. L. HERRINGTON,
Boys' Club Agent.


Fig. 12.-Boys who attended the short course in agriculture at the University.






Florida Cooperative Extension


MAPo FLORIDA
M indicates counties
having Cooperative
Home Demonstration
Work during the fiscal
year ending June30,1916.


Fig. 13.-Map of Florida showing counties employing home demonstration agents.
Total Square Miles in Florida................. ......... .......... 54,861
Total Square Miles in 32 Counties that have Home Demonstration
Work during the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1917.............. 40,522
State of Florida Distance, North and South ............................. 402
State of Florida Distance, East and West................................. 383
Canning Clubs for Girls........................................ 422
Home Demonstration Clubs for Women..................... ....................... 104
Poultry and Special Clubs for Women and Girls.......................... 85






Annual Report, 1916


REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the State agent for
Home Demonstration Work for the fiscal year ending Decem-
ber 31, 1916.
During the year there were twenty-eight county home dem-
onstration agents at work, and the following is a summary of
their reports:
County Agents employed...................................... ............. '28
M iles traveled by rail.......................... ..................................... 34,128
Miles traveled by auto or team................. ....................... 61,330
Total m iles traveled.................................... ........ ........................ 95,458
Visits to club members...... .............................. ...... 7,043
Schools and plots visited....................................................... ..................... 2,539
Visits to homes..... .... ............. ......... ...... ....... .......... 6,496
Letters written ............... .................... 19,651
Bulletins distributed ........... ................ ........ ..... ...... .... 20,325
Meetings held --... ............................... ............ 2,104
Number attending meetings...................................... 49,484
Fireless cookers made................. ................... .111
Iceless refrigerators m ade................... ....... .......................................... 275
Houses screened .............................. ........................ 79
Fly traps made.................. ......................... ..................... ..... 32
Canners purchased..................................... ................ 274
W after works systems installed................. ................ ................ 16
Days worked ...................-..... ...... ................ 5,046
Demonstrations given (food, 488; canning, 758; preserving, 406).... 1,652
STAFF CHANGES
The following changes in the home demonstration staff were
made at the end of the fiscal year:
The girls' club organizer resigned because of ill health. The
extension field instructor resigned to work nearer home. Five
county agents gave up their work to marry; two were promoted
to district agent positions; one resigned to accept another po-
sition; one to take a year of study; one because the county
board failed to make the necessary appropriation; one because
of poor health; and two because they were unprepared for the
work, leaving only sixteen county agents to continue work an-
other year.
ORGANIZATION FOR THE YEAR
Due to the state elections, June 6, no definite appropriation
could be secured from counties until after that date. Between
June 6 and 24, the assistant state agent visited the county
boards of public instruction of 19 counties with which there had
been correspondence concerning the work.
As a result of. this trip, and the work done previously in the
counties, appropriations for the salaries of home demonstration






Florida Cooperative Extension


agents were made in 32
counties by July 1. This
was followed by visits
from the newly ap-
pointed district agents,
who made the appro-
priations definite, and
secured support from
one additional county
to conduct the work
without state aid. These
appropriations amount-
ed to$16,075.50. Thirty-
two county agents were
employed ;4 began work
in August; 16 on Sep-
tember 1; 7 on October
1; and 5 on January 1.
All will continue to
work thru June 30. The
average term of em-
Fig. 14.--Winter garden, January. Walton county. ployment f o r Florida
h o m e demonstration
agents is nine and two-fifths months, with an average salary of
$100 per month.
Because of the increased term of employment, well-trained
women were willing to take up this work. Seventeen are grad-
uates of college or normal schools; 9 have taken short courses
in home economics, and 7 have life or state teachers' certifi-
cates. All are well prepared for county work. Twenty of
these agents own and run their automobiles, two others are
supplied by the county board of public instruction in each
county.
It has been our constant endeavor to employ as county agents
brave, strong women who believe in home demonstration work,
who have initiative, and possess unusual ability as leaders and
organizers of rural people. Since the county agent work re-
quires traveling long distances over sandy country roads, fre-
quently during bad weather, it is the belief of those in charge
that the Florida county agents have unusual strength and have
'been most self-sacrificing in their interest and enthusiasm to
'accomplish results.






Annual Report, 1916


SUPERVISING STAFF
Beginning July 1, the position of girls' club organizer and
extension field instructor were discontinued. Two district
agents and one agent for poultry clubs were employed.
The district agents have the supervision of the work in
counties; one supervising the work of seventeen county agents
in North and West Florida, the other in charge of the sixteen
county agents in East and South Florida. The agent for poultry
clubs works thruout the state with the women and girls of the
canning clubs and home demonstration clubs. This new line of
work has come about thru a demand on county agents for as-
sistance in poultry work.
GIRLS' CLUB WORK
The girls' club work, begun in 1912, has had a substantial
growth and continues to demand much of the county agents'
time. The general plan of the work is carried out.
1. Organization of girls of the counties thru the schools,
into canning clubs.
2. Instructing the girls in the following work:
A. Selecting and planting a one-tenth acre garden to
vegetables; tomatoes for first year girls; tomatoes and
beans for second year girls; and varied crops for third
and fourth year girls.
B. Keeping a record and costs of all work done.
C. Canning, preserving and pickling surplus vegetables.
D. Entering the contest with exhibit of products, essay
of the work, record book kept thru the year, and wearing
a uniform dress, cap and apron made by the club girl.


Fig. 15.-First prize winner (center), on her strawberry
plot. Osceola county.


f.c.e.-4






50 Florida Cooperative Extension

The county agent plans the final contests, solicits premiums,
receives and awards the prizes which are voluntarily offered,
and arranges a suitable program.

FALL CONTESTS
Of the twenty-eight counties organized, well-attended contests
were held in twenty-six of them. The girls are putting up bet-
ter products and are using better containers. The exhibits
showed marked improvements over those of previous years.
Greater interest is inspired in the work, not only in the club
girls, but in all of those who attend the contests.
SUMMARY
Number Counties organized ...... ............................................................. 28
Number girls enrolled .............................. ................ 1,736
Number girls reporting................ .................................. 742
Pounds tomatoes produced on 1/10 acre gardens..............-............. 442,685
Pounds other vegetables produced on 1/10 acre gardens............... 71,248
Number cans tomatoes put up by club girls from 1/10 acre-......... 60,514
Number cans other vegetables put up by club girls from 1/10 acre 11,685
Total value club gardens............--.. .... ................$15,628.80
Expense of producing gardens.................................... ...... $ 5,932.05
Total profit from 1/10 acre gardens................................ ..........$ 9,522.88
Average profit from 1/10 acre gardens..........................................$ 14.22
Total cans vegetables and fruits put up by girls and women........ 178,954
THE HIGHEST TEN YIELDS IN POUNDS
Faith Robinson...-...... .....St. Johns County.......... ................ 5,072
Bessie Brackin....-.............Walton County........- ............. ... 4,103
Bertha Moore...................Bradford County....................................... 3,964
Cora Landrum .... ....... ....Citrus County...................:... .............. 3,928
Margaret Bell................Hernando County ................................- 3,895
Jewell Standley.....................Alachua County......................... 3,825
Junia Rodgers.........................DeSoto County.......................... 3,739
Emma Vandergrift.................St. Johns County.................................. 3,675
Ollie Long........................Jackson County............................. 3,484
Winifred Cannon..................Putnam County ................................ 3,329
Average yield ....................................... ..... .......... .. ... 3,901.4
THE HIGHEST TEN PROFITS
Emma Vandergrift..................St. Johns County................. ...............$151.16
Lillian Thompson..................Santa Rosa County-........................... ... 138.55
Bessie Brackin.........................W alton County............ ... ................ ... 115.20
Junia Rodgers.......................... DeSoto County...................................... 110.50
Margaret Bell..........-...Hernando County ............................... 94.22
Bertha Moore...................Bradford County............................... 90.52
Cora Landrum...... ....................Citrus County.............................................. 83.10
Jewell Standley .................. Alachua County............................... .... 77.90
Abbie Howell........................ W alton County......... ..... .................. 75.22
Ruby Lanz..-........................ Brevard County........................................ 68.62
Average' profit...... ..................................... .. ............................$100.50
THE HIGHEST TWO RECORDS
Cora Landrum, of Citrus county, won the state -prize of
$115, offered by the Bankers' Association to the girl who had
been in the club more than one year, and made the highest
record.






Annual Report, 1916


Fig. 16.-Family canning at home. Columbia county.

Margaret Bell, of Hernando county, won the $50 prize of-
fered by the State Federation of Women's Clubs to the first
year club girl who made the highest record. Their records
follow:
HIGHEST TWO RECORDS IN DETAIL
Cora Margaret
Landrum Bell
Number pounds tomatoes produced............................ 2860 3895
Value of other vegetables................................. $ 50.00
No. 2 cans tomatoes................... ............ 391 735
No. 3 cans tomatoes......................... .. ......... ...... .... 148....
Number jars and bottles of preserves, vegetables and
fruits ........... ........ .......................... 48 132
Cost of production.................... ..... .. ..................... 9.35 $ 8.94
Cost of canning, including cans, jars, etc......................... 21.14 39.22
Receipts from fresh vegetables.................................. 41.79 11.90
Estimated value canned vegetables................................ 57.43 59.29
Estimated value vegetables used at home................... 7.51 34.76
Total value all products................. .............. ... 106.73 126.41
Expenses ............................. ..... .................. 30.49 48.17
N et profit........... ........................ ................... 78.23 78.24
HOME CANNING
That the canning work begun by the county agents in 1912
has been of great value to the state was plainly shown this
year. There are now 2,000 or more home canners in use, and
county agents report that the consumption of home-caiih ed
-






Florida Cooperative Extension


products in farm homes has been greatly increased and they
now form an important part of the diet.
One of our 1912 club girls who stayed in the work for three
years, supervised the construction and management of a can-
ning factory in Manatee county, where canning was success-
fully done.
The Manatee county agent reports that more than 36,000
cans were filled by her club girls and their families. One firm
in Hillsboro county sold 200,000 containers and estimates that
60,000 of these were sold to farmers in that county.
The local demand for these home-canned products is greater
than the supply, each girl disposing of her surplus readily;
consequently no definite work toward marketing has been nec-
essary.
PRESERVING
The making of fancy preserves and jellies for home use only
has been carried on by many of the club girls. In a number
of counties, county agents are giving very definite help by
assisting factories in the manufacture of preserves and jellies
from Florida products, and a number of women working under
the supervision of the county agents are selling fancy products
made from Florida fruits.


Fig. 17.-Suggested equipment for farm kitchen. Escambia county fair.







Annual Report, 1916


WOMEN'S WORK
The organization of home demonstration clubs for the
women was undertaken by the county agents in January.
Four communities were selected in each county where the
agent organized the women into home demonstration clubs to
receive instruction in poultry raising, the making of household
conveniences, the study of nutrition and home improvements.
As a result of this work, many clubs were organized among
women, and meetings were held regularly thruout the year.
At the agents' meeting in Gainesville in October, a suggested
form of constitution and by-laws was adopted for Florida, also
a minute book in which the records of attendance, minutes,
etc., can be kept.
The following list of subjects were suggested for study by
the clubs:
1. Organization 9. Poultry
2. Nutrition 10. Home Dressmaking
3. Breads 11. Canning and Pickling.
4. Care of Infants 12. Laundry: Cleaning of Clothing
5. Household Sanitation and Household Linen
6. Household Equipment 13. Preserves, Jellies and Marma-
7. Home Gardening lades
8. Butter Making 14. Home Work and Play
State and United States bulletins were furnished by the
state office for further study by club members.
There are now 104 home demonstration clubs holding reg-
ular monthly meetings, under the direction of the county
agents. The following history of one club indicates the kind
of work being done:
"HISTORY OF THE 5-H CLUB OF HOMESTEAD, FLORIDA
"In Homestead, as well as in all other fruit packing and shipping
centers (every year during the packing season from November to May),
load after load of fruit, especially tomatoes, are hauled off and thrown
away. It required only a second visit to the packing house, where I found
so much beautiful, fine fruit culled out, to impress upon me that so great
a loss could easily be converted into a big gain to the community.
So it was that we met, seven in number, at the Homestead school
house Saturday afternoon, March 11, 1916, to can tomatoes and to organize
a permanent Home Economics Club.
"At first a Treasurer was not thought necessary, since there were to be
no dues, but with the canning finances, one became necessary, so at the
next meeting, a treasurer was elected.
Upon suggestion from our county agent, membership was limited to
fifteen, simply for lack of more space in the high school domestic science
room, to which the trustees gave us the key every second Saturday after-
noon of each month.
"At the second meeting in April, the list of members was complete, and
eight new names enrolled. The name adopted was 5-H Club, correspond-
ing to the 4-H club for girls, with an extra H to represent the home.
This name naturally aroused some curiosity, and with an enthusiastic
membership, the county agent to help and direct us, it was not long until







Florida Cooperative Extension


we had won for ourselves the reputation of doing something worth while.
We canned 1,250 cans of tomatoes. The tomatoes were culls from the
packing houses. The cost to the members was 2% cents a can for No. 2
cans, plus .0078 cents a can for material. Now the same can is selling
here for 15 cents a can.
"Canning, however, is only a part of the club work. At the beginning,
the county agent presented a twelve-months' course of study, which was
adopted, and each lesson has been exceedingly helpful and enjoyable, al-
ways with some practical demonstration.
The club members have openly and on various occasions expressed
their interest in the work, and have cooperated with fine spirit to make the
club a success. As a result, we have had good papers and talks on the
lessons. The only non-members invited to take part in the programs, were
Mr. C. M. Fisher, who gave a drawing and explained the home water
works system under home sanitation; and Mr. J. B. Tower, who gave
valuable information on disinfectants and bandaging in the personal
hygiene lesson.
Growth being inevitable, the 5-H club went to work in September
with a committee on membership to expand. It was not hard to get the
full membership for a new circle which was organized in October by Mrs.
Fisher, acting for the county agent. Now both circles have applicants on
the waiting list, and it seems very probable that a third circle can be
organized with the new year.
The full membership of the club is kept up by electing new members
to fill vacancies. Recently, several members from the two circles have
accepted heartily the idea proposed by the county agent, of taking part in
the county fair, held at Miami in February of 1917. There are so many
special products to work with that we hope to help make the best exhibit
that the county agent has ever had.
The 5-H Club of Homestead is glad indeed, that the opportunity of
the home demonstration work is extended to the women-the home keepers.
We feel that these clubs will have a more direct influence for good upon
the home life, than any other modern organization. We are, therefore,
eager to see the work pushed forward and finally, to be a part of the
Home Demonstration Association of Florida.-MRs. CHAS. M. FISHER,
President Homestead 5-H Club."
COUNTY SHORT COURSES
There is no feature of the work standing out as giving bet-
ter results than the county short courses. These correspond to


Fig. 18.-Canning club girls of Orange county attending a
three-day short course.







Annual Report, 1916


the home economics
movable school, so gen-
erally carried on in the
North and West. Of the
28 county agents at
work, 15 held county
short courses with a
total attendance of 391;
7 were held in the
spring at the county-
seats and 8 were held
in the fall just preced-
S ing the fall contests.
In planning these
short courses, the county
agent secured the coop-
eration of school boards,
club, and church society
women of the towns, of
Fig. 19.-Rural school supervisor, and state prize the chambers of com-
winner on her plot in June. Citrus county. merce and boards of
trade. The necessaryex-
penses, which are not great, are usually paid by the county
boards of education. The women entertain the girls in their
homes, and the men furnish some special entertainment feature.
The instructors for these short courses are the county agent,
state and district agents, the state poultry club agent, a dis-
trict nurse from the State Board of Health, various members
of the high school faculty, and frequently a local deritist or
doctor. Laboratory work, talks, and lectures on food prepara-
tion, table manners, methods of caring for the sick, the infants
and old people, and personal hygiene, constitute the program.
The enthusiasm for the short course renews interest in club
work and proves an inspiration to work for better results.

STATE SHORT COURSE
The Florida State College for Women offered its fifth short
course for prize-winning canning club girls. The district
agents had charge of this course. Thirty-nine girls from 27
counties attended. The expenses of travel and expenses while
in Tallahassee were paid from appropriations by banks, wom-
en's clubs, county boards of education, county commissioners,






Florida Cooperative Extension


and fair associations. The total value of these scholarships is
estimated at $845.
Owing to a full attendance at the Florida State College there
was no space available in the dormitories for the short course
students. The recreation hall was fitted up with nineteen
double beds and furniture necessary for the comfort and hap-
piness of the girls, providing attractive and comfortable quar-
ters. The girls occupied them in good spirit. Not a single
case of illness developed and every girl attended classes reg-
ularly, making an exceptionally good record.
The girls attending the short course were sufficiently mature
to get the best from the instruction offered, being from 15 to
18 years old. The instruction consisted of laboratory work,
cooking and sewing in the forenoon, manual training, poultry
raising and one other lecture every afternoon. Miss Layton,
the district agent, gave two two-hour lessons in food prepara-
tion at the close of the course; the students served a dinner
to the wife of the Governor of Florida, the president of the
College and his wife, accompanied by other distinguished
guests.
Ten lessons were given in manual training and the girls
made appropriate picture frames for selected pictures. Fol-
lowing two two-hour lessons in sewing, a canning club apron


Fig. 20.-Fall contest exhibit. Hillsborough county.






Annual Report, 1916 57

was cut and made. Six lessons in home nursing were given
by Miss Sherman, district nurse from South Florida.
The short course girls were entertained by the college girls.
The ladies of Tallahassee tendered them an automobile ride,
and on another occasion visited interesting places around Tal-
lahassee.
On the last night of the short course, the girls were formally
presented with diplomas" as a recognition of faithful study
during the two-weeks' course.

STATE MEETING
The annual meeting of county and state agents was held at
the Florida State College for Women during February, for in-
struction and conferences. This provided an opportunity for
the county agents to come in touch with the state and Federal
leaders who assisted in formulating plans for future work.
The instructors and lecturers were:
U. S. Department of Agriculture:
States Relations Service:
Bradford Knapp, Chief, Demonstration Work in the South.
O. B. Martin, in charge Girls' and Women's Work.
Mary E. Creswell, Assistant in Girls' and Women's Work.
Ola Powell, Assistant in Girls' and Women's Work.
Bureau of Chemistry:
Dr. M. N. Straughn.
Bureau of Animal Industry:
J. H. McLain, Specialist in Dairy Division.
D. J. Taylor, in charge Poultry Club Work, Georgia.
Bureau of Markets:
Lewis B. Flohr.
University of Florida:
College of Agriculture:
P. H. Rolfs, Dean and Director.
W. L. Floyd, Vice-Dean.
J. R. Watson, Entomologist, Experiment Station.
C. K. McQuarrie, State Agent.
A. P. Spencer, District Agent.
During. the same period the department of home economics
held a two-weeks' short course for the women with an attend-
ance of forty-five. Farm demonstration agents from Leon
and the adjoining counties visited the home demonstration
agents' meeting.
Twelve newly appointed agents were assembled at the Uni-
versity of Florida to attend the annual meeting of the county
cooperative demonstration agents, October 2 to 9. This was
especially beneficial in obtaining instruction in agricultural
problems and it also gave them an opportunity to gain an
insight into the demonstration work of the state.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SPECIAL PRODUCTS WORK
Following the state meeting in February, a specialist from
the Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. D. A., was assigned to the
home economics division for one week to continue experiments
in citrus marmalades and jellies, and the crystallization of
kumquats, grapefruit peel and other fruits. Three of the coun-
ty agents remained to assist and to receive special instruction.
This work was continued during September by this specialist,
assisted by the district agents, who conducted experiments
with guava jelly and guava paste. Very definite instructions
for the production of these two products were formulated.

POULTRY CLUB WORK
The work in poultry clubs among the women. and girls has
been undertaken in seven counties, namely, St. Johns, Es-
cambia, Duval, Hillsboro, Polk, DeSoto, and Leon. For the
first six months in which this work has been conducted, I
refer you to the report of the state poultry club organizer,
which covers the work from July 1 to December 31, 1916.

STATISTICAL REPORTS OF THE STATE WORKERS


STATE DEMONSTRATION
AGENT
No. of miles traveled................20,027
By rail ............................... 17,627
By automobile ................... 2,400
No. meetings held ................. 111
Attendance ....................16,733
Club members visited............. 227
Conferences with director....... 9
Conferences with county
Agents .......................... 110
Conferences with boards of
education ............................ 32
Conferences with county
superintendents ........... 83
Contests and fairs attended.... 14
Demonstrations given .......... 42
Schools visited .................... 60
No. days in office work........... 120
Percent time on vacation........ 8
Percent time at meetings
out of state............ ........ 8
Percent time in field work...... 39
Percent time office and
college ................................ 45
GIRLS' CLUB ORGANIZER
No. of miles traveled................ 3,740
By rail .................................... 3,146
By automobile or team.......... 594
No. schools visited--........... 35
No. meetings held ................ 60
Attendance ............. ......21,431


No. county agents visited........ 10
No. talks given .................. 3
No. demonstrations ............ 17
No. fairs attended ................... 4
No. days worked ..................... 86
EXTENSION FIELD
INSTRUCTOR
No. of miles traveled.............. 6,759
By rail .................. ............ 5,703
By automobile or team.......... 1,056
No. meetings held .................. 93
SAttendance ...................... 4,528
Visits to county agents.......... 24
No. talks given........................ 17
No. demonstrations ............. 48
No. fairs attended ............... 3
No. days worked ...................... 125
DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND
WEST
No. miles traveled .................... 5,752
By rail ....................- .. 5,227
By automobile or team.......... 525
No. meetings held .................. 40
Attendance .................... 3,064
No. talks given ........ .......... 10
No. demonstrations ............ 18
Canning ......... ................... 11
Egg ............ ..--- ....-------- 3
School lunch .................... 1
Bread ........................--- 2
Marmalade ............................. 1







Annual Report, 1916


No. fairs attended .................... 13
Short courses held .................... 3
No. county superintendents
visited .................................. 8
No. schools visited .................. 15
No. homes visited .................... 34
No. days office work................ 24
DISTRICT AGENT, SOUTH AND
EAST
No. miles traveled .................... 7,750
By rail .................................... 7,316
By automobile or team.......... 434
No. meetings held ....-............... 38
Attendance ............................ 5,413
No. conferences held ................ 77
Boards of trade ...................... 3
County agents ...................... 47
County boards ........................ 4
County Superintendents ...... 18
County school boards............ 5
Demonstrations given ............ 28


Demonstrations given .............. 28
No. schools visited ................. 14
No. letters written .................. 292
No. homes visited .................... 5
Bulletins distributed ................ 486
No. contests attended .-............ 9
No. days office work ................ 21
POULTRY CLUB ORGANIZER
No. miles traveled .................... 5,164
By rail .................................... 3,734
By automobile or team ........ 1,430
No. meetings held .................... 28
Visits to county agents........... 10
Short courses attended ............ 4
Attendance ............................ 118
Demonstrations given ............ 8
Schools, clubs visited ............ 39
Attendance ............................ 4445
No. homes visited .................... 220
Bulletins distributed .............. 475
No. talks given ........................ 60
No. days office work................ 36


PUBLICATIONS
Three bulletins have been published and distributed by the
Department of Home Economics, Florida State College for
Women.
BULLETIN NO. 4.-The Iceless Refrigerator-This bulletin states the
dimensions, materials used and approximate cost of constructing a home
made iceless refrigerator, also the methods of operating and its advantages
to homes without regular ice supply.


Fig. 21.-Canning club girls in final contest. Madison county.


I ',






Florida Cooperative Extension


BULLETIN NO. 5. This is a report for the Home Demonstration work
in Florida for the calendar year ending December 31st, 1915.
BULLETIN NO. 6. Jellies, Preserves and Marmalades-This bulletin
contains recipes and instructions for making jellies, preserves and marma-
lades that have been developed by home economic workers of the States
Relations Service and Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. D. A., and Florida State
College for Women.
DEMONSTRATION WORK PART OF SCHOOL SYSTEM
County boards of public instruction are supporting the home
demonstration work in thirty of the thirty-three counties.
County superintendents and teachers are giving valuable as-
sistance for reaching the girls in rural sections. The princi-
pals of the high schools have loaned their schools and faculties
for county short courses, and thruout the entire State the home
demonstration work is gradually becoming an important part
of the educational system.
SUMMARY
In reviewing our work for the year, we realize that definite
and well-planned instruction is being given to the girls and
women on the farms, by well-trained home economics county
agents. In the club girl we note improvement in dress, man-
ners, and health; in the woman, an interest in the study of
home-making and increased effort in improving the home. As
a result of the work, reports indicate that 4,000 homes have
definite improvements; that 1,000 girls have made and worn
the club uniform; that over 100,000 cans of home-canned prod-
ucts have been placed in the pantries of the country homes;
and that the country girl is staying in school longer.
We are sure our work has been conducted in the State for
a sufficiently long time to have been a source of definite im-
provement in home-making on the farm.
Respectfully,
AGNES ELLEN HARRIS,
State Home Demonstration Agent.






Annual Report, 1916


REPORT OF THE POULTRY CLUB AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the poultry club agent
for the half year, July 1, 1916, to December 31, 1916.
Upon taking up the home demonstration work in Florida
last August, as specialist in poultry, we found that only one
county had successfully carried on poultry club work and
was prepared to hold a contest and exhibit. This was DeSoto
county. This county held a three-days' short course and a
contest and exhibit on the last day of the short course, the
canning, poultry and corn clubs cooperating. There were
about twenty-five who kept records of the work and sent in
reports, thirteen of whom made exhibits of good breeds of
poultry.
The home demonstration agent in this county deserves
credit for the splendid work done without help along this line
from any special state worker. She has demonstrated the
possibilities of this work in Florida.
A farm woman in the same county has made the following
remarkable record: From two Barred Plymouth Rock roosters
and twenty-four hens, she raised nine hundred birds, which
she disposed of on the local market at a nice profit.
After looking the field over and consulting with the state
home and county cooperative demonstration agents, it was
decided best to undertake the work in but five counties. The
demand for the work became so strong that it has been started
in seven counties, namely Escambia, Leon, Duval, St. Johns,
Polk, DeSoto and Hillsboro.
Work among the farm women has been most strongly em-
phasized, but clubs for girls are also encouraged, and where
it seems advisable, boys are enrolled.
Local conditions determine Whether the work shall be done
thru organized clubs or with individual members. Where
practical, we have made the unit of organization among the
women in the county a membership of thirty.
Two community egg circles have been organized in Es-
cambia county. In this early development of the work, how-
ever, the question of marketing has not yet demanded serious
consideration.
The members are urged to improve their stocks, keep pure-
bred fowls, produce feed at home, produce more and better





Florida Cooperative Extension


poultry products to meet the market demands, and work to-
ward community organization and cooperation.
On the whole, the situation presents a most pleasing pros-
pect. Although there are a few adverse conditions, the fa-
vorable conditions in Florida are location, climate and soil for
production of feeds, the mild winters making possible early
hatching of pullets for fall and winter egg production when
prices are high, year-round production of broilers, etc., and
the most excellent markets.
Respectfully,
MINNIE FLOYD,
Poultry Club Agent.


Fig. 22.-At the corn club contest in Madison county.





Annual Report, 1916


FARMERS' INSTITUTES
P. H. ROLFS, Superintendent.
C. K. McQUARRIE, Assistant Superintendent.
Farmers' Institutes have been conducted in all agricultural
sections of Florida. The total attendance was 35,593, or an
average of 89 at each session. Most of these institutes were
held in country school houses, churches or at farmers' picnics,
where the attendance was from 20 to 60, nearly all of which
was farmers and their families. Other meetings were held
in country towns and cities where the attendance ran from
100 to 500. These meetings were held under the auspices of
groups of farmers, who had special agricultural matters to
discuss or by business men having farming interests. The
meetings were advertised by posters issued by the extension
division of the University and local newspapers, which gave
this advertising free. The arrangements were usually com-
pleted by the county agents.
The lecturers were the regular farnpers' institute staff from
the extension division, the experiment station and the college
of agriculture of the University of Florida; specialists from
the U. S. Department of Agriculture, who have given con-
siderable assistance to the county agents and extension work-
ers; successful farmers, truckers or citrus growers and rep-
resentative business men having farming interests.
As Florida has a diversity of agricultural interests, the
programs were made to conform with the agricultural interests
of the community. In West Florida the lectures have been
confined to farming under boll weevil conditions; money crops
to supplant cotton; legume crops for feed and soil improve-
ment; breeds and care of hogs and cattle; feeds that can be
grown on West Florida lands for this livestock. In Middle
and North Florida where the boll weevil has not yet gained
entrance, many farmers are planting cotton for the first time,
and these have called for discussions on varieties and methods
of growing cotton. In Middle and South Florida, trucking,
citrus growing, but more especially the planting of feed and
staple crops, led to a greater variety of topics.
Thruout the State, corn, feed crops, hog cholera control and
better livestock have been discussed in nearly every county.






Florida Cooperative Extension


COUNTY AGENTS' INSTITUTES
County cooperative demonstration agents have held many
meetings where truckers would come together to make plans
for growing a special crop so that by combining their products
they could ship in car lots, which would require the planting
of the same variety about the same date, making the produc-
tions uniform and of sufficient quantity to make up car lots.
Where such plans required the advice of specialists, this was
supplied thru the office of the Superintendent of Farmers' In-
stitutes. In other cases meetings were held to discuss plans
for cooperative marketing of livestock by farmers having less
than car lots of marketable animals.
FIELD INSTITUTES
County agents have conducted field institutes in their respec-
tive counties from time to time. The agent generally selects a
well-cultivated corn demonstration and requests other farmers
cooperating with him to meet in the field and go over the
demonstration, calling attention to the points that have been
especially emphasized in this demonstration. When there is a
dipping vat just completed he may request stockmen of the
community to come at a stated time and assist in putting the
cattle thru this vat for the first time. This is followed by dis-
cussions and comments by the farmers, usually led by the
agent or someone designated to handle that meeting. Meetings
have also been called in a similar way to emphasize hog cholera
control. Farmers are requested to gather in some convenient
place and assist in the vaccination of hogs where both the
single and the simultaneous treatment are administered. This
is usually under the direction of the veterinary field agent,
U. S. Department of Agriculture.
BOYS' CLUB MEETINGS
Boys' corn and pig club meetings have been held to discuss
subjects of vital interest to the clubs. These are arranged by
the county agents and are usually attended by either the boys'
club agent, the district or state agent. Many of these have
been combined with the girls' club meetings. These institutes
are held at school houses or at the home of one of the club
members, where the crops and stock can be seen and discussed.
WOMEN'S AND GIRLS' INSTITUTES
Women's and girls' club institutes have been conducted
under the leadership of the home demonstration agents. The






Annual Report, 1916


county agent selects the time and place for these so that the
interest in her work can be aroused. As these clubs are or-
ganized for uniform methods of production, it is desirable to
bring the women and girls together as frequently as possible.
As the girls work chiefly with vegetable crops, the methods of
planting crops and the handling of diseases and insects that
interfere with the crops must be understood by the girls. Spe-
cialists who can discuss insect pests and diseases have given
lectures and demonstrations so that the girls are able to combat
outbreaks.
Special meetings have been conducted to arouse interest
in poultry raising. At these meetings the topics for discus-
sion are planned sometime in advance. The state poultry club
agent arranges a series of topics and the county agent follows
this plan thru a succession of meetings so that at the end of
the term systematic lecture courses have been given and bul-
letins supplied to correspond with each lecture.
In the women's institutes, rural sanitation, home con-
veniences, home gardening and canning and preserving of
waste vegetables and fruits are systematically discussed, fol-
lowed with suitable literature for home study. In many com-
munities it is advisable to bring the people in the community
together and have both men and women lecturers. In such
cases, joint meetings are held during the forenoon and sep-
arate meetings in the afternoon.
LIVESTOCK FIELD INSTITUTES
Livestock field meetings have been conducted chiefly for
the purpose of demonstrating the methods of applying hog
cholera serum and virus. These are arranged for by the
county agent and the demonstration is led by the specialist in
hog cholera control. During these demonstrations hogs are
inoculated with both serum and virus, when farmers have an
opportunity to use the needle and make the application under
the supervision of the specialist in charge. In these meetings,
sanitation in hog raising and the use of hog wallows and dip-
ping vats to rid hogs of external parasites is specially em-
phasized.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES
(Calendar Year Ending December 31, 1916)
Number of sessions........... ................... ............ 399
Total attendance .... ....... -.. ............... .... ............ ....... 35,593
Average attendance ........................................... .. ..89
Number of addresses................ .....................- ........... 616
Number of counties entered..................... .......... ....... .... ...... 40
f.c.e.-5







Florida Cooperative Extension

SUBJECTS DISCUSSED AT INSTITUTES


Farm Demonstration Work and
What It Stands For
Sugar Cane
Peanuts
Rotation of Crops
Soil Improvement
Fertilizers
Safe Farming
Diversified Farming
Standardizing and Marketing Crops
Home Demonstration Work
What Women's Clubs Stand For
Club Work
Organization


Saving Waste Products on the Farm
Preserving Fruits
Legislation for Farmers
Agricultural Education
Hog Raising
Livestock and Silos
The Dairy Cow
Hog Cholera Control
Home Curing of Meats
Landscape Gardening
Insect Pests
Boll Weevil
Diseases of Truck Crops
Lime for Flatwoods Soils








INDEX


Activities, extension workers, 20, 58
Agents, character of work, 29
general activities, 20, 58
group meetings, 16
improvements by, 21
Appropriations, 7, 8
Associations, farmers', 34
Bankers' scholarship, 19
Beef and dairy cattle, 23
Boys' corn clubs, 39
club meetings, 43, 64
short courses, 44
Bulletins published, 13, 59
Canning, 51
Cattle, 23
Changes in staff, 13, 47
Cholera control, 18
Citrus demonstrations, 31
groves, 22
Club, 5-H, 53
Clubs, corn, 39
farm and homemakers', 26
girls', 49
negro children, 26
pig, 41
poultry, 58
subjects for study, 53
womcn's, 53
Cooperations and demonstrations, 21
Corn, 21, 29
Corn clubs, yields, 39
boys', 39
summary, 40
Contests, county, 44, 50
Cotton, 21, 36
County agents' institute, 64
County contests, 44, 50
fairs, 19
financial support, 33
Cowpeas, 22
Dairy and beef cattle, 23
Demonstration work in schools, 60
Demonstrations and cooperation, 21
Demonstrations, citrus, 31
pineapples, 32
truck, 30
Dipping vats, 24, 35, 38
Dipping vats and silos, 24
Director, report of, 7
Diseases, livestock, 23


District agent, east and south, 28
home demonstration,
58, 59
north and west, 36
Educational work, 20
Extension, appropriations, 7, 8
changes in staff, 13, 47
legislation, 7
organization, 8
plan of work, 9
publications, 13, 59
purposes of, 7
supervision of, 12
Fairs, 33
Fairs, county, 19
Farm and home makers' clubs, 26
Farmers' associations, 34
institutes, 63, 65
Fertilizer and manure, 24
Fertilizers, 23
Field institutes, 64, 65
Financial statement, 12
support, county, 33
Floyd, Minnie, report of club agent, 61
General activities, agents', 20, 58
Girls' club organizer, 58
Girls' clubs, work of, 49
best records, 50
yields, 50
Groves, citrus, 22
Harris, Agnes E., report of state de-
monstration agent, 47
Hay, 22
Herrington, G. L., report of club
agent, 39
Hog cholera, 34, 38
Hog cholera control, 18
Hogs, 23, 37
Hogs, inoculation of, 18
Home canning, 51
Home demonstration agent, 47
short courses,
54, 55
organization,
47
special prod-
ucts, 58
state meeting,
57
supervision, 49







Florida Cooperative Extension


Horses and mules, 23
Improvements by agents, 21
value of, 24
Inoculation of hogs, 18
Institutes, county agents, 64
farmers', 63, 65
subjects, 66
field, 64
livestock, 65
women's and girls', 64
Landscape work, 32
Legislation, extension, 7
Lime rock, 24
Livestock, 33, 37
Livestock, diseases and pests, 23
field institutes, 65
value of, 24
Manure and fertilizer, 23
McQuarrie, C. K., report of state
agent, 15
Meetings, agents' field, 16
agents' special, 17
annual, 17
boys' club, 43, 64
field, 19
state, 57
Mules and horses, 23
Negro clubs, 26
work, 12, 25
Oats, 22
Orchards, peach, 22
Organization of extension, 8, 47
Organizations, farmers', 24, 34
Organizer, girls' club, 58
Pace, E. S., report of district agent, 35
Peach orchards, 22
Pig clubs, boys', 41
hote given, 43
results, 42
Pineapple culture, 32
Plan of extension, 9
Potatoes, sweet, 22
Irish, 22
Poultry, 23
Poultry club agent, 61
organizer, 59


Poultry clubs, 58
Preserving, 52
Prizes, boys' club, 44
Projects, 10
Publications, 13, 59
Reports, agricultural club agent, 39
director, 7
district agents, 28, 36
negro agent, 25
poultry club agent, 61
state agent, 15
state demonstration agent,
47
Rolfs, P. H., report of director, 7
Rye, 22
Scholarships, bankers', 19
School visits, 20
Schools, demonstration work in, 63
Short course, club boys', 44
county, 54
home demonstration,
54, 55
negro, 26
state, 55
Silo work, 17
Silos and dipping vats, 24
Smith-Lever Act, 7
Special products work, 58
Spencer, A. P., report of district
agent, 28
Staff changes, 13, 47
State agent, 15, 47
demonstration agent, 58
meeting, 57
Statement of finances, 12
Subjects for institutes, 66
Summary of bulletins, 13, 59
Summer crops, 31
Supervision of extension, 12, 49
Tick eradication, 17
Truck demonstrations, 30
Value of extension, 24
Velvet beans, 22, 30, 36
Women's and girls' institutes, C4
Women's clubs, 53