<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Credits
 Report of director and vice-di...
 Editorial and mailing
 County agent activities
 Agronomy demonstrations
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Citrus culture
 Animal husbandry
 Dairying
 Poultry extension work
 Agricultural economics
 Farm forestry
 General home demonstration...
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Food, nutrition and health
 Home improvement
 Clothing and textiles
 Activities on negro farms
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00022
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1938
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00022
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 4
    Credits
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of director and vice-director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Editorial and mailing
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    County agent activities
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Agronomy demonstrations
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Citrus culture
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Animal husbandry
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Dairying
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Poultry extension work
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Agricultural economics
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Farm forestry
        Page 72
        Page 73
    General home demonstration work
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Food, nutrition and health
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Home improvement
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Activities on negro farms
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Index
        Page 115
        Page 116
Full Text









1938 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND

HOME ECONOMICS


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, DIRECTOR




REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1938
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1938













1938 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND

HOME ECONOMICS



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, DIRECTOR





REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1938
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1938







BOARD OF CONTROL
R. P. TERRY, Chairman, Miami
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland
W. M. PALMER, Ocala
H. P. ADAIR, Jacksonville
C. P. HELFENSTEIN, Live Oak
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor1
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editori
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialistl
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
jR. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent1
A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman'
D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economistl
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist'

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent
IPart-time.











CONTENTS
PAGE

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR .....................-.- .....----....--....-..--- 7

Financial Statement ................- --...- ------.............--- 9

Statistical Report ...................... .... ..................... 10

EDITORIAL AND MAILING ..................................-- .........- 15

AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION .........................--- ....--...---..-- 19

COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES ......................--- .... ................ 23

AGRONOMY DEMONSTRATIONS ..................... ......... .............. 26

BOYS' 4-H CLUB W ORK ........................-...- .. ..... ....-..-------..... 31

CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE ................................ .............. ....- 36

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY ....................................---- ----- 43

D AIRYING ......................... .......... ...- ....-. .. ............. 50

POULTRY EXTENSION WORK ................................- .............-.... 54

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ......... -...... --............ ................ 61

Farm Management Activities .................................. .............. 61

Marketing Activities ........... .... ............ ............. 68

FARM FORESTRY ................................... ....... ... .......... ................. 72

GENERAL HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ..................... ............ 74

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION .................. .......... ................... 89

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH .................................... ..... ......-. 92

HOME IMPROVEMENT ........................................ .. .............. ........... 95

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES ................................... ......................... 98

NEGRO MEN'S WORK ........................ ..... .............. ................ 101

HOME DEMONSTRATION AMONG NEGROES .................................. ........ 109

Negro Statistical Report .............................................. 111





[3]




















Hon. Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricul-
tural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for
the calendar year 1938, including a fiscal report for the year ended June
30, 1938.
Respectfully,
R. P. TERRY,
Chairman, Board of Control




Hon. R. P. Terry,
Chairman, Board of Control
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accord-
ance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.

JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida






COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua ..............Fred L. Craft ........Gainesville ................. Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Baker ...................M. D. Futch ............Macclenny ................................. ..........
Bay ........................John G. Hentz, Jr. Panama City .................. ..... ............
Bradford .............. T. K. McClane ........Starke ........................... ...... ............
Brevard ...........T....T. L. Cain ..............Cocoa .............................. Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward ..................B. E. Lawton ........Ft. Lauderdale ...................... Miss Olga Kent
Calhoun ...............J. G. Kelley ............Blountstown .............. Miss Eloise Chapman
Charlotte ..............N. H. McQueen .....Punta Gorda .................................... ...........
Citrus .......... ................. Inverness......... .............. Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Clay ........................................................Green Cove Springs ........ Miss Beulah Felts
Columbia ..............Guy Cox ...............Lake City .............. Miss Ruth Durrenberger
Dade ...................C. H. Steffani ........Miami ........... ................. Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.) .........J. L. Edwards ........Miami ...................... Miss Margaret Delaney
DeSoto ................. E. H. Vance ............Arcadia .......................... ......
Dixie ......................D. M. Treadwell ....Cross City ............................... ..........
Duval ....................A. S. Lawton ..........Jacksonville .................... Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.) ........Frank M. Dennis....Jacksonville ............ Mrs. Dorothea Calmes
Escambia ................E. H. Finlayson ....Pensacola ...................... Miss Ethel Atkinson
Gadsden .................Henry Hudson ......Quincy ............................... Miss Elise Laffitte
Gilchrist ................ S. Laird ............Trenton ..........................................................
Glades & Hendry....G. C. Hodge ............Moore Haven ...................... ...............
Gulf .................................................Wewahitchka .............. Mrs. Pearl Whitfield
Hamilton ................J. J. Sechrest .......Jasper ......................... .......
Hardee ............. H. L. M iller ............W auchula ...................... ......................
Hernando ................C. D. Newbern ....-Brooksville ........ ......... ....
Highlands ............ L. H. Alsmeyer ....Sebring .................. ......................
Hillsborough ..........Alec White ............Tampa ....... .......................
Hillsborough (West) ........ ...............Tampa.................. Miss Allie Lee Rush
Hillsborough (East) ........................Plant City ............................Miss Irene Riley
Holmes .................M. B. Miller ............Bonifay ..................... Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Jackson ...............J. W. Malone ........Marianna ........... Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter
Jefferson ...........P. R. McMullen ....Monticello .................... Miss Ruby Brown
Lafayette ............D. H. W ard ............Mayo ... .... .. ................... .....
Lake ........................R. E. Norris ..........Tavares ..................... Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lee ....................... C. P. Heuck ............Ft. Myers .................................... ..........
Leon ...................K. S. McMullen ....Tallahassee ........... Miss Rosalie L. Wolfe
Levy ......................T. D. Rickenbaker Bronson .............. Miss Wilma Richardson
Liberty ................... F. D. Yaun ...........Bristol ....... ..... ......... ........
Madison .................S. L. Brothers ........Madison .................. Miss Bennie F. Wilder
Manatee .................Ed L. Ayers ..........Bradenton ................. Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion ....................R. A. Stratford ......Ocala ...................... Miss Kathryn Riddle
Nassau ....................J. Raymond Mills ..Hilliard ................... .......... .......
Okaloosa ...........E. R. Nelson ..........Crestview ....... .. ........... ......
Okeechobee ...........C. A. Fulford ........Okeechobee ............ ............. .....
Orange ..................K. C. Moore ...........Orlando ................. Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola ....................J. R. Gunn ............Kissimmee ....................... Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach ............M. U. Mounts ......West Palm Beach ...... Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
Pasco ......................J.A.McClellan,Jr. Dade City .................................... .....
Pinellas ...............J. H. Logan ............Clearwater .................... Miss Tillie Roesel
Miss Margaret Alford, Asst.
Polk ......................W. P. Hayman ......Bartow ...................... Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam ...............H. E. Westbury ....Palatka ................. Miss Josephine Nimmo
St. Johns ................Loonis Blitch ........St. Augustine ................ Miss Anna E. Heist
Santa Rosa ...........John G. Hudson ....Milton ......................... Miss Eleanor Barton
Seminole ..............C. R. Dawson ........Sanford ........................ Mrs. Gladys Kendall
Sarasota ..........W. E. Evans ..........Sarasota .... ........ ............... ......
Sumter ....................W. J. Platt, Jr. .....Bushnell .................... Miss Martha Briese
Suwannee ............... 3. C. Kierce ..........Live Oak ............. Miss Louise Taylor
Taylor ......................D. D. McCloud .....Perry ................................. Miss Floy Moses
Union ..................L. T. Dyer ..........Lake Butler .............. .......................
Volusia ...............F. E. Baetzman ....DeLand ................. Mrs. Marguerite Norton
Wakulla ..................N. J. Albritton ......Crawfordville ................. Mrs. Pearl Penuel
Walton ....................Mitchell Wilkins ....DeFuniak Springs ........ Miss Eloise McGriff
Washington ...........Hans Andersen ....Chipley .... ... ..........................









AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION

A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director of Extension ........................................ Gainesville
H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge ............................ Gainesville
James J. Love, Chairman, State Agricultural Conservation
Committee ................................................................................................. Quincy
Walter B. Anderson, State Agricultural Conservation
Committee ....................................................................................... Greenwood
Ralph B. Chapman, State Agricultural Conservation Committee .... Sanford
Harry C. Brown, State Agricultural Conservation Committee ........ Clermont
E. Owen Blackwell, Accountant ........................................................ Gainesville
Minnie P. Carr, Statistical Assistant ................................................ Gainesville
R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Agent ........................................... Gainesville
A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Agent .................................... Gainesville
J. Lee Smith, District Agent ............................................................... Gainesville
W. T. Nettles, District Agent .............................................................. Gainesville

ASSISTANTS IN AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION
COUNTY NAME ADDRESS
Alachua ......................................Benjamin L. Gittings ........................ Gainesville
Columbia ................................Gussie B. Calhoun ................................ Lake City
Escambia ..................................Bryan C. Gilmore ............................... Pensacola
Hamilton .................................E. N. Stephens .......................................... Jasper
Hillsborough ............................Marshall O. Watkins .......................... Plant City
Jackson ......................................Richard C. Peacock .............................. Marianna
Lake .........................................Wilmer W. Bassett, Jr. .......................... Tavares
Madison ....................................Julian H. Wallace .................................... Madison
Orange ......................................Lewis S. Maxwell .................................... Orlando
Okaloosa ..................................................................................................... Crestview
Polk ...........................................Myron M. Varn .......................................... Bartow
Santa Rosa .............................Frederick W. Barber ................................ Milton
Suwannee ..................................Stuart C. Bell ........................................ Live Oak
Walton ......................................Arnold G. Hutchinson .......... DeFuniak Springs

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua ......................................F. E. Pinder ........................................ Gainesville
Columbia and
Southern Suwannee ............McKinley Jeffers .................................. Lake City
Gadsden .................................John P. Powell ............................................ Quincy
Hamilton and
Northern Suwannee ............N. H. Bennett .............................. White Springs
Jackson ..............-.......................J. E. Granberry ................................... Marianna
Jefferson ....................................M. E. Groover ...................................... Monticello
Leon .......................................Rolley Wyer, Jr. ................................ Tallahassee
Marion ........................................W. B. Young .................................................. Ocala
Sumter .....................................Alonzo A. Young .................................... Bushnell

LOCAL HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua ..................................Mary Todd McKenzie ........................ Gainesville
Duval ........................................Ethel M. Powell ................................ Jacksonville
Gadsden ....................................Diana H. Bouie ....................................... Quincy
Hillsborough ............................Floy Britt ..... .... ................................ Tampa
Leon ........................................ Alice W. Poole .................................. Tallahassee
Madison ...................................Althea Ayer ........................................... Madison
Marion ...................................Idella R. Kelley ....................................... Reddick
Putnam ....................................Fannie G. Diggs ..............-...................... Palatka

[6]










REPORT FOR 1938


PART I-GENERAL

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR

Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida
SIR: I submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Exten-
sion Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report
embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1938,
and a summary of the activities for the calendar year 1938.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director


The Agricultural Extension Service has received financial cooperation
in 59 of the 67 counties of Florida during 1938. A definite effort was
made to shape programs to meet the changing conditions of agriculture
in this State. General economic conditions required modifications from
former programs, many services formerly rendered by the Extension
Service have been taken over by other agencies of the State and the
U. S. Department of Agriculture.
The greater part of adjustment programs have been the responsibility
of the Extension Service. A much larger number of farmers required
the personal contacts of Extension personnel in the counties and in the
State offices.
Farming activities have been modified because of the operation of
federal programs on individual farms. Economics is playing a greater
part in agriculture than in the past, and programs have been adjusted
accordingly. Even with these modifications as to programs, there were
no changes of importance in the relationships and duties of the principal
officers of the Extension Service.
The District Agents for men's work have assumed much responsibility
for the operation of adjustment programs, while the specialists have fol-
lowed their subject matter programs as closely as possible, in many cases
with little assistance from county agents because of the many demands
on the county agents' time. More assistant county agents and more clerical
assistance and equipment is needed in most of the counties of Florida.
The Florida State College for Women provides office headquarters for
Home Demonstration work and the Negro A. & M. College, Tallahassee,
is headquarters for the Negro work.
The financial cooperation of county boards has continued in the usual
way. There have been relatively few changes in regard to personnel and
other agreements with county boards.
The Extension Service has maintained good working relationships with
the various colleges of the University of Florida, and the Florida Experi-
ment Station, the State Department of Agriculture, Department of Public
Instruction, Board of Health, Inspection Service and the State Marketing
Bureau.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Extension Service has also maintained the same kind of relation-
ship with commodity associations and particularly with citrus growers,
dairymen, cold storage organizations and other commodity groups. In each
of these cases Extension personnel have acted as advisers and on committees
as requested and have invited such associations to use the office of the
Extension Service.
Educational exhibits have been used dealing with agricultural economics
and 4-H club work. No large expenses have been incurred in such displays,
which have been handled by members of the staff, the exhibit material
being composed largely of charts, bulletins and demonstration materials.
The Florida Extension Service has maintained cooperative relationships
with the federal agencies operating in the State, principally the Agricul-
tural Adjustment Administration, Farm Security Administration, and Bu-
reaus of Plant Industry, Entomology, Animal Industry, Dairying and Home
Economics. Of these the Agricultural Adjustment Administration has had
a more active part in a coordinated way than any other bureau or agency.
The source of revenue has not materially changed. In addition to
federal funds, the Florida Extension Service is supplied by:
1. State appropriations by the Florida Legislature.
2. County appropriations by Boards of County Commissioners and
Boards of Education.
Changes in the personnel have been confined largely to county and home
demonstration agents. It has been possible to promote assistant agents
to the position of county agents. The persons selected as assistants are
graduates of the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida. The
main duties of these agents have been in the agricultural conservation
program, but when time has permitted they have assisted with county
agent programs, principally 4-H club work.
At present 85% of the county agents and assistants are graduates of
Agricultural Colleges and 29% of these are graduates of the University
of Florida. Other persons serving are those who have been in the service
from 10 to 20 -years and with successful experiences.
The Farm Security Administration in administering the farm debt
adjustment program has had the cooperation of county agents in deter-
mining its county operations. The Vice-Director is a member of the State
Committee.
The Soil Conservation Service set up demonstration projects at Monti-
cello and Graceville, using recommendations of the Extension Service and
the Experiment Station as a basis for their programs. The office of the
State Coordinator is located in the College of Agriculture.
The State Legislature of 1937 passed a Soil Conservation District Law
as recommended by the Secretary of Agriculture which provides for a
state committee to organize and supervise the programs to be set up as
provided in the law.
The State Soil Conservation Committee is composed of the Director of
Extension, the Vice-Director of Extension and the Soil Conservationist of
the College of Agriculture. One District has been established in Holmes
and Jackson counties. This is known as the Holmes Creek District and
comprises about 275,000 acres. The progress to date has been confined
to surveys and plans and much of this has been directed by the Soil Con-
servation Coordinator. It is expected that during 1939 the farmers in
the district will adopt the practices and proceed with the approved plans.







Annual Report, 1938 9

COORDINATION OF SUPERVISORY AND SPECIALIST PROGRAM
The number of supervisors and specialists is more limited in Florida
than in other Southern states, consequently with state-wide programs staff
members assist each other in many ways. The specialists assist at 4-H
camps, using their programs as a basis for instruction. Since all special-
ists in general farming operations must deal with the farm as a unit it is
necessary to dovetail programs in livestock and agronomy and coordinate
these with similar programs in the research divisions of the College. Like-
wise in citrus and vegetable production, the horticultural and soils, drainage,
irrigation and fertilization programs are correlated.
The nutrition and health programs supervised by the Home Demonstra-
tion Department, to be effective must be correlated with crops and live-
stock. There is close cooperation between the specialists working on these
programs.




FINANCIAL STATEMENT

For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1938

RECEIPTS
Federal Smith-Lever ................................ .......$ 63,968.10
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal ..................... 10,388.07
Bankhead-Jones,, Federal ............................................... 102,217.81
Capper-Ketcham, Federal ........................................ 26,555.74
Additional Cooperative, Federal .................................... 16,300.00
State Appropriation .................................................... 87,700.00
County Appropriation .................................................... 113,000.00
Egg Laying Contest, Sales ............................................ 4,531.39
Continuing Appropriations ................................ ........ 5,000.00

$429,661.11


EXPENDITURES
Administration ....... ................................................$ 12,296.02
Publications, printing ...................................................... 12,692.00
County Agent Program ........... ................................ 178,867.08
4-H Club Program (Boys) .............................................. 7,591.41
Home Demonstration Program ...................................... 142,628.13
Dairy and Animal Husbandry ........................................ 8,229.89
Farm and Home-Makers' Program (Negro Work) .... 30,658.77
Citriculture ........................................................................ 4,693.40
Poultry Husbandry ......................................................... 4,260.35
Extension Schools ........................................ ---.. 367.04
Agricultural Economics ........................ .................... 15,134.73
Florida National Egg-Laying Contest ........................ 4,531.39
Balance Carried to 1938-39 ............................................ 7,710.90

$429,661.11







Florida Cooperative Extension


STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN

Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Days service rendered by county workers .................................. 29,140.5
Days in office ........ ..................... ................... ......................... 14,198%
Days in field ............................................................................ .. 14,941
Number people assisting Extension program voluntarily ........ 2,341
Number paid employes assisting Extension program ............ 397
Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work 332
Members in such clubs ............................... -------.................. 7,983
4-H clubs ........................................................................................... 755
4-H club members enrolled ....................... ...................... .. 14,996
Different 4-H club members completing .................................... 9,770
4-H club teams trained ..................... ---..................................... 573
Groups other than 4-H clubs organized for Extension work
with rural young people 16 years of age and older ........ 10
Members in these groups .............................................................. 482
Farm or home visits made ............................................................ 49,955
Different farms or homes visited ................................................ 25,872
Calls relating to Extension work ................................................. 347,133
News articles or stories published and circular letters .......... 12,771
Number individual letters written ................................................ 97,815
Bulletins distributed ...................................................................... 156,212
Radio talks .............. ........... .................. ..------.......... ............................. 311
Extension exhibits shown .............................................................. 374
Training meetings held for local leaders ...................................... 298
(Attendance ........................ 3,599
Method demonstration meetings held ........................................... 10,789
(Attendance ...................... 151,623
Meetings held at result demonstration ........................................ 3,482
(Attendance ........................ 28,878
Farm tours conducted ..................................................................... 227
(Attendance --........................ 6,014
Achievem ent days held ................................................................. 161
(Attendance ........................ 55,736
Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.) .......... 106
(Attendance ........................ 6,610
Other m meetings ........................ .................... ..... .............. ..... 3,642
(Attendance ........................ 190,776


CEREALS

Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 476
Result demonstrations conducted ............................................ 288
M meetings held ...................................................................................... 178
News stories published and circular letters ................................ 172
Farm or home visits made .............................................................. 961
Office calls received .......................................................................... 5,226
4-H club m em bers ............................................................................ 745
4-H club members completing ....................................................... 393
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 577
Total yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 13,645 Bu.
Farmers following better practices recommended .................... 10,257







Annual Report, 1938 11

LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 1,438
Result demonstrations conducted ........................................... ... 1,217
M meetings held ...................................................................................... 667
News stories published and circular letters ................................ 882
Farm or home visits made ............................................................ 3,336
Number office calls received ...... ------................. ......................... 22,797
4-H club members enrolled ............................................................ 360
4-H club members completing ....................................................... 267
Yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing-
(Seed, pounds ...................... 137,003
(Forage, tons .................... 446
Farmers following better practice recommendations ................ 16,416

POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS
Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Other Crops Cotton Tobacco
Communities in which work was
conducted ............................................ 477 2 751 230
Result demonstration .............................. 74 102 62
M meetings held ............................................ 225 516 193
News stories published and
circular letters written .................... 226 612 392
Farm or home visits made .................... 1,040 827 1,030
Office calls received .................................. 4,617 25,562 17,749
4-H club members enrolled .................... 297 134 12
4-H club members completing .............. 182 73 12
Acres in projects by 4-H club
members completing ........................ 1451/ 92 12.5
Yields by 4-H club members completing 10,490 Bu. 81,488 Lb. 14,400 Lb.
Farms following better practices .......... 5,002 12,347 7,402

FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 2,837
Result demonstrations conducted .................................................... 9,050
M meetings held ... ............... .. ...... .......... ............................... 3,059
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 1,568
Farm or home visits made .............................................................. 11,939
Office calls received ............................................................................ 35,519
4-H club m embers enrolled ......................................................... 9,603
4-H club members completing ........................................................ 6,062
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 1,052
Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 34,7681/ Bu.
Farms and homes adopting improved practices ........................ 37,530

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 496
Result demonstrations conducted .................................................. 535
M meetings held ...................................................................................... 480
News stories published and circular letters issued ................. 308
Farm or home visits made ............................................................. 1,515
Office calls received -................................................... 6,965
4-H club members enrolled .............................................................. 454
4-H club members completing .................... .......................... 271
Farms on which new areas were reforested by planting
w ith sm all trees ........................................................................ 170
Acres reforested ........................................... ................ ........ 3,078
Farms adopting better forestry practices .... -.......-................. 3,534








12 Florida Cooperative Extension

Farms adopting soil conservation practices .............................. 1,456
Acres involved ................................ ........... 171,454
Land clearing ..................................... ....... ............ 181
Acres involved ........................................................ ... 12,750
Farmers adopting better machine practice ................................ 1,278
Number machines involved ............................................................ 1,026
Farmers adopting better building and equipment practices .... 6,850
Building and items of equipment involved ................................ 5,988

POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted ............................ 711
Result demonstrations conducted .................................... 1,627
M meetings held .............................................. ......... 1,224
News stories published and circular letters issued .................. 628
Farm or home visits made ....................................................... 3,790
Office calls received .................................. ..................................... 10,681
4-H club members enrolled .............................................. ......... 2,500
4-H club members completing ................................................... 1,395
Number chickens raised ............................. ..................................... 59,696
Number colonies of bees ...................................................... 167
Families following improved practices in poultry raising ........ 17,445
Families following improved practices-bees .......................... 1,692

DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 1,431
Result demonstrations conducted ................................................ 1,646
M meetings held ..... ............... ............... .......................................... 1,477
News stories published and circular letters issued ................... 1,221
Farm or home visits made ............................................................ 9,810
Office calls received ........................................................................... 28,394
4-H club members enrolled ...................... .............. 1,823
4-H club members completing ................................................ 1,035
Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members
com pleting ....................................................... ..................... 2,163
Farmers obtaining better breeding stock .................................. 2,669
Farmers using other improved livestock practices .................... 29,993

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Communities in which work was conducted ........................... 1,220
Result demonstrations conducted .................................................. 1,077
Meetings held ...................... ................. 939
News stories published and circular letters issued .................. 756
Home or farm visits made .......................................................... 2,715
Office calls received ........................................................................... 27,023
4-H club members enrolled ............................................................ 276
4-H club members completing ...................................... 177
Farmers keeping account and cost records .............................. 1,514
Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts .................. 522
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustment ......... -3,849
Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year .... 8
Farmers making business changes resulting from economic
surveys ................... ... ... ............... 7,072
Families assisted in getting established .................................... 8,610
Marketing groups organized or assisted .................................... 159
Individuals affected by marketing program ................................ 7,709
Organizations assisted with problems ....................................... 458
Individuals assisted with problems ................................... 10,505
Value of products sold by all groups organized or assisted ....$1,765,561.06
Value of products sold by individuals (not in organizations) 3,423,143.71
Value of supplies purchased-all associations ........................ 108,194.10
Value of supplies purchased by all individuals ...................... 489,678.56







Annual Report, 1938


FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 1,102
Result demonstrations conducted ....................................... 7,688
Meetings held ....... ................................. 4,042
News stories published and circular letters issued .................. 897
Farm or home visits made .... ........................... 3,855
Office calls received ....... ................................................................. 10,945
4-H club members enrolled ......................................................... 7,051
4-H club members completing ..................................... 4,640
Containers of food prepared and saved by 4-H club members--120,804
Dishes of food prepared, meals served and vegetables and
fruits stored and dried ......................... ............................. 79,873
Families adopting better practices as to foods ...................... 11,168
Schools following recommendations for school lunch ............. 144
Children in schools following lunch recommendations ............ 27,850
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs .........1,684,190
Value of products canned or otherwise preserved ............... .... 404,399.93
Families readjusting family food supply ......................... 3,278

CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 128
Result demonstrations conducted ................................................ 425
M meetings held ...................................... ......... ......... ................. 223
News stories published and circular letters issued ................. 46
Farm or home visits made ............................................................ 344
Office calls received ............... ........................................ 568
4-H club members participating ................................................ 169
Families following child-development plans ................................ 1,697
Different individuals participating in child-development
program .. .......................... ............................ ............ 03
Children involved in child-development program .................... 2,182

CLOTHING
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 575
Result demonstrations conducted ................................................. 2,095
M meetings held ................... .... ... ................................. 2,646
News stories published and circular letters issued .................. 478
Farm or home visits made ............................................... 2,034
Offi ce calls received ......................................................................... 4,319
4-H club members enrolled .............. ............................ 8,159
4-H club members completing ...................................... ....... 5,469
Articles made by 4-H club members completing ....................... 38,775
Individuals following better clothing practices ......................... 27,121
Families assisted in determining how best to meet clothing
require ents ......................................... ............... 3,967
Savings due to clothing program ............................................... $61,809.52

HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted ............................... 1,234
Result demonstrations conducted ............................................. 5,345
Meetings held ..................... ........................... 2,062
News stories published and circular letters issued ............... 466
Farm or home visits made ................................ ............ 2,058
Office calls received .. .......... ......... .................................... 4,112
4-H club members enrolled ....................................... 3,602
4-H club members completing .................................................. 2,692
Projects conducted by 4-H members completing .................. 18,192
Families following better home-management practices ............ 15,560
Estimated savings due to home-management program ............$23,803.00








14 Florida Cooperative Extension

Families improving household furnishings ................................. 11,139
Savings due to house-furnishings program ......................... $20,845.59
Families following handicraft practices .................................... 2,520

HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work was conducted ............................. 389
Result demonstrations conducted ............................................... 983
M meetings held ............................. .............. ................................ 617
News stories published and circular letters issued .................. 133
Farm or home visits made ....... ........... ....................... 853
Office calls received ............................................... 1,611
4-H club members enrolled ...................................... 2,703
4-H club members completing .............................................. 1,190
Additional 4-H club members participating ............................. 3,723
Individuals having health examination ................................... 3,202
Individuals adopting health measures ......................................... 18,168
Families adopting health measures ................................... 3,936

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 870
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting .................. 719
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or
committeemen .. ................... ..... ................. 1,645
M meetings held .......................................... ........ ...... .. 1,049
News stories published and circular letters issued ................... 1,628
Farm or home visits made .............................................................. 2,751
Office calls received ................................................ ..... 7,831
Communities assisted with community problems ................... 1,199
Country life conferences ....................................... ..... ......... 73
Families following recommendations as to home recreation .... 1,488
4-H clubs engaging in community activities ............................ 238
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross
or other relief agency .................. ......................... 974







Annual Report, 1938


EDITORIAL AND MAILING
J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Information activities during the year were aimed at supplementing
efforts of specialists and agents and supplying timely news, hints and gen-
eral material to the public. Work of the year covered perhaps a wider field
than ever before and was on an enlarged scale. Attention was given to
regular lines of extension work, as well as to activities and programs of
the Agricultural Adjustment Administration.
The three Editors and three Mailing Clerks devote approximately half
of their time to work for the Experiment Station, leaving only half to be
given to the Extension Service. Informational material for the Teaching
Division of the College of Agriculture is handled also, gratuitously.
This report covers printing handled during the fiscal year ending June
30, 1938, and other work of the year ending November 30, 1938.

PRINTED MATERIALS, INCLUDING BULLETINS
Bulletins printed during the year exceeded in number, pages and quan-
tity those of any preceding year. They consisted of eight new issues and
one reprint, ranging in size from 8 to 132 and totaling 384 pages, in
edition from 10,000 to 25,000 and totaling 115,000 copies. One new circular
added 6 pages and 15,000 copies; a calendar accounted for 12 additional
pages and 13,000 copies.
Copy on all of these publications and printed. materials was edited,
printing was supervised, and proofs were checked in this office. Following
is the list of bulletins, circulars, miscellaneous publications, record books,
calendars, cards and similar materials printed during the year.

Pages Edition


Bul.
Bul.
Bul.
Bul.
Bul.
Bul.
Bul.
Bul.
Bul.
Circ.
Misc.
Misc.
Misc.

Misc.


92. Growing Annual Flowers .....................................
93. Sunshine Water Heaters --................................
94. Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets .......................
95. Ornamental Trees .--.....-..............................-
96. Citrus Propagation ..................................................
97. Strawberry Production ........................................
98. Strawberry Diseases and Insects ..............................
99. Subirrigation --... ....................................
70. The Goodly Guava (reprint) ...............................
44. A Food Supply Plan .............. ..................
Calendar, 1938 ........................ .......... .. ............
Pub. 24. The 1938 Farm Outlook for Florida ..............
Pub. 25. Florida Farm Record Book ...........................
Pub. 2. Florida Poultry Record Book for Commercial
Flocks (reprint) ...................................
Pub. 4. Florida Poultry Record Book for Small
Flocks (reprint) .....................................
Final Report, 11th Florida National Egg-
Laying Contest ........ ..............................
Announcement and Rules, 13th Florida Na-
tional Egg-Laying Test ..........................
Covers for Small Farm Record Book ..........
Clothing Program for 4-H Club Girls
(Record Book) ............... .........................
The Wardrobe Demonstration ............
4-H Home Improvement Record Book .........-
Window Cards (100 each of 9, 200 of 1) ......


25,000
10,000
20,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
15,000
13,000
2,000
1,000

1,000

1,000

1,500

1,500
500

30,000
15,000
10,000
1,100








16 Florida Cooperative Extension
Pages Edition
Window Cards (Peanuts) ........................... 2,700
Window Cards (Inter-Plant) ............................ 1,900
4-H Poultry Exhibit Cards ............................... 300
Enrollment Cards for Home Demonstration
W omen and Girls .......................................... 40,000
Form 5. Agents' Monthly Report Blank ........................ 1 6,000
Farm 'Radio Program, monthly, each ........ 4 3,000
Agricultural News Service, weekly clipsheet
(42 issues-10 additional paid for by
SPB), each .................................................. 1 850
LETTER ENCLOSURE FOLDERS
Small 4-page folders to be used as envelope stuffers and placed in all
outgoing correspondence were printed for each month during the fiscal
year. The quantity ordered each time was 6,500. Each of these empha-
sized some phase of extension work, explained the accomplishments in
the field, and encouraged continuation and expansion of this work on the
part of rural residents.
These were given the general title, Florida Improved Farming Messages,
and were continued from the preceding year. Number 17, for June, closed
the series. Following is the list of special titles for these messages.
6. A Twenty-Five Years Superior in Service
7. Poultry and Eggs for Home and Sale
8. Citrus Grove Values More Firmly Founded
9. Making Florida Meat for Her Folk to Eat
10. Florida Dairy Gains Make Notable Record
11. Seeking for Farmers an Economic Equality
12. Figures and Facts Make Safe Farming
13. Gardens Again Give Farmers Many Foods
14. Farm Families Attain Nutrition and Health
15. Homes More Livable Among Farm Families
16. How and Wherewithal Shall We Be Clothed?
17. Florida Negro Farmers Making Real Progress
DISTRIBUTION OF BULLETINS AND SUPPLIES
Bulletins and other supplies, including record books, forms, cards, sta-
tionery, pencils, inks and other materials needed in offices of county and
home demonstration agents were distributed from the Mailing Room. More
than 100,000 bulletins, circulars and calendars left the shelves during the
year, and thousands of record books and other supplies were sent out by
mail and otherwise. Bulletins are sent to the public only on special request,
and are never distributed in bulk. Even so it is difficult to maintain supplies
of many of the extension bulletins.
Mimeographing work for the entire Extension Service organization and
local office of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration was done in the
Mailing Room also. Vast quantities of mimeographed material were turned
out in Gainesville, and similar quantities left the Tallahassee offices of the
State Home Demonstration Department. The organization used two car-
loads of mimeograph paper in a year.
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, to the number of 850
copies was folded and mailed each week. The State Plant Board paid for
the printing of every fifth issue of this clipsheet.
NEWS RELEASES
Dailies, weeklies, farm papers and other journals were kept constantly
supplied with news releases concerning the work of the Extension Service
and its cooperators. These releases found ready reception, and were widely







Annual Report, 1938


printed and circulated, bringing the public not only news of the organiza-
tion but also suggestions and timely hints by specialists.
Tabulation for the year ending November 30, 1938, reveals the fact
that articles prepared by the Editors and printed in nine different state,
Southern and national farm journals totaled 62 and occupied 1,422 column
inches. In addition, dozens of articles by other members of the staff, for-
warded by the Editors, were printed by Florida farm magazines.
Five different Florida magazines used 38 articles prepared by the
Editors for a total of 1,207 column inches of space. One Southern farm
paper printed 12 stories totaling 128 inches. Three national magazines
accounted for an additional 12 stories and 87 column inches of material.
In addition to the state, sectional and national distribution of Florida
Extension Service material, its widespread popularity is indicated by inter-
national usage. A journal printed in Spanish for South American farmers
requested and was given permission to translate and print Florida Exten-
sion Bulletin 99, Subirrigation. This occupied 90 column inches of space.
Material for weekly newspapers was released primarily through the
printed clipsheet, which carried from seven to 14 separate stories each
week. This clipsheet carried information about the Experiment Station,
College of Agriculture Teaching Division, and State Plant Board as well
as the Extension Service. It contained both news and timely hints.
Occasional supplementive mimeographed stories were released to week-
lies but these were not numerous.
Dailies were serviced through Associated Press wire and mail services
and special releases direct to one or more papers. One daily printed a
weekly column of farm questions and answers throughout the year, and
two others printed similar columns part of the year from copy supplied
by this office.
ON THE AIR
Radio is steadily assuming a place of importance in the dissemination
of informational and educational materials. The Florida Farm Hour over
WRUF-established 10 years ago-at noon each week day presented an
array of news and educational talks that attracted widespread attention
and added to the prestige of this program among the listening public.
During the year there were 313 programs presented, each one hour in
length. These included weather reports, farm news highlights daily, market
reports, and interspersed music, mostly transcribed. The market reports
covered livestock and fruits and vegetables. The Editors had complete
supervision of the program and most of the talks were broadcast from
the office. The WRUF staff gave excellent cooperation.
Excluding market reports, there were 1,005 speaking parts on these
programs for the year, of which the Editors themselves prepared 333,
including the daily news highlights. The Farm Question Box, a Tuesday
feature of farm questions and answers, was presented 47 times, radio's
weekly farm newspaper 46 times, editorial snapshots 21 times, and farm
flashes from the United States Department of Agriculture 107 times.
A review shows that 147 of the talks were made by Experiment Station
workers, 120 by members of the Extension Service, 40 by teachers in the
College of Agriculture, and two by employees of the State Plant Board.
In addition, farmers, USDA employees, and outstanding men and women
of various professions were heard on the Florida Farm Hour. The total
number of different persons who appeared on its programs was 366, and
many of the speakers were heard frequently.
Special broadcasts, some during the Florida Farm Hour and others
at different times, were arranged by the Extension Editors and broadcast







18 Florida Cooperative Extension

from places outside of Gainesville. Such remote broadcasts came from
Cherry Lake 4-H Camp near Madison, from a Sea Island cotton gin in
Ocala, and from a citrus packinghouse in Waverly.
In addition to the Florida Farm Hour broadcast over WRUF, Farm
Flashes supplied by the United States Department of Agriculture and the
Florida Extension Service were distributed to seven other Florida radio
stations for five days each week, or 261 days. Every effort was made to
see that material distributed in these flashes was adapted to the area in
which it was to be broadcast. For this reason, not all flashes were suitable
for all stations, and it was necessary to send two different flashes for the
same day on 41 occasions, each flash going to one or more of the seven
stations. There were 318 different flashes distributed during the year,
of which 183 were furnished by the USDA and 128 were locally prepared.
The Editors planned and supervised two broadcasts over WJAX in Jack-
sonville during the Fat Stock Show and Sale, March 9 and 10. One was
for one-half hour and went from the show-ring, the other was for 15
minutes and featured the sale of the grand champion steer.

MISCELLANEOUS
Radio talks were prepared for two county agents, and other agents were
assisted in arranging for time on the air and staging programs at various
stations. A large number of both county and home agents having access
to radio stations now broadcast regular programs, mostly weekly.
The Editor spent a week in Washington in February studying provisions
of the 1938 Agricultural Adjustment Act, then being enacted by the Con-
gress. Informational material for the State AAA office was handled
throughout the year. A special campaign to acquaint Florida citrus grow-
ers with the situation facing them was made through the release of weekly
mats and news stories supplied by the AAA for a period of 40 weeks.
.Early in 1938 the Extension Service joined the Experiment Station
and State Plant Board in conducting a special educational campaign to
acquaint tobacco growers with methods and procedure in spraying or fumi-
gating to control blue mold disease. Informational material to the press
and radio from this campaign was handled by this office.
The Extension Service cooperates in staging the Florida Fat Stock
Show and Sale in Jacksonville each year. The Editors handle information
on this event, both preceding, during and following. News stories, farm
paper articles, and radio talks feature the event's informational schedule.
Programs and rules are printed for the sponsoring organizations under
our editorship.
A special course in news writing for 4-H club girls was conducted in
one county (Volusia) with an attendance of 13 girls. A similar course,
with classes daily for a week, was a feature of the annual Girls' 4-H
Short Course in June, with an enrollment of 20 girls.
The Editor made occasional trips into the field to attend meetings and
to gather information for stories. He judged an oratorical contest staged
by the district organization, Future Farmers of America. He attended
five meetings attended by 595 people, and spoke at seven others with a
total attendance of 256.
This office assisted in preparing and arranging for showing of a Soil
Conservation Service exhibit which was displayed at three fairs in Florida,
each of one week duration.
The Editor served as president of the American Association of Agricul-
tural College Editors during the year, and presided over its sessions at
Norris, Tennessee, July 11-13.







Annual Report, 1938


1938 AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM

H. G. Clayton, District Agent and Administrative
Officer in Charge
R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Agent and
Performance Supervisor
A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Agent

ORGANIZATION AND METHOD OF PROCEDURE
The administrative organization in 1938 was essentially the same as
in 1937. The State office is located in the Experiment Station Building in
Gainesville, and county offices are located at the County Agent's office in
each county. The State Committee consists of:
James J. Love, Quincy, Gadsden County, Chairman
Ralph B. Chapman, Sanford, Seminole County
W. B. Anderson, Greenwood, Jackson County
H. C. Brown, Clermont, Lake County
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director, Extension Service, ex-officio.
In each county a County Agricultural Conservation Association consist-
ing of all farmers who participate in the program has been organized.
Community committeemen are elected by association members.
The County Agent handles the details of operating the program in the
county with the assistance of local committeemen. District Agents have
direct supervision over the County Agents in connection with the Agricul-
tural Conservation Program, as well as in regular Extension work.
Since March 1, 1937, each County Association has operated under a
budget set up by the Board of Directors. The County Association Treasurer
is bonded.
COMPLETION OF 1937 PROGRAM
On January 1, 1938, applications for grant from farmers participating
in the 1937 program were just beginning to be received in the State
office. During 1938 all of these 1937 applications were received, audited,
payments computed, and certified to the General Accounting office. All
except a few of these applications were handled in the first five months
of the year. Reports from the counties indicate that these payments com-
ing at this time of year were of material assistance to farmers in financing
their farming operations for the current year. Many County Agents state
that the soil-building practice payments under the program greatly stimu-
late their Extension soil-building projects; notably, cover crops, permanent
pastures, and terracing.
Tables 1 and 2 summarize results of the 1937 program.
The acreage of general crops required for home needs was 272,466
acres. Home needs requirements were established on 12,125 participating
farms in accordance with Extension Service standards. A total of 11,756
of these farms had a general crop base in excess of their home needs of
333,798 acres. The total acreage diverted for payment from depleting
crops was 67,597.3 acres. Of this diverted acreage only 2,432 acres were
not devoted to a soil-conserving crop or practice.
It is worthy of note that out of a total of 24,824 farms submitting
applications for grant payment, 23,030 carried out soil-building practices,
and that out of 1,356,636 acres of crop land on all these farms there
were 813,243 acres of soil-conserving crops.







Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE 1.-SUMMARY OF PAYMENTS MADE IN 1938 TO PARTICIPATING FARMS
FOR DIVERSION OF DEPLETING CROPS IN FLORIDA, 1937 PROGRAM.
SNumber I1937 Diversion
Crop of Base Planted for Net
Farms Acreage Acreage Payment Payment
(Acres)
Cotton ........ 5,814 80,619.8 53,782.7 21,751.0 $136,525.23
General ...... 15,750 581,621.2 537,332.6 29,541.4 100,932.81
Peanuts ...... 2,221 28,289.3 17,997.5 3,636.2 21,945.31
Sugarcane
for Sugar 4 19,950.6 19,950.6 11,312.0 70,397.59
Tobacco
Type T-11 757 4,418.5 3,613.4 649.7 22,799.15
Type T-45 141 499.1 320.7 86.5 2,649.69
Type T-62 108 2,573.0 1,835.3 620.5 35,856.57

Totals ........ 717,971.5 634,832.8 67,597.3 $391,106.35


TABLE 2.-SOIL-BUILDING PRACTICES CARRIED OUT IN CONNECTION WITH
THE PROGRAM ON FLORIDA FARMS IN 1937.


Number
Soil-Building Practice of Farms
_Reporting

Alfalfa or Kudzu planted on cropland .............. 18
Winter legumes or legume mixtures seeded
on cropland ............................... ... ....... 346
Summer legumes plowed under ................... 11,676
Winter legumes plowed under ............................ 304
Green manure crops plowed under .................... 169
Green manure crop following truck or vege-
table crops or turned under in 1937 in
orchards or vineyards ............................ 12,716
Miscellaneous cover crops left on land or
plowed under ................................... 5,436
Establishment of permanent pastures ........... 387
Forest trees planted on cropland ................... 45
Application of ground limestone or its equiv-
alent to soil-conserving crops or pastures 1,753
Sixteen percent superphosphate or its equiv-
alent applied on soil-conserving crops or
pastures ... .. ........................ 2,854
Basic slag applied on soil-conserving crops
or pastures ....................... .......... ........ 252
Manganese sulfate applied on soil-conserving
crops ....... ....................... ..... ............... 290
Terracing land in 1937 in accordance with
good terracing practices ......................... 578
Cropland diverted from commercial vege-
tables and devoted to soil-conserving
crops ................. ................................... ..... 453


Gross Soil-Building Payment ............................ 23,030
Net Soil-Building Payment .............................. 23,029


Extent of
Practice

58.6 Acres
4,945.2 Acres
190,906.0 Acres
3,887.0 Acres
1,811.0 Acres

269,842.8 Acres
158,409.2 Acres
30,990.5 Acres
2,091.4 Acres

59,274,706 Pounds

16,386,910 Pounds
3,222,633 Pounds
260,843 Pounds
3,655,352 Feet

2,712.8 Acres


$1,103,000.27

974,896.37







Annual Report, 1938 21

THE 1938 PROGRAM
In January of 1938, when it became evident that the Soil Conservation
and Domestic Allotment Act would be amended to provide for marketing
quotas for cotton and flue-cured tobacco, county offices were instructed
to secure work sheets on all farms producing these two crops, or produc-
ing general crops for market. This increased the number of work sheets
for these groups of farms to approximately 42,000 for 1938.
In conformity with the law acreage allotments for cotton and marketing
quotas for tobacco were established on such of these farms as engaged
in the production of cotton or flue-cured tobacco in 1938. For cotton the
acreage allotments under the control law and under the Agricultural Con-
servation Program were identical; but in the case of flue-cured tobacco
marketing quotas under the law were entirely separate from the acreage
allotments under the program. In accordance with the regulations 13,608
farms received a cotton acreage allotment of 85,040.9 acres. The normal
production on this allotted acreage is 13,478,556 pounds of lint. The
number of farms receiving a tobacco acreage allotment was 5,301. These
farms were allotted 13,626.4 acres. A total of 5,165 farms planted tobacco
in 1938 and these were allotted 12,697,753 pounds marketing quota. Re-
view committees later increased this amount by 261,436 pounds so that
the final marketing quota issued to these tobacco farms was 12,959,189
pounds. Of this total number of farms producing tobacco in 1938 1,752
grew it for the first time.
In carrying out this work with cotton and tobacco quotas, the county
offices have been under tremendous pressure in getting the necessary in-
formation on time and correctly. Also, issuing allotment notices and
quota cards, and in the case of cotton receiving and accounting for penalty
and escrow funds.
In addition to the work in connection with cotton and tobacco quotas,
acreage allotments and normal yields for the following additional crops
have been established under the Conservation Program: Peanuts, two
counties; type 45 tobacco, one county; type 62 tobacco, three counties;
potatoes, nine counties; and general crops, all counties.

TABLE 3.-NUMBER OF FARMS FOR WHICH THESE ACREAGE ALLOTMENTS
AND YIELDS HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED AND THE ACREAGE ALLOTTED.
SNumber of I Acreage I Normal
Crop I Farms I Allotted I Yield

General Crops* ......................... 33,000 1,000,000.0
Peanuts ..................................... 3,817 47,383.1 598
Potatoes ...................................... 552 17,080.3 111 Bu.
Tobacco
Type 45 .................................. 344 775.8 1,135
Type 62 .................................. 166 2,261.4 1,010

*Data for General Crops incomplete, estimates used.

Preliminary reports on the 42,000 farms participating in 1938 indicate
that this year has seen a worthwhile increase in nearly all the soil-building
practices, especially in the establishment of permanent pasture, terracing,
and the planting of forest trees. Final check of performance in all counties







Florida Cooperative Extension


is almost complete at this date and applications for grant will be ready
within a short time.
In connection with the certification of performance, permanent mapping
work by means of aerial photography and plane table has been continued.
During 1938 photographic material was delivered on the following counties:
Holmes, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, Madison, Suwannee, Columbia, Hamilton,
Alachua, and Union. Under contract at present are Bradford, Hillsbor-
ough, and portions of Palm Beach, Glades, Hendry, and Dade counties.
Plane-table mapping work was done in Sumter, Marion, Levy, Gilchrist,
Lafayette, Taylor, Dixie, Wakulla, Liberty, Washington, Bay, Calhoun,
Walton, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, and Escambia counties. At present prac-
tically all farms in the area from Sumter County north to the Georgia
line and west to the Perdido River have been mapped by plane table or
aerial photograph.

COTTON PRICE ADJUSTMENT PROGRAM
To meet the requirements of the Cotton Price Adjustment Program,
it was necessary that 1937 cotton bases be established on cotton farms
that were not covered by work sheets in the 1937 program. A total of
7,242 non-signer farms have been given a 1937 cotton base of 51,481.5
acres and 6,714,221 pounds. This, together with the bases previously
established for 1937 signer-farms, gives a total cotton base on 14,490
farms of 147,205.5 acres and 19,790,820 pounds production. To date 9,166
Cotton Price Adjustment applications have been audited and certified to
the General Accounting Office for the amount of $229,561.32. This repre-
sents in most cases a payment of approximately 3 cents per pound on
60 percent of the base production for the farm. It is estimated that
approximately 12,000 CAP applications will be received and that total
payments will amount to approximately $325,000.

EDUCATIONAL WORK
During the year special effort has been made to acquaint farmers,
committeemen, and others with the provisions of the program. Meetings
have been held throughout the State for these various groups, and both
compulsory and voluntary features of the program explained. Many of
the farmers' meetings have been attended and participated in by the Ad-
ministrative Officer and the two Assistant District Agents and all three
have assisted in training meetings for county agents and committeemen.

PRELIMINARY WORK ON THE 1939 PROGRAM
Many educational meetings have already been held on the 1939 pro-
gram, especially in the cotton and tobacco counties. The 1939 cotton and
tobacco acreage allotments and quotas were established for all farms grow-
ing these two crops in 1938. Notices of these 1939 quotas were mailed to
the farm operators several days prior to the referendum on December 10.
For tobacco 14,400 acres and 12,960,000 pounds production were appor-
tioned to the 5,165 farms in the several counties eligible for tobacco allot-
ments. For cotton there were 12,514 farms eligible for a 1939 acreage
allotment and these farms were allotted 88,600 acres.
Work is in progress on the remainder of the acreage allotments neces-
sary for the 1939 Conservation Program. It is expected that all acreage
allotments for 1939 will be completed well in advance of planting time.'







Annual Report, 1938


PART II-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENT ACTIVITIES
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director
H. G. Clayton, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
A. E. Dunscombe, Asst. District Agent
R. S. Dennis, Asst. District Agent
Regular county agent work with both adults and juniors continues to
increase in certain directions and has been materially modified because
of changing conditions necessitated by special state and federal programs.
Counties have cooperated financially as heretofore with slight increases
in a few counties but no material change. County agents' offices have been
inadequate as to space and personnel for handling the necessary volume
of work. It is not unusual for from 50 to 200 farmers to visit the county
agent's office in a single day, all of whom have questions affecting their
farming interests. The Agricultural Conservation program has contributed
much to this and personnel has been supplied through the AAA; neverthe-
less, it has been a time of unusual activity and has taxed the energies
of all persons involved. More assistants are needed in most counties, more
clerical help is imperative, office space is too often inadequate, and ordinary
filing equipment is not sufficient to meet accumulating demands.


Fig. 1.-State and district county agent leaders directing the work in Florida. Left
to right, R. S. Dennis, assistant district agent; J. Lee Smith, district agent; A. P. Spencer,
vice-director and county agent leader; H. G. Clayton and W. T. Nettles, district agents:
and Aubrey Dunscombe. assistant district agent.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Naturally, this has required a modification of usual extension programs.
Many plans made at the beginning of the year have not been as completely
carried out as the county agents contemplated. On the whole, farmers
have depended more than ever on county agents. Disturbances have arisen
in communities due to the control programs and to misunderstandings.
These, however, have been cleared up without changes in personnel except
for personal reasons on the part of the agents.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
Agricultural conservation has consumed a larger part of the county
agents' time than any other program and will continue to do so on account
of its direct interest to farmers. This has become interwoven with regular
extension work to such an extent that the county agent is looked upon
in the county as the administrative officer with whom the farmers deal.
The State Live Stock Sanitary Board has called upon the Extension
Service for much help in control of diseases and insects affecting livestock.
The control of hog cholera is important in many communities and this
engages the time of a limited number of agents.
Other agencies are as follows: Florida Milk Inspection Service; Florida
State Marketing Bureau; vocational agricultural teachers working under
the supervision of the Department of Education; Farm Debt Adjustment
Commission; Farm Security Administration; Soil Conservation Service;
Florida Citrus Commission; Florida Citrus Exchange; and various branches
of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration having to do with market-
ing programs.
CONDITIONS AFFECTING WORK
As a forerunner to the land use planning work, a definite program to
promote community planning is in the making. In a few communities
the county and home agents were able to interest people of leadership
who have indicated their interest in any movement that would improve
conditions affecting farms and homes in the rural sections.
Unsatisfactory marketing conditions with perishables have been a source
of controversy in all the southern territory. The citrus crop of 1937-38
amounting to approximately 40 million boxes was the largest in the history
of this State, and again the crop that was grown in 1938 exceed that
by 10 million boxes. This has resulted in the most unsatisfactory market-
ing year in the history of citrus culture in Florida. Because of this,
growers are disturbed over the future. Marketing agreements have been
discussed from every angle. Opposition has arisen to marketing agree-
ments and various proposals have been submitted to remedy the situation.
While the Extension Service is not responsible for these controversial
matters, the growers of the counties look to the Extension Service for
leadership in economical production and marketing of the crop.
Demands for county agents' services exceed the finances that are pro-
vided from state and federal sources. All counties with sufficient agricul-
ture to justify a county agent are served, with three exceptions.

SPECIAL PROJECTS
The bright leaf tobacco program has expanded. The district agents
conducted bright leaf tobacco schools, tobacco warehouses have been estab-
lished and interest in this crop has been on the upgrade.
Long staple cotton, once an important cash crop for a limited area in
Florida, has been temporarily revived, but on account of boll weevil in-







Annual Report, 1938 25

festation and other unfavorable conditions, disappointments have resulted
to many farmers.
There is a definite and increased interest in livestock, dairy and beef
cattle and hogs. Marketing sheds are being located at many centers,
financed locally and by the State Department of Agriculture. For them
to succeed there must be improvement in the quality of cattle and greater
volume of good marketable cattle and hogs. This has stimulated interest
in the distribution of purebred or high grade breeding stock.
County agents, district agents, and specialists have given special atten-
tion to livestock and silos, silage crops, pasture forage, fattening mixtures,
and range improvement.
Exhibits of 4-H club work with beef calves were outstanding in both
numbers and quality and excelled any former exhibits.
County agents have held hog sales that have grossed from $800 to
$1,000 per car. The hogs were of good quality and graded and sold at
auction at satisfactory prices.
Farmers living on the rolling lands of western Florida have increased
their terracing facilities under the stimulation of the extension program.
In Jackson County the agent organized a terracing association. The asso-
ciation purchased a tractor and terracing machine and arranged to make
deferred payments as the terracing work progressed.
The terraces were laid out by competent persons with engineering ex-
perience. A supervisor was employed. The charge for the service was
at the rate of $3.50 per hour. Payments for the machinery came due
during the winter months when the machinery was in use. This arrange-
ment has proven satisfactory. The terraces are properly constructed and
all obligations paid to date.
In other areas on lighter soil with less slope, farmers have constructed
better terraces, using their work stock and usual farming machinery.
In Duval and Dade counties, assistants are employed entirely at the
expense of the county. These assistants are conducting special extension
programs. They are selected by the Extension Service and directly re-
sponsible to the county agent. Agricultural conservation assistants in
other counties also assist to a limited extent in regular extension work.
Farmers' and growers' meetings are held in counties with appropriate
programs arranged by the county agents and the Extension Service.
Three district 4-H camps are used for special district meetings lasting
for two or more days with programs for men and women.
Subject matter conferences dealing with problems in citrus, vegetables
and poultry are held at the College of Agriculture, at branch experiment
stations and at centers of greatest interest.
A disease known as blue mold in tobacco plant beds was very destruc-
tive in 1937 and 1938. The pathologist of the Experiment Station directed
a blue mold educational program in all tobacco growing counties in 1938,
with special demonstrators from the Station, State Plant Board and Ex-
tension Service. Through farmer meetings, visits to plant beds, distri-
bution of information by all available means, all growers had opportunity
to observe the best known methods of control. All contacts were made
through the county agent's office. At planting time there was an ample
supply of plants and requests from growers to continue the program
in 1939.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRONOMY DEMONSTRATIONS
J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist

SOIL CONSERVATION AND IMPROVEMENT
The soil in 12 northwestern Florida counties along the Alabama and
Georgia line is subject to surface erosion. In four counties-Jackson, Leon,
Jefferson, and Madison-it is estimated that on 80,000 acres, or 20 percent
of the acreage, the surface soil has been washed away and is now too poor
for profitable farming. Of the 91,626 acres grown to cotton in 1934, 75,681
acres were in 12 counties where conditions of erosion are similar to these
four. There is also approximately 45,000 acres of peanuts harvested for
nuts with the land left bare for the rest of the year. It is in this area
that winter legumes, oats, and rye will grow well. In these same counties
64 percent of the harvested crop land in 1934 was grown to corn, peanuts
and velvet beans or both; Thirty-five percent of this land on which corn
was grown was interplanted with peanuts to be grazed with hogs and 45
percent had velvet beans interplanted with corn. Native vegetation volun-
teers well here except on land planted to cotton and commercial peanuts.
In the rolling land area some terracing has been done and contour
culture practiced for several years. Terracing engineers were trained.
Power machinery was used in building terraces. In one county a terracing
association bought and operated the machinery. In another, the board
of county commissioners supplied it, and in another a private concern
supplied machinery and contracted to build terraces. In other counties
farmers built their terraces with their own horse-drawn implements. As
a result there were 21,594 acres of land on 725 farms terraced during the
1938 season.
As terracing is done, contour listing and culture are increased. Strip-
cropping, though not popular, is also being done to some extent. To add
humus and nitrogen, catch plant food elements as they are dissolved in
the soil and prevent washing, both summer and winter cover crops are
being used intensively.
Two soil conservation projects are being operated by the Soil Conserva-
tion Service in northwestern Florida. These are at Graceville, 20,000 acres,
and Monticello, 18,000 acres. On June 30 a tour of the project at Graceville
was conducted. Two hundred and fifty farmers from Escambia, Santa Rosa,
Okaloosa, and Walton counties were brought there on truck and school
buses. This gave a strong impetus to soil conservation in those counties.

CORN, PEANUTS AND VELVET BEANS AS FEED CROPS
To provide the corn needed for use on the 36,000 farms in the state
growing it, an increase of 2 bushels per acre over 1934 yields will be
required. This crop was grown on 69.6 percent of the harvested crop
land in 1934 in the peanut and velvet bean area. In the peanut area there
were 666,564 acres on which corn was grown. On 317,425 acres, or 47.6
percent of this corn, peanuts were interplanted and used primarily for
hog feed. On 207,982 acres, or 31 percent, velvet beans were interplanted.
In the velvet bean area this interplanted corn and velvet bean land is
45 percent of the corn land and in the secondary area only 9 percent. In
Gilchrist County 94 percent of the peanut acreage is interplanted with
corn. Interplanted velvet beans range from 4 percent in Levy County to
81 percent in Holmes.







Annual Report, 1938 27

There is little difference in yield of corn per acre whether planted in
every row or in alternate rows, or planted two rows of corn and one of
peanuts or velvet beans, or a combination of peanuts and beans.
These facts were pointed out in a series of meetings just prior to plant-
ing time, attended by 3,500 farmers. Circular letters called attention to
the increased gains secured by interplanting their corn with peanuts and
properly spacing peanuts, and amount of seed needed for planting peanuts
spaced properly. Several hundred each of two placards were placed to
call attention to the benefit of these practices.
The practicability of such program was shown in demonstrations in
Escambia County. Hogs were weighed and turned into fields for grazing
peanuts after corn was harvested. There was a gain of 136 pounds of
pork per acre, with a value of $10.88. This was more than the value of
the corn on the same acre.
In the northwestern part of the State more landplaster has been used
during 1938 on or under peanuts to make them fill out than ever before.
The Extension Service has persuaded fertilizer dealers to stock it. On
four different tests where results were recorded yields of peanuts planted
alone were increased 200 percent. These tests were made on land that
had shown signs of need.

COMMERCIAL PEANUT CROP
There was a base of 56,000 acres in 1936 devoted to commercial peanuts.
This produced an average yield per acre of around 600 pounds. Very little
commercial fertilizer was used.
Research work by the Florida Experiment Station in cooperation with
farmers showed that about 400 pounds of a 2-10-4 complete fertilizer
put under peanuts at planting time gave largest net returns, though those
returns were small. Some farmers applied fertilizer under peanuts. They
believe it helps to maintain the soil by growing larger vines.
In many soil types peanuts do not fill out well-make "pops". An
application of 200 pounds per acre of landplaster has been beneficial.
Most farmers have followed the practice of planting in wide rows and
spacing runner peanuts 12 to 14 and Spanish 6 to 8 inches in drill. By
spacing runners 7 to 9 and Spanish 4 to 5 inches the yield will be in-
creased from 30 to 60 percent.
Meetings, circular letters, demonstrations, and placards have been used
this year to further the adoption of improved methods with this enterprise.
Spacing demonstrations were conducted in Holmes County on seven
farms where soil types were the same. Runner peanuts spaced 12 to 14
inches produced only 871 pounds, but where they were spaced from 7 to 8
inches they produced 1,312 pounds per acre-an increase of 50 percent.
In undertaking to show which fertilizer or soil corrective materials
are more effective in the production of peanuts, a series of comparative
demonstrations was conducted. The following table shows results in
Liberty County.
Materials No. Demonstrations Rating
Farmers' practice ............................ 3 ...................... 1.66
Basic slag ........................................ 4 ...................... 2.31
Colloidal phosphate ....................... 2 ...... ............ .... 4.00
5-7-5 complete fertilizer ................ 1 ........................ 4.25
Landplaster .............. ........... ....... 4 ....................... 5.00
Dolom ite ................................... ... 4 ........................ 6.25
Only 200 to 400 pounds per acre of the two high rating materials are
recommended.







Florida Cooperative Extension


HAY AND OTHER FORAGE CROPS
There is produced on 100,000 acres in Florida approximately 57,000
tons hay, of which 35,000 tons is legume, mostly peanut vine. There is
needed for supplementary forage for workstock and milk cows on these
same farms approximately 110,000 tons or its equivalent in other forage
and silage. While the sugarcane on most farms is grown for syrup
making, it can be used for dry forage and silage and often produces 15
or more tons per acre. Napier grass and sorghums are capable of produc-
ing satisfactory yields. These forage crops can be generally grown and
cured or put in silos.
Sorghum and corn have been grown about as usual by dairymen and
others for silage. Sugarcane has been grown and ensiled this fall, and
some has been put up as dry forage also. There have been several plant-
ings of Napier grass to provide grazing and silage.
Of all kinds of silage there was more stored this fall than ever before.
Production of legume hay has been increased in central Florida this
year.
PERMANENT PASTURE
During 1937 and 1938 there has been an enormous expansion in pasture
acreage throughout the state; however, the larger part has been in central
and southern Florida. Much of it has been open range or fenced wood-
land. Approximately 40,000 acres were seeded to better succulent grasses
like carpet, Dallis, Para, lespedeza and Bahia last year. Acreage was
limited by amount of seed available. Power rotary brush and palmetto
cutters have been used for destroying native vegetation, such as palmetto,
gallberry, and myrtle. Highlands and lowlands, hills and hammocks,
loams and muck lands, as well as prairies have been turned into pasture.
There has been no abatement of such activities this year. Farm visits,
personal calls, demonstrations, circular letters, and AAA payments have
all been used in promoting this development. As a result it appears now
that hundreds of farmers and cattlemen have converted or are now con-
verting thousands of acres of these lands into permanent pastures.
Another phase of pasture development involves the establishment of
White Dutch, Persian, Hop and other clovers on grass sod, cultivated land,
and virgin sod. White Dutch and Hop were successfully grown by a
dairyman on the heavier types of pine land in Duval County. In experi-
ments with a combination of one ton lime per acre, 500 pounds super-
phosphate and 200 pounds muriate of potash, clover has been grown
successfully by the agronomist at the Experiment Station on similar lands.
Some has been made to grow on Tifton and heavy phases of Norfolk soils.
During the fall of this year hundreds of tests and demonstrations have
been established in the state. This appears to be a real step forward
in pasture development in Florida.
On the lighter soils Napier grass fed as a soiling crop or for silage
has given more satisfactory results. Many small plantings of Napier grass
were made the last year.
OATS
Relatively few oats are grown and threshed for grain and only 7,000
to 10,000 acres cut and fed unthreshed. A much larger acreage is grown
for green grazing in winter and early spring. Texas Rustproof and Ful-
ghum varieties are commonly grown. Both are very susceptible to rust
here. Hastings 100 Bushel and Nortex are more resistant.
Oat variety and fertilizer demonstrations are in progress on a number
of farms. At many of them field meetings were held at harvest time.







Annual Report, 1938


The following table gives yields in pounds per acre of the different
varieties in Walton County demonstrations:
Texas Hastings
Fulghum Rustproof 100Bushel Nortex
No fertilizer ...................................... 880 880 880 2,200
Top-dressing ................................ 1,760 2,200 2,200 3,080
Top-dressing and fertilizer ............ 5,280 4,840 8,360 8,120
Complete fertilizer ......................... 1,320 2,220 2,640 3,520

UPLAND COTTON
In a recent survey it was shown that all producers using from 200
to 400 pounds per acre of a 3-8-5, including those who used nitrate of
soda, produced an average of 228 pounds of lint per acre. The group that
used an average of 291 pounds 3-8-5 and 60 pounds soda produced an
average of 233 pounds lint per acre, and the group using 292 pounds 3-8-5
and 95 pounds soda produced 252 pounds lint per acre.
There are no records to indicate just how much progress was made
this year toward getting farmers who grew upland cotton on the lighter
soils to side-dress it with an application of 15 to 20 pounds of quickly
available nitrogen, but many did. In addition many others used a higher
quantity and analysis fertilizer.
There were no one-variety communities of upland cotton growers or-
ganized in this state in 1938. However, there were some 32 growers in
Madison County who grew 1,736 acres of Stoneville. The cotton produced
well and for the first time the growers secured a premium for staple.
Wannamaker's Wonder and Coker's Strain 7 were grown by a few growers.
There were many fertilizer distributors sold that put fertilizer out in
two bands, thus avoiding damaging the seedlings when the seed ger-
minated.
SEA ISLAND COTTON
Sea Island cotton production jumped from 800 in 1936 to 3,200 bales
in 1937. In central Florida where Sea Island cotton prior to 1915 was
profitable, the crop has not been completely replaced by any other. Short
staple cotton is now grown in some of the area, and this affords danger
of crossing with the longer staple. The Florida Legislature of 1937 passed
an Act making it possible for the freeholders of a county voting in an
election called for that purpose to declare the county closed to short staple
and open only to long staple. Four counties have done that.
The Experiment Station and Extension Service have continued to pro-
vide pure seed, which is no longer obtainable on islands off the coast of
Georgia and South Carolina. The two agencies have cooperated with
growers in areas where no other cotton -is grown, ginned where no other
cotton is ginned, and rogued thoroughly of every off-type plant that could
be found by going over field from two to five times.
Again the Extension Service cooperated with the State and WPA in a
boll weevil control campaign. Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo
made available syrup and calcium arsenate to be applied by pre-square
mopping method as outlined by the WPA entomologist. The WPA fur-
nished labor and supervised the application of poison.
The State Department of Agriculture has again conducted a Sea Island
cotton contest and donated approximately $100.00 in county and state
prizes. The Extension Service has cooperated by receiving the applications
and samples.
Sea Island ginners in Gainesville on June 29 agreed to pay more for
the better cotton, sell on grade, wrap in 400 pound bales and cover with
cotton bagging.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Congress at its last session provided for grade and staple service in
one-variety cotton communities. There were 14 one-variety community
organizations set up and several hundred bales have been graded by agents
of the B. A. E. grade and staple service.
The Extension Service has kept its production and harvesting program
well before the producers. Through meetings, by personal contacts and
circular letters the producers have been advised to plant % bushel of seed
per acre, use kainit and sulfate of ammonia in their fertilizers in the central
part of the state where the soil carries a high phosphatic content, practice
proper spacing, and plant at the most desirable time. A survey is now
under way which will show how well the farmers are following this
program.
The Extension Service by the same methods brought to the attention
of the growers the benefit to be derived by proper preparation-picking,
sorting and drying-before taking Sea Island cotton to the gins. The
ginners also were told what it meant to them to see that it was dry before
ginning. Reports received from grade and staple service indicate that
producers and ginners have done a better job this year in preparing cotton
for ginning. The AAA supplied 5,000 patterns of cotton bagging to wrap
the entire Sea Island cotton crop of Florida this year free of charge to
growers and ginners. Because of bad weather and boll weevil damage
only about 1,800 bales have been ginned.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
By personal contact and in meetings, shifts in fertilizer practices with
flue-cured tobacco were secured this year. On the lighter soils of Lafayette,
Suwannee, Columbia, and Alachua counties, 1,200 pounds of 3-8-5 was rec-
ommended rather than a smaller amount or lower analysis. On the
heavier soils of Madison and Hamilton counties many were persuaded
to use a smaller quantity or less nitrogen in their fertilizer. County
Agent Brothers (Madison) reports that "some farmers used only 1,000
pounds of a 2-8-5 and produced a higher quality of tobacco".
On the average soils 5,500 to 6,000 stalks per acre were recommended.
Much of the tobacco marketed from Florida has been poorly graded.
Hugh M. Taylor, Chief Tobacco Inspector with the Tobacco Section of
the B. A. E., cooperated in conducting a 3-day tobacco grading school
for the agents. Following this and before the market opened the Tobacco
Section assisted the Extension Agronomist and county agents in holding
approximately 45 grading demonstrations. Approximately 50 percent of
the flue cured growers attended the demonstrations.
The Extension Service and the Experiment Station and Plant Board
personnel conducted a campaign to control blue mold in the spring of 1938.
Recommending in addition to proper bed construction the use of spray
of copper oxide or of fumigation with benzol vapor. Eight men were in
the field for several weeks conducting control demonstrations.
An exhibit of government standard grades of Florida tobacco has been
assembled for use at fairs and meetings.







Annual Report, 1938 31


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK

R. W. Blacklock, Boys' Club Agent

Boys' 4-H work continued to increase in volume during 1938. While
the enrollment did not reach the 5,000 mark set as a goal, 401 more boys
were members in 1938 than ever before. Forty-eight of the 56 county
agents enrolled 4,526 different boys who carried 5,740 different projects.
The increased enrollment did not lower percent reporting, which remained
at 53 percent as in 1937.
The most effective method of getting boys' 4-H club work done is to
develop active club organizations in the communities and counties. Since
the adjustment and soil conservation work was added to the duties of the
county agents, only those counties with at least some local organization
have been able to hold club work at all. Counties with the most efficient
local club organizations did more and better club work. Thirty counties
gave an increase in enrollment of 916 while 18 showed a decrease of 515.
The decreases as a rule came in those counties where the soil conservation
program was heaviest and the county agents were unable to give the needed
help to local clubs. There were 244 local clubs in 1938 against 205 in 1937.
The quality of project work as evidenced by yield per acre in the crops
projects continued low. The yield per acre is about 30 percent lower than
in pre-adjustment days when county agents were able to assist club boys
in buying better seed, applying the correct fertilizer, and planning the
demonstration. It appears that livestock projects receive most of the time
the agents can devote to club work. Quality of birds and animals raised
by the club boys was exceptionally high judging from state club exhibits
of swine, poultry and baby beef. The opportunity to show his animals
against the other fellow encourages a boy to do better work.
Table 4 shows the boys available in each county, enrollment, percent
available enrolled, number reporting in 1938 and percent reporting. The
number of boys available was determined by an arbitrary method and
may or may not be approximately correct. In every county in Table 4
with over 25 percent of available boys enrolled a good 4-H club organiza-
tion is functioning. The three counties securing the most reports are
among the best organized in the state.
Experience shows that the higher the percentage of available boys
enrolled in a county the better the work done. The 20 counties securing
60 percent or more reports had an average of 36 percent of available boys
enrolled. These counties had but 41 percent of the available boys in the
state but had 50 percent of the total enrollment and secured 70 percent
of all reports in the state.
There is a decided correlation between time spent by county agents
and results secured as measured by reports. In the 10 counties in which
agents reported highest amount of time spent in club work-an average
of 17.2 percent-1,079 reports were received, which is 44.6 percent of all
reports for the state. These 10 counties had an average of 107.9 reports
from a county and an average of 70 percent reporting.
Regular meetings for local clubs prove an effective way to secure better
work. In the 10 counties in which the largest number of club meetings
were held, 39 percent of all reports for the state were received.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ENROLLMENT SOUGHT FOR 1939
The county agents are getting the adjustment and soil conservation
work under better control and should have a little more time to devote to
4-H work. Our goal is 5,000 boys enrolled in club work and we should
reach it in 1939. It will take but 474 more boys.
TABLE 4.-COUNTIES IN WHICH 60 PERCENT OR MORE OF BOYS ENROLLED
IN CLUB WORK REPORTED ON THEIR PROJECTS.


County


Bay ........................
Charlotte .......-..
Columbia ................
Dixie .......................
Duval ...................
Escambia .............
Gilchrist ................
Highlands .............
Hillsboro ...........
Holmes ..................
Lafayette .............
Madison .................
Orange ...................
Palm Beach............
Pasco ......................
Putnam ..................
St. Johns ................
Sumter ..................
Union ..................
Lake ..................


Boys
Available

68
30
321
89
340
563
172
131
789
595
145
285
620
207
412
269
157
309
174
498


Number
Enrolled

80
19
56
16
185
130
25
20
124
92
25
91
124
141
431
28
61
180
47
421


Total ................ 6,174 2,296


Percent Number
Available Reporting
Enrolled 1938

117 72
63 16
17 40
18 11
54 128
23 79
14 15
15 15
16 89
15 70
17 25
32 54
20 86
68 113
104 371
10 23
39 61
58 162
27 30
85 352


36+ 1,802


Average number boys available per county ................. 309
Average number boys enrolled per county .................... 114
Average percent available enrolled per county .............. 36+
Average number reports per county .............................. 90
Average percent reports per county .............................. 78+

Another goal for 1939 will be to increase number of counties securing
at least 60 percent reports. Records completed constitute the standard
by which county agents are judged on 4-H club performance with 60 per-
cent acceptable, 65 to 80 fair and over 80 percent excellent.

CLUB CAMPS
The 4-H camp has proven so popular that the two camps were unable
to handle all boys and girls wishing to go to club camp. Thanks to the
Cherry Lake Farms and the National Youth Administration another camp
was built last year. This camp is located on Cherry Lake in Madison
County on land donated by the Cherry Lake Farms. The Cherry Lake
Corporation also gave the lumber in an abandoned labor camp. The NYA
furnished labor to salvage the lumber and to build the camps. Several
of the counties from which the club members will attend the camp made
fine donations of cash. The result was a new camp called Cherry Lake
4-H Club Camp. This camp will house 100 with dining room and kitchen


Percent
Reporting

90
84
71
68
69
60
60
75
71
75
100
60
70
72
87
82
100
88
64
83


78+










Annual Report, 1938 33

and auditorium. The camp is equipped with sanitary sewerage and electric
lights.
A much needed auditorium at Camp Timpoochee was built. Two more
cottages were added, bringing the capacity of the camp to 140. The NYA
also contributed labor toward the building at Timpoochee.
Camp McQuarrie was improved and beautified.
In 1938, 1,687 boys and girls enjoyed a week each at one of the 4-H
camps.
W. W. Bassett, Jr., G. T. Huggins and Arthur McNeeley, three former
4-H club boys, were directors at McQuarrie, Cherry Lake and Timpoochee,
respectively.
STATE CONTESTS
State club exhibits were held for hogs, poultry and baby beef. In the
State Pig Club Show at Tallahassee 108 animals were shown, and every
boy but one was present to show his pig. The quality of animals shown
was the best to date
in Florida. The baby -
beef exhibit held in
connection with the
Florida Fat Stock
Show brought out 39
more animals than
were shown the pre-
vious year. A con-
test in judging fat
cattle was held in
which seven counties
were represented r

winning. The State
Poultry Show and
Judging Contest was
held in cooperation
with the Central
Florida Exposition
at Orlando. The
number of birds ex-
hibited increased 50
percent. The judg-
ing contest was en- Fig. 2.--Eward Bradley of Leon County won grand cham-
pionship honors in the fat barrow class at the State 4-H Pig
tered by 12 teams. Club -Show in 1938.
Pasco County boys'
team won and its members were given a trip to the National 4-H Congress
in Chicago. The Florida team was seventh in the national poultry judging
contest. The Bay County team won the dairy demonstration contest for
1938 and represented Florida at the National Dairy Show in Columbus.

COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIPS
Club work not only arouses a desire to go to college but also helps
furnish the means for going. Six boys were awarded Bankers' Associa-
tion scholarships. The Florida Fat Stock Show and the Central Florida
Exposition gave one each. The Model Land Company gave one for a St.
Johns County club boy and the Hastings Potato Growers' Association
gave a $250 scholarship to a boy in the area served by the association.







Florida Cooperative Extension


MISCELLANEOUS UNDERTAKINGS
The enrollment at the 1938 Boys' 4-H Short Course-293-was low be-
cause of a conflict with high school commencements.
Radio has been used to promote club work. WRUF has had an average
of one 4-H club program a month. Florida took part in the National 4-H
Achievement broadcast on the regular November program. Half-hour
programs were supplied for WIOD, WFLA, WJAX and WLAK for this
occasion. The dedication of Camp Cherry Lake was broadcast over WRUF.

STATE WINNERS IN PROJECT WORK
Meat animal production.-Danny Cannon of Pasco County won the
Wilson gold watch.
Baby beef.-Joe Vara of Holmes County repeated by showing the club
champion for the second time. Evan Pattishall of Duval County won
scholarship as outstanding boy with beef calf project for 1938.
Fat barrow.-Edward Bradley of Leon County showed the grand cham-
pion fat barrow and won the trip to Chicago, given by the State Commis-
sioner of Agriculture.
Breeding pig.-Enzor Jordan of Bay County showed the grand cham-
pion breeding pig. Mark Winchester of Leon County won the trip to
Chicago as outstanding pig club boy for 1938.

STATE WINNERS IN LEADERSHIP
Washington Trip.-John D. Campbell of Dade and Leroy Fortner of
Alachua County represented Florida 4-H boys at the 1938 National 4-H
Camp.
Bankers' Scholarship.-With three former winners unable to accept
their scholarships, six bankers' scholarships were offered this year in
place of the usual three. The winners were Wade McCall of Lafayette
and Elmer Fillingim of Escambia for the western district; Dan Roberts
and Leroy Fortner of Alachua for the central district; and Ralph Town-
send of Orange and B. F. Dixon of Sumter for the southern district.

CONTRIBUTORS TO BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad gave a trip to the National 4-H
Camp.
The Florida Bankers' Association gave three $100 scholarships to the
College of Agriculture.
Model Land Company of St. Augustine gave a $100 scholarship to the
College of Agriculture. A St. Johns County boy, Charles Jones, won this.
The Florida Chain Stores Association gave $300 to pay expenses of the
winning county poultry judging team to the National 4-H Club Congress.
Jack Prator, Norman Rasmussen and Seth Plank of Pasco County were
the winners.
The Hastings Potato Growers' Association offered a $250 scholarship
to the College of Agriculture to a club boy in St. Johns, Putnam and Flag-
ler counties. Jack Flake of St. Johns County won.
The Central Florida Exposition gave a $100 scholarship to the College
of Agriculture to the outstanding contestant in the State Poultry Judging
Contest. Seth Plank of Pasco County won this.
The Florida Fat Stock Show at Jacksonville $100 scholarship to the
outstanding baby beef member was won by Evan Pattishall of Duval.
Sears, Roebuck and Company have been most liberal donors. Their
Orlando store put out 1,000 day old chicks in each of six counties. They







Annual Report, 1938


have contributed to special prizes at fairs and contests. This company
sponsored a showing of "Under the 4-H Flag" in many counties of the
state.
Judge Hal W. Adams of Mayo gave an inspirational dinner in Gaines-
ville for the outstanding club boy and girl of each of the nine counties
in his circuit. County and home agents and club leaders attended.


Fig. 3.-Outstanding club boys and girls of nine counties attended a banquet in their honor
given by Judge Hal W. Adams of Mayo.

Service clubs throughout the state have given many prizes for county
contests and for camps. County commissioners have contributed to build-
ing camps and for county contests. Public spirited citizens of Florida have
contributed time and money toward the promotion of boys' club work.

OUTSTANDING 4-H CLUB WORK
In a study of 4-H club work in Florida for 1938 the most outstanding
thing is the part contributed by former 4-H club boys now serving as
county agents or assistants. J. A. McClellan as agent in Pasco County
and W. W. Bassett as assistant agent in Lake County have 852 out of
4,526 in enrollment and have 723 out of the 2,414 reporting. W. J. Platt
in Sumter and John Hentz in Bay County have 88 and 90 percent reports.







36 Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS CULTURE

E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist

The work herein reported on has been conducted by the citriculturist
and county agents in 26 citrus counties. Assistance has been given by
the district agents, members of the Experiment Station staff, the Federal
State Horticultural Protection Service, the State Plant Board, specialists
of the Extension Service of the United States Department of Agriculture,
representatives of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and of the
Farm Credit Administration. Very constructive cooperation has been re-
ceived from the Florida Citrus Commission; the Florida Citrus Exchange;
the Dolomite Products Corporation; Florida Citrus Growers, Incorporated,
including their 20 county units; production managers of cooperative asso-
ciations; "fertilizer companies; and commercial insecticide company repre-
sentatives.
FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE PROGRAM
The total investment in the citrus industry of 25 counties is estimated
at about one-half billion dollars. A large percentage of the people en-
gaged in citrus fruit production derive all or a major portion of their
total income from the sale of citrus fruits. Many thousands employed
in allied industries also depend almost entirely upon returns from the sale
of the citrus crop for employment and an income for their services.
Low returns are forcing on the industry changes in production practices
and marketing methods in an effort to both lower the cost of the fruit to
the consumer, and thereby increase consumption, and increase returns to
the grower, possibly giving him something above the cost of production.
It is imperative that every unnecessary cost in production and marketing
be eliminated and that the efficiency of every ,essential operation be in-
creased to the highest possible degree.

FERTILIZING
The largest single item of cost in producing citrus fruits is for fertilizer.
While this cost has been greatly reduced during the last 10 years, at the
same time other cost items have been reduced and it still constitutes 30
to 60 percent of the total material and labor cost of production. Unless
research can find the way, the industry cannot hope to make sufficient
further reduction in the $6,000,000 annual fertilizer bill to affect material
savings in the unit cost of production.
With few exceptions, yields of Florida citrus groves cannot be kept
profitable without the use of commercial fertilizer. Declining prices have
naturally caused growers to reduce cash expenditures on the grove, and
this reduction usually affects the fertilizer cost first. This in turn results
in lowering the yield and thereby often reducing the income more than
the amount saved on the fertilizer cost. Maintaining fertilizer practices
at the most profitable level becomes largely a matter of individual grove
management, because of the wide variation in soils and other basic pro-
duction factors. Consequently, a large portion of the time of Extension
Service men has been devoted to working out more efficient fertilizing
programs and practices for individual groves or local conditions. Improved
fertilizer practices have been developed and followed on 1,900 groves.
Research has recently brought out the fact that the efficiency of the
fertilizer applied can be maintained at a higher degree by. maintaining







Annual Report, 1938


the soil reaction of the naturally acid citrus grove soils within the range
of pH 5.8 to 6.2. In establishing this standard, soil acid tests were made
on 1,223 groves representing 13,248 acres, and magnesium lime was recom-
mended and used where needed.


Fig. 4.-Soil testers are playing an increasingly important part in the production of
citrus fruits in Florida. The county agent above has conducted numerous informative
soils demonstrations.

Research of recent years has established the fact that, on a large per-
centage of the grove acreage of Florida, the application of plantfood
elements other than N-P-K is essential in the maintenance of tree vitality
and in maximum production of quality fruit. Recommendations have been
followed in 3,350 groves of a total acreage of 25,924, in treatments of
magnesium, zinc and copper deficiencies, resulting from 250 demonstrations
in 20 counties.
COVER CROPS
An adequate supply of organic matter is recognized as the chief prob-
lem in citrus fruit production in Florida, especially on the sandier ridge
soils. The basic and most economical method of supplying this needed
organic matter is by growing cover crops in the grove and returning the
material to the soil. Growing a cover crop in the grove during the season
of excess rainfall not only produces a supply of much needed organic
matter but the growing crop uses excess soil water, reduces leaching of
soluble plantfood carriers, and is beneficial as a temperature equalizer
by shading the soil during periods of high temperature. The growing
of leguminous cover crops has the very important added advantage of
supplying nitrogen by fixation.
The growing of better grove cover crops, particularly the legumes,
has been greatly stimulated by the AAA Soil Conservation Program.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Reports from 25 counties show that cover crops were grown in 17,303
groves, with a total acreage of 322,992. Counties report increases of
100% to 500% in the acreage of legume cover crops. Reduced cash
income, resulting from declining fruit prices, is forcing growers to rely
more upon nitrogen fixed by legumes as one source of supply. Reductions
in the cost of the fertilizer have been reported as a result of growing
cover crops of crotalaria on soils adapted to this legume. Savings in
fertilizer cost, and improvement in tree conditions, have been brought
to the attention of 600 growers by grove tours and field meetings; 575
growers have been assisted in the purchase of cover crop seed; and 1,050
have been directed in improved methods of seeding and handling the crop.

FRENCHING CONTROL
Frenching, a zinc deficiency disease of citrus trees of major import-
ance, found in a large percentage of the groves of the state only a few
years ago, is rapidly disappearing along with the universal adoption of
approved measures of correction and control.
During the last few years the results of spraying frenched trees with
5 pounds zinc sulfate and 2/2 pounds hydrated lime to 100 gallons of
water, lime-sulfur or bordeaux mixture, have been so outstanding that
the practice has gained universal recognition. Ample demonstrations have
driven home the fact that frenching can be prevented by applying annually
3 pounds zinc sulfate, 11/ pounds lime, in combination with bordeaux or
one of the sulfur sprays. By improving the soil management and main-
taining the pH at about 6.0, the zinc supply in the soil can be usefully
conserved and effectively replenished by light soil applications from time
to time.
Printed instructions for the use of zinc in correcting and preventing
frenching have been mailed or delivered in person to more than 10,000
citrus growers. Many others have been reached through newspaper articles
and radio talks.
While no effort has been made to appraise the value of frenching control
of citrus, the statement is often heard from leading growers that dis-
coveries of methods of control of two deficiency diseases-frenching and
bronze leaf-have given a new lease of life to the growing of pineapple
oranges in the state.
BRONZE LEAF
While bronze leaf, a magnesium deficiency disease of citrus trees, may
continue to be of major importance, it is yielding to corrective measures
and is rapidly losing its place as a limiting factor in production in groves
where approved measures of control have been adopted as a definite part
of the fertilizing program.
It is noted that magnesium deficiency is more prevalent in the seedy
varieties of both oranges and grapefruit, and that the bronze leaf symp-
toms appear in the late summer and early fall as the leaves are robbed
of their magnesium content which is taken into the fruit, particularly
the seeds, in the maturing processes. To correct or prevent the disease.
magnesium must be supplied; to maintain an available supply of mag-
nesium in the most practicable manner, the soil pH must be maintained
around 6.0. The desirable soil pH in the citrus grove is more safely
maintained by the use of dolomite, which at the same time supplies mag-
nesium slowly. For quicker action, magnesium sulfate is often used as
a supplement in correcting the disease in advanced stages, also on soils
of a high pH. Thus it is seen that soil acid tests are essential in estab-
lishing a basis for proper treatment. During the past year 1,223 such








Annual Report, 1938


tests were made in 21 counties and the results used as a basis for rec-
ommending the use of dolomite on a total of 21,742 acres. Fifty demon-
strations in the use of dolomite for bronze leaf have been continued from
previous years, with splendid results and no accumulative injurious effects.

CULTIVATION
In a large percentage of citrus groves there is still opportunity to
effect direct savings in production costs as well as improve the quality
of the fruit by following a production program that involves less cultiva-
tion. This fact has been further established by 125 demonstrations in
19 counties, and has been emphasized in 76 news stories and radio talks.
The recommended practices are: (a) In non-bearing groves, cutivate
only a strip along the tree row throughout the growing season. This
gives opportunity to grow the maximum cover crop; (b) plow or disk
bearing groves in the fall just enough to incorporate the cover crop
with the soil sufficiently to eliminate the fire hazard of the dry cover
crop material; (c) in the spring, adapt cultivation to needs in seeding
the cover crop and protecting the young crop after it comes up.
High efficiency in fertilizing will not tolerate excessive cultivation.
Nutrient deficiency diseases are aggravated by excessive or improper cul-
tivation.
IRRIGATION
In nine years out of 10 inadequate rainfall causes more or less drought
injury to trees and dropping of fruit. This results in weak or dead twigs
and branches, followed by an increase in melanose and stem-end rot. The
resulting low quality of fruit, particularly with reference to decay, presents
a major problem in marketing by giving Florida fruit the reputation of
poor keeping quality.
In an increasing number of groves drought injury is being overcome
by irrigation. During.the severe drought of last spring demands upon
the Extension Service for assistance with grove irrigation problems were
unusually heavy. In addition to assisting 168 growers in purchasing irri-
gation equipment, 153 were assisted in making changes in old plants to
render them more adequate and efficient. Improved practices in applying
irrigation water were followed on 7,083 acres.
MELANOSE CONTROL
Melanose is the most difficult and most expensive to control of all the
major grade-lowering factors of citrus fruits. The low fruit prices of
last April and May so lessened grower interest in melanose control that
comparatively little spraying was done. It so happened that the drought
conditions made it very unfavorable for the development and spread of
melanose, and consequently it turned out to be "a light melanose year",
one in which results from spraying are not so evident.
Full instructions for melanose control are contained in the "Better
Fruit Program", distributed to more than 10,000 growers by the State
Citrus Commission. Preventive measures were followed about as usual
-pruning out dead wood; fertilizing so as to maintain high tree vitality;
conservative cultivation; and irrigation. Along these lines all growers
were informed through the press, by radio talks, in grower meetings, and
by direct mail.
SCALE CONTROL
As the problem of scale control is amplified by copper spraying for
melanose control, perhaps less oil was applied this year than usual. How-
ever, in many cases the carry-over of scale from previous years presented








40 Florida Cooperative Extension

a problem which warranted attention. It is noted that there is a tendency
on the part of spraying crews in their rush to get over the grove to fail
to cover thoroughly all parts of the tree with the oil or concentrated lime-
sulfur spray. For that reason 11 method demonstrations in the proper
technique of spraying for scale control were conducted, beginning with
one at the Citrus Experiment Station for county agents, production man-
agers of cooperative associations, and commercial field men. More than
200 leaders in pest control attended these demonstrations.

RUST MITE CONTROL
The economic importance of rust mite control is universally accepted,
and control measures are relatively inexpensive and almost fool-proof.
It is necessary, however, to keep before growers all improvements in
rust mite control methods developed by research. This was done very
effectively by direct mail, through grower meetings, and by press articles
and radio talks.
The Citriculturist served on a state committee which revised the spray
and dust schedules for rust mite control the first of the year. Through
the office of the citriculturist and 22 county agents, copies of these revised
schedules were distributed to approximately 15,000 citrus fruit growers.
The program was presented to growers in one or more meetings in each
of 22 counties.
Throughout the year (rust mite control is a year-round fight) the im-
portance of rust mite control and every phase of the latest methods were
kept constantly before growers. Every citrus-producing area of the state
has taken part. Results as evidenced by appearance of the fruit are highly
satisfactory.
ORGANIZATION
The goal has been exceeded in organization work this year. Twenty-
three counties have been organized into 21 county units, two small counties
combining with other counties. Each county unit is composed of one to
11 community units, and is affiliated in a state organization of more than
5,000 members under the name of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
This organization, grower constituted and controlled, functioning through
regular standing committees, is dealing with problems of production, mar-
keting, transportation and legislation, and is carrying out an educational
program with its members covering every phase of the industry.
This organization is the result of years of educational work of the
Extension Service, and the growing recognition on the part of growers of
the need of organized grower influence in directing the industry. Cooperat-
ing with the organization leaders, the Extension Service had no small part
in making the direct organization efforts a success. First, educational
meetings were conducted in all leading citrus counties, in which informa-
tion on production and marketing was presented in a manner to give a
correct perspective of the economic picture of the industry as a whole
and of Florida in particular. Leaders in Orange organized the first county
unit. Lake County, organized several years ago, came into the state
organization. Extension workers assisted by calling meetings of growers
and arranging for meeting places and facilities for the state organization
committee. Further assistance has been rendered by working with the
program committees of the community and county units as well as the
state organization in preparing appropriate educational programs for regu-
lar monthly and special meetings. A list of subjects and speakers has
been provided from which choice is made by the program committee for
meetings from time to time.







Annual Report, 1938


MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES
Grove Visits.-Five hundred and thirty grove visits were reported for
the year. This is considerable reduction in number from the previous
year, and has resulted in fewer demonstrations. The numerous details of
the Agricultural Conservation Program have made it necessary for county
agents to shape their general program for less field work. However, the
tabular summary shows 22 percent more office calls and contacts with
reference to extension than were reported the previous year. It likewise
shows 67 percent more meetings held. These facts reflect results of or-
ganization and organized effort which have shown a very large increase
during the year.
Growers' Institute.-The fourth annual Citrus Growers' Institute was
held at Camp McQuarrie, Lake County, in September. The institute
lasted four days, and was attended by more than 350 citrus growers from
11 counties. Extension workers were assisted in presenting the programs
by members of the teaching division of the College of Agriculture, the
Experiment Station staff, members of Congress, representatives of vari-
ous organizations of the citrus industry, and growers. All phases of
the industry were represented in the discussions. The proceedings were
mimeographed and made available in one volume to a large number of
growers.
Trip to the Markets.-As a result of efforts to protect the declining
income from groves by various methods of increasing yield per acre and
thereby lowering production cost per box the average size of the orange
is increased. During the past few years there has been a tendency for
the trade to increase the discounts on these larger sizes. Upon examining
the returns of a mid-season pool of a large packing organization this year,
it was found that, for every dollar the grower received for the 250s he
received 41 cents for the 150s and 26 cents for the 126s. Since the last
two sizes represented 24.5% of the fruit in that pool, in which oranges
were sold by the dozen, it was evident that the small sizes were preferred
because the keen competition among retail dealers created a demand for
the smallest sizes, giving the largest number of dozens to the box, so that
they could be sold at the lowest price per dozen.
In tests conducted in selling oranges by weight, in which the con-
sumer's attention was called to the fact that the different sizes contained
the same quantity of juice per pound, preference seemed to lean toward
the larger sizes because "it takes less work to get the same quantity of
juice-fewer oranges to squeeze".
The study was carried into cities in Virginia where several stores were
visited in which oranges were being sold by weight. In these stores, 91
percent of the offerings of oranges were 200s and larger; whereas in the
stores visited in North Carolina in which oranges were sold by the dozen,
74 percent of their offerings were 200s and smaller.
Test sales were conducted in which the juice content appeal was
successfully used with the advertising slogan: "10 pounds Florida oranges
any size more than 2 quarts pure juice". Also the price of oranges by
the pound was compared with that of other fruits and vegetables, giving
the consumer opportunity for direct comparison.
To stimulate more interest in further consideration of selling oranges
by weight and thereby possibly eliminate the unjustified size discounts,
a report on the preliminary studies referred to was given in an informal
address, which was taken down by a stenographer, printed and distributed
by the Florida Citrus Exchange.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Information from Texas and Mexico.-It is helpful in dealing with either
production or marketing problems to keep before the producer of grape-
fruit in Florida the correct picture of the position of the Texas grapefruit
grower in competition with Florida and in the industry as a whole.
Therefore, to obtain first-hand information on the production and market-
ing of Texas grapefruit, the Citriculturist went into the citrus area of
Texas in August, on his vacation time and at no expense to the Extension
Service, and made a study of conditions and developments. He also visited
the citrus-producing areas of Mexico and made observations on disease
and insect conditions, varieties and new plantings-especially of limes.
A Florida grapefruit grower can but marvel at the low cost of fertilizing
and disease and insect control in Texas. It is also noted that the Texas
growers have advanced further along the line of cooperation and orderly
marketing.
In many respects the present attitude and practices of the Texas grape-
fruit grower are quite different from those found upon a visit in 1925.
Previously, his program of production reflected scientific considerations
in the control of insects and diseases, in irrigation, cultivation, and fer-
tilization; at the present time, the attitude toward the trees seems to be,
treat 'em rough and let 'em go. The favorable condition of the trees,
with few exceptions; the enormous increase in production of the last few
years and the quality of the fruit, all lead one very close to the point of
accepting their rough treatment policies.
Better Fruit Program.-The Citriculturist served on the advisory com-
mittee of the Florida Citrus Commission which prepared the material
for publication of the spray and dust schedules of the Better Fruit Pro-
gram, for 1938. This program was published by the Florida Citrus Com-
mission in sufficient numbers to supply every citrus grower of the state,
and largely distributed by the Extension Service. The same committee
provided the material and edited the copy of Citrus Insects, Diseases and
Deficiencies, which was also published by the Florida Citrus Commission
and distributed to citrus growers largely by the Extension Service.







Annual Report, 1938


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Walter J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman

Extension animal husbandry work covers beef cattle, hogs, sheep, and
workstock in principal producing counties. The beef cattle and hog work
is very definitely coordinated with other phases of extension, such as
agronomy, dairying, 4-H clubs, and home economics; and with work of
the College of Agriculture, the Experiment Station, and Bureau of Animal
Industry. Cooperation is rendered state and county fairs, livestock shows
and sales, and other state agencies and private interests to further the
educational work for a more efficient livestock industry.

BEEF CATTLE SITUATION
The paucity of breeders of purebred beef animals in the state has added
to the difficulties of securing bulls for commercial herds. Nine years ago
there were only five purebred breeders in the state and no bull dealers.
Today there are about 15 men raising purebred cattle and others raising
high grade bulls and growing them out for sale. There are also dealers
bringing in bulls from other sections to sell to commercial cattlemen.

BEEF HERD IMPROVEMENT
Bulls in this and other states have been located for Florida cattlemen.
Local purebred breeders were encouraged to grow out the most promising
bulls to secure the best available bulls to head their herds, and to develop
a source of breeding animals so that they could furnish bulls to commercial
beef men. The local breeders have been able to dispose of every bull
produced.
This season about 825 bulls have found new homes in herds; 200 pure-
bred cows and 4,000 good breeding cows were placed; 75 new herds were
started; about 12,000 culled cows were sent to market. Two hundred and
seventeen farmers are growing out 3,392 heifers for herd replacement.
Two hundred selected bulls were grown out in one county for the range
trade. Selected heifers from purebred bulls weigh 100 pounds more as
yearlings than average range raised heifers.
Swift and Company, Moultrie, Georgia, who buy many thousands of
Florida cattle, furnish the following information on Florida cattle killed
in this plant:
Average Weight Quality or Grade
1925 1937 1925 1937
Calves ................................. 175 240 Common Fair and Medium
Yearlings -.................... 325 400 Common Fair and Plain
Two-year-old steers ............ 375 475 Common Fair and Plain
Cows .............................. 450 550 Common Common
HERD MANAGEMENT
It was pointed out that climate and habits of growth of grass in Florida
result in calves dropped early in the spring having a much better chance
to develop into proper animals than late calves. Especially is this true
since the advent of the screw worm. Therefore, through the county agents'
offices and through circular letters from this office and county agents'
offices, through news articles, radio talks, personal visits, and meetings,
herd management plans were outlined such as the selection of the best
cows in the herd for breeding purposes, winter feeding of bulls, controlled








Florida Cooperative Extension


breeding, and the use of purebred bulls-three to four bulls to each 100 cows.
Farm tours were conducted to show results of well managed herds. Demon-
strations were given in culling cows and sending them to market. Cattlemen
were urged to select and develop the most promising heifers sired by
purebred bulls and from best producing cows for herd replacement and
to protect and grow out these heifers to full maturity before breeding.
Seven hundred and four calves were sold in one sale at weights from
178 to 264 pounds, priced from $4.50 to $7.25 per cwt. Fifty-five of these
calves were dropped early in the year from selected cows and purebred
bulls and weighed heavier by 50 pounds than the ordinary range calves
and topped the sale at $7.25. No other group of calves has sold as well.
At this sale 112 yearlings were sold at from $4.75 to $6.35. Fifty-five
yearling steers from select cows and purebred bulls topped the sale at
$6.35. Yearling steers from this herd have topped the sale every time
they have been offered.
CALF CROP
In every meeting of cattlemen whether on pasture, marketing, or breed-
ing, it was pointed out that the annual calf crop must bear the expense
of the entire beef operation. It was shown that methods of herd manage-
ment, selection, feed and water supplies, and mineral deficiencies affect
the percentage of the calf crop and consequently the income from the cattle
operation. It was pointed out that early spring calves get full benefit
of a year's growth of grass, attain greater growth their first year, are
able to stand their first winter better, and develop into better producing
cows than do late calves. Early spring calves suffer less from screw worm
infestation and the expense and loss is much less than with late calves.
It was also pointed out that cows that drop calves early in the spring
go through the following winter in better condition and breed more regu-
larly than those that drop late calves. There is less mortality from
winter starvation.
The calf crop from herds under controlled breeding is much greater,
the calves grow out better as shown above, and less screw worm infesta-
tion is suffered. An Alachua cattleman reports that he bred 110 select
cows in one herd and that 104 calves were dropped and saved. Reports
on calf crops show: Under controlled breeding, 65% to 80%, with a few
reporting 90%; under no control, 35% to 650% with a few as low as 20%.

MINERAL DEFICIENCIES
Using information developed by the Florida Experiment Station and
other agencies, cattlemen were advised to furnish their cattle with minerals
to get. full benefit from the grass, to get a calf crop, and to obtain a
revenue from the range and pasture.

PARASITES
Information with reference to parasite control was furnished and special
attention was called to the best proven methods for handling screw worm
infestation. This work has saved the cattlemen from a number of losses.

PASTURE WORK
In 1932, the Extension Animal Husbandman with District Agent W. T.
Nettles, was able to induce a Marion Codnty cattleman to mow a pasture.
His results were so favorable that a campaign for cutting weeds was
launched which has continued with good results. Stress has been laid
on weed control and giving the grass a chance.







Annual Report, 1938


In connection with the Soil Conservation work there has been a decided
increase in pasture development-both improvement and establishment.
Pastures have been established on lands that had previously grown brushes
and unproductive grasses.
In pasture work there has been close cooperation with the Extension
Agronomist and the Experiment Station in methods of preparation and
kinds of grasses suitable to various soils and climatic conditions. Seeds
have been located for cattlemen and instructions given with reference to
preparing land, sowing seed, and handling pasture.

FEEDER STEERS
For the last few years attempts have been made to grow feeder steers
for the Eastern market. Two years ago a number of black steers from
Pensacola went to Kentucky and gave a good account of themselves. A
little later a group of Kissimmee Valley steers went into North Carolina.
This year more than 200 feeder steers from the Kissimmee Valley went
into Ohio.
Assistance has been rendered in obtaining feeder steers for the shade
tobacco growers in northern Florida and for 4-H club boys. The popularity
of selling early calves as veal has interfered with the steer market and
made steers rather scarce.

FINISHING CATTLE FOR MARKET
Three classes of cattle have gone to market from this area, grass-fat
steers, calves, and cows. Since Florida is a deficiency feed grain area,
there are only a limited number of farms on which 4-H club boys and
cattlemen can economically finish cattle for the market year after year.
There are two objects in finishing steers in the feed lot: First, as a
farm operation in the general farming counties; second, to demonstrate
that Florida steers will finish into good beef and to aid in developing
a feeder cattle trade (of Florida steers) with cattle feeders in other states.

4-H CLUB WORK WITH CATTLE
Four-H club work with cattle is divided into beef production and finish-
ing for market. Early in the spring of 1935, through the cooperation of
FERA, 48 cows were secured for 25 boys for establishing breeding herds.
Some of the boys had bad luck, two of them lost both of their cows and
another lost one. But most of the boys still have their cows. One boy,
M. C. Leslie of Madison County, used his animals to make money to attend
the College of Agriculture. He has disposed of his herd and is now in
college on the money.

CATTLE AT FAIRS AND SHOWS
The Fat Stock Show and Sale at Jacksonville has been a noticeable in-
fluence for good in the cattle development of the state. The show has
demonstrated the fact that well-bred Florida cattle will finish into high
quality butcher animals. This show and sale has been responsible, in
large measure, for many inquiries for feeder cattle received from feed
grain producing areas. In addition to advertising Florida cattle to other
sections, the Fat Stock Show and Sale has taught Florida beef producers
that they must produce good grade animals if they hope to sell feeders
or if they hope to feed steers at a profit.
This, one of the most largely attended shows in the state, is staged
by a number of cooperative agencies including the Extension Service.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The South Florida Fair is mainly a breeders' show in which purebred
and high grade Florida cattle of various beef breeds are exhibited. Florida
exhibitors have had heavy demand for bulls and most of them have in-
creased their herds and gone out of state to buy extra bulls to supply
the demand.




















Fig. 5.-The beef cattle industry in Florida has made rapid
and marked progress during the past few years. The Fat Stock
Show in Jacksonville, held annually by a number of cooperat-
ing agencies, has stimulated progress and attracted entries such
as the two steers shown above.

MARKETING WORK WITH CATTLE
For a number of years there has been agitation for changing methods
of marketing in the Southeast, especially with hogs. Last year there
were two meetings in Georgia of all interested parties-packers, dealers.
farmers, Extension Service representatives from Alabama, Georgia, and
Florida, market men, and a few others. This meeting, due to dissension,
failed to work out any plans. This year the Extension Services of Alabama,
Florida, and Georgia met with the packers of these states and agreed
on marketing hogs on a quality as well as weight basis. This plan was
put before a general meeting of the three states and accepted. Now the
packers will pay for quality as well as weight in hogs and farmers who
produce quality hogs will benefit.

LIVESTOCK DISEASE CONTROL AND QUARANTINE
Outbreaks of livestock diseases are reported to the State Veterinarian
and to the Experiment Station with requests for help in checking them
and information on prevention and treatment. In many cases the Exten-
sion Animal Husbandman takes the veterinarian with him to look over
the premises and help work out plans of control.
This office and a number of the county agents have cooperated with
the State Live Stock Sanitary Board with reference to preventing the
spread of diseases from livestock auction markets.
Last January Georgia placed a quarantine prohibiting Florida cattle
from coming into or passing through that state. The Extension Animal
Husbandman, with Honorable Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture,







Annual Report, 1938


Dr. J. V. Knapp, State Veterinarian, P. E. Williams, president of the
State Cattlemen's Association, L. H. Lewis of the State Marketing Bureau,
and cattlemen from the local county livestock associations, appeared before
the Georgia officials in Atlanta and worked out an agreement whereby
the quarantine was lifted.

SWINE SITUATION
Hogs fit well into the general farming area in the peanut producing
counties and are a main cash crop on many farms, with a total annual
value of approximately $4,500,000.
Formerly, packers penalized Florida hogs on light weights, poor quality.
and parasite infestation. Too little attention has been given to selection
of the proper type breeding animals, feed production, and parasite and
disease control. Too many under-sized, worm-infested pigs have been
produced.
BREEDING AND SELECTION
The number of pigs raised per litter seriously affects hog profits.
Type and quality also have a bearing on the swine enterprise. Inheritance
plays an important part in both. Therefore, it is pointed out to producers
that the economical plan is to select breeding stock from proper type
hogs and from those families that habitually produce large litters.
Aiding in this breeding and selection work, this office in cooperation
with county agents acted somewhat as a clearinghouse for distributing
information on where to find good boars and gilts.

FEED AND FORAGE FOR HOGS
A complete yearly cycle of economically produced forage and feed crops
greatly facilitates the hog work since the greater part of the cost of hog
production is for feed. Producers were urged to interplant corn with
peanuts and to close-space peanuts in the drill for the maximum feed
per acre (pork per acre).

SWINE PARASITE AND DISEASE CONTROL
Parasite infestation causes loss of pigs and makes many little pigs
"runts" and more feed is consumed for 100 pounds gain on hogs. It also
causes loss in livers and casings when the hogs are slaughtered. Hence,
farmers were especially urged to produce healthy pigs by having sows
farrow on cultivated land.
Cholera takes each year a toll from the hog industry. County agents
have aided farmers in immunizing their hogs against this disease. This
office and the county agents have cooperated with the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board and their veterinarians in controlling cholera and other
diseases.
MARKETING HOGS
The ultimate end of swine work is hogs to meet market demands.
County agents have aided in fitting hogs for market and keeping producers
advised on market prices of hogs during the seasons. They have assisted
in organizing and strengthening cooperative swine sales associations and
in keeping these organizations in touch with packers and killers and
advised of market demands. They have cooperated with all market agen-
cies in facilitating the hog market situation.
In cooperation with producers and the bureaus of marketing of this
state and Georgia and Alabama, the Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
established an office at Thomasville, Georgia, in September of this year..







Florida Cooperative Extension


From there they issue daily hog market news reports for the peanut hog
producing areas of Florida, Georgia, and Alabama.
Three years ago a livestock auction market was opened in Gainesville.
A year later one was opened at Live Oak and, last year one at Tallahassee
which ran only a short time and re-opened this fall; also, one at Marianna
and one at DeFuniak Springs. This year livestock auction markets were
opened at Kissimmee, Palatka, and Bushnell, making a total of seven
livestock auction markets. One opened at Jacksonville for a little while
this fall but closed for lack of support. There are two others in the
making at Arcadia and Labelle.
The Gulf Cooperative Hog Marketing Association of Trenton has been
operating since 1926 and is still doing a wonderful piece of work not only
in marketing hogs but in aiding to improve the quality of hogs produced
in its trade area.
The Calhoun County Cooperative Hog Marketing Association serves
the farmers of that county and has aided in building up the hog industry
from one to two cars of hogs per year to better than 50 cars per year.
At Crestview, the Extension Animal Husbandman this year aided the
County Agent and his farmers in organizing the Okaloosa Cooperative
Marketing Association. They have held four sales.
At Chipley, the Extension Animal Husbandman aided in the reorganiza-
tion of the Washington Cooperative Swine Growers' Marketing Association.

HOG SHOWS AND SALES
On May 31 the Gulf Cooperative Hog Marketing Association held the
first hog sale in the Southeast at which hogs were sold on a quality basis.
The hogs in this sale were graded according to finish and conformation
rather than on a strict weight basis.
To encourage fitting hogs for the early market three fat hog shows
and sales were held this season, at Quincy, Trenton, and Ocala. The Gulf
Cooperative Hog Marketing Association of Trenton sold more than 200
finished hogs along with a string of good feeder pigs. There were 42
barrows in the individual barrow class with 33 pens of three's along
with litters consisting of six to nine finished hogs, all weighing 180 pounds
and up. These shows and sales were put on with the help and cooperation
of the State Department of Agriculture.
There is a definite trend toward improving the quality and weight of
Florida hogs as shown by records. According to agricultural economics
records for the period 1927 to 1931, of 69,422 Florida hogs going to market,
only 23 percent weighed 160 pounds and up and graded common.
The Gulf association handles annually 12,000 to 20,000 hogs. During
the season 1926-27, only 30 percent of their hogs weighed 160 pounds and
up. For the season 1936-37, 65% to 70% of the hogs weighed 160 pounds
and over.
CURING MEAT FOR HOME SUPPLY
Annually, approximately 40,000,000 pounds of pork is slaughtered on
Florida farms for home consumption. In this warm climate the "cold
spells" are too short to cure meat successfully; hence, there is a great
spoilage.
Many farmers use excessive amounts of salt in an effort to hasten
the cure, with the result that much home-cured meat is over-cured, too
salty, and must be soaked in water before cooking.
In 1931 the Extension Animal Husbandman, through the help of K. F.
Warner of the Bureau of Animal Industry and in cooperation with the
county agents, began work on curing meats for home use by a mild







Annual Report, 1938


formula, 8-2-2 (8 pounds salt, 2 pounds sugar, 2 ounces saltpeter per 100
pounds of meat), and using cold storage. Meat cutting and curing demon-
strations have been put on in the various counties. Many of the county
agents now hold these demonstrations of their own accord.
Cold storage curing of meat is on the increase. Only 42 of the 56
curing houses reported on the number of pounds of meat cured this last
season, these 42 houses reporting over 5,000,000 pounds. New mechanical
curing houses began operations this fall-two at Plant City, one at Mac-
clenny, one at Greenville, and one at Fort White.
WORKSTOCK
Throughout the general farming area much of the workstock is old
and inefficient. Each year dealers sell hundreds of "plug" mules and
horses into this state. Many farmers could raise a colt or two for re-
placement. These home-raised colts would be much more satisfactory
than the average mule on Florida markets. There is need for a farm
mule supply and for a more efficient feeding and care of workstock.
This office answers many inquiries regarding mares, jacks, and colts
and regarding the feeding and care of workstock. We have cooperated
with county agents and Farm Security representatives in securing jacks
and mares. This year three jacks have been placed in Suwannee, Holmes
and Escambia counties.

RIDING HORSES AND COW PONIES
This office has located stallions for farmers in Alachua, Polk, Marion,
Osceola, Highlands, and Palm Beach counties. J. R. Gunn, County Agent
of Osceola, reports 11 demonstrations in raising saddle horses for cow
work.







Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRYING
Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman

There are three types of dairying in Florida. One is the family cow,
found on the majority of farms in all counties. There are probably about
30,000 milk cows in this type of dairy.
Second come the market milk dairies, which have about 50,000 cows.
The milk produced on these farms is for sale in towns, cities, and other
consumer markets to be used as fresh fluid milk. There are some 1,400
dairies producing market milk in Florida.
Third, in the purely agricultural sections usually some distance from
a large consuming center, milk is produced to be used as by-products such
as butter, cheese, condensed milk, and milk powders.
The production of forage is the limiting factor in the development of
all these types of dairies. Florida is regarded as a milk deficiency area
and, on a large number of farms throughout the state during the season
when the natural forage crops are not available, there is a general lack
of milk.
It is estimated that only 35 percent of the market milk producers have
adequate acreage in permanent pastures and only 20 percent produce
sufficient silage. On farms producing milk for cheese plants, creameries,
or condenseries, grazing and silage crops should form the major part of
the cow feed. Production of milk on farms in Florida during 1934
amounted to 29,386,525 gallons, according to the United States Census
report for 1935.
Bang's disease eradication during the past four years has been an
important factor affecting the extension program. The infection among
market milk herds was 27 percent in 1933. This has been reduced to
below 1 percent for November 1938. The slaughter and replacement of
3,000 to 5,000 cows a year made it necessary to delay a herd improve-
ment program. However, all of this educational work has served to
emphasize the importance of raising herd replacements within the state
and the great need of a constructive feeding and breeding program.

FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS
Quality of forage feeds probably is one of the greatest needs on Florida
farms to develop the dairy industry. Therefore, special attention has
been given to the fertilization of feed and forage crops for dairy cows
in Florida in recent years. Special attention has been given to supple-
menting dairy fertilizer with phosphate, lime, and potash with the readily
available nitrates to growing crops.
Bay County farmers purchased 316 tons of tri-calcium phosphate for
forage growing on dairy farms. Duval County farmers used over 900
tons of ground limestone in 1938 in fertilizing White Dutch clover. At
least 400 pounds of superphosphate and 100 to 150 pounds of sulfate of
potash were added to each acre of corn for silage grown in Duval. Four
hundred pounds per acre of 16 percent superphosphate applied to raw
ground when seeded to carpet grass means the difference between good
stand and no stand in the production of carpet grass. Over 3,000 acres
of pasture lands were fertilized in 1938 in Duval, 2,000 in Leon. Dade
County more than doubled the yield of sorghum and corn for silage and
greatly improved the quality for milk production.







Annual Report, 1938


Several years testing of various fertilizers has resulted in the estab-
lishment of pastures on Palm Beach County soils that give economical
returns in milk production.
Through the cooperation of the county agents, the University of Florida
is conducting cooperative fertilizer tests on winter clovers throughout the
central counties of Florida, setting up fertilizer experimental plots. Her-
nando County had 38 demonstrations seeded in the fall of 1938 with White
Dutch clover fertilized with 2,000 pounds of Florida limestone, 500 pounds
of superphosphate, and 100 pounds of sulfate of potash per acre. About
37 county agents had cooperative fertilizer tests on White Dutch clover
in 1938.
More than 95 percent of the silos on dairy farms are filled. Fertilized
sorghum has proven the most profitable silage crop in many places. On
fertile lands, a satisfactory tonnage and profitable returns are obtained
by fertilizing corn. POJ, Cayana and other improved canes are being
used as silage and soiling crops.
A special field day was held at the Experiment Station on pasture
and forage crops and was attended by 200 farmers and business men.
Dairy herd improvement association records showed that farms having
winter clover in the winter of 1937-38 produced milk at about 52c a
hundred cheaper than farms not having grazing crops.
Mineral Supplements.-The use of mineral supplements in covered
mineral troughs with three-sectioned boxes containing common salt, salt
sick mixture, and bone meal is becoming one of the definite demonstra-
tions in most counties of Florida.
HOME DAIRY WORK
Agents in 20 counties report definite work with the family cow pro-
gram. County agents are securing calves from commercial grade dairy
herds having registered sires to supply home dairy cows. Some of these
calves are used as 4-H club heifers and others are distributed with farmers.
The Hernando agent reports 88 calves placed on farms. The agent in
Pasco has placed 60 calves and expects more than 100 to be placed before
the end of January with 4-H boys and farm families.
Seven county agents have assisted farmers in purchasing registered
and high grade heifers from Tennessee to supply family cows on farms.
In several other counties registered sires are being placed through the
cooperation of the Farm Security Administration for breeding up the
class of dairy animals in rural communities to supply family cows.
4-H CLUB PROGRAM
There were about 375 boys and 30 girls enrolled in 4-H dairy clubs.
The 4-H club is the natural approach to the family cow program and
to placing animals in homes where milk is needed. The State Guernsey
and Jersey cattle clubs have outlined definite plans for enlarging the 4-H
program with purebred animals. The directors of these two state breed
associations hope to arrange a state program for 4-H club members to
exhibit their dairy animals at a state contest each year.
THE DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION
DEMONSTRATION
The three dairy herd improvement associations organized in late 1937
and early 1938 are still in operation. Plans are under way for starting
associations in the Orlando and Pensacola areas.
The great problem in dairy herd improvement work in 1938 has been
in getting trained testers.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The great value of herd improvement work in adjusting a farm dairy
program is a valuable aid in the state extension development of dairy-
ing. An attempt has been made to interest dairymen in considering the
economics of milk production, in addition to obtaining yields. These dairy
herd improvement association records have given strength to a forage
program.
Official Testing.- There are 22 Jersey and Guernsey cows in Florida
on Register of Merit and Advanced Registry test. Early in the year 1938
a Guernsey cow owned by V. C. Johnson of Duval County, Appin's Comely
Lady, broke the all-time butterfat record in the state with 764 pounds.
In October 1938 a Jersey cow owned by W. J. Nolan of Duval County,
Rosa Raleigh Alice, broke the all-time butterfat record with 772 pounds
of butterfat and placed third in total milk production for all cows in the
state, with 15,331 pounds. The first and second places in milk production
were held by two cows of the Dutch Belt breed with 17,268 pounds and
16,054 pounds milk production records respectively. The Jersey cow ex-
ceeded both of these Dutch Belt cows in butterfat.
Five herds, including that of the Florida Experiment Station are on
official test, and some valuable results are being obtained.

ORGANIZATION OF JERSEY AND GUERNSEY CATTLE CLUBS
Jersey and Guernsey cattle club organizations were perfected during
the year and both clubs have initiated definite programs of work for 1939.
Each association has set for its goal a state sale of purebred animals.
They are cooperating in arranging a state exhibit of outstanding registered
dairy animals; they are making provisions for junior club work. They
are arranging special field days and parish shows for the educational
exhibits of purebred animals in various areas of the state. They are
actively working on a disease control program.

DAIRY FARM RECORDS
In cooperation with the Agricultural Economics Department, 16 farmers
completed their farm records in Duval County. Real progress was made
in getting facts about production costs as separated from marketing costs.
Over 50 percent of the milk distributed in Florida is marketed by producer-
distributor dairymen and, in previous farm economic surveys, there has
been a confusion of marketing costs with production costs that makes
these records more or less impractical.

MARKETING AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
The extensive schedule attempted by the Dairy Extension Department
made it impossible to accomplish very much in quality improvement. Five
4-H demonstration teams were trained and competed in the state contest
at Gainesville. Their demonstrations dealt largely with quality control.
The Bay County team represented Florida in the National 4-H Club Con-
ference at Columbus, Ohio, in October.
In the marketing of cream, county agents in western Florida are grad-
ually building a feed growing program with farmers with the view to
equipping these farms for supplying milk to the creameries at Pensacola
and Chipley and to the cheese plant at Thomasville, Georgia. The county
agent and Negro agent of Leon have a definite feed growing and quality
program working with the Negro farmers who supply milk to the Thomas-
ville cheese plant. Most of the milk going out of Florida to Thomasville
comes from Negro farms.







Annual Report, 1938


EDUCATIONAL TRIPS
In 1938 the Extension Dairyman attended the following purebred sales
in South Georgia: Pebble Hill Dispersal Sale, Cummings' Dispersal Jersey
Sale, and the Suitsus Dairy Dispersal Sale. Some individuals sold for
over $10,000, a Texas breeder being the high bidder on Jerseys at the
Pebble Hill sale. At the Suitsus sale, some 34 animals were shipped to
Florida.
In April the Dairyman visited three of the field experiment stations in
Alabama, studying results of fertilizers with forage crops and variety tests
of various kinds of forages, and obtained very valuable information about
winter legumes and cover crops. In February he attended the Southern
Agricultural Workers' conference and gathered some valuable information
from the extension sessions on dairy development.

SHORT COURSES
In 1938 was staged the first school for dairy farmers in the production
and preparation of milk at the new University of Florida dairy products
laboratory. The three-day program was attended by 40 dairymen and
their workers.
A special short course for home demonstration agents was held three
days prior to the regular county agents' annual conference. The Extension
Nutritionist cooperated, as did workers of the Experiment Station and
the U. S. Bureau of Dairy Industry.

STATE DAIRY EVENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY
The Dairy Department and the Extension Agronomist cooperated in
a joint dairy and agronomy field day that was largely attended by in-
terested farmers. Dr. O. E. Reed, chief of the Bureau of Dairying, was
the feature speaker of the joint program and gave a most valuable talk
on the dairy industry as a part of the big farm program.

STATE FEEDING CONFERENCES AND DISEASE CONTROL
CONFERENCES
Dr. R. B. Becker cooperated with the Extension Dairyman in holding
feeding conferences in Dade, Volusia, and Leon counties. W. E. Winter-
meyer, Bureau of Dairy Industry, cooperated in the conference in Volusia
with dairy herd improvement association members. These feeding con-
ferences are very much worth while and will be extended during 1939.
A round-table discussion was held with the Volusia County Dairymen's
Association at Daytona Beach and was attended by some 20 members.
This meeting contributed valuable information towards helping build the
herd improvement association in that county and that area. This group
later made a field trip to the Experiment Station at Gainesville and spent
a day looking over the forage crops, visiting the laboratory dealing with
problems of nutrition and disease and parasite control.

NEGRO WORK
The Extension Dairyman cooperated in a conference with Negro farm
agents in Tallahassee in February 1938. Definite work was outlined with
the farm agents in the care and management of the family cow. The
Negro agents in the central Florida area have cooperated in meetings
and field days at the University and in the counties with an attendance
of some 45 colored farmers.







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY EXTENSION WORK

Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
D. F. Sowell, Assistant Extension Poultryman
Poultry extension activities for the year 1938 were organized and de-
veloped around the following main phases; baby chick and pullet manage-
ment; efficient management of the laying flock, including record keeping;
production and marketing of quality eggs; and general improvement in
quality of birds on farms by selection, trapnesting, and control of pullorum
disease.
The production, marketing, and consumption of Florida quality eggs
was sponsored by the Florida Poultry Council. The aims of the program
include a greater return for eggs, sales program for Florida eggs by
retailers, and an increased consumption of Florida eggs.
Improving the quality of poultry and reducing mortality are the main
objectives of the National Poultry Improvement Plan which has been greatly
enlarged during the past year. The program as outlined should result
in greater profits for the producers.
Growing healthy chicks and pullets and management of the laying flock
are the two important long-time programs under consideration. In these
programs care and management of chicks, production of broilers, develop-
ment of pullets, and management of layers including housing, sanitation,
chickenpox vaccination, use of artificial lights and use of succulent green
feed are taken into consideration.
The poultry extension specialists have visited 35 different counties dur-
ing the year, assisting county and home agents in the development of their
poultry programs.
FEED PRICES
A study of feed prices is important to all commercial poultry producers.
Practically all feed used for baby chicks, broilers, growing pullets, and
laying birds on commercial poultry farms is purchased. Commercial egg
producers grow green feed for their flock.

TABLE 5.-MONTHLY PRICE OF POULTRY RATION AT JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA.

SBase
Month Period 1935 1936 1937 1938
S1927-1929

October ................ 2.78 2.18 2.43 2.28 1.88
November .......... 2.72 2.16 2.48 2.12 1.85
December .......... 2.72 2.14 2.57 2.06
January .....-.... 2.73 2.34 2.12 2.77 2.12
February .......... 2.77 2.32 2.10 2.67 2.13
March ............ 2.78 2.32 2.12 2.62 2.10
April .................. 2.78 2.31 2.11 2.71 2.06
May .................. 2.81 2.32 2.11 2.76 2.03
June .................. 2.85 2.28 2.10 2.72 1.99
July ............... 2.90 2.22 2.23 2.65 1.99
August .............. 2.87 2.15 2.42 2.51 1.94
September ........ 2.84 2.13 2.43 2.37 1.89
Average ............ 2.80 2.24 2.27 2.52 2.00*

*11 months' average.







Annual Report, 1938


Poultry producers realize that feed represents about 50 percent of the
total and about 70 percent of the cash cost in producing eggs. The type
of ration, cost of ingredients, and methods of feeding will influence feed
cost per bird. In addition the number of eggs produced must be con-
sidered when figuring cost per dozen eggs.
The relationship of feed prices to poultry products prices has a direct
influence on the extension program in the state.
The poultry ration as used in this report to illustrate price changes
is composed of equal parts of a mash mixture (100 pounds bran, 100 pounds
shorts, 100 pounds yellow corn meal, 100 pounds fine ground oats, 100
pounds meat scraps-55% protein, and 25 pounds alfalfa leaf meal) and
a grain mixture (of 100 pounds cracked yellow corn and 100 pounds
wheat).
The poultry ration costs for the base period (19'26-29) and for 1935,
1936, 1937 and 1938 are listed in Table 5.

PRICES OF POULTRY PRODUCTS
Daily prices on eggs and poultry meat are quoted by the State Mar-
keting Bureau at Jacksonville, Tampa, and Miami. The quotations on the
Jacksonville market have been tabulated and studied over a period of years
and sent to cooperators to assist them in making plans for the future.
The average monthly and yearly prices of poultry products for the
base period (October 1, 1926 September 30, 1929) and 1935, 1936, 1937,
and 1938 are tabulated in Tables 6, 7 and 8.
During the year 1938, the ratio of poultry products to feed has been
very favorable to the producer. The egg-feed ratio was at its peak in
July, the highest during any month for the past three years.

TABLE 6.-MONTHLY PRICES OF No. 1 (GRADE A 24 OUNCE) WHITE EGGS,
CENTS PER DOZEN.*

Base
Month Period 1935 1936 1937 1938
1926-1929__

October .............. 56.4 39.3 38.4 38.1 36.3
November .......... 57.0 37.0 41.9 39.6 36.8
December .......... 52.0 40.6 43.4 38.0
January ............ 45.9 35.8 33.5 29.4 32.5
February .......... 34.3 31.8 31.2 27.5 26.6
March ............... 31.0 23.0 23.5 25.1 22.2
April .................. 29.4 24.9 22.9 25.5 22.3
May .................... 28.8 26.3 24.1 24.2 25.0
June .................... 32.3 26.8 25.7 25.8 25.7
July .........-......... 36.6 31.5 31.9 30.1 31.5
August ............. 42.1 35.6 34.0 33.0 32.8
September ...... 47.5 39.0 37.5 37.2 36.3
Average ........... 41.1 32.6 32.3 31.1 29.8**

*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.
**11 months' average.







Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE' 7.-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAVY HENS, CENTS PER POUND.*
SBase
Month Period 1935 1936 1937 1938
1926-1929_

October ............. 28.1 21.0 19.6 18.7 20.2
November .......... 26.9 21.7 19.6 20.3 21.0
December .......... 26.5 20.6 18.7 20.7
January ............ 26.6 17.5 20.0 18.7 20.1
February .......... 27.1 17.8 19.9 19.3 19.0
March ............... 27.9 18.3 19.5 18.6 19.9
April .................. 27.6 18.0 20.3 18.5 19.7
May .................... 27.0 18.0 20.8 19.0 19.0
June ................. 25.7 18.7 20.5 19.5 19.3
July .................. 24.5 18.2 20.9 16.8 19.4
August .............. 25.2 18.4 20.7 16.0 18.7
September ....... 27.0 19.3 20.2 17.5 20.2
Average ........ 26.7 18.9 20.1 18.6 19.7**

*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.
**11 months' average.

TABLE 8.-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAVY FRYERS, CENTS PER POUND.*
Base
Month Period 1935 1936 1937 1938
1926-1929____

October ........... 33.8 22.4 21.2 27.1 22.9
November .......... 34.9 23.2 20.5 26.7 23.0
December .......... 36.2 23.2 20.0 27.7
January ............ 38.3 21.5 25.5 22.3 25.8
February .......... 39.1 24.3 25.6 24.3 24.6
March ................. 41.0 26.1 27.0 24.1 27.2
April ................. 42.7 25.9 27.2 27.0 27.8
May .................... 39.9 26.4 25.7 24.1 24.0
June ................... 37.2 23.1 23.5 25.3 21.8
July ................ 32.4 21.2 23.1 25.5 20.5
August .............. 30.8 20.3 22.6 24.5 21:6
September ....... 32.7 21.0 22.3 25.8 22.9
Average ........... 36.6 23.2 23.7 25.4 23.8**

*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.
**11 months' average.

FLORIDA POULTRY COUNCIL
The Florida Poultry Council is an organization composed of representa-
tives selected from all phases of the poultry industry. Poultry producers,
breeders, hatcherymen, poultry and egg dealers, packers, feed dealers, the
poultry press, poultry workers from state departments and institutions,
and delegates from the various state poultry associations are members.
The Poultry Council is a fact-finding organization. Committees on
marketing, breed improvement, research and education, disease control,
poultry shows, organization, and legislation and legal advice have been
selected and have functioned during the past year.
The more important programs undertaken during 1938 were the Egg
Quality Program and the National Poultry Improvement Program. Pro-
gress can be seen in the grades and quality of eggs offered for sale in
the state.








Annual Report, 1938


Reports indicate improvement in the quality of birds on farms and
reduction in percentage of pullorum disease and also a considerable ex-
pansion of the number of flocks and number of hatcheries in the National
Poultry Improvement Plan.
The Council was active in promoting the First Annual Poultry Institute
and is assisting in the development of the World's Poultry Congress
program.
FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING TEST
The Twelfth Florida National Egg-Laying Test started at Chipley,
October 1, 1937, and ended September 21, 1938. There were 98 pens of
pullets entered from 23 different states and Cuba. Pullets were entered
from 11 different counties in Florida. There were 36 pens of heavy breeds
and 62 pens of light breeds.
This year egg production was figured on the basis of the original
1,274 birds instead of the high 10 birds in each pen. With this as a basis
the average egg production per bird was 181 eggs for a value of 180.8
points.
The high pen was an entry of S. C. White Leghorns which produced
3,416 eggs for a value of 3533.80 points. High individual was a S. C.
White Leghorn which produced 311 eggs for a value of 330.65 points.
The high Florida pen was entered by Ravenswood Leghorn Farms,
Oxford. These birds produced 3,372 eggs for a value of 3483.55 points.
High pullet from Florida, entered by the same farm, produced 310 eggs
for a value of 324.20 points.
A detailed summary of the Twelfth Florida National Egg-Laying Test
is now available. It gives data on production, mortality, feed consump-
tion, etc.
The Thirteenth Test was started October 1, 1938, with 94 pens entered
from 22 states.

FLORIDA'S PARTICIPATION IN THE 7TH WORLD'S
POULTRY CONGRESS
The poultry industry has been organized into a Florida World's Poultry
Congress Committee. The committee plans a state exhibit displaying
Florida's poultry industry, poultry judging teams, membership, attendance,
and presentation of papers.
The entire Extension organization.has been of assistance in the develop-
ment of the plan.
ANNUAL POULTRY INSTITUTE
The first Annual Poultry Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie, August
22-26, 1938. State agencies and poultry associations cooperated with the
Agricultural Extension Service in making arrangements and carrying to
completion a week of education and recreation. Over 200 people registered.
Subjects discussed during the week were feeding, management of pullets
and layers, factors affecting cost of producing pullets and cost of produc-
ing eggs, disease discussion, marketing, production of quality eggs, broiler
production, egg grading school, breeding, and factors affecting hatchability.
The Florida Poultry Council and the Florida State Poultry Producers'
Association held their summer meetings during the week.

BABY CHICK AND PULLET MANAGEMENT
The six factors-hatch early, clean eggs and chicks, clean brooder
house, clean land, balanced rations, and separation of pullets and cockerels
-have been presented to the poultrymen by means of radio talks, news


57







Florida Cooperative Extension


stories and bulletins. The results indicate that the more factors observed
the less mortality the flock experiences.
To insure clean range the more successful poultrymen used a 10' x 12'
brooder house which could be converted into a range shelter and later
into a laying house. They followed a three-year rotation for young stock
and a two-year rotation for adult birds. These all-purpose houses were
placed 100 feet apart, and moved about 50 feet every 30 days. They were
moved around a square so that they would be back in the original position
after four moves. When the houses had made three trips around the
square they were moved to a new range. Parasite contamination was
reduced to a minimum and a green sod was maintained by moving the
house at 30-day intervals.
The factor of clean chicks has been stressed very forcibly by the State
Live Stock Sanitary Board which is supervising the National Poultry
Improvement Plan in the State.
During the past year extension recommendations were followed by
2,163 families in purchasing baby chicks, 3,090 in chick rearing, and 3,125
in sanitation.
GREEN FEED
Poultrymen have been furnished information pertaining to types, of
green feed, planting dates, and cultural methods. In Florida green feed
can be grown during every month in the year. Three methods of supply-
ing green feed to poultry were used: 1st, by use of multiple yarding
around a permanent house; 2nd, by growing the green feed outside the
poultry yards and cutting it for the poultry; and 3rd, by moving the
poultry house to new range. Calendar flock record reports have shown
that poultrymen who fed green feed the year round produced more eggs
per bird and had less mortality than those who did not.
During the past year extension recommendations were followed by 2,637
families in production-feeding.

CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS
Bulletins have been distributed and radio talks given on culling. Culling
demonstrations have been held throughout the state and many Florida
poultrymen and 4-HI club members know how to select the layer and non-
layer. They have been advised to follow a systematic culling schedule,
and to replace culled stock with healthy pullets which are bred to lay.
During the past year 870 families have followed an organized improved
breeding plan.
CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
Fourteen years of record keeping has been of great value to. Florida
poultrymen. Two types of record books were distributed, one for the
commercial flock and the other for the small farm flock of less than 250
layers. The record keepers submitted monthly reports which were sum-
marized. These summaries together with feed, egg and poultry prices,
and timely information were sent the cooperators each month. The Cal-
endar Flock IRecords run from October 1 to September 30.

JUNIOR POULTRY WORK
Poultry was taught at the Girls' Short Course, the Boys' Short Course
and 4-H camps. At both short courses club members were divided into
beginners and advanced groups, and subject matter was presented ac-
cordingly.







Annual Report, 1938 59

TABLE 9.-FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORD SUMMARY.

1937-1938 1936-1937 1935-1936


Number of farms ...................... 25 43 49

Ave. no. birds .......................... 11,189 19,987 22,132

Ave. no. birds per farm .............. 448 465 452

Ave. no. eggs per bird ............. 160 169 180

Ave. percent culled ................ 56 45 41
Ave. percent mortality ................ 21 18 17


Twelve county teams were trained for the state-wide poultry and egg
judging contest held at the Central Florida Exposition. There were 500
birds and 96 dozen eggs in the 4-H show held in connection with the judg-
ing contest.
The Pasco County boys' team, winner, was sent to the National 4-H
Club Congress and placed seventh among 13 teams in the national 4-H
club poultry judging contest. Seth Plank, a member of the Pasco County
team, was the high scoring judge at Orlando, and was awarded the $100
scholarship to the University of Florida.
The Extension Poultryman judged 4-H poultry club exhibits at nine
county fairs.
POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS
There are 15 county poultry associations in the state. These associa-
tions compose the Florida Poultry Producers' Association and have been
active in the promotion of the poultry industry and assisted in the develop-
ment of the poultry extension program. The State Association sponsored
the Poultry Institute held at Camp McQuarrie by the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service.
The state egg show was sponsored by the State Association, and there
were five county egg shows sponsored by county associations. The Duval
Association sponsored a baby chick show in connection with their county
egg show. The Florida Poultryman magazine is published under the spon-
sorship of the State Association.
During the year the Extension specialists helped with the organization
of two new county associations.

EGG QUALITY PROGRAM
The egg quality program, sponsored by the Florida Poultry Council.
has been forwarded with the cooperation of the State Marketing Bureau,
the Inspection Bureau, the Department of Agriculture, county and home
demonstration agents, vocational agriculture and home economics teachers
and the Florida Poultry Producers' Association.
Three pamphlets have been distributed, one each for the producer, the
retailer and the consumer. Information pertaining to egg quality has
been dispersed also by means of radio, circular letters and group meetings.







Florida Cooperative Extension


NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN
This program is under the supervision of the State Live Stock Sanitary
Board. The Agricultural Extension Service is cooperating and assisting
Dr. D. C. Gilles, poultry service veterinarian.
The program has provided a supply of chicks and breeding stock from
reliable hatcheries and breeders. The number of hatcheries and breeders
in the plan increased during the year. Thirty-four hatcheries cooperated
in the plan this year, breeders cooperated in the following numbers: 88
White Leghorn, 31 Rhode Island Red, 19 Barred Plymouth Rock, 6 White
Plymouth Rock and 47 New Hampshire.

CHICKENPOX VACCINATION
The feather follicle and stab methods have been successfully used in
pox vaccination. Practically all commercial producers and many small
flock owners vaccinate pullets for chickenpox each year. The trouble is
widespread and occurs in flocks which have not been vaccinated during
the fall months, when egg prices are high. A loss of production for four
to eight weeks during this season usually means a low on the entire
year's operations.
Reports indicate that approximately 60,000 pullets were vaccinated this
year with the assistance of the county and home demonstration agents.

TURKEY MANAGEMENT
Radio talks, circular letters and bulletins have been used to carry on
the turkey management program. Information on sanitation, breeding
and feeding has been presented through these means. By growing poults
on clean range and by moving the brooder coops, turkey producers have
been able to lower their mortality.

MARKETING
F. W. Risher, poultry marketing specialist with the State Marketing
Bureau, has attended meetings of poultry associations, discussing market-
ing problems, and has assisted county and home agents in locating markets
for eggs and poultry meat. During the past year the state's first turkey
auction sale was held at Branford.
In cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau and Inspection Bureau,
daily quotations of eggs and poultry have been given throughout the
year over WRUF.
USE OF LIGHTS ON LAYERS
The use of artificial lights on pullets and hens has become more
widespread in Florida during the past few years. Lights have increased
the number of eggs laid during the fall and winter months, when the
price of eggs is high.
The two methods used, all-night lights and morning lights, have given
good results. The all-night system was used by farmers who did not have
electric power and used the oil lantern. In most cases where electrical
power was available morning lights were used.







Annual Report, 1938


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

C. M. Hampson, Economist, Farm Management
R. H. Howard, Assistant Economist
D. Gray Miley, Assistant Economist

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT
With steadily declining prices of citrus fruit as a result of larger and
larger production each year and comparatively low purchasing power of
consumers, Florida growers have had to seek every means possible of
reducing cost of production. Through the citrus grove management study
since 1930 much information, based upon records, has been secured and
made available to interested growers. The project is helpful also to the
experimental worker in checking practices and treatments as to their
profitableness when applied commercially. This work has been valuable
also in teaching profitable grove management practices in vocational agri-
culture schools as well as to college classes in agriculture, particularly
farm management students.
Method of Study.-At the beginning of each production year, Sep-
tember 1, a citrus record book especially prepared by the Agricultural
Extension Service is given to grove operators in which to keep their
grove accounts and other information. At the end of each year, August
31, all records are checked and the costs of production for a year's opera-
tions are computed. The returns from fruit produced during this period,
but marketed the following season, are credited to the previous year's
costs. Thus the crop year is the basis of these citrus accounts.
A study of the records is made each year in an effort to determine
more accurately the management practices most influential in affecting
yield, costs, and returns. When all records are summarized, each co-
operator is furnished a copy together with his or her individual grove
summary for comparison.
Scope and Development.-Table 10 gives a summary of the number of
citrus records by years and counties for the eight years beginning Sep-
tember 1, 1930, used as a basis for the management study:
TABLE 10.-NUMBER OF CITRUS RECORD ACCOUNTS, BY COUNTIES,
FROM 1930-31 TO 1938-39.

11930- 1931- 1932- 1933- 1934- 1935- 1936- 1937- 1938-
Counties I 31_ 32 33 34 35 36 37 38* 39**

Lake ............ 39 61 88 86 105 109 97 95 90
Polk ..... ............ 17 59 80 82 82 80 71 80 82
Orange ... ......... 46 42 48 44 60 59 57 68 70
Highlands ........... 12 35 44 37 42 40 37 40 42
Miscellaneous ... 5 12 8 14 36 38 38 55 65

Total ......... 119 209 268 263 325 326 300 338 349
*Estimate, based upon number of cost records completed as of August 31, 1938. Fruit
receipts will not be available until the crop of 1938-39 has been sold.
*Accounts started.







Florida Cooperative Extension


This project embraces principally the more important citrus producing
counties, although any grower may participate. In recent years 4-H club
boys who are prospective grove owners and operators have been encouraged
to keep records on their fathers' or other groves.
Accomplishments.-During this year the seventh annual summary of
costs and returns for Florida citrus groves was made and published.
Three thousand copies of this bulletin have been distributed.
Results of this study have been presented in more than 50 growers'
meetings during the year, covering practically every citrus producing
county and area.
There were five county and one state fair exhibits made for the purpose
of reaching even more growers and getting the results of the study
into their hands. In addition to the exhibit of factors affecting cost,
yield, and returns on a grove, other related research and experimental
data were exhibited. The method employed and data exhibited at the
State Fair are shown in Fig. 6. At the Central Florida Exposition a film
strip picture was used to give the 1938 outlook information for citrus in
addition to material shown in the photograph. Thousands of growers were
reached through this medium.

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
This project is carried in cooperation with the USDA and was started
in the fall of 1935 in connection with the Agricultural Adjustment Admin-
istration. Its major purposes are to supply county Extension workers
with an advisory committee to aid them in determining which projects
should be attempted each year and to secure local leadership for these
projects. Planning councils have been organized in 44 counties and sub-
committees have been appointed for various projects in all of those counties.
The following basic data have been prepared for use in local discussion
work: (1) Census data for both 1930 and 1935 have been tabulated in
convenient form for all counties and have been mimeographed for 50
counties, all of which employ Extension agents. (2) Data showing trends
in land use, size of farms, numbers of farms, numbers of livestock of
each class, crop yields, and farm values have been graphed for easy inter-
pretation of census data. (3) Graphs have been made showing types of
farming, food products furnished by the farm to the family, numbers
of farms of various sizes and tenure of farmers.
Farm management surveys have been made on 710 farms in 18 counties.
This material has been summarized and returned to the farmers through
local meetings and by sending mimeographed summaries to all of the
cooperators.
Reconnoissance soil maps and land use maps have been prepared in
cooperation with the Farm Security Administration for all counties of the
state. Copies of the reconnaissance soil maps have been furnished to all
county agents and arrangements are being made to secure land use maps
for them also. Census data by voting precincts were mapped for eight
counties of the state and furnished the county agents.

AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF THE DADE COUNTY
WHITE POTATO INDUSTRY
Commercial white potato producers of Dade County are somewhat like
the citrus growers in that most of them grow only one crop. Hence this
project is limited .to an enterprise by nature and type of farming rather
than by choice.




















j_ ;.,L O


O NEc

IL


Fig. 6.-An exhibit of economics materials such as this was shown at a few fairs.


-,
r~-Lt


''

-
C'







Florida Cooperative Extension


For four consecutive years the county agents and growers have re-
quested that a continued study be made of their comparatively new industry
of producing early white potatoes for market. Commercial plantings suf-
ficient for car-lot shipments began in 1926-27 and have increased steadily
until shipments from Dade County now exceed those from any other
Florida area. Total value of the Dade County production represented
approximately one-third of all rail and boat shipments out of the state
for the past year. Dade County is the earliest white potato producing
area in the United States and has come into economic importance in the
state as well as nationally in recent years.
Method of Study.-At the end of each year representative growers'
records were obtained as a basis for the study. Records were secured on
two-thirds to three-fourths of the entire acreage grown in this area since
the 1934-35 crop. These records were obtained principally from growers'
books and packinghouse records. In addition to these cost records fur-
nished the Agricultural Extension Service for the past year's operations,
the principal marketing agencies furnished data for studying factors
affecting price of potatoes.
Accomplishments.-Two potato growers' meetings were held in this
area in cooperation with the county agent. At the first meeting individual
summaries were given the cooperators, and results of this study were
discussed. The second meeting was devoted to the presentation of factors
affecting price of early potatoes and the 1939 outlook for potato pro-
duction. About 125 growers and business men associated with the industry
attended these two meetings.

DAIRY FARM ACCOUNTS
The purposes of the dairy farm account project are: 1. To provide
Florida dairymen with a record book in which to keep a complete record
of a year's business, and from which can be calculated the cost of produc-
ing and marketing milk as well as the labor income from the dairy and
the entire farm business. 2. To encourage record keeping by assisting
the dairymen in every way possible with their accounts, and by furnishing
each record keeper with a summary of his year's business together with
a summary of all records kept. 3. To provide the dairymen with bulletins
and other available information about dairy farm management. 4. To
discover facts about the dairy industry that can be used by all dairymen
in the state.
This project was undertaken at the request of dairymen in the Jackson-
ville area. For the past four years there has been an attempt to regulate
the price and grades of milk. To do this, accurate information about
the costs involved in producing milk is necessary. These costs have not
been available and the dairymen, through their county agent, asked that
the Agricultural Extension Service provide a dairy record book that would
give the desired information as well as other information about the dairy
business.
A group of dairymen in the Jacksonville area started keeping a com-
plete dairy farm record on July.1, 1937. Each cooperator was assisted
with his beginning inventory and during the year periodic visits were
made to each farm at intervals of about two months. These visits were
made for the purpose of answering questions and to check the records
for accuracy and completeness. On July 30, 1938, 16 complete 12 months'
records were closed. An individual summary of each record was made
as well as a summary report of the 16 records. The findings of the
study were presented to the dairymen in a meeting and the individual
summaries returned to each dairyman and discussed with him personally.







Annual Report, 1938


The cost of producing a unit of milk separate from the cost of mar-
keting a unit of milk was obtained. The costs per hundredweight of
milk were as follows:
Production Marketing Total
Cost Cost Cost
For 8 retail dairies ............... $3.226 $2.018 $5.244
For 8 wholesale dairies ........ 2.716 .390 3.106
For all 16 dairies .................. 2.938 1.146 4.084
The same 16 dairymen and two new cooperators started another set
of records on July 1, 1938. The work will be carried on in the same
manner for another year except that the dairymen are being asked to
keep a supplemental record of the quantity of the different kinds of
feed fed.
FARM ACCOUNTS
A new farm account book was published within the year and distributed
to all county agents and to all individuals requesting them. A project
using this book was begun recently with 40 men who are either starting
in the beef cattle business or are enlarging their beef enterprise con-
siderably, These men all live in a section of the Everglades country which
at one time was either used for truck farming or was partly developed
for urban purposes. Those enterprises proved unprofitable and the land
has been idle for several years. The county agent and a group of selected
farmers are attempting to demonstrate the practicability of producing
beef in that section of the state.
Another farm record book was prepared for the use of farmers with
a very limited amount of education and small farms. The chief purpose
of this book was for its distribution through Negro county agents to a
limited number of their clients. Twenty books were furnished to each
agent, 10 of which were to be placed with farmers and the other 10 were
to be used for keeping duplicates of the farmers' records. This plan was
followed carefully by some of the agents and not so well by others. Eighty
books were placed with Negro farmers under this plan, 50 of which have
been returned in creditable condition. These are being analyzed and will
soon be returned to the record keepers and discussions will be held re-
garding the information disclosed in the books. Forty other record books
were placed with Negro farmers without the supervision mentioned above.
These have not yet been collected, but the cooperators have been visited
and most of them are keeping the books in a satisfactory manner. Thirty
more of the books were placed with white farmers at their request and
have not been followed up as a project. The book will be printed with
a few revisions for 1939.

FARM MANAGEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS
The Farm Credit Administration of Columbia, South Carolina, through
its director of information, Henry S. Johnson, requested the cooperation
of the Extension Service in helping a few farmers who have a chance to
make good but who are discouraged because they are unable to meet their
obligations. The work has been started in three counties, 15 in Jackson,
10 in Union and 8 in Hillsborough. About half the farmers in each county
are Federal Land Bank borrowers and the others are non-borrowers. The
Land Bank borrowers were selected by the local Secretary of the Farm
Credit Administration, the county agent and the leader of the project.
The others were selected by the county agent and the project leader.
The ultimate goal is to use these farms as farm management demon-
strations. The goal this year was to assist each cooperator to keep a







Florida Cooperative Extension


complete farm record and to help in every way to get each one back
on a sound financial basis.
In February 1938 the record books of the 15 Jackson County cooperators
were closed and summarized, and each cooperator was started with a new
book. Individual summaries of the 1937 record were returned and dis-
cussed with each farmer. An attempt was made to get each farmer to
use his record in planning his future work. The 1938 records will be
closed and summarized in January 1939.
Seven of the eight farmers who started in Hillsborough County closed
their first year's record on September 1, 1938. One did not complete his
book. A complete summary of the year's record was made and discussed
with each farmer.
The first year's records for Union County will be closed the first of
January 1939.
At present farm layout and soil maps are being made for the farms
in Union and Hillsborough counties. During the coming year the record
work will be continued and in addition farm layout and land-use maps
will be made of each farm. By using actual farm records and soil and
land-use maps, it is hoped that each farmer can be assisted in eventually
securing the proper farm organization, the proper cropping system and
the proper soil-conserving system.

FARM MANAGEMENT SURVEY, JEFFERSON COUNTY
This project is being conducted in cooperation with and at the request
of the Soil Conservation Service. A rather comprehensive schedule pre-
pared by the Agricultural Economics Department of the University was
used in interviewing all farmers living within the Soil Conservation project
area in Jefferson County and an equal number of farmers living outside
the area but near to the project. A record of the 1937 farm business was
secured from 138 farmers. The sample included both white and Negro
farmers, farms ranging in size from only a few to 3,300 acres, both
owners and tenants, and full-time and part-time farmers. An analysis
of the schedules is being made at this time, a report of which will be
mimeographed and furnished to all cooperators.
Arrangements have been made for securing a report of the 1938 farm
business of all of these farms in the near future and it is hoped that
money will be available for securing a survey each year for at least five
years. About 30 of the cooperators keep farm records which substantiate
the oral reports given by the other cooperators.

4-H CLUB CAMPS
The farm management staff assisted with the Boys' 4-H Club Short
Course by conducting two classes daily; and a total of three weeks was
given to teaching farm management subjects at 4-H camps and otherwise
helping with the camp programs.

ECONOMIC INFORMATION AND OUTLOOK
Following the National Outlook Conference held in Washington in
October 1937, in cooperation with the entire Extension staff, College of
Agriculture, and Experiment Station, the Florida Farm Outlook for 1938
was prepared and published. Copies of this report were furnished all
county and home agents, mailing list of farmers, secretaries and directors
of production credit associations, and others requesting them. Approxi-
mately 2,000 copies of this report were distributed among farmers and
agricultural workers.







Annual Report, 1938 67

In addition to the general farm outlook report, a brief citrus outlook
discussion was incorporated in the seventh annual summary of "Florida
Citrus Costs and Returns"-Miscellaneous Publication 26, which has been
placed in the hands of approximately 2,000 citrus growers.
A summary of the situation and prospective outlook for agricultural
crops and livestock grown in Florida was presented in more than 100
meetings in practically every county in the state. About 10,000 farmers
were reached through these meetings. Dr. W. C. Ockey, senior extension
economist of the Extension Service, United States Department of Agricul-
ture, assisted in presenting the outlook information in a series of citrus
growers' meetings during the spring of 1938.
The Annual Outlook Conference in Washington was attended again
this fall by a representative of the Department and the situation as it
affects Florida farmers is being prepared for publication and distribution.
It is planned that this information and other factual data will be discussed
at many meetings during the winter and spring of 1939. The most im-
portant plans of the 1939 agricultural outlook of interest to Florida farmers
and growers were disseminated by news articles and by radio in November
and December, in advance of publication of the State Outlook Report.
Current information relative to the production and prices of Florida
agricultural products will be made available from time to time during
the year.

COST OF PRODUCING CELERY IN THE EVERGLADES
The principal celery producing area in Florida is located in Seminole
County at Sanford. In recent years celery farming in this area has been
relatively unprofitable due to cost of production and prices received.
During the last five years celery production has increased consider-
ably on the muck soils of the Everglades of Palm Beach County, which
has given great concern to many growers in the Sanford area. As a result
of the increased plantings each year on the Everglades muck soil numer-
ous inquiries have been made by growers as to the cost of producing celery
and profitableness of the crop in this area. At the request of the Palm
Beach County agent and growers, a survey was made to determine the
cost of producing celery on the muck soils.








Florida Cooperative Extension


MARKETING ACTIVITIES

D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing

CITRUS MARKETING
It is generally recognized that the citrus problem is one of the out-
standing agricultural problems of the United States at this time. There-
fore, more time has been given to this subject than would ordinarily be
the case.
OUTLOOK AND EDUCATIONAL MEETINGS
If Florida, with 30,000 growers, over 300 shipping organizations and
more than 400 packinghouses, is to compete successfully in the marketing
of its increasingly larger crops, it will be necessary for the industry to
organize. With greater and greater chain store purchases and apparently
fewer outlets, it seems that these small producers and shipping organiza-
tions are at a relative disadvantage. If their supplies were centralized
they would have better bargaining power with distributors. Although
most of the early work on the proposed educational meetings was centered
around the subject of organization, it was planned to put this subject in
the background and emphasize basic information on production and market-
ing. Realizing the difficulties that might be encountered and the import-
ance of doing a good job, it was thought advisable to discuss tentative
plans for citrus grower meetings before larger groups. Other members
of the Extension Service, representatives of the Experiment Station, Farm
Credit Administration, and Agricultural Adjustment Administration were
called together for a conference. These groups met several times to
arrange a program.
A two-day conference of agents from all citrus counties was held to
discuss the proposed educational program. A committee of county agents
and state Extension representatives was selected to develop detailed plans
for the contemplated series of 32 grower meetings.
Speakers were divided into three teams of three members each. Mimeo-
graphed summaries were prepared and distributed at the close of meeting.
Other educational meetings were held at the Growers' Institute at
Camp McQuarrie, the annual meeting of cooperatives, conferences with
various shipping and industry representative groups and citrus school
for county agents. A citrus school for county agents and specialists was
held in Winter Haven, a central point for citrus county agents, and lasted
for two days. The program was outlined by the Marketing Specialist
and Citriculturist.
The information brought out in the citrus educational school was of
assistance to the previously-appointed committee of county agents who
reported at the conclusion of the-school their recommendation as to what
should be included in the county agents' plans of work for 1939.
At the request of the Citrus Industry Committee, the Extension Econ-
omist in Marketing attended a conference in Washington where represen-
tatives from Florida, Texas, California and Arizona districts tried to work
out a plan of meeting the current citrus situation.
By July of this year the state organization of growers was formed
as an overhead organization for county units. At present there are 21
counties included in the state organization, having an estimated member-
ship of 5,000, owning an estimated tonnage of 50% of the entire Florida
production. Though there may be 30,000 citrus growers, it is estimated







Annual Report, 1938 69

that not many more than half that number are classed as commercial
citrus growers.
MARKETING AGREEMENTS
Three attempts have been made at a citrus marketing agreement in
Florida. More than 300 shipping organizations exist; some are cooperative
shippers, some are grower-shippers and some ship but grow no fruit. It
has been quite difficult to get the three classes of shippers to agree on
any form of marketing agreement. An attempt has been made to get
a frank idea of the different interests and to determine in what way the
majority would be willing to cooperate. Thus far it has been rather
discouraging but it is believed that considerable progress has been made
and that groups of similar interests are beginning to come together in
large enough units that they can meet with other similar groups in dis-
cussions of the general citrus problem. The writer has worked with these
groups, furnishing them with statistical information concerning the present
situation and with economic materials on anticipated production in the
state.
CITRUS AUCTION SURVEY
Considerable pressure was brought on the Fl6rida Citrus Commission
to make an investigation of the auction markets, especially with a thought
of whether or not the best interests of Florida citrus were being served
by the auctions. The Citrus Commission requested the Extension Econo-
mist in Marketing to assist in this project; to make contacts within the
state to determine how great a demand for a survey of this type was and
what the industry thought might be achieved from this type survey, and
to contact the terminal market agencies and government agencies with
reference to the same question. After making the above contacts the
writer found that considerable work had been done along this line by
Kelsey B. Gardiner of the Farm Credit Administration and by the Federal
Trade Commission. The results of these studies have been made available
to the Citrus Commission and to leaders in the citrus industry.

OTHER OUT-OF-STATE CONFERENCES
This economist was requested to attend a rate hearing before the Inter-
state Commerce Commission, New Orleans, January 1938, and presented
evidence at that hearing. These exhibits were used also in the hearing
on the proposed citrus marketing agreement in Lakeland.
A study of the canning grapefruit and sales organizations in the Texas
citrus situation in reference to production costs was made.

CANNERS
Canning of citrus continues to be a more and more important factor
in the distribution of Florida citrus fruit. The writer has given consider-
able time to this subject and has had the cooperation of the Canners'
Association which furnished him with week to week information on canning,
the price the canners paid and certain other information pertaining to
canned citrus. The writer has summarized the statistical information
obtained from various sources and mimeographed it for distribution, 2000
copies having been distributed, used by papers and magazines and sum-
marized over the radio.
The National Canners' Association has been supplied with material
for their publication on canned citrus.







Florida Cooperative Extension


VEGETABLE MARKETING

CELERY
Most of the work with celery marketing has been in connection with
the marketing agreement in effect during 1938. As to the question of
estimating of crops and grades and. standards, apparently it is hard to
describe grades and standards for celery, and because of disease and other
things that may attack celery crop estimation is quite difficult. The Econo-
mist in Marketing attempted to explain misunderstandings and iron out
difficulties, but nevertheless a referendum was demanded and as a result
of the vote the Secretary terminated the agreement.

CABBAGE
Most of the work on cabbage was done in the vicinity of Hastings.
Cabbage seems to be a pretty good crop in that territory, displacing
potatoes on some farms. The earlier planters in that area depended on
motor trucks and cash buyers as an outlet but later found that with
increased plantings these sources did not take the entire supply. This
resulted in price cutting by the growers and a general dissatisfaction
within the area. Leaders in this area were kept posted on the cabbage
situation in this state and in other states, and assisted in developing a
program for stabilizing prices. A committee was finally appointed to
see that prices in competing areas were posted. The committee appealed
to growers to hold their prices close to the prices posted. It is generally
believed by growers in that area that the effort was successful, although
in any voluntary scheme of this kind it is difficult to get 100 percent
participation.
POTATOES
Early potato production in south Florida has been increasing at a very
rapid rate, thereby changing the marketing situation of other old estab-
lished potato-growing areas. Ah effort was made to stabilize marketing
of the crop in all areas. In the south Florida area work has been more
or less of the outlook nature, trying to keep before growers their planting
intentions, the planting intentions of other areas and carry-over of old
crops. The writer has been called upon during the last year to help iron
out price cutting. The price cutting complaints were called to the atten-
tion of A. E. Mercker, in charge of potato programs of the Agricultural
Adjustment Administration.
It was thought in a number of states that a national marketing order
on potatoes was advisable. This economist attended a conference in Wash-
ington to discuss proposed plans and later assisted in the referendum
on the order. Later a survey was made in the Gulf States, including
West Florida counties. It indicated that West Florida growers were
pleased with the order. They believed it would aid in getting better prices
and that a better quality of potatoes was marketed than without an order.

BEANS AND TOMATOES
There has been a rapid increase in the production of beans and tomatoes
in Florida and also a shift in the area of production. The production of
beans and tomatoes is centered to a large extent in the Everglades territory.
Because of low prices prevailing recently, growers in that territory have
wanted the government to buy beans and tomatoes under authority of
Section 32 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act. They, through county
agents in that territory, have requested conferences to discuss their







Annual Report, 1938


situation. As a result of these conferences growers indicated that they
were not interested in marketing agreement for beans and tomatoes.
Therefore, nothing definite has resulted. However, it is believed that the
meetings aided leaders in the understanding of their marketing problems
and no doubt a cooperative approach will be forthcoming.

MISCELLANEOUS
WATERMELONS
There is in effect a marketing agreement for watermelons for the
Southeastern States. Assistance has been given to the Agricultural Ad-
justment Administration representatives and county agents in educational
work and administration of the program. Some time was spent with
the new directors and leading growers to explain regulations and why they
were necessary for orderly marketing.
TOBACCO
Information was prepared for a radio talk on the flue-cured or bright
leaf tobacco situation, which was secured from all available sources in-
cluding warehousemen, tobacco demonstrators and county agents on the
grades, sales and production of bright leaf tobacco. This material is used
by county agents and farmers and was presented at a statewide conference
held in Live Oak.
WHOLESALE PRODUCE MARKETS
Considerable interest has been shown recently in the building of a
system of statewide markets. The writer was anxious that research be
made to determine where these markets should be located. He met with
the Director of Markets a number of times and with representatives of
the Bureau of Agricultural Economics in Washington with the hopes that
a project would be worked out whereby a study of the marketing needs
of the state might be met and whereby these markets would serve the
best purpose. Unfortunately, he was unsuccessful in getting this done.
COMMODITIES PURCHASE CORPORATION
The Marketing Specialist has cooperated with representatives of the
Commodities Purchase Corporation by supplying them statistics on costs
of production, acreage and apparent degree of surplus for the following
crops:' citrus, cabbage, beans, tomatoes and eggplants.
HOG PRICES
The writer has had as a major project for a number of years a study
of hog prices by grade and size. This study will have to terminate because
of the fact the National Stockyards, Jacksonville, has gone out of business.
A summary of this study in mimeographed form has been made available
to county agents, Smith-Hughes teachers and others interested.
MOTOR TRUCK TRANSPORTATION
This is a continuation project and has been kept up to date this year.
As has been true for a number of years, the motor truck continues to be
a more and more important factor in marketing of Florida farm products.
4-H CLUB WORK
The writer spent all of one week and part of another at 4-H club camp,
teaching a short course in the subject of agricultural marketing. He also
assisted in the annual meeting of 4-H club members in their program.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM FORESTRY

L. T. Nieland, Extension Farm Forester
A project of farm forestry extension was established in August 1938.
It is believed that because of possibilities for combining timber growing
and grazing in many parts of Florida, and also in growing timber to
control erosion, it might be desirable to effect a coordinated program
between the Extension Forester and specialists working in animal hus-
bandry extension and in erosion control.
The following phases of the project were undertaken this first year:
Fire protection, proper cutting and utilization, planting, and 4-H forestry
clubs.
FIRE PROTECTION
Because careless and destructive annual burning of the woods is prac-
ticed on forest land, and since indiscriminate burning of the woods prob-
ably contitutes the greatest single factor leading towards forest depletion,
both on farms and on large forest holdings, and because there is a general
lack of understanding of the actual damage and loss sustained through
periodic fires in woodland areas, educational work in fire control was given
a prominent place in the farm forestry program.
The ultimate objective in the forest fire control program is to secure
protection from fire damage for every farm forest area by convincing
owners that it is in their interest to protect woodlands from destructive
fires.
TREE PLANTING
The planting of forest trees is usually one of the best ways of develop-
ing "forest mindedness". The program will encourage the planting of
suitable forest trees on farm forest land where conditions justify and
where natural restocking is not likely to occur. The trees will be of
species that are considered most suitable and likely to be most profitable.
A 4-H forestry club project as a method of extending forestry will be
included in future programs. This will focus attention upon farm forestry
and emphasize desirable forest practices on farms through 4-H forestry
club demonstrations. It is expected to develop an appreciation of forest
values that will contribute to farm income and provide timber for buildings,
fences and general repairs and replacements.

PROPER CUTTING AND UTILIZATION
County agents in the 26 counties where pulpwood is being cut have
been supplied federal and state bulletins which point the way to.proper
cutting methods.
Assistance was given to Mr. Gussie Jones of Columbia County in pre-
paring an individual farm exhibit featuring farm forestry at the South-
eastern Slash Pine Festival and Forest and Farm Fair held at Lake City
November 14-19, 1938. Mr. Jones is getting a substantial income from
his forest land. Products from his farm forest which were displayed
were turpentine and rosin, crossties, veneerwood, pulpwood, sawlogs, fence
posts, fuelwood, and handle material. This exhibit was viewed by thou-
sands of farmers and others and it is believed stimulated interest in farm
forestry throughout the Southeastern region.
By means of bulletins and other illustrative material wide publicity
was given to the possibilities for planting forest trees on farms. A co-
operative arrangement was effected between the Extension Service and the







Annual Report, 1938 73

State Forest and Park Service for the distribution of forest nursery stock.
Instructive educational materials relative to forestry prepared by other
federal and state agencies working with farmers were used.
Advantage was taken of the Agricultural Conservation Program offer-
ing payments to farmers for the planting of forest trees during the present
calendar year and for the protection and care of forest trees planted
since 1934, by calling attention of farmers to opportunities for getting
benefit payments available to them. This activity resulted in 101,000 forest
trees being planted on farms in Lafayette County to date. A meeting
was held of all farmers interested in planting trees at which the Extension
Forester assisted the county agent in demonstrating correct methods of
planting forest trees. This meeting was attended by 25 farmers and 14
vocational agricultural students. Similar programs were carried out in
other counties.
A day was spent on the Monticello Soil Conservation Project in Jefferson
County studying forest plantings for erosion control and discussing farm
forest problems and practices with the project manager, forester, and
wildlife specialist. Cooperation was also extended to the State Coordinator
of Soil Conservation in studying program plans and making suggestions.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART III-WOMEN'S AND


GIRLS' DEMONSTRATIONS

GENERAL HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Home Demonstration Agent
Lucy Belle Settle, District Home Demonstration Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Home Demonstration Agent
The general objectives in the program of home demonstration work
in Florida in 1938 can be summarized as follows:
First, to use the resources of the farm, the farm home and the rural
community to increase the farm family income and to improve family
living.
Second, to encourage rural people to assume increased responsibility
for meeting the needs of rural Florida and for determining the general
agricultural program in the state.
Third, to assist farm women and girls especially to become well trained
leaders in rural life in their communities and in the state.
Fourth, to develop community activities to improve rural life.
Fifth, to extend the services of home demonstration work to a larger
number of people in both rural and urban areas.
Sixth, to improve the quality of all work done under the direction of
home demonstration workers.
The development of a plan of work which would achieve these goals
in the communities and the counties and throughout the state required
intelligent cooperation between home demonstration workers and the people
of both rural and town communities. Nearly 8,000 women voluntarily
enrolled themselves for work in the widespread home demonstration pro-
gram for adult education; 4-H club work for girls with its enrollment of
10,400 girls is recognized generally as one of the outstanding educational
agencies in the state for training rural girls; 11,028 Florida farm families
and 6,573 families not living on farms were directly served by the county
home demonstration agents last year. No estimate can be made of the
indirect service given to many others.
Perhaps the most satisfactory result observed during the year is the
greatly increased participation of rural people in determining the kind
of home and community programs needed to meet rural situations and
their willingness and ability to assume responsibility for gaining their
desired goals. The 326 organized home demonstration clubs for women
and 509 clubs for girls proved their value as centers for discovering and
training efficient leadership. The association of the women and girls
within an organization such as the home demonstration club strengthens
their individual plans and provides a place for exchange of ideas and
information and a pooling of efforts to improve homes and communities.
Each of the girls and women associated in home demonstration clubs
voluntarily enrolls herself to conduct a definite demonstration in her own
home to meet some individual or family need; she agrees to follow the
recommendations of the home demonstration agent and to keep a record
of results achieved. These successful demonstrators are recognized as







Annual Report, 1938 75

leaders because of their practical achievements; their demonstrations have
proved effective methods of teaching others not in direct touch with the
home agent.
Training received as individual demonstrators and experiences gained
in planning their programs in home demonstration clubs have enabled
the women and girls to contribute practical help to county agricultural
planning councils, made up of farm men and women.

ORGANIZATION OF WORK-PERSONNEL
The personnel in Home Demonstration Work consists of one state agent,
three district agents, four specialists-in food conservation, nutrition, tex-
tiles and clothing, home improvement-and 38 county home demonstration
agents and two assistant agents, employed to work in 37 counties. The
two assistant agents were employed this year in Dade and Duval. The
work of eight local (Negro) county home demonstration agents and their
district supervisors is directed by the state home demonstration office.
Plans for correlating home demonstration work with that of agricultural
agents are made in the state office. The three district agents assist in
the general supervision of the state-wide program and are responsible
for the immediate guidance and development of work in the counties
assigned to their districts and for special duties such as assisting with
publicity and reporting home demonstration activities, helping with Negro
work, preparation of outlook material and analysis of programs.
Specialists in the Home Demonstration Office assist in developing the
general state plans and adapt their particular phases of work to proper
places in the general program. They are reliable sources of subject-
matter information in their respective phases of work; they develop
efficient methods of carrying out their programs and training county
workers in such methods; they assist the agents to develop local leaders
who will help secure the results needed. In short, the home demonstra-
tion worker in state or county offices is responsible for bringing useful
information on subjects of agriculture and home economics to the people
who wish to make use of it, in the form they can use it and at the time
it is needed.
State and county staff members represent a wide diversity of training
and experience. Four county home demonstration agents and two assist-
ant agents have been 4-H club girls. Nineteen agents were graduated
from Florida colleges or universities. Eighteen are native-born Floridians
while others claim as their native states the following: Alabama, 5;
Georgia, 5; Mississippi, 3; Kentucky, 2; Tennessee, 3; and one each born
in Montana, Virginia, Ohio, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Missouri, Cali-
fornia, and Canada. This diversity of background and experiences pre-
cludes any chance that the program will be governed by a narrow point
of view and at the same time provides the personality, background and
training in the workers which helps them to meet the needs and wishes
of the many types of people and agricultural situations found in our cosmo-
politan state.
Lack of adequate clerical help in county offices continues to be a great
handicap in county work and an efficient state-wide program. Special
instruction on methods of keeping office files and records was given all
agents during the annual agents conference. Supervisors stressed office
improvement and better office management and noticeable improvements
have followed.
State and district agents and state specialists helped with special meet-
ings attended by 30,000 people and with many special events in the counties,
such as achievement days, camps and short course; they presented seasonal







Florida Cooperative Extension


subject-matter instruction to individuals, clubs and councils, all of which
gave opportunity to improve standards and judge quality of work under-
way; they trained volunteer local leaders; they prepared news articles,
bulletins and circulars and made radio talks. They helped to interpret
the home demonstration program and relate it to many other organizations
in the state; they extended the influence of home demonstration work by
participating in the programs of such state organizations as the Florida
Home Economics Association, the State Dietetic Association, Florida Fed-
eration of Women's Clubs, Florida Congress of Parents and Teachers,
Farm Security Administration, Florida Beekeepers' Association, Florida
Public Health Association, State Poultry Council, and Association of South-
ern Agricultural Workers. State staff members directed the Annual State
Short Course for 4-H Girls, the State Council of Senior Home Demonstra-
tion Work, the State Council of Junior Home Demonstration Work, the
first annual Rural Youth Conference and state and district conferences
for training home demonstration agents. They helped to arrange programs
for two farm and home institutes and directed exhibits featuring the agri-
cultural resources of Florida rural homes at several state expositions
and fairs.
County home demonstration agents with the help of state workers
supervised definite programs in the counties with 18,240 girls and women
in 835 organized clubs and 59 councils for girls and women. They developed
county plans of work, as rural people indicated their needs and desires,
holding 11,566 meetings with an attendance of 260,196. They directed the
activities of 1,100 volunteer leaders; held 7,688 method demonstration
meetings with a total attendance of 131,281. They distributed 70,095
bulletins and carried on extensive correspondence, writing more than 30,000
personal letters and 2,535 circular letters. Similar activities by the state
staff members increases this total considerably.
PROGRAM PLANNING-FACTORS AND SITUATIONS
A gratifying result of the program this year is the determined effort
of all staff members to correlate individual plans of work into a practical,
unified program of home demonstration work which will meet specific
immediate and long-time needs and result in better living in rural Florida.
Plans for home demonstration work have been correlated closely with
other activities of the Agricultural Extension Service, particularly as
related to farm and home management, production of food and feed, and
the general agricultural program. Better understanding of agricultural
situations affecting the farm home and the life of the farm family gained
from study of factual information and experience has enabled home dem-
onstration workers to assist more intelligently in developing a practical
state-wide program for better farm living. The assistance given to home
demonstration workers by the men of the Agricultural Extension Service
staff and the Experiment Stations, both state and federal, has increased
our useful information and helped home demonstration staff members to
adjust plans and organization to fit into agricultural situations in the state.
In considering plans for efficient programs all home demonstration
workers, state and county, agreed to base all work on needs of the family
as a whole and emphasize this point in planning demonstrations estab-
lished by individual girls and women. This idea of responsibility of the
individual to family welfare was emphasized in presenting all instruction
to the annual 4-H Girls' Short Course and at county camps. Developments
of national or state agricultural programs which affect the family were
discussed in club meetings and councils and related to home demonstration
activities in the home or community.






Annual Report, 1938 77

Two years ago we began a four-year plan for the assignment of
specialist assistance in the counties on a progressive schedule from year
to year so that all counties would be served equitably and all agents
receive the training and assistance needed. Specialists and supervisors
agreed that each specialist would be responsible for four points in each
county assigned for special work: (1) acquaint the county home demon-
stration agent with recent reliable subject-matter information and efficient
extension methods-in short, train the agent professionally, (2) help the
agent to develop efficient methods for carrying on the program by assisting
her with work with individuals and with organized community-wide work,
(3) assist the agent in training volunteer local leaders, (4) aid the agent
in the establishment of result demonstrations, on both a home and a
community-wide basis.
This plan has developed a general recognition of the need of long-time
well rounded county and state plans, with immediate objectives set up
from year to year, and has brought about more equitable distribution of
specialist assistance to the counties.
To further integrate the various phases of work into a well balanced
program the specialists agreed last year their plans would emphasize (1)
planning, (2) production, (3) conservation and (4) utilization, all terms
which they believed could be applied satisfactorily in developing a program
on clothing or home improvement as well as in food. Discussions at monthly
state staff meetings and analysis of situations observed in the counties
while on field trips helped to guide the work of all staff members.
Definite plans of work and suggestions for demonstrations to be estab-
lished have been developed for each phase of home demonstration work
and detailed outlines prepared for the use of girls and the women enrolled.
Subject-matter information and record books are supplied to all individuals
and clubs to give them reliable information and to help them achieve
effective results.
Factors such as general agricultural situations, income, population,
health, etc., all were considered in developing a program of work for
counties or state.
The geography of Florida with its resultant seasonal differences of
crops and farm enterprises and the diversity of background of the people
living here controls the calendar of home demonstration activities and
also the type of work done and the kind of agent selected to work in a
given area. Income of farm people varies largely according to the type
and scope of farming followed and special crops grown. A long dry
season in some sections lessened the quantity of food and feed produced.
Home demonstration workers familiar with state situations have realized
for many years that generally low cash income of farm families called
for emphasis on home production of the food and feed supply for the
family and for livestock. For example, 4-H club work for girls began
here 26 years ago with tomato club work which was limited at first to
production of tomatoes to give better food for the family and to provide
some cash for the girl to use for other needs or desires. We continue
to base home demonstration programs on the needs which still face
us and at the same time have emphasized the value of careful planning
of the entire family food supply and the family clothing and for the
improvement of the house itself.
Because of the need for additional income, emphasis on home industries
to develop standard quality farm and home products for market has been
given attention by all supervisory agents. Reports show cash sales last
year from home-manufactured products or industries totaled $154,281.80.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The State Bureau of Markets has cooperated with the agents in this
project.
The responsibility for the Agricultural Adjustment Administration pro-
gram placed on the Agricultural Extension Service naturally affected the
home demonstration program, although officially the home demonstration
agents were not given definite assignments as were the agricultural agents.


&4; salh^


Fig. 7.-Home demonstration club women weave scarfs, bags and other accessories
that are attractive, useful and economical. The hand loom above is owned by a county
council of home demonstration work.

The diversity of background, customs and temperament of the popula-
tion is not the least important factor affecting the pattern of home demon-
stration work. Climatic differences between northern and southern Florida
and the consequent variation in crop seasons bring some complications
to planning programs because they affect people's activities. For example,
achievement exhibits for 4-H club girls following the crop calendar are
held generally in April and May in southern Florida but cannot be held
before October and November in northern Florida.
The Negro population must be taken into account in nearly all rural
areas of Florida and differs in interests also between northern Florida
where farming is their chief occupation and southern Florida where per-
sonal service or employment in citrus groves or truck fields or packing
or canning plants provides the principal means of livelihood for Negro
families. These variations affect the Negro home demonstration program.
The health of rural people in Florida varies considerably according to
areas within the state and the income of farm groups. No other factor
has affected the program of home demonstration groups more than the
increased realization of the women and girls that they must assume
responsibility for bringing about improvement in their own personal health







Annual Report, 1938 79

and that of the family as well as the attendant need for sanitation within
and around the home and community. All phases of the home demonstra-
tion program-food, clothing, home improvement, community activities-
have emphasized health practices and habits among the girls and women
who in turn control largely the results in health for the entire family.
The State Board of Health through state and county offices and the local
physicians and nurses have assisted agents materially.
A total of 2,464 people reported they. enjoyed improved health as a
result of the health and sanitation program in home demonstration work
and 2,268 reported health examinations taken as a result of the family
health program; 7,684 adults enrolled for some phase of food and nutri-
tion work and 2,259 families reported that they produced and preserved
an adequate food supply for the health of the family. Posture as a factor
in good health has been stressed in the clothing and home improvement
and foods programs for girls and women.
Because home demonstration work is a part of an agricultural program,
its services naturally were used most by farm people and rural groups,
but business men and civic organizations generally recognized the economic
values of this phase of the Extension Service program in addition to its
educational and social values and made wide use of the state and county
home demonstration offices. Demands from urban people increased con-
siderably during the year. This is due partly to the fact that home demon-
stration work has existed in the state for so many years it is recognized
as a part of the official life of the county and state. But this increased
interest among urban people can be traced also to the fact that many town
citizens have financial interests in farm property or are residents in the
state and wish to become acquainted with our food products and home-
making customs which are unfamiliar to them. This service seemingly
has been appreciated by these newcomers and has taught them the use
of the resources of Florida. Services rendered to individuals and organiza-
tions other than the 835 home demonstration clubs (for women and girls)
required a little more than one-fourth of the time of the agents. Participa-
tion in county-wide events or programs, fairs, community activities, etc.,
is included in this type of cooperation.

RURAL LEADERSHIP; COUNCILS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION
WORK FOR GIRLS AND WOMEN
County and state councils of home demonstration work, composed of
representative rural women and girls, have been important factors in mak-
ing plans for unified programs and also for training real leaders capable
of assuming responsibility for carrying out the plans successfully. One
new county council for women and four new councils for girls have been
organized this year, making a total of 28 county councils for women and
31 for girls. Each council met quarterly and operated under a definite
plan of work with specific goals for the county adopted by the council
members. Recommendations for state-wide work adopted at the annual
State Council meeting were incorporated as far as practicable into county
programs.
The State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work provided loan
scholarships for two former 4-H club girls now seniors in the College of
Home Economics, Florida State College for Women. The Council helped
to meet the expenses of other worthy college 4-H club members to attend:
the Rural Youth Conference.
The State Council for girls provided three gift scholarships to worthy/
club girls entering the college as freshmen.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Senior Council has conducted for years a Record Book Contest
for county councils to interest the county women in keeping a record of
results of county council work and evaluating progress made. The Council
of Hillsborough County (West) received first honors.
The Senior Council joined the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs
and the Congress of Parents and Teachers in holding the third annual
Woman's Institute.
With the increase in numbers of Agricultural Planning Councils farm
women are assuming additional responsibility along with farm men for
participation in that work. The State Senior Council representatives
participated in the work of the State Land-Use Planning Committee.
Leadership training meetings were held in every county by the special-
ists and district home demonstration agents, attended by more than 1,600
leaders, girls and women. County and state councils requested training
meetings for local leaders so they might learn to serve more intelligently.
The number of volunteer leaders increased considerably this year, which
indicates that the local women realize their own responsibility for extend-
ing the home demonstration program.
The number of older 4-H club girls and former 4-H club girls married
or otherwise employed who now serve as leaders is greater than last year
by at least one-half, showing that the interest gained as girls in matters
of rural living carries over into their mature life.
These volunteer local leaders have been trained to know standards of
quality whether in some practical detail such as a jar of canned products,
eggs and poultry, or whether they are establishing quality standards for
family and community life. To train home demonstration members and
the public generally to know quality standards and efficient methods, each
home demonstration agent has given an average of 202 method demon-
strations this year to people of her county; the total method demonstra-
tions given by all agents is 7,688. Team demonstrations by club girls
and by adults have been stressed this year and were featured in all instruc-
tion during the State Short Course for girls.
Consolidation of schools in many areas has taken young people out
of the rural communities for the greater part of their day and separated
their interests and education from immediate contact with the problems
of their own rural locality. This condition has affected community life
in many places. In an attempt to meet this situation to keep all members
of the farm family alive to the value of a rural community spirit, emphasis
was given by all clubs and councils to community-wide activities such as
establishment of libraries, recreation programs and the building of com-
munity houses or club rooms, all of which are needed in rural Florida.
Considerable data on farm and home situations have been compiled but
more facts on family living problems are needed to use in developing the
programs whether the information comes from research studies of which
there have been too few, or from knowledge of farm people themselves
and useful information assembled by the agents. National situations affect
Florida, therefore, knowledge of economic and social trends is needed so
plans of work can be made in the light of these situations. County and
state councils are assembling such facts to develop their programs to
meet actual needs.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
Excellent relationships exist between home demonstration workers and
representatives of other organizations in the state. Through mutual under-
standing of respective programs it is possible to distribute useful informa-







Annual Report, 1938


tion to more people in rural communities. It has seemed important to
work closely with other organizations to increase the assistance available
to rural communities, to render better service, to prevent duplication of
effort, time and expense, and to try to insure reliable instruction and a
high quality of results.
Former home demonstration agents served this year as president of
the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs and as chairman of the division
of the Department of American Home in the State Federation. Two
county home demonstration agents were presidents of the State Dietetic
Association and the State Home Economics Association. Active home dem-
onstration women served as vice-president of the State Congress of Parents
and Teachers and chairman of Home Service of that organization. Co-
operative programs with these two important state organizations of women
have been arranged and the services of home demonstration work extended
among people who could not be served without such fine cooperation.
School executives and teachers have given generous cooperation, recog-
nizing the established place of home demonstration work in the educational
program of the state. In turn home demonstration clubs felt responsi-
bility for working for improved school facilities in their communities.
Newspaper publicity has enabled us to increase our service to many
people and the fine help given by the press of the state is appreciated.
Training in news writing given the agents and local leaders by the Exten-
sion Service Editors and editors of the local press has added greatly to
a widened home demonstration program. A total of 2,923 news articles
was reported by home demonstration agents. One district agent is assigned
special responsibility for encouraging publicity. Broadcasting stations
have assisted generously to extend the home demonstration program; 134
radio programs were given over local stations and nearly all agents use
this medium occasionally.
Home demonstration workers cooperated closely with the National
Youth Administration, giving practical training to the NYA girls assigned
to help in county and state offices. NYA workers rendered greatly appre-
ciated help to the home demonstration program.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK WITH 4-H GIRLS
Throughout this report the work of the 4-H girls and the adults has
been discussed together because home demonstration supervisors are re-
sponsible for the development of plans of work for both programs. All
specialists in the State Home Demonstration Office are required to develop
a plan of work for girls as well as for adults. County home demonstration
agents devoted approximately one-third of their time to work with girls.
Enrollment.-The total enrollment of girls in 4-H club work increased
somewhat this year and quality and scope of results improved greatly.
The percentage of completions remained about the same-slightly over
70 percent. The term "completion" to 4-H girls in Florida means the
successful finishing of an entire year's program in at least two phases of
club work, one of which shall be a productive enterprise, as gardening,
poultry, etc. An exhibit of the results must be made by the girls on
Achievement Day and a record book presented for approval. If any part
of these requirements is not filled, the work is not "complete".
Enrollment on the basis of present requirements cannot increase much
with our present personnel which remains the samne as last year, and which
is responsible for a program for adults as well as participation in other
general work in the Extension Service. Enrollment of girls by phases of
home demonstration work is as follows: Gardening, 4,754 girls; poultry,







Florida Cooperative Extension


1,275; foods and nutrition, 4,475; clothing, 8,133; home beautification, 2,133;
home orchards, 1,109; dairying, 192; food conservation, 2,576; home manage-
ment, 1,045; house furnishings, 1,848; handicraft, 561; home health and
sanitation, 2,576.
The percentage of enrollment of the 10,400 girls by years in club work
is as follows: First year, 43.3%; second, 24.89%; third, 15.2%; fourth,
8.3%; fifth, 4.29%; sixth or over, 3.9%. In age groups more than 20 per-
cent of the entire membership is at least 15 years old, indicating that
rural girls are remaining as club members for longer periods or returning
as members after dropping out for a time. One hundred and seventy-seven
older 4-H club girls and former club members married or employed now
serve as volunteer leaders for 4-H girls' clubs; 40% of all leaders for
4-H clubs are former club members.
Cooperation with Adult Program.-Councils of Senior Home Demon-
stration Work composed of farm women actively sponsor 4-H club work
for girls in county and state. All senior clubs devote at least one club
meeting of the year to 4-H club work, when the girls present the program.
The senior clubs furnish many Short Course and camp scholarships. The
State Council provides loan scholarships for club girls in college. More
younger married women enroll in senior groups each year and some com-
munities find it necessary to have a second senior group to take care of
younger women whose immediate interests call for a different program
than the more experienced homemaker. The transition to membership
in senior groups has come readily for our mature 4-H club members be-
cause of this exchange of interest.
State Short Course.-The State Short Course attended by 582 girls and
leaders and all home demonstration agents continues to be the outstanding
event of the 4-H club girl's year, and affects the year's program in 4-H
club work probably more than any other event. All state year-round
contests are headed up at this time; instruction is based on club require-
ments and projects; council and club organization is taught. The most
popular innovation in the program this year was presented by the 4-H
club girls themselves who served as main speakers on the general assembly
programs. Too much praise cannot be given the assistance rendered the
Short Course by the members of the College 4-H Club who remain after
college closes to help with the Short Course and they in return receive
valuable training in organization of community work.
Scholarships for the Short Course are awarded to girls on the basis
of their achievement. Attendance at Short Course is considered a privilege
which can be earned by the girl only by achievement and willingness to
assume responsibility. State Short Course scholarships are given by
business men or civic organizations. Much the same policy is followed
in permitting attendance at county camps or county short courses. The
scope of the instruction passed on to others by this cycle of trained leaders
who come as successful demonstrators to Short Course, to camps, and
back to give the instruction they received to their local club groups and
individuals is most gratifying. Special instruction was given to local
leaders accompanying the girls and agents in their opportunities for help-
ing rural youth.
The State Council for Junior Home Demonstration Work holds its
annual meeting during the Short Course and at this time makes plans
for the year's work, awards scholarships and reports results.
Camps.-Camps for 4-H girls really are county or district short courses,
since in most counties the "Short Course girls" serve as instructors of the
younger girls at camps and know when they come to Short Course this







Annual Report, 1938


will be their responsibility. The 1,500 girls and leaders attending county and
district camps and the nearly 600 girls at the State Short Course and the
200 home demonstration women of the State Woman's Institute all re-
ceived special training which fitted them to relieve the agent of many
details of the programs in the communities. All instruction given at these
special events was based on state-wide programs and plans. Specialists
of the state office assisted with the instruction at all county and district
camps this year. The number of encampments for women decreased this
year, the decision being made by the women to release more of the agent's
time for other work. Attendance at the girls' camps increased by several
thousand.
The 126 achievement day programs and exhibits also served as a means
of giving considerable useful information to the 35,096 people attending
them.
Contests.-Contests do not give us any cause for concern in our educa-
tional program in Florida because we do not establish any contest which is
not an integral part of the year's program. This year state-wide contests
were conducted in the following phases: Poultry, canning, clothing, home
beautification and nutrition. Awards are given to the state office by inter-
ested business organizations. A general plan is made and followed for all
contests so that all awards are on approximately the same basis and are
commensurate in amount with effort expended and results achieved by the
club members. Many girls are honored in each contest by featuring
community and county winners rather than state winners only.
Cooperation with School Authorities.-Relationships with school author-
ities continue to be most pleasant. Excellent cooperation in furthering
4-H club work is given the agents by school principals and teachers as
evidenced by the many appreciative comments in the reports of county
home demonstration agents. Home demonstration agents assist in further-
ing general educational programs in the counties and help specifically
with such things as beautifying the school grounds, hot school lunch
programs, etc. Consolidation of rural schools has affected 4-H club work
among girls to some degree because so little time is left to the girls travel-
ing to schools via buses for carrying on their 4-H demonstrations in their
homes. In spite of this handicap enrollment of girls continues to increase.
College 4-H Club.-This organization began its thirteenth year with the
opening of the Florida State College for Women in September. Member-
ship consists of approximately 100 girls who formerly were club members
in the counties. Its purpose is to encourage other 4-H club girls to enter
college; to develop an appreciative interest in college life; to promote the
program of 4-H club Work in the state; and above all, to give the mem-
bers a greater appreciation and better understanding of their responsibil-
ities and opportunities for improving rural living in Florida.
The club develops a regular study program during the year, the girls
participate actively in campus life and hold offices in other clubs or
classes. One of their most valuable services is given during the annual
4-H Short Course when they serve as group leaders or instructors for the
younger girls and at county camps. Four past members of this club now
serve as agents or assistant agents in Florida and show the value of the
training received.
Rural Youth Conference.-The outstanding event of the College 4-H
Club year, and a significant development in rural life .in the state, as well
as an unique occasion for rural youth -of Florida, was the first Rural
Youth Conference arranged jointly by the young women of the College
4-H Club of the Florida State College for Women and the young men of







Florida Cooperative Extension


the Agricultural Club of the University of Florida. A week-end at the
University for the 4-H club girls as guests of the Agricultural Club mem-
bers was a fine social experience for both the young men and women,
acquainted them with the state educational institution, and contributed
to their cultural development in college life. But the conference program
planned and carried out by the young people on the subject "Needs in
Rural Life in Florida" has proved far-reaching in its effect on the attitude
of these young people regarding their responsibility and opportunities
as country-raised people educated in state-supported institutions. It is
understood this is the first such conference to be held anywhere.

PROFESSIONAL IMPROVEMENT OF HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENTS
Three 3-day short courses attended by all agents were held on the
subject of home dairying, housing and home beautification and household
textiles. Members of the faculty of the Florida State College for Women
and the University of Florida, the Agricultural Experiment Station and
the Extension Service of state and the United States Department of Agri-
culture, gave the instruction. The dairy course included instruction on
selecting the family cow, visits to the dairy farms and pastures, care
of milk, and making and judging dairy products.
An annual conference and .four district meetings were held to give
seasonal instruction and make plans of work.
Agents attended at their own expense annual meetings of state and
national professional organizations, serving on committees and as officers.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK WITH NEGROES
A detailed report on Negro home demonstration work has been filed
by the local district agent.
The number of Negro agents remained the same but the quality of
work done improved noticeably. The Negro district agent gives close
supervision to the counties and she is guided by the state agent. An
annual conference, six district conferences and a Short Course attended
by 500 girls and boys served as training meetings for agents as well as
Negro farm men and women.
The program of work emphasized the. production and conservation of
an adequate family food supply and health and sanitation in the home
for the family, two outstanding needs among Negroes. Record books
for Negro demonstrators were compiled. Specialists of the Home Demon-
stration Office prepared material for use with Negroes and gave instruc-
tion to the Negro agents.

SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS
The most valuable results of an educational program cannot be tab-
ulated. Brighter outlook, changes in attitude, improvements in family
living, development of rural leadership, learning of skills and quality
standards all are intangible results noted in all counties where home
demonstration work is conducted. Inspirational value to others in the
communities cannot be estimated, yet is increasingly evident in terms of
better rural living. A greater development and use of the agricultural
resources of the state can be traced directly to the instruction and guidance
given to consumers in country and urban areas by home demonstration
workers. The economic value of the home demonstration program can
be partially tabulated in terms of thrift in the home, actual increases in
cash.income and in wise conservation of food and health.







Annual Report, 1938


Home demonstration women and girls keep records of the results they
achieve and report them to the agents. The following statistics from
reports of county home demonstration agents indicate progress made in
reaching the general objectives.
I. Improving quality of work done by increasing efficiency of home
demonstration agents; by better planning; by encouraging wider knowl-
edge among farm people of desirable standards of quality in all work
undertaken. Specific points were emphasized as follows:
Use of factual information as a basis of all work done.
38 counties reported 16,775 farm and home visits made by agents to assist
with actual home needs: this is an increase of 1,525 visits over the
previous year.
38 counties report 5,330 families using timely economic information in
making plans for food, clothing, and home management needs.
38 counties used agricultural outlook material in planning programs.
38 counties based plans of work on facts provided by subject-matter spe-
cialists.
10 counties reported 92 communities made country life surveys.
28 counties reported 481 community groups assisted with organization
problems.
Better correlation of plans of all specialists and supervisors and home
demonstration agents.
38 counties adopted a 4-year plan for using specialist help.
12 monthly meetings of state staff members held to guide program and
cheek progress.
4 district conferences held to make seasonal plans.
1 annual conference held for all extension agents.
Correlation of joint activities of men and women extension agents.
All county and state extension workers attended annual conference em-
phasizing program planning.
39 agents attended a 3-day short course given them by dairy specialists.
38 counties adopted Family Food Supply Plan made jointly by nutritionist
and agricultural specialists.
Improved work in counties by securing better office facilities and fol-
lowing improved office management.
15 counties furnished clerical help for short periods to improve office
records.
39 agents secured instruction on office management at annual meeting.
5 counties secured new or improved office space.
20,103 telephone calls were answered by 37 agents.
26,968 calls for assistance were made at county office by local people.
Improved work in counties by better management of field work.
38 counties report home demonstration work serves 561 of the 664 com-
munities where same should be conducted.
38 counties report 326 adult home demonstration clubs and 509 junior
clubs for girls.
38 counties report definite enrollment in clubs of 7,840 women and 10,400
girls, an increase of 335.
More adequate financing of work to allow expansion of program.
18 counties increased budgets for demonstration supplies, short course
scholarships, equipment, etc.
3 counties increased budgets for employment of assistant agents.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Better understanding of quality standards on the part of women and
girls enrolled.
38 counties participated in state and county contests judged on basis of
quality.
Exhibits of results showed marked improvements in communities.
Records of county accomplishments judged by state office indicate improve-
ments.
II. Using resources of farm and home to improve general family living
and to increase the income of the farm family; by encouraging a live-at-
home program; wise buying; housing improvement; economical and health-
ful clothing and home industries reported as follows:
A live-at-home program encouraged for health, satisfaction, and
economy.
36 counties reported 2,259 families produced and conserved an adequate
food supply-increase of 497.
38 counties reported 8,342 gardens; 828 orchards planted and 18,875 fruit
trees planted; 42,460 berry vines planted; 4,308 grape vines planted.
37 counties report 33,019 chickens raised by 4-H club girls-increase of
6,500 chickens and 73,176 standardbred chickens owned by adult
demonstrators.
642 families purchased family cows, compared with 329 last year.
75,000 pounds butter were used at home and 18,400 sold.
2,398 families in 29 counties reported they used at least one quart milk
per day per child.
1,321,360 quarts fruits and vegetables were canned from home gardens
and orchards-an increase of 209,000 quarts this year.
580,646 containers jams, marmalades and jellies were conserved from sur-
plus crops-an increase of 103,000 containers this year.
672,563 pounds meat were cured by 2,587 families and 58,004 pounds
sausage made; 148,827 quarts meat, fish, game, and poultry canned
in 38 counties.
47 farms in 11 counties reported 1,094 new colonies of bees.
2,450 families made 60 tons of lard.
Wise buying of commodities not produced on the farm was emphasized,
teaching desirable quality and standards for money expended.
30 counties reported 2,180 families following better food buying prac-
tices-increase of 167 this year.
29 counties reported 1,082 families budgeted food expenditures for the
year-increase of 56.
27 counties reported 945 families budgeted clothing expenditures and 2,068
families followed better clothing buying practices.
10,667 homes bought home equipment valued at $19,339.63.
Housing improvements and yard beautification was urged for beauty
and thrift.
29 counties reported 452 farm buildings remodeled and repaired.
107 dwellings in 20 counties were built according to home demonstration
plans and 195 dwellings remodeled.
442 homes in 29 counties were painted; 16 counties reported 178 storage
structures built.
527 homes were screened; 1,018 sanitary toilets built.
23 counties reported 1,066 farms bought home equipment; 45 heating sys-
tems installed in 10 counties.







Annual Report, 1938 87

547 farm homes in 15 counties were electrified; 474 lighting plants installed.
25 counties reported 155 new water systems and 26 reported 159 sewage
systems.
7,777 women and girls rearranged kitchens for convenience and better
management.
247 poultry houses were built in 23 counties.
34 counties reported 1,974 homes had planted shrubbery and trees.
108 fences were painted and 93 whitewashed.
Clothing and household textiles planned for on the basis of satisfaction
and economy.
38 counties reported 8,133 4-H club girls and 2,251 women enrolled in
clothing.
38,755 garments were made by 4-H club girls for themselves and family
members.
28 counties reported 556 adults and 1,266 girls kept clothing accounts.
2,998 women and 6,220 girls reported they made personal and family
clothing.
Increased actual income through thrift and wise management in the
home was encouraged.
36 counties report the clothing program saved $62,809 through planning
and care on the part of the women and girls.
Food products, canned and preserved at home valued at only 100 per quart
were worth $404,750.73 in the home food accounts.
516 homes kept home accounts; 599 budgeted all expenditures in relation
to income.
Meat cured valued at only 250 per pound was worth $182,641.75 to the
home pantry.
35 counties reported 1,007 families made home equipment or conveniences.
36 counties reported 2,083 families repaired and remodeled furniture.
30 counties estimated savings of $20,845 as a result of house furnishing
program.
2,464 persons reported improved health and saving in cost of medical
care as result of better nutrition and home management.
1,370 families made 9 tons of soap as a by-product of farm butchering.
Increased cash income through home industries developed to provide
standard quality home produced and manufactured products for sale. Cash
sales reported totalled $154,281.80. Value of products sold is as follows:
Baked goods, $1,440.35; canned products, $7,387.47; fresh vegetables and
fruits, $30,278.29; eggs and poultry, $57,762.59; dairy products, $32,338.83;
plants and flowers, $733.95; and miscellaneous products sold such as handi-
crafts, etc., $14,350.32.
III. Encouraging and training rural people to assume increased respon-
sibility for planning the home demonstration program and its execution
and to develop organization of farm people to guide the development
of the programs in the home, on the farm, and in the community.
Definite demonstrations to be conducted in their own homes by girls
and women planned to meet their family needs has been stressed in all
counties.
10,400 girls enrolled voluntarily in 4-H clubs for definite work in their
homes.
7,840 women enrolled as demonstrators following definite plans for im-
provement in their homes.
70 percent of all girls enrolled completed at least two year-round home
demonstrations.







Florida Cooperative Extension


38 agents held 1,948 meetings at result demonstrations attended by 20,884
people.
Better training for volunteer leaders for special responsibilities has
been emphasized by all specialists, supervisors, and agents.
38 counties held 7,688 method demonstration meetings with total attend-
ance of 131,281.
11 counties held 55 training meetings for 530 adult leaders.
13 counties held 46 training meetings for 1,130 leaders for 4-H girls'
clubs. Volunteer leaders attended annual short course for 4-H girls,
receiving special instruction.
25 counties report 2,821 meetings held by local leaders, attended by 36,992.
35 camp short courses were held for girls, attended by 2,216 girls and
leaders.
Establishment of councils was urged so that rural people would assist
in determining programs and become familiar with agricultural situations
and family living needs.
31 county councils established for girls and 28 for women.
A state council for women and a state council for girls functioned well.
IV. Community activities to be developed according to needs, and to
develop good community spirit with particular emphasis on organizations
which will serve the greatest number of people, and following a plan of
work decided on by rural people.
509 clubs organized for 4-H club girls with membership of 10,400-increase
over 1937.
326 clubs organized for adults, 7,840 members-increase of 311 members
over 1937.
10 counties report community surveys made in 92 communities compared
with 73 last year.
184 communities in 25 counties report community recreation programs.
46 communities report community houses or club rooms built or secured.
12 canning centers established.
38 school or other community grounds improved by 4-H club members
according to plans furnished.
V. Extending services of home demonstration work to more people.
Enrollment of both girls and women increased slightly. Two new assist-
ant agents were employed.
Number of farms on which changes in practices resulted from extension
program increased from 3,634 in 1937 to 6,399 this year.
Number of farm families influenced by extension program increased this
year by 4,058 or a total reported of 17,444 families.
561 communities served by home demonstration clubs, out of possible
664-increase of 29 communities served.
Tours decreased in number; achievement days increased from 102 to 126
during year.
2,216 attended girls' camps as compared with 1,811 in 1937.
1,286 attended women's encampments compared with 1,657 in 1937.
Total number of meetings, tours, exhibits, etc., held, 11,842; total attend-
ance, 301,259.
70,095 bulletins distributed by county officers; 30,433 individual letters
written.
285 home demonstration exhibits held.
2,923 news articles and stories written; 134 radio talks given.
26,968 office calls made and 20,103 telephone calls answered.







Annual Report, 1938


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION

Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation

With market prices for what Florida people consider their "money
crops" at low ebb, it was essential in 1938, as in 1937, that a high per-
centage of the living of the farm family be produced at home. Surveys
continue to emphasize the fact that a large number of Florida rural
families do not have the supply of fresh fruits and vegetables on the farm
that soil and climatic conditions warrant and that good health demands.
Investigations showed that in addition to material benefits accruing
to farm families who produce much of their food at home, this home pro-
duction tends-to raise the standards, to assure a more properly balanced
diet, and to guarantee especially a sufficiency of the protective foods, so
often omitted from the "store bought" rations.
Home demonstration workers have observed that those families which
produce the largest proportion of their food as a rule have a much more
varied diet and show much finer health and vitality. These observations,
as well as the factual data setting forth the economic values, have influenced
our program plans and objective-an adequate productive program. To
this program, as always, the all-year garden, calendar orchard, poultry,
dairy, and the well canned, budgeted pantry must make generous and
important contributions.
First and most important aim is that the farm family may have at
all times a balanced and healthful food supply, regardless of weather
conditions. The second is that increased income obtained through lower-
ing cash expenditures for food, and by the sale of surplus fruits and
vegetables, enable the family to purchase farm implements, labor-saving
equipment, reading matter and the entertainment which they otherwise
could not have, and which add to the family's wellbeing.
The goals for this year remain the same as those for last year with
emphasis placed on production for use, and upon the need for conservation
of land, of other natural resources, and of Florida's man and woman power.
The educational program emphasizes wherever possible the true meaning
of conservation-not the saving for some future time, but the wise use
in the present that there may be enough for future needs.

GARDENS AND ORCHARDS
Records submitted by women and girls enrolled in gardening activities
for the current year show 3,936 year-round gardens planted with a cash
valuation of $30,278.39 fruits and vegetables sold, and 991 homes report
growing new vegetables. These figures show an encouraging increase of 29
percent in the number of year-round gardens made this year over 1937.
The list of fruits, either indigenous to or which grow in Florida, is
startling to newcomers in the state, and yet when one visits the average
farm home he finds a lack of fruit variety. While many farm families
still have not awakened to what can be done in the way of growing one's
own fruit supply or to the value of fruit in the dietary and as ornamentals,
home agents have done much intensive work to awaken farm women and
children to the possibilities of growing an orchard which would provide
their families with a succession of fruits from January to December.
Calendar orchards planted this year totaled 828.
The problem of increasing the family fruit supply is a goal that neces-
sarily must be a long-time objective and accurate checks on progress
cannot be made for some years.







90 Florida Cooperative Extension

FOOD CONSERVATION
Food conservation stands out again in 1938, as in past years, as a
major activity of interest with the farm women and girls.
Housewives have been urged to make a budget of the food needs of
their families for the year-the fresh vegetables and fruits they will re-
quire, the canned, preserved products that will be necessary to supplement
the fresh fruits and vegetables to keep their family's health up to par.
It is the hope that eventually farm families, through learning to budget
their food needs, will learn to budget their incomes and to plan their
expenditures so as to get the maximum happiness and comfort.
Stress has been laid on the fact that quality should be the watchword
in all well rounded, well budgeted, and well canned pantries. Reports
from counties indicate that budgeting the canned food needs of the farm
family and canning the budget for family use in addition to a surplus
for marketing and barter is, as ever, a project of much satisfaction and
of progress. There were 1,397 families who reported canning according
to a canning budget.
Another point that is emphasized is the need for proper storage after
foods have been canned, and reports also indicate that the emphasis is
gradually resulting in the building and remodeling of pantries that will
take care of the canned products in the right way.
From Palm Beach, a South Florida county of highly specialized crops,
the home demonstration agent sends this report:
"More calls have come for canning instruction, bulletins, and advice
than for any other phase of home demonstration work. The practical
value of the well planned and canned pantry is appreciated by those who
have the advantage of enjoying home gardens and of securing surpluses
from truck crops. Where prices are low or when vegetables ripe or im-
perfect in size are obtainable, much canning is done by families. When
extra products are canned they are exchanged or bartered. Women and
girls use their canned products and other products at camp which helped
make healthful meals and helped pay their camp expenses. Canning
budgeting is done by numbers of women now who have the habit of
planning ahead, beginning the garden planting with a view of canning
in mind. A large amount of canning of vegetables and meat is done in
tin. One woman reported a variety of meats canned this year. Much
was put in cold storage, and $100 cash netted from the remainder."
As in the years past, the pantries canned according to a budget, the
display of the pantries on the occasion of the tour made to them, are still
useful and profitable means of climaxing the canning work of the year.
In addition, they serve to stress the importance of quality canning and
the need for efficient, convenient and sanitary storage space for canned
products, the building and remodeling of which these tours have greatly
influenced. They add an interest and color to the program and bring
about other improvements in the home not always possible to tabulate
or evaluate.
From Wakulla County, a North Florida county comparatively new in
home demonstration work, the home demonstration agent tells of her ex-
perience with the pantry tour:
"Perhaps the most interesting part of the conservation program this
year was a pantry tour, the first of its kind held in connection with the
home demonstration program. Twelve pantries were visited in five com-
munities by club women from six clubs. This tour was beneficial in a
number of ways. The women whose homes were visited proved them-
selves to be very gracious hostesses-clean houses and premises, fresh
linens, and cut flowers were in evidence in each home. In each visit the







Annual Report, 1938


outstanding good points were brought out by the agent, such as good
storage or pantry arrangement, kitchen improvement, homemade kitchen
furniture, etc., so that the women might derive full benefit from the tour."

THE FARM MEAT SUPPLY
At one time cured pork formed the basis of the farm meat supply,
supplemented only by an occasional "mess" of fish, chicken, or game. Too
many farm homes in Florida still pursue the habit of eating the flesh of
the pig, either cured or fresh, every day in the year. Emphasis has been
placed on a variation of meat in the diet and the necessity for producing
beef, veal, kid, lamb, and a generous amount of poultry.
Canning demonstrations in better methods of finishing, butchering,
curing, and canning meats-beef, pork, veal, kid, and similar products
are going hand in hand with the program of the production of better
foods. The use of the steam pressure cooker is becoming almost universal.
This has played a big part in the elimination of waste and spoilage, since
but few counties in Florida have convenient and adequate cold storage
facilities. The steam pressure cooker is making its worthwhile contribu-
tion to increasing the variety of meats available for each family's use.
Reports for the current year are very heartening. Thirty-six counties
canned 148,827 quarts of meat. This meat, valued at the low price of
25 cents per quart, reaches a money valuation total of $37,206.75. There
were 730,567 pounds of meat cured in 28 counties. Lard to the amount
of 131,2181/2 pounds was rendered and 18,185 pounds of soap made from
by-products.
MARKETING
While the first objective in the home demonstration program is to
guide farm families in the production and utilization of as much of the
food supply as can be produced on the soil they have and under existing
seasonal conditions, it is also our purpose to assist them in learning to
make marketable products that through the sale of these articles they
may supplement the family income.
Fancy packages of honey, citrus marmalades, preserves, candies, and
sweet pickles, guava products in their many intriguing forms, sea grape,
roselle, pitanga, carissa, and many other kinds of jellies, papaya syrups
and preserves and a wealth of other interesting products which only Flor-
ida can supply, meet with ready sale to both home trade and tourists.
Baked goods, such as fancy breads, cakes, cookies, tarts and pastries
in which Florida's inimitable preserves, citrus and other fruits are used,
also find a ready market. Hence, baking for market is encouraged.
How the marketing of home canned goods in Gadsden County continues
yearly to fill the "polk with pelf" is again told by the home agent.
"The marketing of home canned products continues to be a 'big busi-
ness' with Gadsden County club members. Orders are secured early in
the spring before planting time and the size of gardens regulated by
the size of these orders. Cans are purchased cooperatively and shipments
made cooperatively. Local orders are handled individually. Approximately
10,000 quarts of home-canned products were sold this year at an average
price of 25 cents per quart. Four local stores are handling these products.
The supervision of the canning, the handling of the sales and the book-
keeping are all done ,by the home demonstration agent and her assistants.
Much of this marketing is done for club members who are living far
from a market, or who have no way of sending fresh vegetables to market.
For this reason the production and sale of these home canned products is
a source of income which adds a great deal to the happiness and comfort
of many homes."







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD, NUTRITION, AND HEALTH
Anna Mae Sikes, Nutritionist
The food, nutrition, and health work in the home demonstration plans
for 1938 continued the fundamental program begun years ago of planning,
providing, conserving, and utilizing the family food supply necessary to
meet nutritional needs of all members of the family. General programs
for the year were adapted to meet changing situations in different areas
of the state and the varying conditions of the individual farm families
according to their incomes and dietary needs.
Food, nutrition, and health was related closely to other phases of the
home demonstration program; it was integrated with the food production
plans as a means of providing an adequate food supply; it was correlated
with the food conservation program through planning, budgeting, and
conserving surplus foods to avoid seasonal shortages of foods necessary
for health and to release cash to be spent for other commodities needed
by the family.
Agricultural Extension Service specialists in poultry, dairying, live-
stock, and agricultural economics, faculty members in horticulture and
home economics, and Agricultural Experiment Station staff members as-
sisted in the development of nutrition and health work by providing useful
information.
This year a definite trend is noted among farm families in Florida
toward better planning to meet the family food needs on the farms; this
is due partly to the outlook for low farm crop prices and resultant lower
incomes, but equally to successful demonstrations in the past which have
proved the great value of a planned farm-produced food supply.
With the present small amount of cash available to spend for farm
family living in many sections of the state the need for planning a balanced
food supply on a yearly basis and making wise choices as to what to
produce and what to buy during that long period of time became an im-
portant part of the nutrition program. Both the farmer and his wife as
heads of the family, and their children, needed to understand the health
and money benefits of and the necessity for making and carrying out
farm and home plans for producing and using the needed supply of food
jointly. The food supply and family food problems peculiar to each type
of farming areas were considered in planning the nutrition program.
Demonstrations were established in the homes to meet individual or family
food, nutrition and health needs. In each community individuals and
families benefiting from these improved farm and home practices served
as "demonstrators" for teaching and inspiring other families nearby to
adopt better food, nutrition, and health practices.
Home production of foods on Florida farms tends to improve the family
diet because it makes possible an increased consumption of eggs, milk,
poultry, and poultry products and the fresh fruits and vegetables, especially
the fresh food products so important in the diet for their mineral elements
and vitamins that they are called protective foods.
Few farmers can afford to spend much cash to make up dietary defi-
ciencies resulting from an inadequate supply of farm-produced foods. Thus
the problem of providing a balanced diet has become one of farm manage-
ment as well as home management, and home demonstration agents have
worked with farm men as well as homemakers in planning and securing
an adequate food supply. Also providing a good diet for the farm family
has often meant introducing a variety of small enterprises on farms
hitherto devoted to cash crops or introducing new methods to overcome
obstacles of soil or climate.








Annual Report, 1938


A knowledge of soil conditions of the areas and the best use of the
soil has been of interest to farm men and women alike in this job of
producing a living dependent upon the soil, and information along this
line has been included in many community programs. Maladjustments in
land use caused by such factors as land productivity, size of holdings and
forest depletion bring about situations which affect the nutrition of farm
families. Malaria and hookworm also are considered as contributing to
the nutritional and health conditions of Florida people. Both are existent
in the state and their debilitating effects are well known.
In most communities in Florida the essential food elements are abun-
dant and easily procured, therefore when poor nutrition is found among
rural people it is due in great part to a failure to produce and to utilize
properly enough of the readily available foods. In most cases this situ-
ation may be attributed to lack of knowledge of the farm homemaker
and her husband of the basic principles of normal food requirements of
the body or failure of the family members to grasp the importance of
the influence of proper nutrition upon normal development and optimum
growth of adults and children or failure to recognize nutritional defi-
ciency when it exists. Taking these three factors into consideration the
food, nutrition and health program includes in its purpose teaching a
wider knowledge of what is meant by good nutrition, the promotion of
normal nutrition iii the home and community so nutritional defects will
be prevented, and the recognition by the homemakers of nutritional defects
which can be corrected.
Therefore, in view of all the factors named the nutrition program has
stressed safeguarding the health of the family and urging a wise distri-
bution of the income by securing an adequate food supply for every family,
whether home-produced or purchased.
Production of a sufficient food supply naturally received first em-
phasis, but the proper use of foods on the family table has been con-
sidered to be equally as important as their production. Standards in
food selection, preparation and cookery, and meal planning have received
:special emphasis in home demonstration programs for both women and
girls. In some areas in Florida exist traditional food habits and preju-
dices and in ignorance of the meaning of sanitation and positive health
and indifference and inertia arising from lowered physical stamina. This
last is often due to deficiencies in the family food supply and dietary
habits and possibly accounts for the high incidence of colds, dental caries,
under-nutrition, anemia, and pellagra found in some Florida rural areas.
GOALS FOR YEAR
By analyzing the agricultural situation and the food and health needs
of individuals and families in various areas of the state as shown by
records and reports, and by means of program planning meetings, county
.councils, home demonstration groups of girls and women and individual
members, the following goals were determined this year for the nutrition
program: That every farm family can benefit itself and others in the
community by learning: (1) What the farm family should eat to main-
tain high standards of nutrition and health; (2) how the farm family
may obtain this food supply economically, involving both production and
buying; (3) how to plan the food supply from an economic standpoint,
including what foods to use, buy or sell; (4) how foods may be kept for
future use, including preserving, processing and storage under character-
istic temperatures and humidity conditions of the area; (5) how foods
should be prepared for the family, including standards of meal planning,
preparation or cookery, and use of a variety of foods.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Definitely planned nutrition programs were developed for girls in
the 4-H clubs and for adults.
"Feeding the family" programs for adults included the following three
demonstrations, each establishing a background for the next, thus resulting
in a long-time food supply program for the family: (1) Essentials of
good nutrition, (2) meal planning and food preparation; (3) planning,
providing and utilizing the family food supply. Definite and practical
plans suggested to the demonstrators stressed better health, increased
economy, and greater satisfaction for the family. A large percentage
of the family food supply could be economically produced on the farm in
nearly all parts of the state but in some sections wise buying of foods
for quality and economy was emphasized.
The "healthy living" program for girls was divided into the following
four long-time demonstrations: Health improvement, food preparation
and meal planning, baking and judging of baked products, and the young
homemaker. The girls enrolled developed an understanding of and a
desire for positive health through their recognition of the contribution
made by proper food selection and preparation to their normal growth
and development; the program with 4-H girls stimulated their interest
in school lunches, and created a feeling of their responsibility for securing
an adequate, sanitary and economical food supply for family and com-
munity through home production and home consumption. This plan was
correlated directly with the garden, poultry and dairy work done by
the girls.
Both adult and junior programs emphasized the need for all members
of the family to think of planning, providing and utilizing the family
food. supply as a means of maintaining health and releasing available
cash for goods and services that the farm family did not produce.
The best results of the nutrition program cannot be measured by
statistics, since there exist no means of adequately measuring changed
attitudes, ways of thinking and improved standards of living. These in-
tangibles represent the major contribution of the program and are shown
in the better health, happiness and greater .prosperity of the farm family
today and will be more evident in future generations.
Some statistics in addition to the facts included in the summarized
report above are given here: Reports of the 3,092 women enrolled in
nutrition show 5,924 families served better balanced meals; 2,180 fam-
ilies reported improved food buying; 818 homes provided improved stor-
age places; 1,118 families followed recommended methods of child feed-
ing; 1,998 families improved home-packed lunches for school children;
123 schools followed recommendations of agents for hot dish school
lunches; 3,522 individuals improved their health habits through better
food; 1,526 women improved posture; 3,037 women adopted recommenda-
tions for posture or preventive means to improve their health.
The 4,475 4-H girls enrolled in nutrition work report they prepared
52,442 food dishes for theii families; planned and served 20,194 meals;
542 4-H club girls attending the State Short Course received special
instruction in the healthy living program and returned to their counties
to serve as leaders for other club members.
A wider knowledge of nutrition among the girls and women enrolled;
a better understanding of the relation of nutrition to health, wiser expendi-
tures of food money, and better planning of home production by the
farmer and his wife will do much to overcome traditional food habits
and prejudices, dietary lacks and lowered physical stamina and thus im-
prove the living conditions of Florida farm families.







Annual Report, 1938


HOME IMPROVEMENT

Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement

The general objective in the home improvement program is to arouse
the desires of all members of the farm family for better homes and im-
proved home surroundings in order to secure more healthful, comfortable,
convenient, beautiful homes which will be satisfying to all members of
the family. Goals have been set in many family councils for definite im-
provements desired. Sometimes several years are needed to reach the
ultimate goal, making farm and home management plans fit together
to secure the desired improvements.
BETTER HOME MANAGEMENT IN TIME,
INCOME AND EXPENDITURES
A great deal of stress has been laid on time management by better
planning and using labor-saving devices. More thought was given to
the selection and buying of needed equipment. A few testing circles were
inaugurated by farm women when the local merchants or manufacturers
would lend certain things to be tried out by various home demonstration
club members before purchasing.
A better distribution of time and income and a more orderly way of
doing all home business was encouraged in order to have more established
demonstrations that will cause every passer-by to become awakened to
beauty, orderliness and the pleasure of a prosperous-appearing home.
When people are awakened they will want or desire, and will plan for
the things they desire. Every well planned demonstration inspires more
successful demonstrations in which better built homes will be painted,
and in which there will be more conveniences with the necessary equip-
ment, electricity, running water, bathrooms, better furnishings, more
privacy, more leisure time. There has been more beauty in yards planted
on a soil that will grow grass, with native plantings, vines, shrubs, trees
and things that cost little, but when planted with a plan they are both
effective and beautiful.
Home demonstration agents point to the prosperous and uplifting
appearance of painted homes and public buildings. The increase in painted
public buildings has had its psychological effect in all areas of the state
that had become so "run down at the heels" in appearance, since the de-
pression and before. Florida climate is hard on paint and frequent paint-
ing is not only an esthetic investment but an economic one.
Adequate and convenient storage spaces in both old and new houses
were stressed, special emphasis being given to closets for clothing, for
bedding, for food conservation. Many husbands built their wives a conven-
ient storage place for canned products and for clothing, also made work
and business centers.
HOME SURROUNDINGS
Exterior beautification of the immediate home surroundings and plan-
ning the entire home site, including the yard, the year-round garden and
calendar orchard was a major project. Demonstrations and illustrated
talks showing the placing of orchard, garden, poultry lots, and pig pens,
not only for beauty but for convenience for the farmer, were given.
Better fences and out-buildings are included in the beautification plan
along with trees, vines, shrubbery. Home sanitation was carried on in
emphasizing home surroundings.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Home sanitation is most important. Clean, well kept premises add
health to the family by getting rid of vermin and insects which breed
in weeds, tin cans, broken dishes and other rubbish. The consciousness
of the value of cleanliness is paving the way toward a solution of eco-
nomic problems for many families who have had to spend all the available
cash for medicine on account of malaria.


Fig. 8.-Remodeling and improving homes for more beauty and convenience engage
the entire families of home demonstration women. The one above will be landscaped to
make it still more attractive.

HOUSING
Many home demonstration members live in well settled communities
where water and electric power are available and where most of the
houses are screened and painted. However, many others have had to
add these conveniences gradually after the houses themselves have been
built, as the money becomes available. The agent's part in furthering
this work has been to make recommendations and supply plans and infor-
mation. Reports show that 420 families were assisted with house plan-
ning problems. An increase is noted of house plans sketched by the
families in family council, putting plans on paper for study long before
the house is started.
There is opportunity for almost unlimited development of house plans,
housing improvements, and use of local construction materials on Florida
farms, such as limestone which can be sawed into beautiful square or
oblong shapes, the odd shaped kind and irregular stones can be cemented
together as a rock veneer. The various woods such as juniper, pine and
small saplings of cypress are very valuable.
Thrift furnishings such as upholstering, curtains, bedspreads, and slip
covers can be utilized when the dye pot and deft fingers are put to work
to create and construct usable artistic house furnishings. A total of
4,029 persons have used sacks because they were available and cost







Annual Report, 1938


nothing; 1,706 yards of jute was used in 1938, in spite of the fact that
its use has been discouraged. Only 58 barrel chairs were reported made;
however, many chairs and seats have been made of signboards and scraps
of waste lumber with old automobile springs in connection with the up-
holstering. Other reports include 465 pieces of thrift or box furniture,
503 hooked rugs, 519 braided rugs, 942 crocheted rugs and 123 raveled
burlap rugs. Also 788 cotton mattresses, 14 moss mattresses and 3
inner-spring mattresses were made and 576 mattresses were renovated.
Furniture was repaired, refinished or re-upholstered in 1806 homes; 820
homes have given special emphasis to walls and floors; 718 porches have
been improved; 694 porch boxes have been made to take the place of
tin cans, buckets and other receptacles which are not so well suited for
flowers.
Reports of home demonstration women and girls show grounds around
714 homes were landscaped this year while 1,128 club members have
been influenced to paint, whitewash, plant grass or start foundation plant-
ings. Better built sanitary toilets not only make the premises more
attractive but add health to the family; 992 girls and women studied
the life cycle of mosquitoes, flies and the hookworm, thus learning how
to combat those great handicaps of the South-malaria and hookworm.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES

Clarine Belcher, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles

Rural women and girls recognize the importance of clothing and tex-
tiles in satisfactory family living and continue to show a growing interest
in this phase of home demonstration work. This year 10,655 women
and girls were assisted with various clothing problems. Many personal,
family and community improvements have resulted from the 7,712 cloth-
ing demonstrations established in rural homes this year.
Working towards the long-time goals of securing satisfactory and
economical clothing and providing attractive, durable and adequate house-
hold textiles for the rural families, the program has been developed by
emphasizing the following points:
Planning to meet the clothing needs economically and satisfactorily
by (1) carefully budgeting the money available; (2) making wardrobe
plans for the individual members of the family; (3) making long-time
plans for providing adequate textiles for the household.
Selecting clothing for satisfaction by (1) choosing clothing suitable
for Florida wear; (2) learning to buy wisely both ready-to-wear garments
and fabrics; (3) applying art principles to dress and interior decoration.
Constructing successful clothing in the home by using (1) correct sewing
methods and (2) efficient equipment in the home sewing room.
Caring for clothing in the home efficiently by (1) following proper
laundry methods and supplies and (2) storing clothing carefully.
Progress has been made in planning to meet the clothing needs
economically and satisfactorily. In the past three years 6,047 families
reported they were helped to meet their clothing requirements more
efficiently through the clothing program. With a limited amount of the
low cash income available for clothing expenditures, better management
of the clothing money has been necessary. This year 945 individuals
reported budgeting clothing expenditures and 1,822 individuals kept accounts
in order to spend their money more wisely.
Florida women and girls are interested in becoming better informed
consumers. Aids in selecting clothing for satisfaction presented under
the textile program have been received generally with appreciation. A
wider use of cotton has been encouraged particularly because of its suit-
ability for Florida wear and to increase the consumption of a Southern
agricultural product. A total of 7,295 individuals followed home demon-
stration recommendations in the selection of clothing for health, beauty
and economy with 2,068 persons following clothing buying recommendations
specifically. Definite results are difficult to measure in improvement
of personal appearance but the home demonstration agents report fre-
quently a growing appreciation on the part of the rural women and
girls of the value of making "the most of themselves". This is a whole-
some attitude which will contribute to the best development of the in-
dividual.
The practice of home sewing has proved to be an effective method
for many families to secure satisfactory clothing at low cost. Emphasis
has been placed on this phase of the clothing program in 1938 and will
be continued. Nine percent more individuals followed recommendations
in construction of clothing in 1938 than in 1937. Of the 5,461 4-H club
girls who established clothing demonstrations this year, each one averaged
making 8 articles. Increased skill in sewing results partly from the







Annual Report, 1938


construction short courses which home demonstration agents have con-
ducted successfully this year in many communities. Through the coop-
eration of commercial agencies 35 demonstrations were given to increase
the use of efficient sewing equipment.
Some progress is noted in more efficient care of clothing in the home.
To extend the limited money available for clothes, emphasis has been
given to proper :aundry methods and careful storage of clothing. A steady
increase is reported in the number of demonstrators following recom.
mendations in improving care, renovation and remodeling of their cloth-
ing. Improvement in caring for clothing was reported by 3,676 women
and girls in 1936; 4,276 in 1937; and 4,540 in 1938. Exhibits, tours and
method demonstrations in improvised clothing storage spaces, closet acces-
sories and cleaning methods, have advanced this phase of the clothing
program. A unique clothing storage space or wardrobe constructed of
used orange crates was exhibited to the 4-H club girls at the annual
State Short Course and the women attending the State Senior Council
meeting. This exhibit was repeated in the Farm Security and vocational
home economics program as well as the home demonstration program and
resulted in many such clothes closets being built in Florida farm homes.
























Fig. 9.--Dress revues at annual Short Course culminate a year's work in sewing for
thousands of Florida 4-H girls.

Educational and government agencies and various civic and business
organizations have contributed to the advancement of the clothing pro-
gram. Such cooperation among all interested agencies develops unity in
program planning for better rural living. These various organizations
have provided inspirational and material support in the development of
the clothing program by awarding clothing achievement scholarships, by
furnishing field and office assistance, by loaning and donating timely educa-
tioral materials, and by supplying specialized speakers and demonstrators.
The clothing program of home demonstration work of the Agricultural
Extension Service has contributed to the physical, economic and social