<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Credits
 Report of director and vice-di...
 Editorial and mailing
 Agricultural conservation
 County agents' activities
 Agronomy demonstrations
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Citrus fruit culture
 Animal husbandry
 Dairying
 Poultry keeping
 Agricultural economics
 Home demonstration activities
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Food, nutrition and health
 Improving Florida rural homes
 Clothing and textiles
 Men's group
 Home demonstration among negro...
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00021
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1937
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00021
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 4
    Credits
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of director and vice-director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Editorial and mailing
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Agricultural conservation
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    County agents' activities
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Agronomy demonstrations
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Citrus fruit culture
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Animal husbandry
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Dairying
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Poultry keeping
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Agricultural economics
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Home demonstration activities
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Food, nutrition and health
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Improving Florida rural homes
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Men's group
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Home demonstration among negroes
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Index
        Page 97
        Page 98
Full Text








1937 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND

HOME ECONOMICS


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, DIRECTOR




REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1937
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1937













1937 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND

HOME ECONOMICS


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, DIRECTOR




REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1937
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1937








BOARD OF CONTROL
R. P. TERRY, Acting Chairman, Miami
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland
W. M. PALMER, Ocala
H. P. ADAIR, Jacksonville
C. P. HELFENSTEIN, Like Oak
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialistl
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman'
D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economistl
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist1

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

IPart-time.













CONTENTS
PAGE

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR ..........................--. .............-- 7

*Financial Statement .................-........... --------------. 11

Statistical Report ............. ..... .. ........ .......... .................. ..... 12

EDITORIAL AND MAILING ...........-.---.. ........---- ---.............. 17

AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION .................------------------ ----------------.. 23

COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES .......-......------------......... ------ -- ---------. 30

AGRONOMY DEMONSTRATIONS .....-.....-------....---....---.. ..-------. 32

BOYS' 4-H CLUB W ORK ..........................-................... .----------- .......... 36

CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE ....................................... -......-....--.... ---------.. 42

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY .......................................... ............. .----.....--- .. 45

DAIRYING ........---...-- .. ..------ .....-----.. ----------- ------------ 49

POULTRY KEEPING ........................................................ ... 52

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS .............. ...... ............. .................... 58

Farm Management Division ............................... ..... .................. 58

M marketing Farm Products ...................................... .......... .......... 61

HOME DEMONSTRATION ACTIVITIES ..........................-----...-------------------- 63

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION .................................. --........- 72

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH ........................ .......--.. --...--..- -.. 76

IMPROVING FLORIDA RURAL HOMES .................... .. ...................... 80

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES ....----..........-------....--------.. -------- --------------- 83

NEGRO MEN'S WORK ................---...........----------- ---- ------------ 86

HOME DEMONSTRATION AMONG NEGROES ....................... ...... ................ 90

Negro Statistical Report ..............-..---...- ........... ---- ..... .. 93






[3]



















Hon. Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricul-
tural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for
the calendar year 1937, including a fiscal report for the year ended June
30, 1937.
Respectfully,
R. P. TERRY,
Acting Chairman, Board of Control




Hon. R. P. Terry,
Acting Chairman, Board of Control
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accord-
ance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua ..................Fred L. Craft ........Gainesville ................ Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Baker ....................M. D. Futch .......... Macclenny .................................................
Bay ......................John G. Hentz, Jr. Panama City ................................. .......
Bradford ..............T. K. McClane ......Starke .... .... .......... ..........
Brevard ................T. L. Cain ............Cocoa .............................. Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
reward ..... ....................... ............... Ft. Lauderdale ...................... Miss Olga Kent
alhoun ..............J. G. Kelley ..........Blountstown ............ Miss Eloise Chapman
harlotte ...............N. H. McQueen ....Punta Gorda .............................. ......
Citrus ................_........................ ... Inverness ............ Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
lay ........................................... ....... Green Cove Springs ...... Miss Beulah Felts
Folumbia ..............Guy Cox ................Lake City ............ Miss Ruth Durrenberger
ade ......................C. H. Steffani ........Miami ............................ Miss Eunice Grady
ade (Asst.) ..........J. L. Edwards ........Miami .. ..................................
eSoto ................E. H. Vance ............Arcadia .. ............... .....................
ixie ......................D. M. Treadwell ....Cross City .................................. ...... ...
uval ....................A. S. Lawton ........Jacksonville .................... Miss Pearl Laffitte
uval (Asst.) ........Frank M. Dennis ..Jacksonville .... ........ ...................
scambia ............E. H. Finlayson ....Pensacola ...................... Miss Ethel Atkinson
adsden .................Henry Hudson ......Quincy ...................... Miss Elise Laffitte
ilchrist................A S. Laird ............Trenton ................... ....... ............
lades & Hendry ..G. C. Hodge ..........Moore Haven ...................................
ulf ............................... .... ... Wewahitchka ................ Mrs. Pearl Whitfield
amilton ...........J. J. Sechrest ........Jasper ............. .................
ardee ..................H. L. Miller ............Wauchula ........... ..... ..........
ernando ..............B. E. Lawton ........Brooksville ....... .........................
highlands -.............L. H. Alsmeyer ....Sebring .............................. .........
illsborough ..........Alec White ............Tampa .. ............ ..............
illsborough (West) ..........................Tampa ..................... Miss Allie Lee Rush
illsborough (East) ............ ....... Plant City ..................... Miss Irene Riley
olmes ..................D. D. McCloud ....Bonifay ................. Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
ackson ................J. W. Malone ..........Marianna .................... Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter
efferson ...............P. R. McMullen ....Monticello .......................... Miss Ruby Brown
afayette ................D. H. W ard ..........Mayo .. ..... ........... .............................
ake ..................R. E. Norris ..........Tavares .......................... Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
,ee ........................ C. P. Heuck ..........Ft. Myers ...................................... ...... ..
eon .....................K. S. McMullen ....Tallahassee ............... Miss Rosalie L. Wolfe
evy ......................T. K. Rickenbaker Bronson .......... Miss Wilma Richardson
liberty ....................F. D. Yaun ...........Bristol ...................................... ....
adison ..................S. L. Brothers ......Madison ................ Miss Bennie F. Wilder
anatee ..................Ed L. Ayers ..........Bradenton ............ Miss Margaret Cobb
arion ....................R. A. Stratford ......Ocala .......................... Miss Kathryn Riddle
assau ...................J. Raymond Mills ..Hilliard ......... ........-- .........--..
kaloosa ...............E. R. Nelson ..........Crestview ............. ... ..... .............
keechobee ............C. A. Fulford ........Okeechobee .......................................
range ....................K. C. Moore ............Orlando ...................... Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
)sceola .............. J. R. Gunn ............Kissimmee ....................... Miss Albina Smith
alm Beach ............M. U. Mounts ........West Palm Beach .... Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
asco ......................T.A.McClellan, Jr. Dade City ................. ...... ......................
inellas ........... ....J. H. Logan ............Clearwater ........................ Miss Tillie Roesel
olk .......................W. P. Hayman ......Bartow ... .......... ............ Miss Lois Godbey
utnam ................H. E. Westbury ....Palatka .................. Miss Josephine *Nimmo
t. Johns ....... .....Loonis Blitch ........St. Augustine ............. Miss Anna E. Heist
anta Rosa ............John G. Hudson ....Milton ........................ Miss Eleanor Barton
eminole .............C. R. Dawson ........Sanford ......... .... Mrs. Gladys Kendall
arasota ..................W. E. Evans ..........Sarasota ...... ........... ...............
umter ..................W. J. Platt, Jr. ......Bushnell ...................... Miss Martha Briese
uwannee ..............S. C. Kierce ...........Live Oak ................... Miss Louise Taylor
aylor ..................Tom U. Green ........Perry .............................. Miss Floy Moses
union ......................L. T. Dyer ..............Lake Butler ................... ............. ...........
olusia .................. :.F.E. Baetzman ...DeLand .................... Mrs. Marguerite Norton
akulla ................N. J. Albritton ......Crawfordville ................. Mrs. Pearl Penuel
alton ....................Mitchell Wilkins ..DeFuniak Springs ........ Miss Eloise McGriff
ashington ...........Hans Andersen ....Chipley ....... ................. ......

[5]







AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director of Extension ........................................ Gainesville
H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge ............................ Gainesville
James J. Love, Chairman, State Agricultural Conservation
Committee .................................................... Quincy
Walter B. Anderson, State Agricultural Conservation
Com m ittee ...................................... ............................................ Greenw ood
Ralph B. Chapman, State Agricultural Conservation Committee .... Sanford
Harry C. Brown, State Agricultural Conservation Committee ........ Clermont
E. Owen Blackwell, Accountant ......................................................... Gainesville
Minnie P. Carr, Statistical Assistant ................................................. Gainesville
R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Agent ............................................ Gainesville
A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Agent .................................... Gainesville
J. Lee Smith, District Agent ................................................................ Gainesville
W. T. Nettles, District Agent .........................................................-. Gainesville

ASSISTANTS IN AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION

COUNTY NAME ADDRESS
Alachua ......................................Benjamin L. Gittings ........................ Gainesville
Columbia ...............................Gussie B. Calhoun .............................. Lake City
Escambia ..................................Bryan C. Gilmore .................................. Pensacola
Hamilton ..................................Joseph W. Mitchell .................................... Jasper
Hillsborough ............................Marshall O. Watkins ...................... Plant City
Jackson ....................................Richard C. Peacock ............................ Marianna
Jefferson .................................. Elbert J. Albritton .............................. Monticello
Lake ............................................Wilmer W. Bassett, Jr. ........................ Tavares
Madison .................................Aubrey J. Hudson .................................. Madison
Orange ...................................... Lewis S. Maxwell .................................... Orlando
Okaloosa ...............-...................Milford B. Miller .................................. Crestview
Polk ........................................ Myron M. Varn ........................................ Bartow
Santa Rosa ................................Frederick W. Barber ................................ Milton
Suwannee .................................Hans O. Andersen .............................. Live Oak*
Walton ........... ......................Arnold G. Hutchinson ........ DeFuniak Springs

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS

COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua ....................................F. E. Pinder ................... .................. Gainesville
Columbia and
Southern Suwannee ..........E. S. Belvin ........................................ Lake City
Hamilton and
Northern Suwannee ............N. H. Bennett .............................. White Springs
Hillsborough ............................Elliott Robbins ...................................... Tampa
Jackson .................................. J. E. Granberry .................................. Marianna
Jefferson ....................................M. E. Groover ..................................... Monticello
Leon ........................................Rolley Wyer, Jr. ................................ Tallahassee
Marion .................................... W. B. Young ................................................ Ocala

LOCAL HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua .............................Mary Todd McKenzie ................... Gainesville
Duval ........................................Ethel M. Powell ................................ Jacksonville
Gadsden .................................Diana H. Bouie ........................................ Quincy
Hillsborough ............................ Floy Britt ............................................ Tampa
Leon ........................................ Alice W. Poole .................................. Tallahassee
Madison .......................... .......Althea Ayer ............................................ Madison
Marion ............... .................Idella R. Kelley ........................................ Reddick
Putnam ....................................Fannie G. Browning ......................:......... Palatka

*Resigned December 10.










REPORT FOR 1937


PART I-GENERAL

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR

Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.
SIR: I submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Exten-
sion Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report
embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1937,
and a summary of the activities for the calendar year 1937.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.


Florida Agricultural Extension Service activities between December
1, 1936, and November 30, 1937, did not include any important changes
in the relationships and duties of the principal officers.
Headquarters for the home demonstration work continued to be pro-
vided at the Florida State College for Women and of the Negro work
in the Agricultural and Mechanical College, both in Tallahassee.
Cooperation from boards of county commissioners was maintained, with
relatively few personnel changes or modifications in financial agreements.
Relations with the University of Florida colleges, under policies estab-
lished by the Board of Control, as heretofore provided offices and covered
a mailing room, mailing list and administrative employees serving also the
State Agricultural Experiment Station.
State agencies giving cooperation included the Departments of Agri-
culture and Public Instruction, Board of Health, Inspection Service, Live-
stock Sanitary Board, Marketing Bureau and Milk Control Board. Com-
modity associations, especially in citrus fruit growing, dairying, cold stor-
age and truck crop fields, received advisory assistance when requested.
Exhibits educational in nature dealing with agricultural economics
and 4-H clubs were shown without special appropriations therefore or incur-
ring large expenses, composed mostly of bulletins, charts and demonstra-
tion materials which staff members handled.
Federal agencies operating in Florida with which cooperative relation-
ships existed comprised principally the Agricultural Adjustment Admin-
istration, Bureaus of Animal Industry, Dairying, Entomology, Home Eco-
nomics and Plant Industry and the Farm Security Administration. Offices
of the Florida coordinator under the Soil Conservation Service are located
in Gainesville for contacts with the Extension Service and Experiment
Station.
Specialists on the Extension Service staff, both men and women, car-
ried on the educational work through county agents' offices under approval
from supervisory members who had passed on the plans pursued.
Revenue sources remained without material modification, in addition
to Federal funds consisting of appropriations by the State Legislature,
boards of county commissioners and education, and continuing ones from
[7]








Florida Cooperative Extension


the Florida treasury. State and county amounts mostly were unchanged,
no counties recording decreases and a few making increases ranging from
3 to 10 percent.
Offices were increased in number to no important extent but county
agents have been supplied needed filing cases, miscellaneous equipment
and typewriters and added space at most points to accommodate the
Agricultural Conservation extra personnel required.
Assistants have been promoted to county agents in several cases. Ad-
ditions when called for are selected from graduates of the Agriculture
College at the University. Duties assigned the new workers largely related
to the Agricultural Conservation activities or 4-H clubs.
A Soil Conservationist appointed by the College of Agriculture, Dr.
R. V. Allison, also was assigned the same work in the Extension Service,
without compensation or travel allowance.
Appointment of Miss Mary Keown as State Home Demonstration Agent
succeeding Miss Flavia Gleason, resigned, made before December 1, 1936,
left one district agent's office vacant until after the fiscal year began,
July 1, 1937, supervision in the territory meanwhile having come from
other district agents or specialists.
Extension Service policies in selecting agents seek the qualifications
given by knowledge concerning agriculture and home economics and fa-
miliarity with farming in the areas where the work is to be done. Differ-
ences between sections in Florida are so pronounced that capacities must
be considered aside from scholastic training.
Education in Florida institutions or those of adjoining states is pre-
ferred, so far as persons having it are available. County agents and
assistants at present are 85 percent graduates from agricultural colleges,
29 percent the output of the Florida College at Gainesville. Others em-
ployed have been in service 10 to 20 years, and practically successful.

PROJECT ACTIVITIES
Major undertakings of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service
applying to the work in counties on lines allied with the predominant
farming conditions and which are fully described by the subsequent more
detailed outlines from district agents, specialists and like staff members,
may be briefly summarized thusly:
Agricultural Conservation-encouraging cover crops production for soil
improvement.
Agricultural Economics-dealing especially with the costs of growing,
handling, marketing and transporting field and grove output.
Citriculture-cultural methods, disease and insect control, fertilization
practices, picking and packing economies, selling efficiency and like
factors.
Dairying-primarily to furnish a farm home milk supply and second-
arily for assistance in making commercial production profitable, largely
through improved breeding, feeding and pasturage practices.
4-H Club Work for Boys-Placing emphasis on organization and sum-
mer camps, with the greatest accomplishments in localities where county
agents have been in position to make major projects of these aims, co-
operating with community groups wherever feasible. (Girls' 4-H club
work is reported on by the State Home Demonstration Agent.)
Home Demonstration-encouraging food products conservation, home
improvement, better nutrition and studies of clothing and textiles, with
increased farm income constantly stressed and youth training conducted







Annual Report, 1937


through the girls' 4-H clubs. Organizations among women also are spon-
sored as the means whereby special objectives can be attained.
Hog and Beef Cattle Cooperative Sales-establishing local associations
wherever supplies warrant for assembling the animals so that carload
buying becomes practicable. Turkeys and other poultry also have been
disposed of in like manner to the much greater profits of producers. Live-
stock cooperative sales have contributed to provision of better marketing
facilities by packers, meanwhile fixing grades and stabilizing prices.
Livestock Feed and Pasture Betterment-joined in by the Extension
Service agronomy and animal husbandry divisions-through greater farm
feeds production, rotation of crops in enlarged degree, using silage more
freely and turning idle lands to grazing and feeds raising.
Truck Crops and Vegetables-applying principally to central and south-
ern Florida, except as regards two areas in the northern part of the
state where Irish potatoes are grown during winter. Difficulties experi-
enced in making the endeavor efficient are intensified by weather and
marketing hazards, production costs and crop specialization. "Live at
home" practices sponsored by the Agricultural Extension Service in a
major degree are based on home gardens, and possess great importance
in the staple farming sections.
Negro Agricultural Extension-Corresponding as to subject matter and
general procedure in large measure with that among white people but
differing because confined within counties having relatively large popula-
tions composed of Negroes. Recommendations on which the plans are
based come from the regular staff specialists in the main organization.
Boys' 4-H club work among Negroes has registered improvement since
younger agents were appointed who possess better educational qualifications.

SPECIALIZED UNDERTAKINGS
Planning Councils-Organizations attempted in accordance with recom-
mendations from the Federal Agricultural Extension Service and Adjust-
ment Administration. A favorable reception generally has been given the
idea but the development thereof was delayed by the multiplicity of con-
flicting or duplicating activities. Committees selected for local work rep-
resent civic clubs, "dirt" farmers, school boards and vocational agriculture
teachers, the county farm and home demonstration agents usually having
been included.

SEA ISLAND COTTON INDUSTRY RESTORATION
Under way in some 20 counties formerly growing long staple but
where the production was discontinued owing to boll weevil. Efforts for
revival have been enlarged, under joint direction from the Extension Ser-
vice, Experiment Stations, State and United States departments of agri-
culture, with the local campaigns almost everywhere supervised by
county agents. Prospects are considered good for further substantial
progress.
SOIL CONSERVATION
Soil erosion projects at Graceville and Monticello, federally operated,
use the state agencies' recommendations as a basis. A Florida Soil Con-
servation District law passed by the 1937 legislature is administered by
a state committee comprising the Agricultural Experiment Station Direc-
tor, the Agricultural Extension Service Vice-Director, and the College
of Agriculture Soil Conservationist.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SWEET POTATO WEEVIL CONTROL
This is a local problem in a few areas. Clean-up methods representing
but a small cost to producers were instituted through the county agents,
who also made the arrangements for securing suitable slips after the
State Plant Board had placed quarantine regulations in effect. Results
so far have been satisfactory.

TOBACCO BLUE MOLD CONTROL
Plant beds in the counties comprising the Florida flue-cured tobacco
belt underwent serious injury in the spring of 1937 from the blue mold
disease. Pending results from investigations provided for by the last leg-
islature, Extension Service, Experiment Station and State Plant Board
personnel has been collaborating on control demonstrations which use spray-
ing and fumigation.
EDUCATIONAL MEETINGS
Meetings of an educational nature have been conducted in practically
every Florida community, with relation to one or more of the activities
hereinbefore described. Interest that farmers exhibited who attended cen-
tered around revenue crops and the Agricultural Adjustment Act. Sub-
jects also found popular included lessening citrus production costs, coop-
erative organizations in commodity growing and selling, cover crops, dairy-
ing, 4-H clubs, and livestock breeding and feeding.








Annual Report, 1937


FINANCIAL STATEMENT

For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1937

RECEIPTS
Federal Smith-Lever ................................................ $ 63,968.10
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal ........................ 15,537.10
Bankhead-Jones, Federal ................................................ 93,102.75
Capper-Ketcham, Federal .............................................. 26,555.74
Additional Cooperative, Federal .................................... 20,200.00
State Appropriation ....................................................... 86,639.98
County Appropriation ..................................................... 108,485.63
Screw Worm Control, State Appropriation ................ 18,928.76
Egg Laying Contest, Sales ........................................ 5,500.55
Continuing Appropriations ....................................... 5,000.00
$443,918.61


EXPENDITURES
Administration .............................................................. $ 16,329.81
Publications, printing .................................................... 14,363.66
County Agent Program .................................................. 184,353.20
4-H Club Program (Boys) ............................................ 6,286.31
Home Demonstration Program .................................... 125,520.92
Dairy and Animal Husbandry ........................................ 10,750.95
Farm and Home-Makers' Program (Negro Work) .... 30,083.52
Citriculture ............................................... ................ 4,669.73
Poultry Husbandry .......................................................... 4,369.02
Extension Schools ......................................................... 37.35
Agricultural Economics ................................................ 16,426.58
Florida National Egg-Laying Contest ....................... 9,546.00
Balance Federal Funds returned, authority Secty.
of A gr. ........................................................................ 2,252.80
Screw Worm Control ...................................................... 18,928.76
$443,918.61








12 Florida Cooperative Extension


STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN

Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Days service rendered by county workers .............................. 27,669
Days in office ........................................ 12,503.5
Days in field ....... ....... .... ........... ... ................... 15,165.5
Number people assisting Extension program voluntarily ........ 1,944
Number paid employes assisting Extension program ............ 434
Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work 322
Members in such clubs ................................................ 7,736
4-H Clubs ........................................ .................................. ........ 743
4-H Club members enrolled .... ..................................... 14,622
Different 4-H club members completing .................................... 9,279
4-H club teams trained .................. ................................. 560
Groups other than 4-H clubs organized for Extension work
with rural young people 16 years of age and older ........ 14
Members in these groups ........................... ............................... 495
Farm or home visits made ............................................... 48,196
Different farms or homes visited .............................................. 26,420
Calls relating to Extension work .................................... 296,115
News articles or stories published and circular letters ....... 11,358
Number individual letters written ........ ................................ 94,623
Bulletins distributed .............. ........ .......................... 112,268
Radio Talks .............- ................................. 223
Extension exhibits shown ...................... ................................... 382
Training meetings held for local leaders .................................... 483
(Attendance .............. 4,762
Method demonstration meetings held ........................................ 10,120
(Attendance .................. 141,156
Meetings held at result demonstration ................................. 3,178
(Attendance ................ 25,400
Farm tours conducted ..... ........................................ 227
(Attendance ...................... 5,412
Achievement days held ........... .... ........................ 120
(Attendance .................. 120,995
Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.) ........ 90
(Attendance ...................... 5,132
Other meetings ........................... ........................................ 3,587
(Attendance ........................ 179,891


CEREALS
Communities in which work was conducted .......................... 581
Result demonstrations conducted ............................... ........ 340
M meetings held ................................................................................. 208
News stories published and circular letters .............................. 197
Farm or home visits made .................. .............................. 1,286
Office calls received ....................................................................... 4,644
4-H Club members ...................................... 855
4-H Club members completing ................................................ 515
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 803
Total yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 16,831.4 Bu.
Farmers following better practices recommended ............ 8,858







Annual Report, 1937 13

LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 1,338
Result demonstrations conducted .............................................. 1,012
M meetings held .................................................................................... 425
News stories published and circular letters .............................. 466
Farm or home visits made .......................................................... 2,553
Number office calls received ....................................................... 15,094
4-H Club members enrolled ................................................... 395
4-H Club members completing .................................................... 177
Yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing -
(Seed, pounds .................. 21,482
(Forage, tons .................... 55
Farmers following better practice recommendations ............ 16,246

POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS
Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Other Crops Cotton Tobacco
Communities in which work was
conducted .......................................... 358 275 98
Result demonstration ............................ 109 278 25
Meetings held .......................................... 140 257 58
News stories published and
circular letters written .................... 211 471 98
Farm or home visits made ...................... 1,022 861 473
Office calls received .............................. 4,800 15,715 4,738
4-H Club members enrolled ........... 307 304 19
4-H Club members completing ............... 161 161 12
Acres in projects by 4-H
Club members completing ............ 147.5 196 19.5
Yields by 4-H club members completing 10,776.5 Bu. 137,269 Lb. 16,860 Lb.
Farms following better practices ........ 5,287 13,257 2,773

FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Communities in which work was conducted ............................... 2,571
Result demonstrations conducted .................................................. 8,992
M meetings held ................................................................................... 3,239
News stories published and circular letters issued ................... 1,717
Farm or home visits made ................................................................ 10,719
Office calls received ......................................................................... 28,993
4-H Club members enrolled .......................................................... 9,730
4-H Club members completing ........................................................ 6,188
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 1,178.5
Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 33,502.5 Bu.
Farms and homes adopting improved practices ....................... 43,265

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 420
Result demonstrations conducted ................................................. 496
Meetings held ............................... ........... 438
News stories published and circular letters issued ................. 249
Farm or home visits made ............................................ ............... 1,249
Office calls received ................................................... 4,502
4-H Club members enrolled ................... .................................. 261
4-H Club members completing ................................................... 131
Farms on which new areas were reforested by planting
with small trees ....................................................... ............. 80
Acres reforested ............................................................................... 3,788
Farms adopting better forestry practices .................................... 1,759







Florida Cooperative Extension


Farms adopting soil conservation practices ............................
Acres involved ...................................... -----..
Land clearing ................................... ............ .........
Acres involved ..........................--.. .. ...........
Farmers adopting better machine practice .............................
Number machines involved ........ ............ ..........................
Farmers adopting better building and equipment practices ....
Building and items of equipment involved ..............................

POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted ...........................
Result demonstrations conducted ............................................
Meetings held .................-.... .............................
News stories published and circular letters issued ..................
Farm or home visits made ................................ .....
Office calls received ..................................... ........... ..........
4-H Club members enrolled .................................................
4-H Club members completing ...........................................
Number chickens raised ................ .......................................
Number colonies of bees .....................................................
Families following improved practices in poultry raising ........
Families following improved practices-bees ........................


1,478
64,001
156
9,407
1,011
1,119
4,551
4,171


739
1,729
1,086
593
3,907
10,875
2,195
1,302
40,811
139
14,450
996


DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 1,455
Result demonstrations conducted ................................ ....... 1,528
Meetings held ................. .... .............. .. .. ...... 1,373
News stories published and circular letters issued .................. 1,196
Farm or home visits made ................................. ............ 9,526
Office calls received ................ .......... .......... 29,448
4-H Club members enrolled .......................................................... 1,780
4-H Club members completing ..................................... 970
Animals in projects conducted by 4-H Club members
com pleting .... .... ........................................ 1,735
Farmers obtaining better breeding stock ................................. 2,079
Farmers using other improved live stock practices .................. 30,890

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Communities in which work was conducted ............................ 1,449
Result demonstrations conducted ................................................. 909
M meetings held .................. ...... ............................................... .. .... 1,131
News stories published and circular letters issued .................. 1,037
Home or farm visits made ....................................... 2,742
Office calls received ............................................................. ..... ...... 30,471
4-H. Club members enrolled ............................................................ 797
4-H Club members completing .................................. ..... 494
Farmers keeping account and cost records .................................. 1,552
Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts ...................... 541
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustment ........ 3,159
Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year .... 4
Farmers making business changes resulting from economic
surveys .. ...................... ................... ...... ............... 14,130
Families assisted in getting established .............................. .......... 1,135
Marketing groups organized or assisted ..................................... 96
Individuals affected by marketing program .............................. 14,092
Organizations assisted with problems .................................... 286
Individuals assisted with problems ................................. 9,964
Value of products sold by all groups organized or assisted ....$9,425,461.16
Value of .products sold by individuals (not in organizations) 9,234,081.64
Value of supplies purchased-all associations ........................ 1,081,564.04
Value of supplies purchased by all individuals ...................... 3,571,291.72







Annual Report, 1937


FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 1,104
Result demonstrations conducted ................................................. 8,584
M meetings held .. ............................ .......................................... 3,930
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 903
Farm or home visits made ........................... ...... .... 3,492
Office calls received ............................................................................ 10,051
4-H Club members enrolled ..................................................... 7,713
4-H Club members completing ........................... .............. 5,555
Containers of food prepared and saved by 4-H club members .... 109,673
Dishes of food prepared, meals served and vegetables and fruits
stored and dried ........................ ....... ...... .... 69,003
Families adopting better practices as to foods ............................ 10,886
Schools following recommendations for school lunch ................ 89
Children in schools following lunch recommendations ................ 24,142
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs ............ 433,368
Value of products canned or otherwise preserved ....................$317,545.09
Families readjusting family food supply .................................... 3,804

CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
Communities in which work was conducted .................................... 182
Result demonstrations conducted .................................................... 623
M meetings held --...................................................................... .... 238
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 61
Farm or home visits made ................................... .................... 235
Office calls received .......................................................................... 641
4-H club members participating ......................................... 191
Families following child-development plans ................................ 1,558
Different individuals participating in child-development
program .................................................................-................ ..... 1,066
Children involved in child-development program ........................ 2,000
CLOTHING
Communities in which work was conducted .................................... 602
Result demonstrations conducted .................................................... 2,607
M meetings held ............................................... .... .. 3,134
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 381
Farm or home visits made ...................... .................................... 1,506
Office calls received .......................... .................. ........... ............ 4,762
4-H Club members enrolled ........................................................... 8,554
4-H Club members completing .......................-............................... 5,481
Articles made by 4-H club members completing ............................ 37,609
Individuals following better clothing practices ........................ 26,251
Families assisted in determining how best to meet clothing
require ents ............................................................................... 1,743
Savings due to clothing program .................................................... 60,455.99
HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 1,184
Result demonstrations conducted .................................................... 4,532
M meetings held .................................................................................... 1,929
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 453
Farm or home visits made ............................................................. 1,900
Office calls received ............................................................................ 3,746
4-H Club members enrolled ............................................................. 4,718
4-H Club members completing ........................................................ 3,317
Projects conducted by 4-H members completing ........................ 16,470
Families following better home-management practices ............ 15,269
Estimated savings due to home-management program ............$ 22,359.00
Families improving household furnishings ................................. 11,072
Savings due to house-furnishings program ................................$ 19,838.50
Families following handicraft practices ........................................ 2,240






16 Florida Cooperative Extension

HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 473
Result demonstrations conducted .................................................. 1,177
M meetings held ..................................................................................... 655
News stories published and circular letters issued .................. 122
Farm or home visits made ....................................................... 712
Office calls received ....................................... 1,997
4-H Club members enrolled ... .................. ................... 2,983
4-H Club members completing ............................................. 2,189
Additional 4-H club members participating ............................... 3,619
Individuals having health examination ........................................ 4,012
Individuals adopting health measures .......................................... 17,498
Families adopting health measures ............................................ 2,725

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Communities in which work was conducted .................................. 920
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting .................. 889
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or
committeemen ........................................................................ 1,979
Meetings held ........................................ 1,086
News stories published and circular letters issued ...................... 1,725
Farm or home visits made ...-............................... ............. 2,365
Office calls received ................... ......................... 7,003
Communities assisted with community problems ...................... 1,334
Country life conferences ......... ................................. 88
Families following recommendations as to home recreation .... 1,800
4-H Clubs engaging in community activities ................................ 272
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross
or other relief agency ........................................................ 905







Annual Report, 1937


EDITORIAL AND MAILING

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Bulletins, cards, circulars, leaflets and related forms of information
were printed to a markedly expanded degree, with corresponding increase
in mailing and direct distribution. A series of small leaflets for enclosure
in all outgoing letters was added.
Editorial and mailing activities for the Experiment Station and Exten-
sion Service are handled from the same offices by three editors and three
mailing clerks, with assistance rendered occasionally by other persons on
the clerical force. Estimates regarding division of time give 60 percent
to 75 for the Extension Service; between 25 percent and 40, Experiment
Station.

BULLETINS AND OTHER PRINTED MATTER
Bulletins printed during the fiscal year almost doubled the customary
allotment, with more than twice as many copies issued, the editions having
been large and seven new issues added. Pages in the latter numbered 424,
from 10,000 copies each to 30,000 were run, totaling 145,000. Three on
which demand had exhausted the supply, requiring new editions, contained
104 pages and included 55,000 copies. Bulletins all told comprised 528
pages with 200,000 copies printed. Four circulars additional, two new and
two reprints, added 34,000.
Cuts in color used for the first time the United States Agriculture
Department furnished for Bulletin 86, Screw-worms in Florida. Com-
ment throughout the state and the South was highly favorable and a
reprint issued by one commercial concern gave credit to the Department
and the Extension Service.
Following is a list of bulletins, circulars, folders, calendars, record
books, cards and other materials edited and printed during the year.
Pages Edition
Bul. 85. Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida
Fruits ....................................................................... 92 10,000
Bul. 86. Screwworms in Florida .............................................. 28 20,000
Bul. 87. Meat Canning ................................................................ 44 20,000
Bul. 88. Citrus Insects and Their Control (Revised) ............ 136 20,000
Bul. 89. Herbaceous Perennials (Revised) ............................ 36 30,000
Bul. 90. Florida Vegetables (Revised) .................................... 68 30,000
Bul. 91. Water and Sewerage Systems for Florida Rural
Homes (Revised) ...................................................... 20 15,000
Bul. 60. Culling for Egg Production (Reprint) .................... 16 20,000
Bul. 69. Buy Health with Your Food Dollar (Reprint) ........ 48 15,000
Bul. 77. Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida
(Reprint) ....................................... ........................ 40 20,000
Circ. 42. Fundamentals in Home Sewing .............................. 28 10,000
Circ. 43. The Florida' 4-H Club Uniform ............................. 20 10,000
Circ. 15. How to Organize and Conduct a Boys' 4-H Club
(Reprint) .................................................................. 8 4,000
Circ. 36. Saving the Sweet Potato Crop (Reprint) .............. 4 10,000
Calendar, 1937 .............................................................. 12 12,500
Announcement and Rules, 12th National Egg-
Laying Test .............................................................. 5 1,500
Final Report, 10th National Egg-Laying Contest 20 1,500
Misc. Pub. 15. 4-H Club Food Preparation Guide and Rec-
ord Book ........................................................ 24 20,000







Florida Cooperative Extension


Misc. Pub. 16.
Misc. Pub. 17.
Misc. Pub. 18.
Misc. Pub. 19.
Misc. Pub. 20.
Misc. Pub. 21.
Misc. Pub. 22.
Misc. Pub. 23.
Misc. Pub. 1.
Misc. Pub. 2.
Misc. Pub. 4.
Misc. Pub. 10.

Citrus AE 6.


Pages
4-H Club Baking Guide and Record Book ... 20
The Florida Agricultural Outlook for 1937 40
Poultry Club Record Book (Revised) ............ 16
Record Book for Secretary of 4-H Clubs
(girls) ............. ......................................... 40
4-H Club Girls Canning Guide and Record
Book ................. ...................... ... ... 16
Record Book, Garden and Perennial Plant-
ings .... ..... .............. 20
Record. Book for Women in Home Demon-
stration W ork ............................................ 16
Record Book for Secretary of Home Demon-
stration Clubs ................. ............ ...... .. 40
Citrus Grove Record Book (Revised) ........... 48
Florida Poultry Record Book for Commercial
Flocks (Reprint) ..................................... 48
Florida Poultry Record Book for Small
Flocks (Reprint) .................................... 28
Livestock Club Record Book (Revised) ........ 12
Record Book for 4-H Club Sewing (Reprint) 16
Florida Dairy Farm Account Book .............. 52
Florida Citrus Costs and Returns (printed
covers) .................. .... .. .. .............
Agricultural News Service (42 weekly issues
-Plant Board paid for 10 more) each .... 1
The Home Fruit Orchard in North and West
Florida (printed covers) ...........................
The Home Fruit Orchard (mimeographed)....
10 window cards, crops and practices, each....
15 card signs for county fairs, each ..............
Daily Food Habits (Wall Chart) ................ 2
Florida Improved Farming Messages, five
folders each ................ ................ 4
Covers for bound volume, Ornamental Gar-
dening in Florida .......................................
Farm Radio Program, Monthly, each ........ 4


LETTER ENCLOSURE FOLDERS
Folders stressing outstanding Extension Service accomplishments
initiated February 1, 1937, contain four pages each, are issued monthly
and copies inserted in all correspondence going out from headquarters,
agents' offices, the Experiment Station and the State Plant Board.
Under the general name, "Florida Improved Farming Messages", the
titles of five folders printed to June 1937, were as follows:
No. 1. Good Comes from Evil, Even the Boll Weevil
No. 2. Showing How to Grow Profits on the Farm
No. 3. Results of Research Applied on the Farm
No. 4. Showing How Florida Can "Live at Home"
No. 5. Training Comes to Farm Boys and Girls

DISTRIBUTION OF BULLETINS AND SUPPLIES
Extension Service bulletins, record books and general supplies are
distributed from Gainesville and State Home Demonstration offices in
Tallahassee. Bulletins go to county agents, libraries, vocational agriculture
teachers and officials having related duties, from comparatively small
mailing lists. They are sent to the public only on special request but
the demand usually is so brisk that supplies become quickly exhausted.
Distribution during the year approximated 100,000.


Edition
15,000
3,000
15,000

2,500
10,000
20,000
10,000
2,500
1,000
500
500
10,000
10,000
350

2,600
850

3,500
3,500
500
25
20,000
6,500
300
3,000







Annual Report, 1937


Mailing room duties include storage and transmission to county agents
as needed of charts, mimeograph stencils, paper, pencils, rubber bands,
stationery and like supplies. Growth of the work in recent years has
materially increased the volume of these functions.
Mimeographing for the Extension Service, Experiment Station and in
large part that of the Resident Teaching division is done in the mailing
room. Agricultural Adjustment Administration and Soil Conservation work
added to the already heavy volume during the past year. Stencils run
aggregated 2,406--only a small proportion of which were cut in the room
-requiring over 630,215 sheets of paper, or 200 stencils and 52,000 sheets
monthly.
Weekly clipsheets, known as the Agricultural News Service, folded
and mailed, comprised 800 each week. Calendars for 1937 also were dis-
tributed from the mailing rooms, to addresses furnished by county farm
and home demonstration agents.

SPECIALIZED EDUCATIONAL CAMPAIGNS

Information regarding the celery, citrus, watermelon and related farm-
ing industries was circulated as assistance to the Agricultural Adjustment
Administration. Marketing agreement movements required development
of fundamental facts concerning the crops affected. Agricultural Conser-
vation activities had stories released to newspapers and material furnished
radio stations.
District and county agents of northwestern Florida conducted a cam-
paign for inducing farmers to plant peanuts with corn, since demonstra-
tions had shown that in alternate rows the grain output was nearly as
great as when planted solid, the peanuts growing additional hog feed.
Meetings were supplemented with circular letters and placards. Farmers
in five counties who answered questionnaires reported solid corn plantings
reduced 41.8 percent and acreage devoted to corn, or corn and velvet
beans, alternated with peanuts increased 145 percent.
Results similarly satisfactory came from endeavor for inducing farmers
to plant peanuts closer in drills, thus greatly increasing the yields. Cards
used in this campaign included 10 of window card size, 11x14, and 15
which were 11x28. Two of the smaller and all the larger had been designed
primarily for display at fairs, while eight in the lesser size could be so
shown or otherwise.

NEWS RELEASES
News stories in dailies and weeklies, farm magazines and sundry pub-
lications remained a major method for disseminating information. News-
papers continued according considerable attention to farm news, many
carrying special columns contributed by county Extension Service workers
and most using farm and home demonstration material whenever available.
Clipsheets containing eight to 11 news stories each week went to all
weekly papers, the contents chiefly covering Extension Service perform-
ance but also dealing with the Experiment Station, the State Plant Board
and the Resident Teaching Division, College of Agriculture. Payment for
every fifth issue was made by the Plant Board. Stories from the clip-
sheet frequently received first page position or inclusion among editorials
and at least one rural paper largely made up therefrom a special agricul-
tural section. Farm and home demonstration agents reported 6,300 news
items published in their local papers.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Reports concerning activities of particular importance went at irregular
intervals to daily newspapers usually at least once or twice weekly and
mostly through the Associated Press wire service, filed by the Gaines-
ville representative, and occasionally the weeklies received similar material.
Use of Extension Service information was liberally made by a monthly
farm and grove section carried in about 50 weekly and small daily papers.
Farm journals again liberally used articles written by Florida Exten-
sion Service editors. Two publications having national circulation pub-
lished 15, totalling 44 column inches. One Southern agricultural maga-
zine printed 26, amounting to 197 inches. Four periodicals published in
the state utilized 39, the space aggregating 861 inches. Material pre-
pared by other staff members, forwarded by the editors, also received
generous acceptance from Florida farm magazines. Radio talks, running
around 40 percent of those given on the Florida Farm Hour, reworked
into farm paper articles, have not been included in the above tabulations.
Home demonstration celebration honoring the 25th anniversary of that
undertaking in Florida created news that many papers carried, the Exten-
sion Service editors cooperating in the preparation and presentation.

RADIO BROADCASTING
Use of the airwaves in putting out data and facts valuable to farmers
included the Florida Farm Hour each week day over WRUF and brief
scripts sent five other stations for broadcasts five days in every seven.
Florida Farm Hour presentations, featured on WRUF since the Sta-
tion opened in 1928, included 313 during the year. Talks comprising the
programs numbered 1,009, some in the form of dialogues using two speak-
ers. Extension Service personnel appeared 359 times; Experiment Station,
139; teaching faculty, 35; students, 34; county agent, 29; farmers and
farm women, 21; club boys, 21; home demonstration, 19; prominent visitors,
18; Plant Board, 2; club girls, 2.
In addition to supervising the program, the editors presented 18 sched-
uled talks, which the authors could not give personally, and prepared five
dialogues between farmers and staff members, and nine in which they
themselves participated with the latter. Dialogues having other author-
ship were offered twice. A daily review of news affecting agriculture
gained credit from outside sources as the most widely heard "home made"
feature on any Florida station.
Featured during the year were Farm Hours principally supplied by
Alachua County Negro boys, Christmas music from the Gainesville Epis-
copal Church Choir, Dairy Field Day and programs by farm agents and
others representing Columbia, Lafayette, Levy, Pasco and Sumter counties.
Market reports and music occurred daily, Radio's Weekly Farm News-
paper every Saturday and the farm question box each Tuesday. United
States Agriculture Department farm flashes given numbered 129. Florida
Farm Hour printed schedules distributed each month were in editions of
3,000.
Agricultural and farm home broadcasts over WRUF, arranged by the
editors, other than for the Florida Farm Hour period, included: April
14, Florida Horticultural Society Golden Jubilee Convention, Ocala; May 1,
Little International Livestock Show, College of Agriculture, Gainesville;
June 25, Camp McQuarrie, Ocala National Forest.

RADIO THROUGH COOPERATING STATIONS
Stations which are furnished farm flashes in some cases build around
them additional talks using allied material. Flashes intended to occupy







Annual Report, 1937


seven minutes went out from the editorial rooms on 261 days. Duplicates
sometimes became necessary, to suit stations in different sections.
A grand total of 304 flashes were supplied other stations than WRUF,
179 from the United States Agriculture Department and 125 which the
editors had prepared. County farm and home demonstration agents who
cooperated in the presentation themselves made 223 talks.

TRAINING IN NEWS WRITING
Instruction was given to three different groups. A class having 23
members was taught daily by the Editor at the annual Girls' Club Short
Course in Tallahassee during June, bringing out fundamentals.


Fig. 1.-Miss Teresa Dagley, Volusia 4-H girl, took advantage of the
training in news writing offered by the Extension Editor and learned to
be not only a 4-H club reporter but also community correspondent for
papers in the county.

One member of the previous year's class, Teresa Dagley, Volusia county,
otherwise without experience, secured employment as community corre-
spondent for a group of newspapers, earning money to buy clothes during
her senior year in high school.
Boys attending the yearly 4-H short course at the University in June
received assistance on a mimeographed newspaper, Daily Doings, and
were given pointers concerning news gathering and writing.
Home demonstration members in Marion County, mostly 4-H club girls,
had one day's instruction about writing news and making radio talks, 17
attending.
A similar two day course for women in western Hillsborough county
had present 29 home demonstration women, public health nurses and others
interested.








Florida Cooperative Extension


NATIONAL RECOGNITION
Florida was selected for the 25th annual convention, American Associa-
tion of Agricultural College Editors, this state's members serving as hosts.
Registrations aggregating 52 represented 20 states and the United States
Agriculture Department.
Three days devoted to talks and round-table discussions on editorial
problems and improvement in practices kept the delegates in Gainesville,
August 17-19. A following five-day trip through southern Florida was
taken advantage of by 19 visiting editors.
Formation of an editorial section in the Southern Agricultural Workers
Association was completed during the Gainesville session. Chairman
chosen is F. H. Jeter, North Carolina, while Whitney Tharin, Georgia,
serves the group as secretary.
Florida Editor J. Francis Cooper was elected president of the Ameri-
can Association of Agricultural College Editors for 1937-38. Service also
was rendered by him as Florida Press Association director during the year
covered by this report.

ASSISTANCE TO OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
As a member of the publicity committee, the Extension Editor handled
most of the publicity in connection with the Florida Fat Stock Show and
Sale in Jacksonville during March. Suggestions were released concerning
the feeding of steers, in October and early November when animals for the
show were being placed in feed lots, and news of the show was released
preceding and during the event.
The Editor also served on the faculty advisory committee for the
Florida College Farmer, a magazine published four times during the school
year by students. He supervised the editorial make-up and business man-
agement of the paper.







Annual Report, 1937


AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION
H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge

Functioning under an act of the United States Congress, a State
Agricultural Conservation office is located at Gainesville and county units
in the farm agents' headquarters, wherever they are employed.
Counties have conservation associations, composed of participating farm-
ers, which elect community committeemen. County committee members
compose the directing board, three members constituting an executive
committee. Farm demonstration agents usually are the local administrative
officials. Associations have operated under budgets determined by the
directors, since March 1, and the treasurers are bonded.
Work sheets filled out by farmers wishing to benefit from government
subsidies for soil-building practices and diversion of lands from fertility-
depleting crops, give basic information concerning the history of the farms.
Farm agents, local committeemen and clerical workers at county offices
assisted in preparing them, State headquarters analyzed, audited and tab-
ulated the documents.
Committeemen and supervisors operating locally, directed by county
farm agents, measure acreage and obtain information regarding the soil-
building practices carried out, for later transfer to performance records.
Training schools throughout the state instructed the county workers. Plane
table maps were made of participating farms in 14 counties and nine were
mapped by aerial photography under government contracts.
Applications for grant payments are based on compliance records.
Work sheet final adjustments had been completed in most counties by
December 31 and payments will be made during the early part of 1938.
Applications are audited, computed and vouchered at State headquarters,
then forwarded for pre-audit to a Federal General Accounting Office
branch at Athens, Georgia, the disbursing offices in Atlanta thereafter
receiving them for writing the checks which individual producers finally
get.
On 20,619 Florida farms applying for Class II payments, the 691,746
acres devoted to soil-building products constituted 55.8 percent of the total
croplands. Grain food and feed requirements were determined in 1936
for the first time on 13,255 farms containing 258,534 acres, excluding lands
raising citrus fruits and truck crops commercially.
Associations organized within the counties, numbering 59, selected com-
munity committeemen, boards of directors, administrative officers and so
on as has been described. County committee members received $4.00 per
day for the time actually employed and community conmnitteemen $3.00.

WORK SHEETS FOR 1937
Taking work sheets for 1937 began in March, after meetings with
county farm agents and assistants, to discuss and study the new regula-
tions. Features not previously required had among them a base for con-
serving crops, 1936 acreage in commercial truck fields, orchards and groves
and fenced non-crop pastures. Under the latter division, many cattlemen
established perennial grasses on owned or leased lands, for which they
were allowed 25 cents per acre on pastures not exceeding one-half the
total cropland, and $3.00 per acre for permanent pasture.
Execution of work sheets was completed in the county offices by May 20.
State offices handling forced return for correction 3,586 of 28,882, or
12.4 percent.








Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE 1.-NUMBER OF WORK SHEETS FILED, NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS
RECEIVED, NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS CERTIFIED TO GENERAL ACCOUNTING
OFFICE, AND PAYMENTS MADE DURING 1937 BY COUNTIES ON THE 1936
PROGRAM.


County




Alachua ..........
Baker ..............
Bay ................
Bradford ........
Brevard ..........
Calhoun ..........
Charlotte ........
Citrus ..........
Clay ..................
Collier ...........
Columbia ........
Dade .............
DeSoto ........
Dixie ...............
Duval ..............
Escambia ........
Flagler ............
Gadsden ..........
Gilchrist ..........
Glades .......:.....
Gulf .............
Hamilton ......
Hardee ...........
Hendry .........
Hernando .....
Highlands ......
Hillsborough ..
Holmes ............
Indian River ..
Jackson ..........
Jefferson ........
Lafayette ........
Lake .............
Lee .............
Leon ........----
Levy ............
Liberty .........
Madison ......
Manatee .........
Marion ............
Martin ............
Monroe ............
Nassau ............
Okaloosa .......
Okeechobee ....
Orange ..........
Osceola -....-----
Palm Beach ....


nI I
-S g
Q0 b00
.0.
a-g- s^-s"
aws
9S Q
zi a!


834
116
64
213
167
257
72
51
22
6
626
247
429
31
24
643
55
367
114
38
30
530
646
45
160
421
1,189
725
453
1,849
537
265
1,243
272
919
331
30
860
106
452
12
1
1
495
71
859
208
233


787
54
32
126
130
149
70
27
14
6
515
172
407
31
22
470
49
283
104
23
6
417
555
45
126
408
1,127
649
439
1,401
530
211
1,242
240
865
324
13
728
94
382
11
0
1
425
41
847
199
231


P!a $ i a
*

r.)
im





606
50
32
125
130
142
70
27
13
6
508
172
407
30
21
469
49
235
100
23
6
401
554
45
120
408
1,127
631
437
1,375
476
199
1,215
240
863
298
13
719
93
379
11
0
1
412
41
844
199
226


0s




$44,093.99
1,454.81
354.92
2,433.65
4,440.23
5,774.11
1,238.10
775.25
2,457.80
1,100.30
51,414.33
18,749.53
9,412.60
1,991.89
784.04
16,418.56
2,764.44
41,644.34
7,566.31
81,454.08
96.43
32,269.41
14,466.36
824.70
1,808.83
10,286.04
24,453.11
34,878.40
13,775.01
72,503.45
24,356.13
12,555.55
29,374.60
7,530.70
20,551.25
19,033.86
215.51
47,828.74
3,465.25
19,841.57
318.50
00
45.00
19,010.82
724.65
30,029.95
4,584.73
35,982.13


$15,353.07
777.42
148.67
793.30
4.93
4,559.54
00
55.65
00
00
19,621.92
950.13
632.70
190.73
42.44
14,787.63
251.69
35,722.31
2,073.52
81,008.58
20.63
23,659.78
4,291.51
00
174.58
127.36
4,647.11
31,809.05
5,602.51
67,638.77
16,337.65
5,825.99
126.62
00
13,034.29
5,661.17
79.51
26,275.81
261.85
5,679.43
00
00
00
17,816.41
00
272.11
109.33
1,375.43


$28,740.92
677.39
206.25
1,640.35
4,435.30
1,214.57
1,238.10
719.60
2,457.80
1,100.30
31,792.41
17,799.40
8,779.90
1,801.16
741.60
1,630.93
2,512.75
5,922.03
5,492.79
445.50
75.80
12,609.63
10,174.85
824.70
1,634.25
10,158.68
19,805.94
3,069.35
8,172.50
4,864.68
8,018.48
6,729.56
29,247.98
7,530.70
7,516.96
13,372.69
136.00
21,552.93
3,203.40
14,162.14
318.50
00
45.00
1,194.41
724.65
29,757.84
4,475.40
34,606.70







Annual Report, 1937


TABLE 1.-NUMBER OF WORK SHEETS FILED, NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS
RECEIVED, NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS CERTIFIED TO GENERAL ACCOUNTING
OFFICE, AND PAYMENTS MADE DURING 1937 BY COUNTIES ON THE 1936
PROGRAM-Continued.



County IV Q) roo .-

41 Ei u .e I 'u 4or 24 Po

Pasco ............ 196 194 194 5,907.10 00 5,907.10
Pinellas .......... 252 244 244 6,666.02 4.92 6,661.10
Polk ............... 726 1,565 1,550 56,844.55 1,292.30 55,552.25
Putnam ............ 239 223 221 8,940.85 1,632.95 7,307.90
St. Johns ........ 167 165 165 8,916.96 1,503.56 7,413.40
St. Lucie ........ 236 235 235 6,551.20 00 6,551.20
Santa Rosa .... 524 493 482 27,952.77 26,199.81 1,752.96
Sarasota .......... 96 66 66 2,904.33 28.13 2,876.20
Seminole ........ 743 635 635 14,053.92 802.43 13,251.49
Sumter ............ 359 347 341 12,369.18 3,953.46 8,415.72
Suwannee ........ 963 868 748 54,530.20 27,699.39 26,830.81
Taylor ............. 158 119 119 3,522.22 864.16 2,658.06
Union .............. 262 126 126 5,331.51 754.30 4,577.21
Volusia ............ 255 248 247 6,294.80 00 6,294.80
Wakulla .......... 32 23 22 1,113.56 308.06 805.50
Walton ............ 556 481 480 23,269.04 13,667.23 9,601.81
Washington .... 440 228 224 5,999.45 5,106.40 893.05

TOTALS ... 23,523 21,288 20,647 1,032,301.62 491,618.29 540,683.33


MAPPING PROCEDURE
Plans for obtaining accurate and permanent maps of cropland divided
themselves into aerial photography and plane table work. This is the
first year that aerial photography has been used for this purpose in Florida,
and Table 3 gives pertinent figures on this work.

PERFORMANCE IN 1937
Requirements of the federal authorities were more exacting than in
the past. Meetings at which instruction was given included three district
conferences and 22 schools throughout the state. Counties in most cases
commenced their activities immediately after the schools for supervisors
had ended. Costs dropped to a minimum where plane maps were available,
with the results particularly satisfactory. A county which used aerial
photographs found them accurate and economical. Chain systems of meas-
uring performance revealed wide variations as to expense, due to sundry
factors.

EXPENSE INCURRED IN 1937
In part, expenses were budgeted by county associations as local admin-
istrative outlay totaling not to exceed 10 percent of payments within the
territory. Rates for subsidies are on a 110 percent basis, so no farmer lost.
Costs of operation otherwise were borne through the state offices.









TABLE 2.-A SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL 1937 WORK SHEET DATA AS PERMITTED BY THE ANALYSIS.


County


0-u
*0 p)
S d:

t "o
aQM
s"5 ^"
II 2
c.a '


Alachua ...... 735 90,216
Baker .......... 135 6,088
Bay .............. 54 1,623
Bradford .... 154 7,357
Brevard ...... 339 9,385
Broward ...... 71 20,291
Calhoun ...... 228 13,305
Charlotte .... 83 1,736
Citrus .......... 55 3,114
Clay ............ 40 6,623
Collier .......... 10 10,560
Columbia .... 597 78,802
Dade ............ 302 39,353
DeSoto ........ 454 12,094
Dixie ............ 67 6,057
Duval .......... 55 2,139
Escambia .... 382 15,759
Flagler ........ 62 4,522
Franklin ...
Gadsden ...... 424 43,980
Gilchrist ...... 257 29,587
Glades .......... 78 24,752
Gulf ............ 12 448
Hamilton .... 440 52,223


!


ho
4.



Acres


zao

o ^
O~W2


Acres

1,993
135
64
40.5
0
0
1,303
0
0
0
0
4,887.5
0
0
28
0
4,933
25

318.0
193
0
21
6,591


1,079.9
78
0
130.9
0
0
29
0
0
0
0
588.8
0
0
0
0
0
0

120.8
21
0
0
1,226.6


I Acres

805.9 2,748.9
652.9 0
0 0
745.9 0
0 0
.0 0
740.2 871.2
0 0
0 1
0 0
0 0
725.6 1,963
0 0
0 0
0 63.3
0 0
0 0
0 0

571.1 778.9
820 443
0 0
0 4
797 382.3


600.8
0
0
0
0
0
656.1
0
600
0
0
645.7
0
0
650
0
0
0

574
596.5
0
500
615


ate
-0w

oobD

0 U
"E 'U

3^o


.3 5
owo
n e


02 M 4?
OV1
Cd


54.5 45,341
68.7 2,611
59.1 356
69.8 3,498
5.8 1,680
83.3 10,725
85.6 4,285
40.0 1,114
35.0 606
35.0 2,650
40.3 3,680
53 43,400
55 27,089
14.3 6,904
56.4 3,124
50.3 1,486
86.6 1,960
89.5 3,864

76.6 16,951
56.8 16,326
77.7 6,140
78.6 177
56.1 15,149


,""







55,104
21,904
8,513
5,000
19,798
2,981
6,727
115,970
137
20,098
0
20,385
2,464
70,180
67,507
9,200
1,732
7,865

11,240
0
180,188
126
5,131


3 k





3,172
296
220
5
7,571
1,634
157
963
997
968
143
81
3,838
8,315
0
345
1,074
106

773
0
8
10
0


4,709
100
84
455
549
17,390
0 i.
662 *
0 m
390 tj
2,612 (
147 m
19,601
901
3
386
276
3,325

251
388
1,681
0
351


118.6
142.19
176.6
140
0
0
153
0
0
0
0
122.3
0
0
151.3
0
153.4
200

152.6
106.2
0
134.3
125.3




TABLE 2.-A SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL 1937 WORK SHEET DATA AS PERMITTED BY THE ANALYSIS-Continued.


County


Hardee ........ 725
Hendry ........ 80
Hernando .... 187
Highlands .. 551
Hillsborough 1,474
Holmes ........ 622
Indian River 485
Jackson ...... 1,080
Jefferson .... 621
Lafayette .... 127
Lake ............ 2,371
Lee ............ 280
Leon .......... 948
Levy ......... 480
Liberty ........ 58
Madison ...... 681
Manatee .... 340
Marion ........ 1,197
Martin ........ 33
Monroe ......
Nassau ..4..... 4
Okaloosa .... 427
Okeechobee 72
Orange ........ 1,040
Osceola ........ 250


20,496
2,993
5,746
16,641
35,281
37,361
13,234
85,633
77,241
13,202
47,036
9,415
56,670
53,285
2,586
86,797
12,527
91,271
2,967

166
20,604
20,496
38,304
5,447


0
0
11.5
0
0
10,963
0
15,159
4,669
691
2.6
0
6,850.0
597.4
0
7,208.0
0
17.8
0

0
7,135
0
0
0


0
0
114.2
0
0
139.2
0
148.1
116.3
130.8
100
0
118.2
133.2
0
118.1
0
130
0

0
147.6
0
0
0


00

,^ *~ ^
0 C) &a
"0 Ac res4
O 'O c r
1 I3, s~


^^ (?3'g Acres


0 M




Acres

0
0
0
0
0
33.6
0
95.3
95.2
166.7
0
0
14
8.6
0
671.9
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0


0
0
a




0
0
0

772.4
0
739
736
676
0
0
810
750
0
713.9
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0


Z52





Acres

0
0
0
0
0
4,161.1
0
17,292.5
731.3
263.1
0
0
82
1,845.7
10
326.0
0
735.1
0

0
283.3
0
0
0


35.8
63.3
35.0
5.0
43.9
90.0
28.5
89.7
56.4
51.7
16.7
39.7
62.0
55.7
68.1
64.3
54.2
52.0
57.3

65.5
92.0
74.4
9.6
21.6


it



2 Co
.2'


12,782
1,241
877
8,491
20,849
10,314
10,103
24,336
12,870
6,645
5,471
4,250
16,236
30,570
1,078
36,760
10,166
38,976
1,541

114
4,118
1,656
9,602
1,607


P.-0


a"
0


o



101,001
167,012
366
393,060
36,446
2,781
3,850
5,208
9,467
8,479
1,411
4,873
1,315
28,420
3,779
319
38,773
60,958
21,791

621
121
53,169
12,165
238,995


- 0
...,w a)
Ua~a)


040





9,080
631
2,228
14,694
14,012
93
8,987
714
2,297
0
33,596
5,105
109
25
5
0
4,264
8,050
1,092

20
292
176
12,165
3,892


--


2,945
1,786
174
627
10,338
155 3
1,333
607 o
1,700
32
2,307
3,113
290 -
1,164
0
0
5,990
6,061
1,679

38
3
1,463
2,353
474
*q


0
0
0
0
0
714.7
0
577.6
472.5
616.3
0
0
618.1
595.8
600
648.9
0
600.3
0

0
615
0
0
0







TABLE 2.-A SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL 1937 WORK SHEET DATA AS PERMITTED BY THE ANALYSIS-Continued. o
oo


4 00 0 10 8 .6
ta 4i 4 I0 5
d '

C Ace Acre)s 2 Ar -

Pinellas ...... 381 11,753 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.1 2,286 1,840 10,717 516
County Cg g^ S d &i







Putnam ........ 304 12,351 25.1 89.7 0 0 0 0 55.4 6,565 12,472 3,264 4,991
St. Johs .... 17 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 89.5 895 13,493 155 70
| j |1 r/1 i M1 ho "t |


St. Lucie .... 383 12,526 0 0 0 C 0 22.2 9,000 9,125 8,469 2,896
S Acres A cres Acres : Q.

Palm Beach 327 54,955 0 0 0 0 0 0 94.3 40,000 3,213 910 51,317 2
Pasco 4.... 1, 13,545 0 0 0 0 0 0 27.0 10,160 4,874 6,674 108
Pinellas 3...... 81 11,753 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.1 2,286 1,840 10,717 516 C
PolkSuwanne .. 3,107 88,289 0 0 0 0 0 0 152.5 27,390 87,440 76,284 2,735 Q
Putnam ... 12,351 25.1 89.7 0 0 0 0 55.4 6,565 12,472 3,264 4991
St. Johns -. 177 10,333 0 0 0 0 0 60 89.5 8,095 13,493 155 7,077
St.lusi ..... 383 12,526 0 0 0 0 0 0 22.2 9,000 9,125 8,469 2,89693
Santk a R 423 22,640 9,270 163.9 0 0 479.1 737.9 90.0 3,529 0 263 0
Sarasota 101 4,462 0 0 0 0 0 0 38.6 3,587 53,759 2,042 1,632
Seminole ... 1,079 14,585 0 01 0 0 0 0 51.8 12,568 36,015 6,717 7,380
Summer ....... 585 29,891 135.7 125.3 0 0 0 0 56.5 15,429 25,119 1,517 3686
Suwannee .. 700 75,672 5,732 108.6 1,173.6 788.8 1,286 590.1 52.6 35,670 1,640 187 1,240
Taylord .........157 10,336 313 12. 24.0 0 0 0 57.5 3,62 0 0 0
Union 201 19,184 118 130.1 58.6 772 49.3 600 64.7 9,605 28,052 101 498
Volusia 554 15,666 0 0 0 0 0 0 17.5 2,975 25,463 11,576 993
Wakulla 74 6,926 117 102.7 0 0 55.6 508.3 55.3 1,564 439 0 0
Washington 167 8,029 1,323 154.5 0 0 241.3 605.7 86.6 9,033 5,559 280 21
Walton .... 564 24,300 5,142 143.6 0 0 477 670.4 86.0 2,333 643 12 121

TOTALS 28,882 1,653,412 96,012.1 xx 5,592.5 xx 135,573.0 xx xx 692,920 12,135,776 302,079 184,104

T-62 T-45 (Tobacco)
Gadsden ...................-.. 2,259.7 1,020.1 624.8 1,140
Madison ........................ 351.0 975.9 -








Annual Report, 1937


TABLE 3.-AREA IN ACRES, CROPLAND IN COUNTY, NUMBER OF FARMS IN
COUNTY, FARMS UNDER WORK SHEET, AND CROPLAND UNDER WORK
SHEET FOR THOSE COUNTIES FLOWN UNDER 1937 CONTRACTS.


County


Alachua ..........

Columbia ..........
TT m lton


Area
of
county


581,760

506,880
337 Q n


Holmes .......... 302,720

Jackson ............ 600,960

Jefferson ........ 339,200

Leon ................ 457,600

Madison ......... 495,360

Suwannee ........ 442,880


TOTALS ........... 4,065,280


Number
farms in
county
(Census)

2,155

712

856

1,811

3,958

1,398

1,647

1,305

1,810


15,652


Total
Cropland
in county
(Census)

95,568

66,496

57,881

65,141

174,430

70,928

69,097

79,857

130,444


809,842


Number
of farms
Work
Sheets

735

597

440

622

1,080

621

948

681

700


6,424


Acres
Cropland
on Work
Sheets

90,216

78,802

52,223

37,361

85,663

77,241

56,670

86,797

75,672


640,645


DATA SUITABLE FOR OTHER USES
Study has been given to utilization of Agricultural Conservation records
by the Extension Service or related agencies, with evidences that interest-
ing possibilities exist for usefulness therefrom.

COTTON PRICE ADJUSTMENT
Information supplied to county farm agents covered the cotton price
adjustment plans announced during August and the facts received gen-
eral circulation in the areas producing the staple.


----------~------







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART II-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES
A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
H. G. Clayton, District Agent
R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Agent
A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Agent
Shortage of clerical assistance, which has been a serious handicap to
Agricultural Extension Service in Florida, partially was overcome during
the past year through personnel supplied by federal Agricultural Con-
servation authorities, primarily for their own duties.
Cooperative undertakings also entered into included the joint endeavor
with the federal Farm Credit Administration, which plan selects bor-
rowers behind in their payments and recommends practices intended to
assist them concerning financial success in their farming.
Farm Security Administration forces, formerly Resettlement, dealing
with loans to tenants for land purchases and related effort, which com-
prise supervising and home economics agents, likewise have been worked
with closely by the Extension Service. Rural Electrification Administration
activities within the state did not become of noteworthy extent during the
year.
DISTRICT OPERATIONS
Extension Service operations in North and Northwest Florida were
still handicapped by limited personnel. Farm demonstration agents worked
in every county except Franklin and Gulf, where the agriculture is too
limited to justify their employment. Jackson, Jefferson, Leon and Suwan-
nee counties, with their large Negro populations, each had an agent of
that race. Agents in numerous cases required unusually close supervision
because of youth, though comparatively few personnel changes took place.
Resignations tendered by the former farm agents in Leon and Gads-
den counties caused transfer thereto of the men then serving Taylor and
Washington, respectively, both University of Florida Agriculture College
graduates. In the entire district are employed only three agents who are
not college men, and each of these has had lengthy practical experience.
Demonstrations which covered interplanting of corn with peanuts had
an important part in the year's activity for this district. Terracing to
avoid erosion constituted another significant item, including 21,594 acres
on 725 farms in 12 small counties. Marketing received major attention,
through cooperative hog sales, poultry routes, creamery establishment and
like methods. Seeds of legumes also were purchased cooperatively by
numerous dealers, through inspiration from Extension Service sources.
Sea Island cotton kept several agents extremely busy, 5,000 acres in the
state's 17,800 located through the district producing some 800 bales, or
25 percent of the Florida output. Livestock had representation in a
beef cattle field day at the North Florida Experiment Station. Two in-
stitutes had a combined attendance exceeding 1,100.
Central and Southern Florida Districts cover the state eastward and
southward from Hamilton, Columbia, Gilchrist and Levy counties. Dade
county was given an assistant farm agent, materially increasing the scope








Annual Report, 1937


of the work, a dairying association having been formed, dairy records-
keeping taken up, a lime growers' organization perfected and 4-H club
membership increased to 238 from 54. Personnel revisions elsewhere were
relatively unimportant.
Farmers receiving low incomes had special attention from agents in
several cases. Volusia County affords an excellent instance, through sale
of deer tongue, which grows wild, to tobacco manufacturers. Demand
was learned, supply investigated, harvesting, maturing and selling methods
studied, public interest aroused and ultimately more than $50,000 distributed
among farmers during summer time when work was slack and little if
any other money coming in.
Beef cattle in the southern section vie with the hogs of the northern
areas regarding livestock industry relative to agriculture. Extension Ser-
vice endeavor on beef cattle covers better grades introduction through
bringing in purebred bulls and culling the poorer cows, improved herds
management and pasturage development. Demonstrations in the district
for the year applying to beef cattle numbered 4,022 and on hogs 11,845.
Hog sales on a cooperative basis proved highly successful in Gilchrist,
Levy and neighboring counties.
District agents made 151 visits to county offices of the Extension Ser-
vice and 16 in counties having no local units, when they went for consulta-
tion with agricultural committees. They held 61 public meetings, attended
by 3,400 farmers, and 15 with boards of county commissioners. Radio
addresses delivered by the district agents aggregated 11. Cooperation
was extended to county farm agents in conducting seven farm tours and
holding group outlook meetings. Extension Service aims and achievements
the district agents presented before 21 civic and service clubs. Assistance
on 4-H club camps they gave in 25 counties. A district agent was director
of the four-days Citrus Institute at Camp McQuarrie, Lake County.







32 Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRONOMY DEMONSTRATIONS
J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist

If the soils are to be conserved, where rainfall is heavy and tempera-
tures high, rolling lands must be protected by terracing, contour tillage
adopted as the practice, vegetation kept growing through so much of the
year as is possible and turned under for both holding moisture and adding
porosity. Agricultural Extension Service agronomy soil demonstrations
have been with these purposes in view.
Terracing and contour cultivation previously had been engaged in to
some extent by the best farmers of the areas where mostly needed. En-
gineers received Extension Service training in terracing during the past
year throughout the territory. Power machinery was used in some coun-
ties and elsewhere long-wing horse drawn plows were utilized. Terracing
in large acreages was called for at but few points, seldom if ever justifying
the purchase of tractors and terracers, and some county commissioners
rented to farmers equipment employed on the roads during other periods.
Lands terraced amounted to 21,594 acres on 725 farms, distributed
among counties thusly:
Counties No. Farms No. Acres
1. Escambia ................. ............... 324
2. Santa Rosa ................................ 16 ........................ 500
3. Okaloosa ................................... 73 ....................... 1477
4. W alton .................................. ... 450 ........................ 6000
5. H olm es ...................................... 9 ....................... 520
6. Jackson ...................7................... 77 ........................ 3128
7. W ashington .............................. 8 ..................... 150
8. Gadsden ................... ................... 24 ........................ 2400
9. Calhoun ...................................... 5 ........................ 233
10. Leon ............................................ 12 ........................ 5000
11. Jefferson .................................... 4 ................... ..... 424
12. M adison .................................... 31 ........................ 1437
In addition to the foregoing, directly by county farm agents, approxi-
mately 20,000 acres were terraced under Federal Soil Conservation auspices,
in northeastern Holmes County and northwestern Jackson, around Grace-
ville. A project adding to this government activity for Florida has been
established in Jefferson County, near Monticello, which contains about
18,000 acres.
CORN, PEANUTS AND VELVET BEANS
Corn, peanuts and velvet beans in combination have been more generally
grown throughout the northwestern counties than usual and on nearly 70
percent of the lands at least one legume was raised. Yet corn yields were
small on the 69.6 percent of the peanut-velvet bean section already devoted
to the grain, and efficient commercial fertilizers seemingly did not exist.
Averages had been ascertained as 10.7 bushels when grown in every row,
10.2 bushels if corn and peanuts were alternated and 9.8 bushels when velvet
beans constituted an addition.
Labor costs ran much the same for the three different systems on the
36,000 farms that grow corn as a foodstuff or for feeds. Peanuts inter-
planting was only 9 percent in one county and nowhere became greatly
larger. Hogs made the combination a cash crop by feeding down the out-
put, farmers having obtained at least 150 pounds of pork per acre.
Combination planting campaigns therefore were initiated with 30 meet-
ings in 17 counties, held by district and local agents and attended by nearly







Annual Report, 1937


3,000 corn growers. Literature distributed has been described in the
editorial and mailing room report. Results in part are indicated by the
table which follows:

1 row corn
and 1 row Corn and
Year Number Acres solid peanuts or velvet beans
farms corn peanuts and 1 and 1 or 2
velvet beans and 1

1936 .................. 139 393 240 705
1937 ................ 139 231 650 601

Decrease 162 Increase 320 Decrease 104

It is seen here that the land grown to solid corn was reduced 162 acres
or a little better than 41 percent-the acreage of corn interplanted with
velvet beans only was reduced 104 acres or something over 17 percent,
and that planted with peanuts showed an increase of 1331/ percent on
these farms.
Questionnaire letters mailed to 100 Madison County farmers brought
58 replies, showing a 1937 corn crop of 3,528 acres against 3,518 the pre-
vious season. Acreage solidly in corn underwent a 43 percent reduction,
while that of a combination output, principally peanuts and velvet beans,
if grown between the rows fell 10 percent but when alternately planted
increased 50.5 percent. Hogs sold in Escambia County during 1937 averaged
176 pounds against 159 for the previous year, a gain the farm agent attrib-
uted solely to the feed obtained from the corn and peanuts interplanting.

SURVEYS CONCERNING FERTILIZERS AND RELATED SUBJECTS
Corn was found by the district agent and the farm agents in north-
western counties to be fertilized by 84 percent of the growers. Demon-
strations on a comparative basis yielded results as follows:
300 lbs. of 3-8-5 alone gave an average of 21.4 bushels per acre.
300 lbs. of 3-8-5 plus 60 pounds nitrate of soda gave an average of 26.5
bushels per acre.
300 lbs. of 4-8-4 alone gave an average of 25.2 bushels per acre.
300 lbs. of 6-8-4 alone gave an average of 25.8 bushels per acre.
300 lbs. of 2-8-5 plus 60 pounds soda gave an average of 26.5 bushels
per acre.
The side-dressing and soda gave a good account of itself alone. Zinc
sulfate gave some results on land affected with a deficiency of zinc. Aus-
trian peas as a manure did well and were used by a number of farmers
throughout the northwest Florida area.
Peanut planting more closely in the rows and with less spacing became
the subject of meetings among farmers. Placards and circular letters also
were employed to publicize the same data. Madison County farmers num-
bering 100 received requests to report on their practices.
1. Of the 58 returning them 40 reported growing peanuts alone both
years.
2. Of the 40 growers reporting growing them this way, 10 or 25%
spaced them as we recommended both years.
3. 30 or 75% were not in line with the Extension recommendations.
4. 13 or 43.3% of those not following the closer spacing in 1936 did
so in 1937.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Very similar results were obtained in Escambia County, but in other
counties where similar checks were made the results were not as good
but the trends were in the same direction.
The spacing result demonstrations conducted indicated an increased
yield of 25% or better this year over the wider spacing used generally by
the farmers. There were also conducted by the agents in northwest Florida
peanut fertilizing demonstrations by the use of landplaster and colloidal
phosphate as well as complete fertilizer.
Development in permanent pastures, assisted by the Federal Agricul-
tural Conservation plans, has been limited only through lack of seed.
Farm visits and circular letters entered into the Extension Service activi-
ties on this line. Lespedeza demonstrations have been partially established
throughout northwestern and eastern Florida. Others deal with oats and
rye for winter grazing, at which field meetings will be held next spring
in several counties.
The Extension agronomist and the tobacco marketing division, United
States Agriculture Department economics bureau, conducted 11 meetings
in the six principal flue-cured tobacco counties, which some 800 growers
attended. Grading was demonstrated and methods shown for preparing
leaf to go on the markets.
Studies in upland cotton production yielded results thusly;
1. Two out of every 3 acres grown was some strain of Cook's Wilt-
resistant. This has been the cotton recommended by the Extension work-
ers. It is undoubtedly the most profitable.
2. It has appeared that 18,000 to 20,000 stalks per acre was a good
stand and ordinarily would give larger yields than less. This survey
shows many farmers are leaving too many stalks on the land-25,000
to 30,000.
3. 80% of the growers are using approximately 300 pounds 3-8-5 fer-
tilizer per acre. Those who used this with 100 pounds of nitrate soda or
sulfate of ammonia as a side-dressing at chopping time were growing more
economically.
It was thought best at the beginning of the year to conduct a series
or comparative fertilizer demonstrations also. This was done using at
the rate of approximately 400 pounds per acre each the following complete
fertilizers, and with the following results:
400 pounds of 6-8-4 gave an average acre yield of 869 pounds.
400 pounds of 3-8-5 and 120 pounds soda side-dressing gave an average
acre yield of 929 pounds.
400 pounds of 3-8-5 alone gave an average yield of 838 pounds.
400 pounds of 4-8-4 alone gave an average yield of 758 pounds.
400 pounds of 4-10-7 alone gave an average yield of 883 pounds.

In the campaign for restoring the Florida Sea Island cotton industry
farm agents were called upon to accept, distribute and supervise applica-
tions of the boll weevil treatment except for Madison, Lafayette and
Jefferson counties. Assistance also was rendered by them in organizing
Sea Island cotton improvement associations in the 11 counties which
formerly were the main producers of long staple.
A meeting called by the Extension Service director demonstrated to
agents the methods for applying the mixture with which Sea Island plants
are mopped every week from just prior to squaring until July 1. County
agents in turn conducted approximately 40 demonstrations with groups







Annual Report, 1937 35

of growers. Estimates carefully made indicated that 80 percent of the
acreage was mopped from one to five times. Weevils of the migratory
type nevertheless took toll from the 1937 crop.
Gins operating the previous season appearing inadequate for handling
the anticipated output, outfits were added bringing the total number to
18. Operators called together by Extension Service officials formed the
Sea Island Cotton Ginners' Association. Quality of the output was not
uniformly good, only about one-third of the samples submitted for examina-
tion having been "normally" prepared. Planters were urged in circular
letters and otherwise from Extension Service offices to pick cotton dry,
throw out rotten and stained locks, bleach the product by sunning and
furnish drying for any that was wet.
History of the crop the Extension Service also undertook to obtain,
in collaboration with a federal agency, including seed sources, acreage
and soil types, width between rows and how the plants had been spaced,
fertilizers, weevil control and so on, the concluding item having been
gross yields and receipts. Information secured previous to picking covered
some 75 percent of the plantings and letter questionnaires mailed later
sought the facts from the remainder.
Maintenance of staple length and fineness plus ginning efficiency the
Extension Service considered essential, taking these matters up with the
cotton marketing divisions, economics and plant industry bureaus, United
States Agriculture Department. Agreements finally entered into again
gave classification, grading and stapling service to Sea Island cotton. Rep-
resentatives from the federal agencies came to Florida and the Extension
Service agronomist helped get them in contact with all ginners.
Influences unfavorable to the plan discouraged ginners from sending
in samples. Keeping on the job resulted in 1,525 bales of the 3,100 grown
having been received and classed at the last report. Staple length ranged
from 11 to 1% inches. Grades 1, 2 and 3 were attained by nearly all the
product, but 849 bales were roughly prepared.
Cotton bagging for wrapping 6,000 to 8,000 bales, furnished by the Agri-
cultural Adjustment Administration, was used in part only, despite earnest
efforts by Extension Service workers and other interested factors. Success
was more satisfactory pertaining to warehouse facilities and insurance
and marketing arrangements, including credit at 16 cents per pound. A
state statute, known as the Sea Island Cotton law, under which elections
are held determining whether or not long staple shall be exclusively grown
in specified territories, already has been affirmatively passed on in three
counties, farm agents and other Extension Service personnel contributing
materially to that end. Cottons cannot be mixed if this law is enforced
where adopted, assuring purity in Sea Island seed strains.,

DEVELOPING AGRONOMY IN THE EXTENSION SERVICE
Spring planning meetings took place at 30 points in 17 northern Flor-
ida counties, nearly 3,000 farmers attending. Farm tours were directed by
county agents on many occasions, showing the outcome of improved
practices and 1,717 demonstrations conducted showing results in the fields.
Placards posted through farm agents' offices and otherwise explained
exhibits, gave slogans and carried messages to producers. Newspaper
stories, farm visits and like contacts continued to be utilized, with a great
many field meetings. Agronomy division circular letters numbering 23
had 146,405 copies distributed through county agents, who prepared and
mailed numerous ones additional. IRoguink Sea Island cotton and grading
of tobacco led to method and like demonstrations. Instructions in one-page
form furnished copies for all 4-H club field demonstrations.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent

Florida enrollment in 1936 reached the highest figure yet attained,
4,039, representing a 36 percent increase over the previous year. Report-
ing members decreased, on the other hand, to 42.8 percent from 47 percent,
principally because county farm agents found themselves too busily en-
gaged with federal and other work to devote the customary time to boys'
club activities. In 1936, the general average so applied was but 7.3
percent and but four agents gave 15 percent, these securing 76 percent
reports. One-fifth of the agents attempted no endeavor with boys, ex-
plaining that soil conservation and like duties must be given preference.
Boys' 4-H organization in the state reached its peak on December 1,
1936, with 205 clubs. Counties having the best records in this respect
obtained the best results and accomplished the best all-around work.
Projects prosecution generally was at a low point as regards quality,
average yields low and record books not up to standard. Lack of atten-
tion to the boys caused these consequences, since they did not receive
definite instructions and were not given needed assistance. In counties
where local clubs functioned and farm agents gave them time in reasonable
amounts, the outcome was normal. Revival of state exhibits in the beef
calf, pig and poultry fields greatly aided the attainment of improved work
on these projects.
TABLE 4.-COUNTIES IN WHICH 60 PERCENT OR MORE OF THE BOYS
ENROLLED IN 4-H CLUB WORK REPORTED ON THEIR PROJECTS.
Number Percent Number
County Boys Enrolled Available Reporting Percent
SAvailable 1937 Enrolled 1937 Reporting
Bay .......................... 68 50 73 41 -80
Escambia .............. 563 143 25 92 64
Jefferson ................ 148 81 54 53 65
Madison .................. 285 148 52 103 70
Okaloosa ............... 322 64 20 42 67
Walton .................... 434 158 35 96 60
Baker ...................... 139 64 45 40 62
Columbia ............... 321 38 11 26 69
Dade ........................ 317 58 18 41 70
DeSoto .................... 87 105 120 96 91
Duval ...................... 340 108 30 69 68
Gilchrist .................. 172 20 11 20 100
Hardee .................... 300 73 26 45 61
Palm Beach.. ........ 207 108 52 78 72
Pasco ...................... 412 409 96 382 93
Putnam .................. 269 25 9 24 96
St. Johns ................ 157 55 35 55 100
Sumter .................... 309 118 38 100 84
Union ...................... 174 45 26 31 70
Charlotte ................ 30 16 50 12 75
Hillsborough ........ 789 125 15 84 67
Orange .................... 620 70 11 55 78
TOTALS ................| 6,463 2,081 15 1,585
Average number available boys per county .................. 293
Average number enrolled per county .............................. 94
Average percent available enrolled .................................. 32
Average number reports per county .............................. 72
Average % reports per county ........................................ 76







Annual Report, 1937


Table 4 shows the boys available in each county, enrollment last year
and this, and percentage of gain or loss. Basis adopted for arriving at
the boys available figure is purely arbitrary and may or may not be
correct. Counties have been separated into districts according to the
administrative plans now effective.
Experience has shown that in Florida attempts at boys' club work are
unwise except in territories where county farm agents are engaged. Last
year, 53 had agents throughout the 12 months, six enrolling no boys and
four less than 10 each. County areas remaining, 43 in number, averaged
95 members apiece and 51 reports.
Counties securing 40 reports each or more averaged 1,363 farms while
the ones obtaining less than 40 recorded 1,315 each. Average of farms
was 1,100 in counties which returned over 90 reports apiece. In counties
furnishing below 20 each, the farms averaged 901.
Clubs increased to 217 from 205. Reports ran an average of 10 per
club. Pasco County was best organized with 18 clubs supplying 21 reports
each. Madison registered six clubs averaging 17 reports. In Palm Beach
County four clubs yielded 19 reports each, Sumter six clubs and 16%
reports apiece, Walton six and 16.
County councils are actively maintained in the foregoing best organized
territory. Organization of a State Council took place in June 1936 to
assist and help the local clubs.

COOPERATION FROM OTHER SOURCES
District agents of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service again
were responsible for 4-H club activities, directing and encouraging the
county representatives. Specialists on the staff at headquarters supplied
subject material covering club projects, requests for which have been dis-
appointingly small. Club camps were attended for two weeks by each


Fig. 2.-In Lake County one boys' club conducts a cooperative
4-H garden project.







Florida Cooperative Extension


specialist, who rendered valuable help. Poultry show at the Central Florida
Exposition was efficiently directed by the assistant Extension poultryman.

TABLE 5.-TABULAR REPORT OF 1937 GOALS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS.


Problem Goal



To increase enroll-
Enrollment ment from 4020 to
5,000 or 980 in-
crease.

To secure 607% re-
Reports ports. Raise % re-
ports from 47% to
60%.


Project work





Club
organization


Club Camps



State Club
Exhibits


Judging Contest

4-H Scholarshipsl
to College

Out-of-State
Trips

Boys' 4-H
Short Course I


To improve quality
of project work.


(a) Have 90%
members in or-
ganized clubs.
(b) Have at least
30 county
councils.
(c) Start some
work in leader-
ship training.
(a) Improve
grounds and
add equipment.
(b) Have better
camp pro-
grams.
Have state exhibits
in pig, poultry and
baby beef projects.

Develop two


Secure five


Secure five

Have every county
doing club work
represented.


hC
W 4l
+0
a0 0
1UU


43










43


43







43
1


Results


Secured 115 increase.
22 counties had an in-
crease-21 a decrease.

SSecured 53% reports.
25 counties showed an
increased % reports
and 13 showed a de-
crease.
In crop projects as
shown by yield per acre
there was a very de-
cided drop. In livestock
clubs as shown by ani-
mals exhibited, there
was an improvement.


(a) Reached the goal.
(b) Have 23 county
councils.
(c) Started some but
did not reach goal.


(a) Exceeded goal as
a new camp was
begun.
(b) Reached goal at
one camp not
quite at the other.
'Reached goal but num-
ber of counties taking
I part not satisfactory.
Reached goal but not
enough counties having
teams.

Got seven


Got ten

Had boys from 36 out
of 43 counties.
I







Annual Report, 1937


Goal for 1937 of 5,000 members was not reached, though 115 boys more
enrolled than for 1936. In part, the small gain and the failure to reach
expectations may have been accounted for by the greater care that county
farm agents exercised in reporting enrollments. A boy is not considered
a 4-H club member until he has started work.

ENROLLMENT SOUGHT FOR 1938
Conditions indicate that the present enrollment is likely to be greatly
exceeded only as new county farm agents are appointed who formerly
were 4-H club boys. Increases are anticipated during 1938, but fear is
felt that the 5,000 figure will not be reached.
Goals set for the next year also include more counties making 60 per-
cent reports. Records completed constitute the standard by which county
farm agents are judged concerning 4-H club performance with 60 percent
reports acceptable, 65 to 80 fair and over 80 percent excellent.
Recovery of project quality sustained since agricultural adjustment
began also will be attempted. Yields per acre must remain the basis on
which 4-H club achievements are judged.

PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF YEAR
The average yield of some 4-H crop projects in 1935-36 and 1937 are
as follows:
1935 1936 1937
Corn, average yield ........ 27.4 bu. 24.7 bu. 21.2 bu.
Cotton, average yield .... 711 lbs. 751 lbs. 700 lbs.
Sweet potatoes .............. 101.4 bu. 139 bu. 64.8 bu.
Peanuts ............................ 682 lbs. 717 lbs. 401 lbs.
The weather was not enough different to- affect the state average in
any great degree. Lack of care in seed selection, planting and fertiliza-
tion must be the factors which have lowered the average yield. The boys
are not getting the same type of supervision as when the state average
in corn was 37.5 bushels per acre.
Livestock projects have shown improvement. County farm agents in
numerous cases secured better pigs for club boys. A state pig club con-
test furnished incentive to endeavor. A wildlife investigation project,
added during 1937, led to a special camp which was a decided success.
Club organization aims include having 90 percent of members in local
clubs, at least 30 county councils and starting effort for leadership train-
ing. Minor problems relate to improvement of the grounds at camps and
preparing better programs therefore.

CLUB CAMPS
Camp McQuarrie had 85 assorted trees planted and land grubbed by
the boys for an acre of citrus grove to be set during the 1938 spring. At
Camp Timpoochee concrete footings and foundations were laid for the
muchly-needed auditorium, a bedroom and bath added that the cooks will
occupy, and a kitchen hot water boiler installed.
Boys from 40 counties and girls representing 24 spent a week at the
two camps. Meals served numbered 22,919. Farmers and their wives
visiting the camps during the summer increased the population by 800.
Conditions became so crowded at Camp McQuarrie that a location was
secured for a third district assembly place, on Cherry Lake, in Madison







Florida Cooperative Extension


County. Lumber was donated from an abandoned rural resettlement enter-
prise and the National Youth Administration has undertaken to tear down
the old buildings and erect new structures, though roofing must be supplied.

CONTESTS AND AWARDS
State contests in baby beef, pig and poultry projects are other goal
purposes. Baby beef displays in connection with the Florida Fat Stock
Show, Jacksonville, March 10, contained 32 fattened steers exhibited by
21 4-H club boys. Pig club exhibits appeared this year, at the West
Florida Exposition, Tallahassee, November 1 to 6. Club boys from 11
counties showed 87 pigs, each a highly creditable animal. Central Florida
Exposition state poultry exhibit, Orlando, February 15 to 20, produced 250
birds from 50 club members in 10 counties. Judging contests on beef
cattle, eggs and poultry again will be featured, that in beef cattle at
Jacksonville, with seven counties taking part having been won by Liberty,
and the poultry and egg competition in Orlando bringing out 11 teams
from 10 counties.
Five scholarships open to the state are the 1938 goal-seven were
awarded this year. Florida Bankers' Association will continue the three
in the College of Agriculture, at $100 each, which it has given for 17 years.
Fat Show authorities have offered one of like value for baby beef judging.
Model Land Company provides one each year for a St. Johns County boy.
Members of the Hastings Potato Growers' Association plan yearly awards
valued at $250 each, to 4-H club members in Flagler, Putnam or St. Johns.
Trips goal is three to the National 4-H Club Congress and two for the
country-wide 4-H club camp. Five boys from Florida attended the former
and two the latter during 1937.

MISCELLANEOUS UNDERTAKINGS
Representation from every county doing 4-H club boys' work at the
State Short Course for them will be sought. That for 1937, the 21st held
annually at the University College of Agriculture, enrolled 307 boys from
36 counties.
Training schools for recreational leadership have been held for 10
years past, in cooperation with the National Recreation Association. In
the period, the state has been covered, almost every county touched that
had club work, several counties having since maintained organized recrea-
tion councils. Schools during the current year comprised five for white
boys and one attended exclusively by Negro youths.
Florida Farm Hour periods have averaged about one boys' 4-H club
talk a month, over Station WRUF, Gainesville. Broadcasts also were given
every day during the Short Course.
On National Achievement Day, November 6, three national network
stations, WIOD, Miami, WJAX, Jacksonville and WSLIN, Clearwater,
featured 4-H work, as did WRUF. Station WDBO, Orlando, presented
two talks on 4-H club lines in the 12 months. Radio highlight of the year,
however, was the half-hour broadcast from Camp McQuarrie, June 25,
over WRUF offering a 4-H club campfire program, probably the first
ever originated in a National Forest for airwaves transmission.
A wildlife camp sponsored by a cartridge company, which contributed
$400, took place at McQuarrie, August 2-7, 80 boys and agents attending.
United States Forest Service, State Conservation, Forest and Park agen-
cies cooperated with the sponsors, the Extension Service and the Experi-
ment Station.








Annual Report, 1937 41.

State winners in project work were as follows:
Baby beef, Joe Vara, Holmes County, silver cup.
Breeding pig, Charles McCormick, Baker County.
Fat barrow, Robert Reeves, Leon County, trip to Chicago awarded
by the State Club Department.
Meat production, M. C. Leslie, Madison County, gold watch from Thomas
E. Wilson Company.
Outstanding pig club member, Connie McCormick, Columbia County,
trip to Chicago awarded by Armour and Company.
Leadership winning members who were awarded trips to the 4-H Na-
tional Camp, Fred Goetter, Escambia, and Adin Maltby, St. Johns, the
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad furnished transportation for one.
Scholarships from the Florida Bankers' Association, Gayle Diamond,
Brevard County, Eric Mills, Marion, and Billie Mowat; Bay.
Poultry judging, $100 scholarship from Central Florida Exposition, Mil-
ton Mingonet, Lake County; three trips to Chicago, contributed by Florida
Chain Store Association, Robert Douglass, Dan Roberts and Stanley Rosen-
berger, Alachua.
Short Course scholarships were given by numerous boards of county
commissioners, civic and service clubs, and several individuals.








Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE
E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist
Activities of the Extension Service citriculturist were conducted in
association with district and farm agents of Brevard, Dade, DeSoto,
Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Marion, Orange,
Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Putnam, Sarasota, Seminole and Volusia
counties. Cooperation was received from the Experiment Station, Florida
Citrus Commission, Florida Citrus Exchange, the State Plant Board and
United States Agriculture Department.
Problems confronting grapefruit, orange and tangerine growers chiefly
relate to still further reductions in producing and marketing costs which
will permit the output's sale on an increased scale among low-income con-
sumers, meanwhile improving quality so far as economically is possible,
that demand will be retained and enlarged. Sub-projects carried through
the year in the Extension Service citriculture endeavor consequently in-
cluded the following: fertilizing, cover crops, cultivation, irrigation and
dieback, frenching, bronze leaf, melanose, scale and rust mite control.
Fertilizer costs have been found to constitute 30 to 60 percent of the
aggregate labor and materials production outlay. Records available to the
Extension Service indicate that less than 50 percent of the Florida groves
receive adequate plant food. Growers who get into reduced fertilizer and
low-production habits during years when prices are unsatisfactory, find
emergence therefrom difficult even when conditions have improved.
Since 1932, Extension Service endeavors in citrus counties largely have
been devoted to devising effective fertilizer plans for individual growers,
and during 1937 2,642 groves received visits, 2,020 of the owners fol-
lowing the recommendations made, involving approximately 10,000 tons.
A typical grower wrote his county agent, "I have saved a great deal of
money by following your ideas concerning an economical system of fer-
tilizing, also fertilizer supplements." Grove tours were promoted in 20
counties and 102 result demonstrations witnessed by 1,942 growers.

COVER CROPS AND ORGANIC MATTER
Organic matter in adequate supply is the dominant question wherever
citrus fruits are raised by Florida growers. If lacking, the results appear
in low efficiency of the commercial fertilizers applied, poor tree conditions
and inferior fruit. Interest in proper cover crop practices has been greater
during the past year than for a quarter century.
Growers had assistance from Extension Service agents and specialists
in 126 communities, located throughout the citrus belt. Tree conditions
that had improved, fruit produced in heavier yields and net returns en-
larged were pointed out time after time, as the direct result of the recom-
mended practices. In 146 groves, with soil not favorable to legume cover
crops, $1.00 per acre in cheap nitrogen, used as a top-dressing during
June and July, enlarged the grasses and weeds output for cover crop
purposes between 100 and 150 percent. Leaching of plant nutrients was
correspondingly reduced, organic matter conserved, root growth and tree
health advanced.
CULTIVATION OF GROVES
Waste due to the improper cultivation of groves, the Extension Service
has continued to emphasize in 15 counties. Savings as to operating costs,
plus improved tree conditions and better fruit quality, may be obtained








Annual Report, 1937


by less cultivation, it has been shown, in at least 25 percent of the Florida
groves. Cultivation that is deep has been found usually to destroy the
root system in part, weakening the trees and rendering them more sus-
ceptible to diseases.
Meetings, press articles and radio talks have been utilized in the educa-
tional work for proper cultivation. Respecting the non-bearing trees, the
recommendation is made that strips be cultivated along the tree rows,
throughout the growing season. In bearing groves, cultivation in the
fall is advised, sufficient to incorporate the cover crop with the soil so
that fire hazards may be eliminated. Adjustment in the spring is sug-
gested to seeding and protection of the cover crop, always avoiding the
deep cultivation that destroys tree roots.
Irrigation also has received no inconsiderable attention, in nine years
of every 10 the water supply by rainfall having been found insufficient.
Fruit drops in consequence, sizes are small, tree vitality becomes lowered,
dead twigs and branches result, followed by increased melanose infections
and stem-end rot. Growers received assistance in installing 17 new plants
and 21 were given help on changes rendering old ones more efficient, and
18 grove owners helped to obtain and operate proper rain gauges, though
rainfall was so well distributed demand for irrigation was less than usual.

DISEASE AND PEST CONTROL
Frenching, a zinc deficiency disease, found in over 75 percent of the
groves, causes lower commercial fertilizer efficiency whenever the tree
foliage is 10 percent or more affected. Instructions printed by the. Agri-
cultural Extension Service have been mailed or handed to above 10,000
growers and many others reached through newspaper articles or radio
talks. Results were little short of marvelous when the affected trees
received spray applications in these proportions: hydrated lime 2% pounds,
zinc sulfate 5 pounds, and water 100 gallons. Lime-sulfur and bordeaux
sprays also have been helpful.
Demonstrations by the hundred were given, 20 counties taking part.
Materials and a small sprayer were carried by numerous Extension Service
workers, who made applications to trees here and there. Results became
clearly evident within four to six weeks, whereupon many cooperating
growers immediately sprayed the remainder of the groves. Foliage dem-
onstrations gave action more quickly and were 95 percent effective. Soil
treatments act slowly but are more lasting. A combination of the two
seemingly promises well.
Dieback in young trees and ammoniation of young fruit, definitely
classed as copper deficiency diseases, have been overcome through one
to three applications using copper sulfate, one-fourth pound to one pound
per tree for the first-named and one pound to three pounds on account of
the latter, followed by one-fourth that amount once annually during two
or three years thereafter. Bordeaux applied for melanose control has
supplied copper sufficient to cause disappearance of ammoniation.
Except in a few communities the foregoing facts concerning copper
generally are understood among citrus producers, but 39 demonstrations
were staged. Otherwise, the task was to keep growers from forgetting
and advise newcomers in the industry, through timely newspaper stories
and radio talks. In this sub-project, 17 counties had a part.
Bronze leaf, arising from deficiencies in magnesium, during the past
years cut yields heavily. In the last two seasons demonstrations showing
how to use dolomite and magnesium sulfate have made the remedy known
among growers in 20 counties.








44 Florida Cooperative Extension

Soil acidity tests made last year numbered 1,323. Recommendations
including the use of dolomite aggregating 1,106, covered 15,635 acres.
Dolomite demonstrations for bronze leaf continued from previous years
totaled 51. Treatments of a corrective nature were unknown until a few
seasons ago when several county farm agents and the Extension Service
citriculturist, cooperating with Agriculture College and Experiment Station
specialists, discovered that dolomite did the job and that the corrective
agent therein was magnesium.
Melanose, the most important grade-lowering factor in Florida citrus
culture, prevails principally through the old groves. In one county, of 94
crops, low-grade fruit due thereto included oranges 28 percent and grape-
fruit 35 percent. Research has shown that successful control begins with
preventive measures going back into the general cultural practices. Ex-
tension Service recommendations followed by 693 growers lessened melanose
to a minimum by reducing deadwood, fertilizing properly, cultivating con-
servatively and supplying ample water. Control proved satisfactory with
150 grove owners who pruned out deadwood as thoroughly as possible,
during the winter. Spraying demonstrations with 3-3-100 bordeaux and
wettable sulfur afforded good results. Melanose control endeavor covered
18 counties.
Scale control with oil sprays depends largely upon the copper spray-
ing for melanose and scab. Method demonstrations conducted at seven
points had present more than 100 pest control leaders. Growers with
whom Extension Service workers came in contact indicated the importance
of friendly fungi in keeping scale down.
Rust mites, second in importance among the grade-lowering factors,
have been more nearly offset by the methods used during recent years
and the Extension Service citriculturist served on a state committee, which
revised the spray and dust schedules early in 1937. Through his office
and 20 county agents copies were distributed to approximately 15,000
growers. A central meeting at the Citrus Experiment Station had 117
present, representing widely varied interests.

ACTIVITIES IN RELATED FIELDS
Grove visits in 20 counties made by the Extension Service citriculturist
were at the request of 2,642 growers.
Growers' Institute held at Camp McQuarrie, Lake County, and devoted
entirely to citrus, on which the Extension Service had Agriculture College
and Experiment Station aid, enrolled more than 300, with the daily at-
tendance averaging 195. Production and marketing were followed through
with a dozen local cooperative associations. In one, with the manager of
which the Extension Service citriculturist has collaborated for two years
to demonstrate the value of 100 percent cooperation concerning both grow-
ing and marketing, an Agriculture College-trained production manager has
been employed, a fertilizer factory built, spraying machines and other
equipment necessary to giving service purchased. Of 120 members, 99
percent are using the facilities, at savings ranging between 15 percent
and 50 percent, and financing themselves with 3 percent money.
Sales effort on an association brand, concentrated on one dealer in a
Southern market, started with supplies of strictly uniform quality fruit,
followed by local newspaper and radio advertising, maintaining dealer
service and so on. Success attained has been so pronounced that this
season another market was added. Thus the organization is extending its
service from the soil to the consumer, and several other associations are
planning similar undertakings.







Annual Report, 1937


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Walter J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman
Extension animal husbandry work is closely correlated with kindred
activities in the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station, and is
supervised by the head of the department. Beef cattle received the prin-
cipal attention from the Everglades to Escambia County; hogs through
the peanut-producing area northward and westward from Sumter and
Marion.
Adult and junior efforts both were divided under two main aims-produc-
tion and fattening for market. Goals immediately in sight on cattle are
distribution of purebred bulls and appreciation that annual calf crops have
great economic value. In more or less direct consequence, many carloads
of registered bulls were brought in, among them Angus, Braford, Brahma
and Hereford animals, altogether aggregating more than 800, valued at
nearly $100,000 and able to sire not less than 30,000 calves yearly. Osceola
County in addition is raising Brahmas, bulls sold numbering 300 and high-
grade cows 250.
Farmers' herds usually start small. In Okeechobee County, as an
example, 68 farmers owned 10 or more beef cattle during 1936 but for
1937 the number had increased to 105. Herds established in the state
aggregated 47, including 334 purebred and 589 high grade cows. Breeding
control gives a calf crop running 60 percent to 85 as compared with about
35 percent from the open range method, the higher figures having been
reported by 165 owners, producing 6,148 select heifers for herd replace-
ment. One county agent conducted 14 demonstrations in this work.
Calves raised under the herd practices advocated by the Extension
Service sell much better than range stock, in northwestren Florida the
well-bred specimens, averaging 431 pounds, bringing 7 cents a pound or
$30.17 each against common yearlings' average of 325 pounds which
sold for 4 cents or $13.00 apiece. Culling of barren and shy-breeding
cows is called for, and more than 7,000 went to market grass-fat, one
ranchman furnishing eight carloads. Dehorning young calves proved
extremely successful and materially reduced screw worm infestations.
PASTURE IMPROVEMENT
Farm tours, letters, the radio and visits have been utilized in urging
farmers to give the grass a chance, killing out weeds, bushes and briers,
alike in pastures and on the range. Mowing machines and weed cutters
are recommended. At a field meeting with 50 farmers present, L. K.
Edwards, Irvine, Marion County, stated he had doubled the grazing value
of his 2,000 acre pasture in three years by using the mower, without
sowing a seed or adding acreage. In another meeting at Brighton, at-
tended by 60 cattlemen representing 100,000 head, Thomas Lykes asserted
his concern normally grazed and fattened 1,200 to 1,500 steers before
cutting weeds and myrtle but now can run between 4,000 and 5,000 on
the same area.
Weeds have been cut this year on more than 19,000 acres. Palmetto
cutters have killed the bushes and other growth except grass over some
15,000. Disking has taken place on above 14,000 preparatory to sowing
grass. Para grass was set on much moist land southward from Gaines-
ville. A pasture improvement campaign was inaugurated by the Jackson-
ville Commerce Chamber, in connection with which the Extension Service
animal husbandman inspected conditions in Alachua, Clay, Hernando,
Marion, Orange, Osceola, Polk and St. Johns counties.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SILO BUILDING
Trench silos for beef cattle feeding, essentially an Extension Service
accomplishment, were non-existent in 1930 but now are found all the
way from Okaloosa to Levy and Alachua counties. Additions this year
numbered 78, compared with 53 last, a 49 percent gain.

FAIRS AND SHOWS
Cooperation was extended in the exhibition of seven Florida herds at
the Florida Fair in Tampa. Bulls shown from other states were bought
for numerous Florida farms and ranges.
Florida Fat Stock Show in Jacksonville, sponsored by the local com-
merce chamber but largely developed through Extension Service activities,
was a greater success than for any year since the beginning, during 1935.
Table herewith tells the story:
TABLE 6.-REPORT OF THIRD ANNUAL FAT STOCK SHOW AND SALE,
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, MARCH 9 AND 10, 1937.
(With Comparisons to 1935 and 1936 Shows.)

1937 1936 1935

Number cattle sold .................... 535 638 147
Total weight (lbs.) ...................... 445,180 461,245 126,830
Average price per pound ......... .0972 .0712 .0899
Average weight per steer ........ 832 pounds 722.9 pounds 862 pounds
Average price per head ............ $80.94 $51.50 $77.56
Total sales .................................... $43,302.77 $32,860.93 $11,402.63
Number exihibtors .... ----.................. 50 71 15
Number Georgia exhibitors ...... 2 3 1
Number club boys exhibiting .... 21 18 0
Number 4-H club calves ............ 32 18 0
Number 4-H judging teams ...... 7 9 5
Number cars bought by
out-of-state exhibitors .......... 10 10 0
Grand champion steer price ......-- 32c 32c 21c
Number Florida counties
sending cattle ......................... 16 18 9

Winner of 4-H judging teams: 1st, Liberty; 2nd, Sumter; 3rd, Pasco;
4th, Alachua; 5th, Madison; 6th, Columbia; 7th, Suwannee.

FINANCING, STEER FEEDING, ETC.
Farm Credit Administration plans for financing did not fit the Florida
cattle situations. Ranchmen held a meeting, submitted recommendations,
followed by numerous conferences, in all the Extension Service animal
husbandmen taking part, including one at the Columbia headquarters.
Relations thus were established on a more satisfactory basis and a few
loans have been granted.
Steer feeding received a great impetus from the Florida Fat Stock
Show and Experiment Station activities, and this office printed an instruc-
tive circular, copies having been furnished all county agents and interested
farmers. Silage became increasingly important in steer rations. Feeding
field meetings furnished helpful demonstrations, conducted by the animal
husbandman and county agents. Tendencies grow toward winter feeds







Annual Report, 1937


for the breeding herds and steps were taken under which the nearest
cottonseed oil mill, at Valdosta, Georgia, agreed to make cake for Florida
buyers.

AL iL


















Fig. 3.-Florida steers like these are becoming more and more in evi-
dence throughout the state, as the cattlemen advance with their programs
of cattle improvement and feed production. This group was among the
prize winners at the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale.

IMPROVING HOG OUTPUT
Type and quality improvement messages have been carried to farmers
through circular letters, county agents, market-place tours, meat cutting
and curing demonstrations and tours. A circular has been in great demand
pointing out wherein raising big litters of healthy pigs is profitable.
Hogs marketed have been of much better grades, principally due to
these Extension Service activities. A late 1937 sale in northwestern Florida
showed 58 percent grading No. 1, 180 pounds and up, against 29 percent
almost exactly one year before. In another case, well-bred and well-fed
hogs sold at $10.40 per hundredweight; poorly-bred animals three months
older for only $7.00. Four of the big packers now have hog buyers in
Florida.
Meat cutting and curing demonstrations, with both beef and pork,
were held in various sections. One in Jefferson County, sponsored by the
farm and home demonstration agents, had cooperation from farmers, the
Monticello Kiwanis Club and Swift and Company.
Meetings, regional in character, held at four points during May had
assistance from the United States Agriculture Department senior exten-
sion meat specialist. Conducted somewhat as schools for county agents,
these occurred in Kissimmee, Marianna, Monticello and Wauchula.
November 4 all home demonstration agents were called to Gainesville
for a school at which the Extension animal husbandman collaborated with
Experiment Station specialists in demonstrations. Campaigns have been
carried on throughout the hog raising territory for home supplies meat
curing.
Cold storage meat plant managers' conference at Gainesville November
12 had 21 of 52 plants represented by some 26 officials. In one case, the







Florida Cooperative Extension


statement was made that advice from this office at a similar meeting
three years ago had caused savings which aggregated more than $4,000.
Exhibits displaying products cured in the various plants composed the
first meat show of its kind in the United States.
Rules and regulations for judging meats at the Florida Fair this office
prepared, with federal agency and Experiment Station cooperation.

BOYS' WORK AND MARKETING
Personal visits, meetings and instruction comprised the animal hus-
bandry contribution to 4-H club work. A week each was spent at Camp
Timpoochee and Camp McQuarrie. Short Course instruction was supplied
all interested junior club members. Fat Stock Show boys' exhibits num-
bered 21, and included 32 calves. Pigs from 11 counties, aggregating 87,
went on display at the Tallahassee annual show. In both cases the boys'
animals were considerably better than previously.
Markets for livestock opened at several Florida points, recognizing the
success attained by the Extension Service livestock industry efforts. Sales
on a cooperative basis which farm agents promoted and conducted became
even more helpful to farmers. In Trenton, Gilchrist County, the Gulf
Coast Hog Marketing Association sold 20,539 animals for $251,623.75,
averaging $12.25 each, compared with 8,465 two years before, bringing
$64,935.55, an average of $7.56 apiece. Grading uniformity in the South-
east was sought at a Moultrie, Georgia, meeting which the Extension
Service animal husbandmen attended.








Annual Report, 1937


DAIRYING
Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman

The extension program in dairy husbandry is closely correlated with
dairying work in the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station, and
is supervised by the head of the department.
Dairying in the Agricultural Extension Service presents the county
farm agents as leaders in their respective territories and the added re-
sponsibilities they have been given on Soil Conservation lines caused
extraordinary efforts by the Extension Dairyman for cooperation through
helping organize dairying associations and like agencies. Aid of value
came from the district agents.
A 4-H club dairy plan of work was prepared. Radio talks prepared by
the Extension Dairyman numbered 23. Assistance rendered the home
demonstration agents consisted of mimeographed information concerning
family cows and record books for 4-H club girls engaging in dairy projects.
Soil classification and crop adaptation studies were conducted in connection
with forage production.
Activities devoted to dairying took place in 45 counties having farm
agents and some were carried on with farmers in four others. Demonstra-
tions, both method and result, alike among adults and juniors, constituted
the principal factors and a secondary group comprised meetings, state,
county, community and field. Letters were utilized freely, in personal
and circular forms, motorcades to the demonstrations promoted, personal
visits made among farmers, radio talks employed, and stories in news-
papers utilized.
FORAGE PRODUCTION ENDEAVOR
Forage production as the limiting factor, causing Florida to be re-
garded as a milk deficiency area, has received continuing attention, since
even market milkmen have only about 35 percent of the required permanent
pasturage and make not over 20 percent the silage they need. Bang's
disease eradication carried on cooperatively with federal agencies has
reduced the infections below 11/2 percent from 27 percent, since 1933.
Texas fever tick eradication in most sections has been succeeded at some
points by anaplasmosis, a similar disease which several species of ticks
carry-and probably other insects-causing concern among dairymen.

FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATIONS AND SILOS
Increase in the farms showing fertilization of crops for forage and
silage supplied the outstanding feature, Alachua, Bay, Dade, Duval, Her-
nando, Leon and Palm Beach counties taking the lead.
Alachua County reported 39 farmers who fertilized pastures and silage
crops, increasing output 15 percent. In Bay, the county farm agent succeed-
ing in having fertilizers for 316 acres purchased cooperatively. Dade had six
farmers conducting fertilizer demonstrations. Ensilage crops fertilized on
875 Duval acres produced some 7,000 tons.
Sugarcane for forage that Duval farmers gave complete fertilization
yielded 2,500 tons from 120 acres. Pastures fertilized include about 3,000
acres. Hernando increased forage and grazing tonnage 12 percent on
235 acres. Leon fertilized around 2,000 acres. In Palm Beach County
this was the third year of demonstrations, using calcium and magnesium
carbonates and superphosphates with potash and nitrogen.







50 Florida Cooperative Extension

Trench silos were erected in three counties for the first time, the total
construction on Florida dairy farms during the year including 123 of that
type and 42 upright. A paper form introduced during the year may supply
the need for cheap silos.

RATIONS, PASTURES, AND BY-PRODUCTS
Seeding of pastures on flatwoods land was limited by the carpet grass
seed available. Bermuda plantings on dairy farms increased throughout
the state.
In 35 counties farm agents reported 115 demonstrations with mineral
supplements, steamed bone meal supplemented with calcium carbonate
and salt principally added to the dairy rations.
Volusia County agent cooperation was extended other agencies in ex-
periments with adding cobalt to the standard salt, iron and copper salt
sick mixture, for animals on Norfolk sandy soils, pronounced results having
been obtained with farm cows.
Dairymen were urged by farm agents to profit by the Experiment
Station findings concerning the values which citrus cannery waste possesses
when made into cattle feed. Savings in cost ranging between 15 cents
per hundredweight and 50 cents received stress as a means for securing
demonstrations.
PROMOTING THE FAMILY COW
Placing family cows on farms had cooperation from practically all
county agents, whose work further was of great value respecting home-
produced feeds in greater quantities. Agents for Charlotte, Hardee, Her-
nando, Holmes, Jackson, Lafayette, Marion, Okeechobee, Pasco, St. Johns,
Sarasota, Sumter, Suwannee, Union, Volusia, and Washington earned
special commendation.
In all counties the agents conducted method demonstrations, especially
where the population is sparse and much personal work was required
with sick animals and regarding feed practices, Dixie, Glades, Hamilton,
Levy, Liberty and Wakulla afford excellent examples.
Purchases of 78 and 42 heifers and registered sires were made by the
Jackson and Suwannee county agents, respectively. In five years the
Hernando agent has procured 34 registered bulls and 364 cows for his
farmers. Dairymen from Pinellas he interested in purchasing Hernando
farms this year. A trailer holding some 20 baby calves has been used
for bringing in high-grade stock from Duval county.

BOYS' 4-H CLUBS IN DAIRYING
Dairying by boys' 4-H clubs serves as one of the best approaches to
the family cow program. Usefulness of this agency is greatest in the
rural counties composing northern and western Florida.
Dade, Duval, Marion, Pasco and Suwannee county demonstration teams
competed in a contest at the College of Agriculture in Gainesville; the
prize, a trip to the National Dairy Show, Columbus, Ohio, was awarded
the Pasco County team.

BREEDING AND PRODUCTION RECORDS
Farms in about 16 percent of the counties exclusively use registered
sires. County agents reported 152 introduced during 1937, also 3,500
grade and purebred cows for herd replacements in the Bang's disease








Annual Report, 1937 51

eradication. Duval County alone added 31 sires, the farm agent having
sought bulls with ancestors that had records of 400 pounds butterfat
minimums.
Herd improvement associations organized in three instances had 16
counties cooperating and represented 1921 cows.
Dairy record books were placed with 56 farmers in 16 counties.

MARKETING FACILITIES IMPROVEMENT
Farm agents in Washington and adjacent counties cooperated with
feeding suggestions and otherwise in establishing the creamery now operat-
ing in Chipley.
Marion County revived the milk market at Ocala, which will specialize
in by-products manufacture, the farm agent assisting.
Extension Service collaboration with the State Dairymen's Association
and Florida Milk Control Board led to public meetings in 17 counties.
Field meetings in Leon County numbered four, the Extension Dairyman
receiving aid from the white and Negro agents.

DISEASE CONTROL
In addition to the campaign for Bang's disease eradication, cooperation
has been given the Experiment Station in studies of hemorrhagic sep-
ticemia, anaplasmosis, trichomonads and white scours among calves.
County agents assisted the federal authorities in screw worm control
until they discontinued it and since have carried on the endeavor.

BUILDING SAFETY PENS
Calf pens as suggested by V. C. Johnson, a successful Duval dairyman,
are proving effective in keeping young heifers free from intestinal para-
sites.
Safety bull pens construction received an impetus through demonstra-
tion teams of 4-H club boys.
Sheds for feeding and shade were erected in seven instances, and 15
barns and 12 dairy houses remodeled or built through Extension Service
and county agent activities.

TRIPS FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES
Trips made by the Extension Service Dairyman during 1937 included
one to Tennessee, accompanied by the Suwannee County agent, no cost
accruing against the state organization, another into North Carolina and
South Carolina, with the Volusia agent and a dairy operator, and one
covering portions of Alabama made at personal expense.

MISCELLANEOUS MEETINGS
Outlook conferences in seven northwestern Florida counties had an at-
tendance of 800 farmers. University of Florida Dairy Day, August 5
and 6, held in cooperation with the State Dairymen's Association, attracted
some 87 people.
Marketing and production methods improvement received emphasis in
17 county conferences, the Extension Dairyman assisting the Association
president.
A state meeting with Negro county agents convened in Lake City and
another at Fessenden Academy brought together almost 200 racial leaders.
Alachua County had a similar conference attended by 47 Negro farmers.







52 Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY KEEPING

Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
Dan F. Sowell, Assistant Extension Poultryman
E. F. Stanton, Supervisor Egg-Laying Contest

Pullets of superior quality, efficient management for laying flocks,
improved marketing methods and breeding birds selection, trapnesting
and pullorum disease control constituted the Extension Service poultry
activities possessing major importance during the year covered by this
report. These activities are tied in closely with related ones in the College
of Agriculture and Experiment Station.
Production of healthy chicks and pullets, also laying flock management
and better methods therein, went ahead on a long-time basis under the
Calendar Flock Record designation. Breeding flocks upbuilding and dis-
ease control were conducted as a part of the national poultry improvement
plan. Egg quality undertakings inaugurated during 1936 were continued,
on a state-wide basis, with the Extension Service an important participat-
ing factor. Poultry extension specialists visited 42 counties and assisted
the agents. Turkey management again was carried on, principally in
Alachua, Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist, Lafayette, Levy and Suwannee.

FEED PRICES AND POULTRY EXTENSION
Relations between feed prices and poultry products returns have a direct
bearing on Extension Service poultry endeavor, since most commercial
producers buy all the materials they use as feeds. A poultry ration
illustrating prices comprises a mash mixture including 25 pounds alfalfa
leaf meal, 100 pounds each bran, fine ground oats, meatscraps-55 percent
protein-shorts and yellow corn meal plus a grain combination containing
100 pounds each yellow cracked corn and wheat.

TABLE 7.-MONTHLY PRICE OF POULTRY RATION*.

Base
Month Period 1934 1935 1936 1937
1927-29

October ............. 2.78 2.23 2.18 2.43 2.28
November .......... 2.72 2.25 2.16 2.48 2.12
December .......... 2.72 2.32 2.14 2.57
January ............ 2.73 1.89 2.34 2.12 2.77
February .......... 2.77 1.90 2.32 2.10 2.67
March ............... 2.78 1.90 2.32 2.12 2.62
April ................. 2.78 1.91 2.31 2.11 2.71
May ..... ............ 2.81 1.90 2.32 2.11 2.76
June .................. 2.85 1.97 2.28 2.10 2.72
July .................. 2.90 2.00 2.22 2.23 2.65
August .............. 2.87 2.12 2.15 2.42 2.51
September ........ 2.84 2.22 2.13 2.43 2.37
Average ............ 2.80 2.05 2.24 2.27 2.56**

*Price based on quotation Jacksonville, Florida.
**11 months' average.








Annual Report, 1937


POULTRY PRODUCTS PRICE LEVELS
Prices for eggs and poultry meat, over a period of years, have been
tabulated by the Extension Service and sent to cooperating flock owners
as an assistance in making plans for the future.

TABLE 8.-MONTHLY PRICES OF No. 1 (GRADE A 24 OUNCE) WHITE EGGS*.
(Cents per dozen.)


Month



October ..............
November ........
December ..........
January .........
February ..........
March ................
A pril .................
May ................
June ...... ........
July ....................
August ..............
September ........
Average ............


Base
Period
1926-29


56.4
57.0
52.0
45.9
34.3
31.0
29.4
28.8
32.3
36.6
42.1
47.5
41.1


1934


1936


38.0 39.3 38.4 38.1
40.0 37.0 41.9 39.6
40.0 40.6 43.4
.28.7 35.8 33.5 29.4
25.6 31.8 31.2 27.5
19.2 23.0 23.5 25.1
19.8 24.9 22.9 25.5
20.1 26.3 24.1 24.2
23.5 26.8 25.7 25.8
28.0 31.5 31.9 30.1
31.6 35.6 34.0 33.0
36.8 39.0 37.5 37.2
29.3 32.6 32.3 30.5**


*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.
**11 months' average.


TABLE 9.-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAVY HENS*.
(Cents per pound.)

Base
Month Period 1934 1935 1936 1937
1926-29


October .............. 28.1 17.2 21.0 19.6 18.7
November .......... 26.9 17.8 21.7 19.6 20.3
December .......... 26.5 17.5 20.6 18.7
January ............ 26.6 14.3 17.5 20.0 18.7
February .......... 27.1 15.5 17.8 19.9 19.3
March ............... 27.9 16.0 18.3 19.5 18.6
April .................. 27.6 15.5 18.0 20.3 18.5
May ............... 27.0 15.8 18.0 20.8 19.0
June .................. 25.7 16.0 18.7 20.5 19.5
July ................. 24.5 15.7 18.2 20.9 16.8
August ........... 25.2 14.8 18.4 20.7 16.0
September ........ 27.0 16.6 19.3 20.2 17.5
Average ............ 26.7 16.1 18.9 20.1 18.5**


Jacksonville, Florida.


*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau,
**11 months' average.








Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE 10.-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAVY FRYERS*.
(Cents per pound.)


Month


October ..............
November ..........
December ..........
January ...........
February ........
March ................
April ..................
May ....................
June ...................
July ..................
August ..............
September ........
Average ...........


Base
Period
1926-29

33.8
34.9
36.2
38.3
39.1
41.0
42.7
39.9
37.2
32.4
30.8
32.7
36.6


1934


20.0
20.5
20.5
17.6
20.2
23.9
25.2
24.9
22.5
20.1
18.7
19.7
21.2


1936 1937


21.2 27.1
20.5 26.7
20.0
25.5 22.3
25.6 24.3
27.0 24.1
27.2 27.0
25.7 24.1
23.5 25.3
23.1 25.5
22.6 24.5
22.3 25.8
23.7 25.2**


*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.
**11 months' average.

Changes in feed prices and returns from poultry products affect ex-
pected profits and correspondingly influenced extension work bearing on
the industry. Table 11 shows the relationship of feed to poultry products
for the years 1935, 1936 and 1937. The base period is the three year
average 1926-1929.
During the first part of 1937 the feed-poultry products ratio was rela-
tively poor but as the season developed a more favorable ratio existed.
This was due primarily to a reduction in feed prices and a slightly higher
price for fryers. Both egg prices and hen prices were slightly less in 1937
than for the same period in 1936.
TABLE 11.-RELATION OF POULTRY RATION INDEX TO EGG, HEN,
FRYER INDICES.

1935


Ratio | i


Eggs to feed ...... 92 111 88 102 109 104 112 113 109 90 82 99
Hens to feed ..... .82 80 80 78 81 90 96 97 95 96 103 99
Fryers to feed .. 67 74 76 73 79 78 84 88 85 85 84 81
1936

Eggs to feed ..... 94 119 100 103 109 108 113 99 92 78 81 87
Hens to feed ..... 96 96 92 97 100 108 110 98 87 80 80 75
Fryers to feed .. 86 86 87 84 83 85 92 87 81 72 65 58
1937

Eggs to feed ..... 66 83 86 93 86 84 90 90 94 83 88
Hens to feed .... 72 74 71 71 71 80 70 72 78 82 96
Fryers to feed .. 60 64 63 67 61 72 87 92 95 99 99








Annual Report, 1937


BABY CHICK AND POULTRY MANAGEMENT
Growing healthy chicks has been presented, with emphasis upon clean
brooder houses and land, in collaboration with the State Livestock Sanitary
Board which is supervising the national poultry improvement plan in
Florida.
Recommendations from the Extension Service were followed by 1,659
families when purchasing baby chicks, 2,513 in chick rearing and 2,271
as regards sanitation. Green feeds production was adopted by 1,959
families.
Culling demonstrations held throughout the state caused 911 families
to follow improved breeding plans.

CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
Poultry records keeping began during 1925 as an Extension Service
enterprise. Record books are made available which suit poultry raisers
having small flocks and others meeting the requirements of commercial
producers. Summaries from the figures they have submitted go monthly
to the cooperators, which also contain other data and likewise are mailed
to the press. In 1937, records completed represented poultry raisers in
25 counties against 20 the year before and 16 for 1935.
TABLE 12.-FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS, SUMMARY OCTOBER 1, 1934,
TO SEPTEMBER 30, 1937.

Items 1 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37

Number of farms .............................. 37 49 43
Av. number of birds ........................ 17,410 22,132 19,987
Av. no. of birds per farm .......... 470 452 465
Av. no. eggs per bird per year '.. 163.04 180.18 168.86
Av. percent culled ............................ 49.25 41.07 45.27
Av. percent mortality .................... 20.38 17.13 17.56


Table 13 shows the number of flocks, average size of flocks, and average
number of eggs per bird for the past two years by groups. During the
1935-36 poultry year the largest size flock had the greatest egg production
per bird but the reverse was true during the 1936-37 poultry year.

TABLE 13.-FLOCKS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE.

10-250 251-500 Over 500
birds birds birds


Total number of flocks 1935-36 21 11 17
1936-37 18 10 15

Average size of flock 1935-36 110 344 943
1936-37 138 303 965

Average number of eggs 1935-36 168.71 173.96 183.31
per bird 1936-37 183.95 163.05 167.50








56 Florida Cooperative Extension

The fourteenth year of record keeping was started October 1, 1937.
A brief summary of the records analyzed for the 1935-36 year is tab-
ulated in the following table.
TABLE 14.-SUMMARY OF POULTRY BUSINESS, 60 FARMS,
OCTOBER 1, 1935-SEPTEMBER 30, 1936.
Poultry capital per farm ................... ................. $2357.00
Total receipts per farm ........................................ 3108.00
Total expenses per farm ........................................ 2295.00
Receipts less expenses .......................................... 813.00
Poultry labor income ............................................... 648.00
Poultry labor earnings ............................................. 698.00
Management factors
Eggs per bird per year ...................................... 169.5
Mortality in percent ............................................ 16.4
Culling in percent ............................................. 32.3
Pullets in flock percent ...................................... 61.0
Value of eggs over feed cost per bird .......... $ 1.99
Feed cost per bird ....................................... $ 2.05
Feed cost per dozen eggs ............ ................ $ .147
Price per dozen eggs sold .................................. $ .288
Net cost per pullet raised ................................ $ .96

JUNIOR POULTRY EFFORT
Poultry demonstrations enrolled 2,162 boys and girls. Teaching took
place at both the Boys' and the Girls' Short Courses. Instruction was given
at summer camps and other 4-H club meetings, and a state-wide show
and judging contest held during the Central Florida Exposition, Orlando.
Club poultry exhibits were judged at eight county or regional fairs.
Turkey,keeping became a major aim in several counties.

POULTRY ORGANIZATIONS
Plans for educational activities supervised by Extension poultry spe-
cialists were adopted by five county units affiliated with the Florida Poultry
Producers' Association, and they assisted in forming one new one.
Egg quality improvement, sponsored by the Florida Poultry Council,
is largely sought through county farm and home demonstration agents.
Egg candling demonstrations have been given at six group meetings.
Agricultural Extension Service cooperation also has been extended to
the State Livestock Sanitary Board in directing the national improvement
proposals.
Vaccination demonstrations in which county agents assisted handled
at least 80,000 pullets.

EGG MARKET SURVEY
Egg marketing survey, undertaken at the Florida Poultry Council's
request in the fall of 1936, had the data summarized during early 1937.
Facts had been collected in 1,150 studies with consumers, 125 affecting
retailers, 15 involving wholesale houses and 12 concerning hotels and
restaurants.
Findings indicated that consumers do not fully understand the differ-
ences in grades and quality of eggs.
Dealers, both wholesale and retail, exhibited tendencies to claim that
Tampa is a "white egg shell" market, and price differentials favored that
type.







Annual Report, 1937 57

MARKETING EGGS AND POULTRY
Marketing recommendations by Extension Service poultry specialists
had acceptance from 2,001 families.
Poultry and egg sales in which farm and home agents assisted amounted
to $516,840.89.
Cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau has been close and cordial.

FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST
Eleventh Florida National Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley ran from
October 1, 1936, to September 21, 1937. Pullets entered from 22 different
states-including nine Florida counties-comprised 92 pens, 71 light breeds
and 21 heavy.
Egg production for the 51 weeks averaged 204.2 eggs per bird, for a
203.2 value. High rank went to a Florida Single Comb White Leghorn
from Pine Breeze Farm, Callahan, on 312 eggs for 326.65 points value.
Florida hens in comparison with entries from outside the state had 8
percent lower mortality and laid 62 eggs more per hen.
Twelfth Contest started October 1, 1937, with 98 pens, coming from
23 states and Cuba.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT DIVISION
F. W. Brumley, Extension Economist'
C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist'
R. H. Howard, Assistant Extension Economist
D. Gray Miley, Assistant Extension Economist
M. M. Varn, Assistant Extension Economist'

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT
This study was begun during 1930, before which time little information
was available concerning costs as related to returns from grove opera-
tions or regarding factors affecting the success of fruit growers. It has
been enlarged with each succeeding season.
Record books prepared by the Agricultural Extension Service are dis-
tributed among growers and on August 31 each year those that have been
returned are used in computing the operating outlays and receipts from
fruit, the cooperating grove owners receiving individual summaries. In
the beginning confined to Polk, Orange, Lake and Highlands, the endeavor
now embraces all the more important citrus-raising counties.
Table 15 gives a summary of the number of citrus records by years
and counties for the seven years beginning September 1, 1930, used as
a basis for the management study:
TABLE 15.-SUMMARY OF THE NUMBER OF CITRUS RECORD ACCOUNTS, BY
COUNTIES, FROM 1930-31 TO 1937-38.


1930- 1931- 1932- 1933- 1934-
Counties 31 32 33 34 35

Lake ..................... 39 61 88 86 103
Polk ..............-- ..... 17 59 80 82 87
Orange .................. 46 42 48 44 62
Highlands .............. 12 35 44 37 37
Miscellaneous ........ 5 12 8 14 35

Total .................. 119 209 268 263 324


1935- 1936- 1937-
36 37* 38**

114 103 110
81 74 80
59 63 60
41 40 40
37 33 75

332 313 355


*Estimate, based upon number of cost records completed as of August
31, 1937. Fruit receipts will not be available until the crop of 1937-38
has been sold.
**Accounts started.

Reports containing the sixth annual summary, aggregating more than
2,000 copies, have been furnished upon request to growers, banks, business
men, credit associations, farm agents, federal officials, and libraries, the
latter in the United States, Puerto Rico, Palestine and Cuba. Fair ex-
hibits afforded another means of distribution and the data supplied material
for Florida Farm Hour talks and several agricultural magazine articles
were based thereon.
'Resigned September 17, 1937.
'Appointed October 1, 1937.
SResigned June 30. 1937.







Annual Report, 1937


COUNTY AGRICULTURAL PLANNING COUNCILS
This project has been carried on since 1935 in association with the
federal agricultural adjustment administration. Organizations have been
perfected in 44 counties and data prepared for 30, mostly in the northern
belt.
Surveys made covered 572 farms in 17 counties and soil maps were
prepared for 54. Material assembled during the investigations was dis-
tributed through meetings in 12 counties, and by mimeographed summaries.

DAIRY FARM ACCOUNTS
This new undertaking was begun at .the request of dairymen in the
Jacksonville territory. Information accurate in character concerning pro-
duction costs is needed when attempts are made at regulating milk prices.
Records numbering 30 were opened in the Jacksonville section July 1,
1937, to be closed one year later, seven dairymen already having dropped
out. Visits to. the recordkeepers so far have averaged three.
Dade County accounting started September 1, 1937, under supervision
from the assistant farm agent, with indications that about 15 sets may
be kept.
DADE COUNTY WHITE POTATO INDUSTRY
Figures obtained mostly from growers' books and packinghouse records
covered three seasons and sought to develop the more important factors
affecting production costs and sales receipts. Data for the past season
covered approximately three-fourths of the acreage.
Findings went back to cooperating growers in individual summaries
and otherwise were supplied through mimeographed circulars.
Potato growers who met with the district and farm agents numbered
some 80 and the Dade County agent directed an annual field day just
prior to harvesting.

FARM MANAGEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS.
Work was started among 23 Jackson County farmers during February
in cooperation with the Federal Farm Credit Administration, 10 of them
Land Bank borrowers and the remainder selected by the local farm agent.
Purposes inspiring the effort have a broad scope but the late beginning
confined the year's attainments principally to persuading each cooperator
that he should keep records of his farming operations.

POULTRY ACCOUNT SUMMARIES
In collaboration with the Extension Poultryman 60 record books were
summarized of 250 distributed among poultrymen during 1935. Books thus
utilized cover receipts, expenses, egg production and bird mortality. Poul-
trymen use them who keep Calendar Flock Records.
Cooperating poultrymen received assistance in closing their books and
were furnished a year's summary, showing outlay, profits if any, and the
strong and the weak points in their methods.

RECORDS EXHIBITED AT FAIRS, ETC.
Citrus groves cost record exhibitions at four fairs the Agricultural
Extension Service made at the request of the managements, concurred in
by county agricultural agents. Statistical summaries approximating 500
distributed on these occasions were to growers and others requesting them.
A display also was shown at the Golden Jubilee Convention of the State
Horticultural Society in Ocala, April 13, 14 and 15.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 4.-Picture of exhibit, based on the citrus costs and returns study,
made at the Golden Anniversary meeting in Ocala of the State Horticul-
tural Society, April 12, 1937.

TEACHING AT 4-H CLUB CAMPS
Farm management was taught in two boys' 4-H club camps over a
four weeks period.
Boys divided into three groups heard these subjects discussed for 30
minutes on each of four days.

WATERMELON MARKETING AGREEMENT
District and county meetings held under Extension Service supervision
selected control committee members to assist in administering the federal
watermelon marketing agreement for the Southeast. Attendance of grow-
ers exceeded 200.

CONFERENCES WITH CUBAN VEGETABLE GROWERS
Committees comprising Florida and Cuba truck crop producers sought
to work out their differences under the reciprocal trade agreement, that
recommendations for revisions might be made to the two governments.
Assistance was extended by the Agricultural Extension Service in
assigning an assistant economist for one week, to assemble information.

ECONOMIC INFORMATION AND OUTLOOK REPORTS
Florida farm outlook report in an edition of about 3,000 was distrib-
uted among farmers and agricultural workers.
Meetings to present the facts had approximately 3,000 farmers in
attendance.
FARM ACCOUNT BOOKS
Farm account books from the federal agricultural adjustment admin-
istration were supplied to county agents and individuals upon request.







Annual Report, 1937


MARKETING FARM PRODUCTS
D. E. Timmons, Extension Economist in Marketing

Federal marketing agreement negotiations and execution occupied the
principal portion of the Agricultural Extension Service activities under
this head.
CITRUS AGREEMENTS FOR FLORIDA
Meetings were attended which related to the citrus pact for Florida
and advices concerning them mailed periodically to county farm agents,
vocational agriculture teachers and some growers. Summaries broadcast
monthly went out through the Florida Farm Hour.
Surveys undertaken early in May on request of numerous growers and
shippers, sought to determine the sentiment held by fruit producers re-
garding a modified agreement which would serve as a substitute for that
which federal courts had declared invalid.
Conferences also were taken part in between shippers, canners and
federal agency officials looking to further purchases of surplus grapefruit
for relief distribution. Statistics prepared in the Agricultural Extension
Service indicated higher prices through that source than when low-grade
fruit was sold on auction or bought by canners.
Analyses also were made showing Florida orange and grapefruit sea-
sonal shipments, distribution and prices for the 1936-37 crop, trends in
production and prices, for both the state and the country-at-large.
Information procured from the Florida Canners' Association developed
that higher figures have been paid for fruit recently than during earlier
periods in comparison with auction prices.

CELERY, POTATO AND WATERMELON PACTS
Cooperation from the Extension Service was extended in the endeavors
of celery growers and shippers which led the Agricultural Adjustment
Administration to place a marketing agreement before them in a referen-
dum. Details thereof mostly were handled by the Extension workers.
Approval received by the pact caused it to be placed in effect.
Meetings held in Hardee, Hillsborough, Dade, DeSoto and Palm Beach
counties by an Extension Service specialist, with cooperation from the
Agricultural Adjustment Administration, explained the purposes of a ref-
erendum concerning whether potatoes should become a basic agricultural
commodity.
In operation for the past three years, the watermelon agreement is a
continuing one, which many Florida growers bitterly oppose. Extension
Service cooperation was given the federal authorities when control com-
mitteemen were elected and in broadcasting shipping holiday dates during
the Florida Farm Hour.

COOPERATIVE MARKETING AND ALLIED EFFORT
Attendance on sessions of the Florida Citrus Commission and Florida
Citrus Exchange board of directors supplemented discussions devoted to
cooperative marketing with numerous groups.
Dairymen were conferred with in Palm Beach County, and also Dade
lime and avocado growers, DeSoto livestock raisers, northwestern Florida
seed dealers and the truck crop producers of Charlotte and Palm Beach.
Organizations have been formed among Charlotte County vegetable pro,
ducers and Dade lime and avocado growers.







62 Florida Cooperative Extension

Production credit association secretaries received visits at frequent
intervals and a trip to Washington brought the Extension Service market-
ing economist in direct touch with Farm Credit Administration officials.
Studies in motor truck transportation that have been carried on since
1931 were presented in summarized shape at the Association of Southern
Agricultural Workers convention, Nashville, February 3-5.
Committees seeking additional tobacco marketing facilities, especially
in the flue-cured belt, received acreage and production figures from the
Extension Service, which also furnished statistics regarding a compulsory
marketing federal act's operations.
Farmers' State Wholesale Markets opening festivities were attended
in most cases and suggestions given toa numerous applicants for additional
or improved facilities at other points.
State Milk Control Board price adjustment hearings were attended.
Cooperation was extended to the Extension Poultrymen on the Tampa
Egg Market survey.
Conferences held by the State Agricultural Conservation agency re-
peatedly were attended.







Annual Report, 1937


PART III-WOMEN'S AND


GIRLS' WORK

HOME DEMONSTRATION ACTIVITIES
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent, Northern and Western Florida
Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent, Central and Southern Florida
Ethyl Holloway, District Agent, Eastern Florida
In the quarter century ended with 1937, Florida home demonstration
activities had enrolled 101,459 women and 149,159 girls. Plans of work
that have come to be regarded as fundamental underwent changes during
the 12 months only in better understandings that they may deal with both
immediate and long-time needs and as regards unification of the specialized
features.
State Office staff members remained the same, namely, one state agent,
three district agents and specialists in food conservation and gardening,
nutrition, home improvement, and textiles and clothing. Service of a
district agent in eastern Florida commenced on October 1, the duties pre-
viously having been carried by the State Agent.
Seven new county agents also began work, and the initial supervision
of their endeavors required that district agents and specialists should
spend considerable time with them. Agricultural Extension Service head-
quarters personnel and Experiment Station staff members cooperated to
the desired end.
District agents have been assigned specific duties additional to the
supervisory endeavors which constitute their primary responsibilities. Co-
operation with the editorial offices concerning news coverage, reports
checking, for instance, has been placed with the eastern Florida district
agent. Camp plans, contests, records, and like activities were given to
other staff members.

COUNTY PERSONNEL AND PLANS
Appropriations for home demonstration purposes made by the boards
of commissioners were maintained in the counties as heretofore except
St. Lucie, where all available funds went to payments on the bonded in-
debtedness. Columbia County made an appropriation for establishing the
work, which began October 1.
Agents appointed to replace others transferred or resigned were in
Calhoun, Dade, Leon, Marion, Pinellas, Seminole and Suwannee counties.
District agents assisted to keep going some home demonstration effort
in counties not having agents.
Florida home demonstration staff members attended the American
Dietetic and Home Economics Association annual meetings, 4-H Club
National Camp and also Congress, Land Grant Colleges and Universities
convention, National Honey Institute and likewise the Outlook Conference
for the nation. Six county home agents went to summer schools where
they registered for advanced work.







64 Florida Cooperative Extension

State and district conferences held during the year numbered nine. In
the three-day subject matter meeting, the agents selected poultry, meat
cookery and preservation, gardening and farmstead beautification for spe-
cial instruction topics. University of Florida faculty members, State
Agricultural Experiment Station workers and Extension Service specialists
conducted the courses.
Home demonstration agents had planned their 1937 undertakings in
time for the annual conference occurring during late 1936. Goals im-
mediately in sight previously had been determined at county council meet-
ings. District meetings held early in 1937 by the Extension Service pre-
sented the new agricultural adjustment plans and outlook information.
Home demonstration agents in turn passed on the available facts to local
leaders or committeewomen. Results therefrom included use of outlook
material in 1,189 homes as a basis for readjusting farm and home garden-
ing enterprises.
A study made in the fall of 1936 of travel schedules and amount of
specialists' time spent in the different counties indicated that the time was
not distributed equably. It was found that time spent varied from 13 days
specialist assistance to one county down to no time at all given by any
specialist in one county. Plans were developed for systematizing the
travel of specialists and this year's records show that the maximum amount
of total time given by all specialists to any county was 11 days, the mini-
mum two days. Every county received help from at least three staff
members.
Travel expense has not decreased materially under this plan and prob-
ably will not be lessened because of the peculiar geographic shape of Flor-
ida and the belief that for effective service and development of a state-
wide program, each specialist should work in each area of the state. One
satisfactory result already noted is the better understanding the specialists
themselves of general long-time home demonstration programs in county
and state.
DEMONSTRATIONS REMAIN DOMINANT
Farm and home result demonstrations remain the keystone in the arch
of the activities. Contests for both women and girls are utilized to en-
courage achievements and measure accomplishments. In that designated
the Three-Jar Can-for-Quality competition, three counties had more than
250 women entries. State-wide, county or community contests also were
conducted in baking, canning, clothing, club work generally, food prepara-
tion and poultry, plus selection of two outstanding girls to represent
Florida at the National 4-H Club Camp. Five girls making the highest
scores in all the state contests, which closed with the Annual Short Course,
went on an honor roll with the privilege of working through the summer
to achieve state-wide honors.
County reports combined gave a state total of 21,993 families influenced
by home demonstration and 17,905 women and girls definitely enrolled in
demonstrations on which they kept records. Agents in the organized
counties reported 58,325 farms, with 11,374 homes thereon, reached by
their endeavors, or approximately 20 percent. District agents and spe-
cialists assisted with 223 county or community meetings, attended by
18,176 people.







Annual Report, 1937


CAMPS AND SHORT COURSES, ETC.
State staff members devoted 56 days to 30 camps for girls and 11
made up of women, the combined attendance totaling 4,019.
Short Course for 1937 marked the 25th anniversary. First among these
events, held during 1912, had nine tomato club girls present. Attendance
this year was limited to 437, representing 37 counties.
In celebrating the Jubilee Short Course, one former club girl from
each county was invited as a guest. Three of those who responded were
mothers of 4-H club daughters who had earned the right to attend. Music
was directed by a previous club member now studying under Madame
Louise Homer. Four others present are now county home demonstra-
tion agents. State College for Women students who belong to its 4-H club
numbered 39 who earlier had held membership in county or community
groups.

























Fig. 5.-The 1937 Short Course for 4-H Club Girls was the Silver Jubilee
event of its kind. All 25 annual affairs of this group have been held at
the State College for Women.

Sessions of the Woman's Institute held for the third year at the State
College were jointly directed by the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs,
Home Demonstration Council and Parent-Teachers' Association. Registra-
tion of 160 included 119 home demonstration club members. Assistance
also was rendered in the three Farm and Home Institutes.
Five training schools in recreation leadership represented four counties.
Statistics compiled showed that 183 communities in 25 counties had de-
veloped recreation plans, 31 community houses or rooms for the purpose
were established and 124 pageants or plays presented while 1,480 families
developed their own systems.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Tours to result demonstrations decreased slightly in number but more
persons participated, 296 for adults and girls enlisting 6,233. Meetings
held by local leaders or committeemen without aid from agents aggregated
2,284 and 28,217 persons came to them.
Specialists and district agents gave 245 demonstrations to educate
both county workers and club members. One hundred two achievement
exhibits were held, with attendance totalling 100,888. Local agents staged
7,600 method demonstrations. Recommendations from the staff members
also served as the basis for 1,628 result demonstrations, with an attendance
of 15,565. This illustrates that local people are assuming responsibility
for extending the benefits of the program.
Home demonstration results received publicity in sundry ways, includ-
ing 70 radio talks delivered by county workers. In addition to numerous
mimeographed articles, material was prepared for one printed bulletin
and two circulars. Distribution of the material available in these forms,
new and old, made by county home demonstration agents, amounts to
51,324 copies.

UNDERTAKINGS ALONG PRODUCTIVE LINES
Home gardens were grown by more than half the women and girls
enrolled, the grand total having been 8,976. Appraised at an average value
of $20, these would be worth $179,520. Calendar orchards started ran to
427, with 18,306 fruit trees and 96,785 berry plants.
Poultry ranked next to gardens and orchards, home demonstration club
members having raised flocks containing 137,204 birds, of which 74,235
were purebred. Fowls and eggs sold brought $84,805.55 and the quan-
tities used at home, at market prices, represented $72,028.24 in value.
Dairy product cash sales aggregated $52,855.18, butter worth $13,135.14
was used at home and 2,229 families reported consuming a quart of milk
per day for each child and a pint per adult.
Materials for canning proved in much lesser supply than usual, yet
more than a million quarts of fruits and vegetables were processed, which
at 15 cents each added fully $170,000 to the state's farm income. Meats
and fish canned totaled 125,000 quarts and 200 tons of the first-named were
cured. Valuing the product in cans at only 40 cents a quart and giving
the other a 25 cents per pound rating, this item aggregates over $150,000.
Food budgets were planned and lived according to by 1,471 families
who reported, 1,762 produced at home adequate food supplies and 2,013
followed improved methods in buying.
Girls and women in 29 counties received help from home demonstra-
tion agents on clothing construction. Families who sought recommenda-
tions numbered 1,846. Cash savings of $58,500 were indicated as the
results from the two endeavors.
Cash sales of home industries concerning which the county agents re-
ceived advices reached $205,138.81, $42,319 going to approximately 3,954
Negro women and girls.







Annual Report, 1937


DEFINITE ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN PROJECT ACTIVITIES


General
Projects


Family Food
Supply
(See report of
Nutrition
Specialist
and Food
Conservation
Specialist)


























Clothing and
Textile Supply
for Family

(See report of
Specialist in
Textiles and
Clothing)


Specific Phases
of Work


Gardening



Calendar Orchards

Dairying

Poultry









Food Conservation-
Canning






Food Preparation-
Feeding the
Family






Wardrobe
Demonstration
for Women

Well Dressed 4-H
Club Girl

Household Textiles


i -





Important Results Accomplished


Gardens grown in 552 communities.
3,982 women enrolled in 37 counties.
4,994 girls enrolled.
Garden products sold for $23,351.32.

427 calendar orchards started.
18,306 fruit trees planted.

4,174 family milk cows owned.
86,382 pounds butter produced.

1,317 girls and 1,534 women en-
rolled.
74,235 standard bred chickens
owned.
137,204 chickens raised.
602 keeping calendar flock records.
82,479.65 spent for poultry equip-
ment.
4 marketing associations formed.
11/ million dozen eggs marketed.

8,192 women and girls enrolled in
37 counties.
1,589,483 quarts fruits and vege-
tables conserved by women and
girls.
124,137 quarts meat and fish
canned.
$8,693.20 canned products sold.

7,799 women and girls conducted
nutrition demonstrations in 554
communities.
48,238 dishes prepared and 14,130
meals planned by 4-H club mem-
bers.
1,026 families budgeted food ex-
penditures.
3aked products sold for $1,015.73.

10,167 women and girls in 38 coun-
ties conducted demonstrations.
15,300 women and girls followed
recommendations in construction
and selection of clothing.
971 women and girls budgeted
clothing expenditures.
Total savings of $58,501.49 due to
clothing program reported in 36
counties.
368 families adopted laundering
methods.







68 Florida Cooperative Extension

DEFINITE ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN PROJECT ACTIVITIES
(Continued)


General
Projects

House and Its
Surroundings
(See report of
Specialist in
Home
Improvement)


Specific Phases
of Work

Home Engineering









Home Sanitation








Home Management










Beautification of
Home Grounds


House Furnishings


Important Results Accomplished


551 families assisted with house-
hold planning problems.
318 dwellings built or remodeled.
153 water systems installed.
249 lighting systems installed.
1,817 home appliances bought in
25 counties.
439 farms constructed or remodeled
buildings other than dwellings.
26 sunshine heaters installed.
37 heating systems.
36 counties report work conducted
in 472 communities of the state.
368 sanitary toilets installed.
820 houses screened.
896 homes followed recommenda-
tions in control of flies, mosqui-
toes, etc.
6,567 individuals improved health
as result of sanitation program.
3,199 women and girls in 33 coun-
ties conducted demonstrations.
705 kitchens rearranged for con-
. venience.
1, 663 families bought labor saving
equipment.
968 families made home-made con-
veniences.
2,343 families practiced every-day
good housekeeping.
$13,771.00 worth labor-saving de-
vices purchased.
4,183 women and girls conducted
demonstrations in 427 communi-
ties in state.
1,005 homes improved lawns.
1,775 homes planted shrubbery and
trees.
890 improved exterior of houses
and outbuildings.
1,213 people other than club mem-
bers improved exterior of homes.
2,149 individuals improved selection
of furnishings.
1,748 repaired furniture.
1,800 improved appearance of win-
dows.
11,919 curtains, spreads, quilts and
luncheon sets made.








Annual Report, 1937


DEFINITE ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN PROJECT ACTIVITIES
(Continued)


General
Projects


Family and
Community
Activities
















Standardization
and Marketing of
Florida Products


Specific Phases
of Work


Thrift








Recreation









Permanent
Community
Improvements






Home Industries

Crafts and
Rural Arts


Important Results Accomplished


5,279 yards mill ends and sacks
used in house furnishings.
592 barrel chairs and pieces box
furniture made.
1,606 rugs made in the homes.
673 mattresses made and 784 reno-
vated.
Value of rugs and other articles
sold, $6,702.80.

183 communities developed recrea-
tion program.
1,480 families followed a home
recreation program.
50 community pageants or plays
presented.
51 training meetings held for com-
munity leaders.
$2,088.16 raised from entertain-
ments.

26 community houses for juniors
and 15 for adults were estab-
lished.
29 improved school or community
grounds.
43 assisted in establishing libraries
for which 959 books were bought
and 522 subscriptions to maga-
zines taken.

1,076 individuals from 20 counties
assisted with marketing prob-
lems.
384 club members standardized
products for market.
Value of all' products marketed-
Fresh Fruits and
Vegetables .................$ 23,351.32
Poultry ....................... 36,253.01
Eggs ......................... ...... 48,552.54
M ilk .................................. 34,049.58
Butter .............................. 5,200.20
Cottage cheese ................ 43.80
Other articles,
(thrift, etc.) .............. 14,369.36

Total .....................$161,819.81







Florida Cooperative Extension


RELATIONS WITH OFFICIAL AGENCIES
Assistance was rendered by the home demonstration agents to the
National Youth Administration in 504 Florida communities.
Rural resettlement and rehabilitation agencies of the federal govern-
ment, lately combined under the Farm Security Administration, have
maintained close contacts with the state and county home demonstration
offices. In the organization as directed from Washington are included
nine county workers formerly holding places of responsibility in the state
groups.


Fig. 6.-Programs of home demonstration work are planned by the
people themselves, with advice and direction from the agent. Councils
of home demonstration work for both girls and women are organized in
nearly every county. This picture shows the presidents of the councils
of both women and girls working with the agent on plans for the year.

A Farm Credit Administration representative discussed family finances
and related features with county home demonstration agents during the
annual conference. Soil conservation subsidies received explanation before
nearly all the 317 local clubs and at the State Council of Home Demon-
stration Women, representing 28 counties.

GIRLS' 4-H CLUB ENDEAVORS
Enrollment of Florida girls in junior home demonstration activities,
according to phases, was as follows: Home gardens, 4,977 girls from 38
counties; market gardens, 131 girls, six counties; home beautification,
2,193 girls, 30 counties; tree fruits, 618 girls, 16 counties; bush and small
fruits, 503 girls, 13 counties; grapes, 33 girls, five counties; poultry, 1,311
girls, 37 counties; bees, 21 girls, six counties; dairy cattle, 172 girls, 14
counties; food selection, 4,360 girls, 37 counties; food preservation, 3,295
girls, 37 counties; clothing, 8,367 girls, 38 counties; home management,








Annual Report, 1937 71

1,875 girls, 25 counties; house furnishings, 2,097 girls, 31 counties; handi-
craft, 783 girls, 15 counties; home health and sanitation, 2,934 girls, 22
counties.
This gives a grand total enrollment in all girls' projects of 33,670, and
means that each girl engaged in 4-H club work conducted an average of
at least three projects. In 1937, 526 clubs enrolled 10,374 girls, only 217
of whom were out of school. The year's work on at least three phases
was completed by 70% of those enrolled.

HOME DEMONSTRATION AMONG NEGROES
Improved planning and better results are reflected in the Negro home
demonstration agents' report, reciting achievements by the eight workers
employed. State staff personnel gave increased attention to supervision
in this field.
Negro work is financed entirely by the United States treasury or from
state funds, except in two counties which make small supplementary ap-
propriations.
Summer courses at Tuskegee Institute or elsewhere were attended by
three Negro agents.
Leon, Hillsborough and Gadsden counties are developing permanent
community houses as centers of Negro home demonstration undertakings.







Florida Cooperative Extension


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
In Florida as well as elsewhere, sound economics of farming demand
that a high percentage of the family living be produced at home. Hence,
an adequate productive program is essential. To this program the all-
year garden, calendar orchard, poultry, dairy and the well canned, budgeted
pantry should make generous and important contributions.
The promotion of all-year gardens, permanent and varied fruit plant-
ings adapted to the particular localities, their cultivation, the preparation
and utilization of the surplus products according to the latest knowledge of
canning technology that the family have a balanced and healthful food
supply regardless of adverse weather conditions, composes a large part
of the program in food conservation. In addition, the income obtained
through lowering cash expenditures for food and by the sale of surplus
fruits and vegetables, both fresh and canned, is an item of increasing
importance and promotes thrift and economy in the home.
Also the improvement and beautification of the farm home through
these increased plantings, of not only the "economic ornamentals" but also
of native shrubs and flowers particularly the "county" flower, tends to
develop a greater appreciation of the esthetic, economic and nutritional
value of Florida's interesting fruits and vegetables and the part they play
in making a finer farm life.
Records on gardening submitted by home demonstration club members
revealed that over half the girls and women enrolled managed home gardens
-or a total of 9,876 gardens.
Needs existing for activity in the field became strikingly illustrated
when local surveys were made covering one of the older counties, where
farming is well diversified, showing that vegetable production was only
60 percent and fruit output but 25 percent as related to the foodstuffs
required by the rural population. Gardens and common fruits were found
on less than 40 percent of the farms.

CALENDAR ORCHARDS AND GARDENS
Records from many sections of the state show how the improvement
and beautification of the farm home goes increasingly forward through
the planting of "economic ornamentals", native shrubs and flowers, particu-
larly the county flower. Home agents report assisting with plans for
yards, rearranging plantings for more pleasing effects, supervising plant-
ings of trees, shrubs and flowers both from the woods and from nurseries.
In many instances fences were moved to make more room for lawns,
shrubbery and fruit trees.
Fruit trees have been used for shade and landscape effect whenever
possible. One county reports:
"Pears were planted along driveways and in groups about the
corners of the yard. Blueberry bushes were planted for hedges
along the fence. Satsumas, kumquats, plums, figs and peaches
were planted for landscape value as well as for fruit. Better
fences, gates and trellises for vines were built as a part of the
plan. Interest in flower growing has increased each year
with splendid exhibits at the flower shows and county fairs."
Beautification continues to extend its influence from the home to the
church to the club and school grounds. Calendar orchards planted total







Annual Report, 1937 73

427. Of the plantings made, 18,306 were fruit trees, 96,785 were berries
and 5,632 were grape vines. Two hundred fifty-nine homes sold fresh
fruits having a cash valuation of $6,783.77.

FOOD CONSERVATION
Reports for 1937 indicate that budgeting the canned food needs of the
farm family and canning the budget in addition to a surplus in many cases
for marketing and barter, is a project of great satisfaction and of progress.
However, it is still necessary to urge many housewives to make out a
budget of the food needs of their families for the year, the fresh vege-
tables they will require, the canned and preserved fruits and vegetables
that will be necessary to keep the family health up to par. It will prob-
ably be some time before the well rounded, well budgeted and canned
pantry becomes common in all counties, but eventually budgeting of the
canned food supply, the entire planned food supply, will lead to the bud-
geting of the family income which will make for better family living.
Homes reporting canning according to the needs of a family food budget
number 223.
The following table summarizes results in food conservation for the
year 1937.
Number of homes canning according to needs of a family
food budget ................................................................................ 2,231
Number of quarts of:
Fruit canned ....................................................................... 247,707
Vegetables canned .......... ... ....... .................. ........ ...... 782,693
Pickles m ade ........................................................... .................... 56,535
Relishes made ........... .................- ........... ......................... ... 36,268
Marmalades made ....... ................................................................ 42,200
Preserves m ade ...................... ............. ..................................... 56,734
Jellies m ade .............. .... ............................ ...................... 62,147
Number of gallons of vinegar made ................................................ 1,693%
Number of gallons of fruit juices canned ............................................ 10,184%
Number of quarts of meats canned:
Pork ............. ............ .............. ......................................... 53,820
Beef ...- .. ............................ ............. ........... 58,143
G am e ........... ............................................................................ 328
Fish .-... ..... .......... ......................... ................... 3,282
P poultry ......................................................................................... 8,564
Number of families that cured meats .................................................... 2,426
Pounds cured ....... .. ............................................. .......... 334,071
Number of families that made sausage ............................................ 2,250
Pounds m ade ........ .......................................................................... 66,071
Number of families that made lard ............................................ 2,419
Pounds m ade ........ ................................................................. 140,008
Number of families that made soap ...................................................... 889
Pounds m ade ........- ... ---...................... ........ ............................... 18,114
With the weather subjecting Florida to another cold wave this Decem-
ber, spreading a blanket of desolation over all garden crops, the well filled
pantry has been a double satisfaction to the fortunate owners.
Successful preservation of the surplus foods to be found on and about
the farm home is important, but it is equally important to know how best
to utilize those foods after they are canned. Careful menu planning is
essential in order to have healthful, palatable, and well balanced meals
at low cost. A supply of a large variety of canned foods, in combination
with fresh fruits, vegetables, poultry and dairy products on the farm,
offers endless opportunities for new and interesting meals. In addition,
these out-of-season foods carry with them an atmosphere of luxury in







74 Florida Cooperative Extension

which the farm family can well take pride since they were canned when
the products were in season.

THE FARM MEAT SUPPLY
Every thrifty farm family now recognizes that canning meat at home
plays an important part in efficient farm management. Meats, when pur-
chased on the market, tend to be the most expensive items in the list of
dietary essentials, and for that reason often only people with generous
income can enjoy them. But the farmer who produces and conserves his
own meat supply on his own farm can provide finer foods for his family
and in larger quantities than his income might allow him to purchase.
Demonstrations in better methods of butchering, curing and canning
meats, beef, pork, veal, kid and similar products go hand in hand with
the program of production of better finish. The more universal use of
the steam pressure cooker has already played a big part in eliminating
waste and spoilage and contributing to the needed variety of meats for
the farm family table.
Reports for the current year indicate that women of 33 counties canned
124,137 quarts of meats. This meat valued at the very low price of 40
cents per quart reaches a total of $49,654.80. In 31 counties women cured
400,142 pounds of meat. In addition, 140,008 pounds of lard were rendered
and 18,114 pounds of soap made from the by-products.

MARKETING AND EXHIBITS
Fancy packages of honey, citrus marmalades, preserves and candies,
guava jellies and now canned guavas, and many other interesting products
such as only Florida can supply, meet with ready sale from both the home
trade and the tourists.
The following record of sales at a roadside market owned and operated
in one county by a home demonstration woman represents an average
for the state, whether in larger or smaller amounts.
50 gallons guava juice @ .75 ......................................$ 37.50
48 quarts guavas @ .50 ............................................ 24.00
24 quarts guava jelly @ .75 ...................................... 18.00
24 quarts orange marmalade ) .75 ......................... 18.00
24 pints guava jelly @ .40 .......................................... 9.60
24 pints orange marmalade @ .40 ........................... 9.60
2,300 2% ounce jars assorted marmalade @ .10 .... 230.00
1,200 8 ounce jars assorted marmalades and
jellies @ .25 ........................................... 300.00
600 16 ounce jars assorted marmalades and
jellies @ 3 for $1.00 ............................................ 200.00
Total .......... ..... ................. .........$846.70
The utilization of native materials, sub-tropical foliage, grasses, fruit
and berries in wreath making is also assuming worthwhile proportions.
Two counties state that Christmas wreaths have brought the largest in-
come of any of the home industries and that wreaths of native material
are shipped into many Northern and mid-Western states in season. Two
hundred thirty-eight individuals are reported as making specific plantings
for use in Christmas wreaths.
Flower shows and fair exhibits afford county home demonstration
agents opportunity for demonstrating the values of gardening and food
conservation. Citrus displays shown at the Florida Orange Festival,







Annual Report, 1937


Winter Haven, for the fourth successive year enlisting cooperation from
17 agents.
Honey received enlarged attention and recipes calling for its use were
distributed at the Florida Orange Festival, Winter Haven, and Central
Florida Exposition, Orlando, while the Florida Fair, Tampa, made plans
for featuring honey-made baked goods.

GIRLS' 4-H CLUB PROGRESS
Enrolled in gardening were 4,994 girls, with 3,397 completions recorded.
Girls' canning enrollment reached 3,397, and reports showed 73,085
quarts of fruits, vegetables and meats canned, also 23,867 containers filled
with jellies and preserves. Canning contests as carried on in previous
years were repeated without change, and terminated by the required ex-
hibits and records at the State Short Course held annually during June.
Winner of the trip to the National 4-H Club Congress, Almena Rogers,
had to her credit at the age of 15, the completion of 25 projects; six in
gardening, five in canning, six in poultry, six in clothing and two in food
preparation. During her five years of club work she has canned 3,453
quarts of berries, tomatoes, pears, peaches, soup mixture, peas, beans,
meats, relishes and marmalades. During the same time she has won
$24.32 on work exhibited and has a total sales return on her projects of
$1,251.57. In addition, this current summer, Almena canned 14 cases of
vegetable products and sold them for $64.01.








Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist

The food, nutrition and health work for 1937 emphasized the importance
of planning, producing, conserving and utilizing the family food supply
necessary to meet nutritional needs. This program was developed from
factual information collected over a period of years and based on the
outlook for farm family living adapted to meet the needs of Florida farm
families. To develop a unified program for better family living the nutri-
tionist worked in close cooperation with extension specialists, county and
home demonstration agents, individuals, and other agencies. Through
such cooperative planning it has been possible to furnish interested farm
people with reliable information and assist them in recognizing their own
problems and thus help them to develop a program through their own
efforts which met their individual and family needs and conditions.
In developing the food, nutrition and health program in Florida it was
necessary to consider the several types of farming areas because the same
conditions that determine the types of farming areas influence the farm
tenure, income, food supply, food habits and customs, standards of living,
and ways of thinking.
Taking into consideration types of farming areas, income levels, dietary
habits, climatic and soil factors that affect production and storage of food,
modified diets for the food supply to fit various conditions were planned
(1) for farm families with very small cash income and little opportunities
for producing the food supply, (2) for large trucking areas where it is
possible to have large gardens and a good supply of fruit, but little possi-
bility for livestock or poultry for food purposes; (3) for sections as on the
coast, in flatwoods or grazing areas where much of the soil is sandy or
sub-marginal; and (4) for families who have considerable capital and good
possibilities for food production.
By analyzing the agricultural situation and the food and health needs
of individuals and families in various areas, and by means of program
planning meetings with district, county and community agricultural plan-
ning councils, county councils, home demonstration and 4-H club groups,
and individual members, the following goal was determined: That every
farm family benefit itself and others by considering: (1) What the farm
family should eat to maintain high standards of nutrition and health;
(2) how the farm family could obtain this food supply, involving both
production and buying; (3) planning the food supply from an economic
standpoint, including what foods to use, buy or sell; (4) how foods may
be kept for future use, including preserving, processing and storage under
characteristic temperatures and humidity conditions of the area; (5) how
food should be prepared for the family, including standards of meal plan-
ning, preparation or cookery, and use of a variety of foods.
To realize this goal the food, nutrition and health program was divided
into two phases, for adults and juniors. The "Feeding the Family Program"
for adults included three demonstrations each establishing a background
for the next, thus resulting in a long-time food supply program. These
were: (1) Essentials for good nutrition; (2) meal planning and food
preparation; (3) planning, providing and utilizing the family food supply.
The purpose of the junior or "Healthy Living" program is to develop an
understanding of and a desire for positive health, through the recognition
of the contribution made by proper food selection and preparation to normal
growth and development; to stimulate an interest in school lunches and
to create a feeling of responsibility towards receiving adequate sanitary







Annual Report, 1937


and economical food supply for family and community through home pro-
duction and home consumption. This program was divided into the fol-
lowing four long-time demonstrations: (1) Health improvement; (2) food
preparation and meal planning; (3) baking and judging baked products;
(4) the young homemaker.


Fig. 7.-Bread baking, being demonstrated by the 4-H club girls shown
above, is an important part of the food, nutrition and health program
throughout the state.

DETAILS OF THE YEAR'S EFFORT
In 12 counties the situation received intensive handling, through train-
ing of agents and volunteer local leaders, with special assistance for
demonstrations. Expansion of the activities took place in eight counties
where the endeavor the year before had been along like lines. Survey
of 10 counties were made in planning intensive effort for next year.
Home demonstration club members reported adoption of improved food
preparation practices as follows: baking, 1,583 women in 34 counties;
balanced meals, 5,672 families in 38 counties; dairy products, 935 women
in 27 counties; meat cookery, 1,414 in 30; poultry, 949 in 27; vegetables,
1,736 in 29; school lunches, home-packed, 2,118 families in 32 counties; hot
dish, 89 schools in 16.
Child feeding recommendations 1,351 families followed in 31 counties;
corrective foods utilization, 2,124 individuals in 29; food budget suggestions
1,026 families in 26 counties; foodstuffs buying, 2,013 in 27; foods storage,
1,052 in 35; food supplies readjustment, 2,572 in 31; health habits, 3,116
individuals in 27 counties; home nursing methods, 626 in 21; preventive
means for preserving health, 2,273 in 27; posture improvement, 3,625 in 29.
Junior phases consisted of enrolling 4,386 girls 4-H club members in
37 counties, two units of projects having been completed by them in 35.
Food products prepared aggregated 48,238 dishes, 14,130 meals were








Florida Cooperative Extension


planned and served and 572 girls from 37 counties attended method
demonstrations in healthful living at the State Short Course held annually.

"LIVE-AT-HOME" STILL GOOD POLICY
County surveys and analyses, covering food supplies for families, live-
stock feeds and farm output that may be turned into cash, which continued
to be made, showed conclusively the now well established "live-at-home"
plans originally outlined as a Florida Agricultural Extension Service policy
should be maintained, in practice providing rural families with nutrition
and health.
Discussions at the agents' annual conference, relating to methods, prob-
lems and solutions, were followed by illustrated talks from home demon-
stration agents telling how they obtained and measured results. Produc-
tion and conservation of the year's food supply, taking into account nutri-
tional requirement, received major consideration. Meats were accorded
a high place in planning the three-day training school which immediately
preceded the conference.

COOPERATION WITH NUMEROUS AGENCIES
Information and materials were exchanged with the State Agriculture
and Education departments. Home economics and vocational agriculture
teachers used data from the food, nutrition and health specialist for ref-
erence purposes, as did the Florida State College for Women in teacher
training classes.
Health units, state and county, gave assistance through lectures in
communities during health contests, making physical examinations and
furnishing recommendations for corrective measures. Nurses at camps
also were supplied, who not only cared for the health of those present
but gave instruction regarding proper practices and home care for the
sick. Statistical data were forthcoming from the State Board of Health.
Cooperation with Parent-Teachers' Association endeavor principally took
the form of assistance in summer round-up clinics for pre-school children.
Service was rendered by the Extension Nutritionist as news-gatherer and
program committee head, State Home Economies Association, and com-
munity health chairman, Florida branch, American Dietetics Association.
Arrangements with the National Youth Administration made college
girls available for clerical work. Preparation of illustrative material,
including charts, graphs, maps and posters, was a helpful outcome, for
use in developing demonstrations.
United States Agriculture Department bulletins and mimeographed cir-
culars have aided in developing plans, especially home economics bureau
charts and posters. American Child Health and Dental Associations and
Dairy Council literature also has been used.

REVIEW OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Food, nutrition and health activities have been reported from 64 percent
of the counties employing home demonstration agents. Buying wisely was
the major effort in 13 percent, health and nutrition needs chiefly engaged
15 percent, while foods selection with meals planning and preparation
principally occupied 21 percent.
In 46 percent of 29 counties the adult goals were exceeded, 42 percent
having fallen below the standards and 12 percent meeting these. Junior
workers went above the expectations in 31 percent of the 29 counties,
reached these for 25 percent while 44 percent failed fully to achieve them.







Annual Report, 1937 79

Feeding the family and healthful living practices received attention in
all the reporting counties and not less than 39 percent of the families kept
records. Work was under way on at least two food supply phases and 54
percent of the persons with whom contacts were made showed improve-
ment, home-makers utilizing a plan aggregating 75 percent.
Food, nutrition and health endeavors which 4-H club girls enrolled in
were completed by 77 percent. Counties having home demonstration agents
entered one girl in each of the four demonstrations under this head con-
ducted at the Short Course for the year.
Exhibits educational in nature, at fairs and elsewhere, and tours on
which achievements were observed proved efficient means for stimulating
increased interest. Charts, graphs and posters also proved helpful.







Florida Cooperative Extension


IMPROVING FLORIDA RURAL HOMES
Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement

In 1937, the Florida home demonstration system's endeavor for rural
homes improvement, exterior and interior, again was based on the findings
disclosed by the farm housing survey made during 1934. Plans of work
adopted for the period stressed the aims outlined as follows:
I. Better Home Management in-
a. Time
b. Income and expenditures (Home accounts)
c. Equipment
1. Selection (buying)
2. Care
d. Storage spaces
1. For conservation of food
2. For clothing
3. For business centers, movable and built-in
II. Home Surroundings-
a. Exterior beautification of the yard
b. Home site
1. Yard
2. Grazing lots
3. Garden (year-round)
4. Orchard (calendar)
5. Fences, out-buildings
6. Trees, vines
c. Home sanitation

























Fig. 8.-Permanence of home demonstration work in the communities,
and the desire of rural women for beautiful surroundings, is shown by
the establishment of permanent club rooms or buildings such as that
pictured above. In 1937 18 were built.








Annual Report, 1937


III. The House-
a. Planning new house
b. Remodeling old houses
c. Water in
1. Kitchen
2. Bathroom
3. Heating facilities
Girls holding membership in the 4-H clubs are started during their
first year, with better housekeeping projects. Home improvement prac-
tices required for the second 12 months consist of demonstrations as to
porches and their surroundings, including foundation planting. In the
third year, planting plans for the yard are made and carried out, while
during the fourth year improvement of one or more rooms is undertaken.
Exterior beautification performance by women is through units; first,
foundation planting; second, the yard as a whole; third, the entire premises.
Under the last-named head are included drives and walks, with due thought
for soil erosion and related factors, fences and outbuildings. Home sanita-
tion is demonstrated only in healthy and prosperous families.

WHAT WAS DONE DURING 1937

Beautification and sanitation achievements reported for the year, by
home demonstration club members and 4-H girls, were as follows:

Number of houses (a) whitewashed .................... ............ ........ 27
(b) painted ............................................................... 471
Number of out-buildings to be (a) whitewashed .................................. 74
(b) painted .......................................... 183
Number of fences (a) whitewashed .................................................... 24
(b) painted ....................................... .............. ........ 83
Number of homes to make complete improvement of grounds accord-
ing to plans ............................................. 748
Number of people, not club members, influenced to paint or whitewash,
or to plant grass, or start foundation plantings .............................. 1,213
Number of homes installing sanitary closets or out-houses according
to recommendations .................................................................................... 354
Number of homes screened according to recommendations .................... 712
Number of homes following other recommended methods of controlling
flies, mosquitoes and other insects ....................................................... 896
Number who have studied the life cycle of flies, mosquitoes and hook-
w orm ........................................................................................................ 841
Number of homes in which special efforts have been made to improve
the sanitation on Inside .............. ........................................................ 1,049
Outside ...................................................................... 1,115

MAKING FARM HOUSES MORE LIVABLE
Repairing of walls, roofs, foundations, doors and windows, chimneys
and so on home demonstration women regard as among the things that
should be first given attention. Facilities for running water, in bathrooms
or kitchens, laundrying equipment, additional sleeping rooms or porches
and like interior improvements proved extremely popular aims during the
current year.
Trends are indicated by the statistics for 1935, 1936 and 1937, in com-
parative form as below:







82 Florida Cooperative Extension

1935 1936 1937
Buildings remodeled, repainted, repaired ........ 501 1,003 569
All buildings constructed .................................... 89 184 146
Farm homes electrified ........................................ 41 158 339
Home equipment bought .................................... 979 1,658 1,094
Dwellings constructed according to plans
furnished ................. ................................. 52 107 96
Dwellings remodeled according to plans fur-
nished .......... ........ .................. 300 23 222
Sewage systems installed ................................. 100 125 248
Water systems installed .................................. 107 188 153
Heating systems installed .................................. 23 22 38
Lighting systems installed ................................ 98 224 249
Home appliances and machines ........................ 1,350 2,619 1,817
Dairy buildings ................... .................. 9 317 5
Poultry houses .................................................. 55 189 138
Home equipment purchased by clubs or
groups ........................................................... $975.00 $1,160.00 $1,590.00
Home equipment purchased by individuals .... 3,082.00 11,115.00 12,671.00
Number of kitchens improved according to
recommendations -- ......................... 538 771 705
Families buying labor-saving equipment ........ 1,603 1,791 1,663
Families adopting recommended laundry
practices .......................................................... 458 573 688
Families making soap at home ........................ 350 2'92 215
Families adopting recommended material in
better housekeeping ................................... 1,798 1,341 2,274
Families making box furniture, conveniences
and equipment ......................................... 978 881 563
Number of women making time schedule for
home duties ... ......................................... 463 553 694
4-H club members keeping accounts ................ 496 650 584
Families keeping home accounts per recom-
mendations ............ ........................ 355 453 424
Families developing home industries to sup-
plement income ....................................... 514 789 551







Annual Report, 1937


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Clarine Belcher, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles

Health, good posture and correct weight are recognized as factors corre-
lating other home demonstration activities with the clothing and textiles
work. Purchasing, construction and care of clothing and household textiles
are among the home management phases included. Demonstrations through
4-H clubs seek development of the girls no less than expansion in their
knowledge.
Clothing and textile needs of Florida rural families and the homes in
which they live constitute the primary purposes. Plans are made for the
undertaking to be a growing affair, one demonstration leading to the next,
with ever-enlarging goals. Resources limitations which govern most farm-
ers and climatic conditions affecting materials both are kept constantly in
the foreground.
RESULTS ATTAINED IN THE YEAR
Clothing meetings held under home demonstration sponsorship num-
bered 3,133, having increased 11.8 percent over the preceding 12 months
and reached 58 more communities. March, April, September and October
proved to be the most timely months for these gatherings. Assistance
from former 4-H club members greatly aided local leaders and county
agents.
Wardrobe demonstrations for adults at present are built around making
women's clothing and buying personal garments. Records compiled in con-
nection therewith indicate that participants average less than $50 annually
to spend on clothing.
Home sewing methods improvement saved cash for other uses. Dress
revues for women, encouraged as achievement exhibits alike for adults
and juniors, were reported from eight counties, with 270 entries.
Six clothing demonstrations in her home over as many years are offered
every 4-H club girl. Fundamentals of home sewing come first, then the
Florida 4-H uniform, cap and apron, followed by the approved attire for
schools, "best" wear, street, or travel and parties.
Leaders volunteering for local work, numbering 355, gave 1,442 days,
afforded much relief for county agents. Girls conducting clothing work
altogether aggregated 8,518 of 10,374 enrolled and they established 5,481
result demonstrations in their homes.
Silver Jubilee exercises commemorating the 25th year of home demon-
stration work in Florida, at which 36 counties were represented, presented
opportunity for clothing and textiles emphasis among the 572 girls at-
tending.
STATE STYLE REVUE FOR GIRLS
Discrimination in selecting county winners was greater this year than
previously, and reflected itself in the improved appearance of contestants.
Only 40 girls modeled of 415 entering the 20 county revues, which for 1936
were composed of 147 contestants with 45 chosen to seek state-wide honors.
Clair Alice Warfield, a Hillsborough County girl, won the trip to the
National 4-H Club Congress with an inexpensive school dress of cotton
print.
Meetings of 4-H clubs had explained to them the state plans of the
home demonstration forces and were shown the clothing exhibits prepared
in the Tallahassee offices. Adults' conference displays were on more
advanced lines.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Recommendations in construction of clothing were reported as having
been followed by 8,948 individuals, the 4-H club members making 5,740
dresses and 41,959 other articles. Children's clothing was improved by
2,501 persons, a 21.4 increase over last year.


Fig. 9.-Girls who have been trained in 4-H clubs naturally enroll in
home demonstration clubs for women as they establish homes of their
own. Shown above are four former 4-H girls with their children in a
meeting with the home demonstration agent discussing clothing for
youngsters.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE YEAR IN BRIEF
Women and girls in rural Florida have been helped with the selection,
construction, and care of suitable clothing and house furnishings, from the
standpoint which stresses both durability and attractiveness. Home demon-
stration agents received assistance in basing their clothing and textile
activities on the economic and physical situations prevailing over Florida,
that they might meet the people's need.
Field work occupied 101 days of the specialist's time, during which she
made contacts with 3,535 persons. Office duties as summarized below
indicate more fully the purposes and the scope of the clothing and tex-
tiles effort:


Activity
Program Planning


Method
1937 clothing and textile plan of work written for
entire state.
Office and field work to be accomplished, planned.


Conference of State Staff Attended ten conferences of state home demon-
stration workers.







Annual Report, 1937


Activity




Subject Matter Materials

Adult work
Junior work






State Clothing Contests



Record Judging




Publicity



Correspondence
Illustrative Material
Posters




Photographs


Exhibits




State and Sectional
Meetings




Miscellaneous


Method
Monthly work including itineraries planned and
approved.
Attended two joint conferences of state staff of
Agricultural Extension workers.
Revised outline and record for Wardrobe Demon-
strations.
Issued two skits, one on buying and the other
on care.
Issued two subject matter bulletins for Demon-
stration I and II.
Prepared and issued State Style Dress Revue and
clothing judging requirements.
Prepared and issued subject matter materials for
two courses at Short Course.
Issued style dress revue playlet adapted from
State Style Dress Revue program.
Conducted State Style Dress Revue contest and
entered state winner in National Style Dress
Revue.
Conducted state clothing judging contest.
Judged and scored 15 county council record books.
Judged and scored 12 4-H Club girls' records for
trip to National 4-H Club Camp.
Judged and scored 35 4-H Club girls' records for
trip to National 4-H Club Congress.
Two radio talks.
One news letter.
Five news articles.
Program for State Style Dress Revue.
General for development of work.
Clothing selection, good and poor buys.
Quality guides in buying.
Artistic principles of dress.
Wardrobe plans.
Home Sewing.
Color wheel and harmonies.
Clothing course at State Short Course.
Honor group of state clothing contest.
Winner of state clothing contest.
Complete exhibit of 26 required articles to be
constructed in junior clothing work.
Household textiles (towels).
Children's clothing.
Men's clothing (shirts).
Planned and presented a clothing program at
annual 4-H Club girls' Short Course, Woman's
Institute, annual Agents' Conference of Agri-
cultural Extension Workers, at two district
4-H Club camps, and annual 4-H Club Short
Course and Agents' Conference of Negro Home
Demonstration Work.
Preparation of material on clothing for the
Outlook for Farm Family Sewing for 1938.
Annual report.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART IV-NEGRO PHASES OF


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION


MEN'S GROUP
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent
In the farm demonstration division of Agricultural Extension Service
among Negroes, the 22nd year ended November 30, 1937. Negro local
agents remained the same, eight men serving nine counties-Alachua,
Columbia, Hamilton, Hillsborough, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Marion and
Suwannee. Supervision was supplied by the local district agent, working
directly under plans made in the Extension Service headquarters at Gaines-
ville.
Instruction was given the field men and arrangements completed in a
conference at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee,
December 1-4, 1936. Tours among Negro farmers conducted by the federal
Soil Conservation Service during May and June received full cooperation.
Boys' and girls' 4-H club nineteenth annual short course convened at
the Florida A. and M. College, June 1-4. State Farm and Home Institute
for Negroes in second yearly session at Fessenden Academy, Martin,
Marion County, August 25-27, assembled more than 200 men and women.
Stockholders' meeting of the Federal Land Bank, Orlando, September
13, was attended on invitation by the local district agent and two repre-
sentatives from the State Negro Farmers' Cooperative Association.
Extension Service conference of workers from six states at Tuskegee
Institute in Alabama, January 18, also found the local district agent for
Florida present by special request.
National Federation of Colored Farmers' eighth annual convention, in
Forsyth, Georgia, October 28-30 the local district agent went to with the
Florida delegation, expenses incurred having been borne by the cooperative
association.
PROJECT AND RELATED ACTIVITIES
Assistance to the farm agents from the local district agent helped in
locating satisfactory sources of supply for fertilizers, seeds and similar
supplies. Meetings in the active counties planned the demonstrations that
farmers would find profitable.
Corn production endeavors took 277 days of the local farm agents' time,
during which 54 adult result demonstrations were held. In Alachua County,
as a typical instance, 51 reporting Negro farmers more than doubled their
corn yields per acre by turning under cowpeas and field peas.
Oats and rye received 50 days work from farm agents, to the end that
farmers could have winter grazing. Planting of small plots for home
poultry flocks also was urged and to some degree practiced. A cheese
company at Thomasville, Georgia, donates 50 cents to the Leon County
Negro Council on account each member of a community club who sowed
oats for grazing or to be harvested as dairy cattle feed.
Cotton is the major cash crop among Negroes in seven of the nine
counties worked by farm agents, so they placed great emphasis on eco-
nomical production and marketing, spending 155 days time. Diversion of







Annual Report, 1937


land to other crops was encouraged and practiced in considerable measure.
Sea Island cotton projects were carried out in five counties.
Areas are restricted in which tobacco can be successfully grown, and
the crop was worked on by only six agents, who devoted 72 days thereto.
Six method demonstrations on treating the blue mold disease in tobacco
beds were given by the Columbia County agent.
Peanuts as a cash crop are important only in Jackson among the coun-
ties having Negro farm agents. Elsewhere the farmers principally plant
the crop to be "hogged off".
Truck crops for commercial purposes had 64 days time from agents
in six counties, the others stressing home gardens. Marion County reports
indicated gross sales by Negro farmers as follows: Snap beans, $12,680.00;
tomatoes, $900.00; okra, $2,118.60; squash, 1$685.00; watermelons, $22,350.00;
black eye peas, $900.00; lettuce, $295.00; cabbage, $95.00; total, $40,023.60.
In Alachua, the farm agent reported that $11,976.50 worth of beans
were sold, over $5,625 worth of watermelons, and $3,875 worth of cucum-
bers.
Beef cattle have been scarce among Florida {Negro farmers but with
the situation regarding them materially improved through the work of
local farm agents in assisting to secure purebred males for crossing on
the native stock. Six counties report the sale of livestock as follows:
Jackson, $10,580.50; Marion, $10,100; Alachua, $6,800; Leon, $5,148.81;
Hamilton, $4,222.40; and Jefferson, $3,192. A Hamilton County Negro
operates a dairy equipped with all modern conveniences, owning 14 pure-
bred Jersey cows and one bull. In the remaining counties the farmers
were encouraged to have at least one milk cow for the family.
Pork is popular among Negro farmers and most of them butcher be-
tween one hog and six hogs a year for family use. Local farm agents
spent 167 days on swine projects during 1937. Jefferson County carried
projects which started with 211 pigs at the beginning of the year, in Sep-
tember 180 hogs having been sold for $2,810.24.
Poultry marketing locally and in urban centers by Negro farmers is
increasing rapidly, and nearly all of them raise some birds for home con-
sumption. Breeds selection, disease and parasite control, grading eggs and
selling methods occupied the local farm agents for 122 days.

FLORIDA NEGRO 4-H CLUBS FOR BOYS
Organized 4-H club activities are prosecuted by 108 units, which enrolled
1,584 boys, of whom 1,083 completed the work for the year.
Corn projects enlisted 720, and were finished by 527. On the 527 acres
they cultivated, with over 12,000 bushels output, yields per acre mostly
increased materially because green manure crops had preceded the grain,
as the local farm agents recommended.
Cotton enrolled boys in six counties as indicated below, two-thirds of
them going through for more than an acre each and nearly 31,000 pounds
production:
No. No.
County Enrolled Completing No. Acres Total Yield
Jackson ...................... 40 20 20 7,000 lbs.
Columbia .................. 26 21 21 6,678 Ibs.
Jefferson .................. 21 15 28 5,840 lbs.
Hamilton ................... 12 6 6 4,718 lbs.
Alachua .................... 4 4 4 3,600 lbs.
Leon .......................... 2 2 3% 3,000 lbs.
Totals (State) .... 105 68 821/2 30,836 lbs.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Peanuts proved the major interest with 310 boys, 177 of whom com-
pleted the projects which included 293% acres and yielded 141,643 pounds.
Sweet potato enrollment included only 125 boys but 68 hung on to the
end, harvesting 30,836 pounds from 82% acres.
Home and market gardens, producing truck crops for the family food
supply or to sell, interested 76 and 55 boys respectively, under the first-
named projects having been completed by 60 while in the latter classifica-
tion only 10 finished the undertakings, involving considerable risk as
they did.
Swine effort enrolled 98 boys, 69 having gone to the end with projects
involving 236 hogs, principally of the Poland China, Hampshire, Essex,
Duroc-Jersey and kindred breeds.
Poultry was taken up by the boys on an extensive scale for the first
time this year, and local farm agents assisted many of them in acquiring
purebred fowls. Members who registered for this work numbered 122
and 59 completed it.

EVENTS AND ASSEMBLAGES
State Negro 4-H Club Annual Short Course at the Florida Agricultural
and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, June 1-4, was attended by 142 boys
and leaders, and the eight local farm agents. Instruction assistance was
rendered by Agricultural Extension Service specialists and College faculty
members, and the four days period devoted to agronomy, dairying, farm-
ing shop work, gardening, poultry and swine husbandry.


Fig. 10.-County exhibits arranged by Negro farm agents and displayed
at the Florida State Fair depicted progress of Negro farmers.








Annual Report, 1937 89

Alachua, Hillsborough, Leon apd Marion county local farm agents
held encampments for the Negro 4-H club boys within their territories,
ranging in length from three to seven days and with an attendance aggre-
gating 129. In seven counties, the Negro 4-H club boys received assist-
ance from the local farm agents in preparing exhibits for achievement
days, showing what had been accomplished. Ribbons and small prizes
which were awarded in many cases had been donated by the business
and professional men of the community.







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME DEMONSTRATION AMONG NEGROES
Beulah Stephens Shute, Local District Home Demonstration Agent

Negro local home demonstration agents are employed in Alachua, Hills-
borough, Leon, Duval, Madison, Gadsden, Putnam and Marion counties,
whose work is supervised by the local district agent in this field, under
directions from the State Home Demonstration Agent's headquarters.
Agents' annual conference, December 1-4, 1937, at the Florida Agricul-
tural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, made "better home living" the
theme, discussing the needs of the Negro farmers and their families as
to food and its conservation, bringing dairy, garden and poultry yards
into the foreground as sources therefore, and also dealing with clothing,
residence surroundings and like factors. Staff members and specialists of
the Agricultural Extension Service who attended offered many helpful
suggestions.
State Negro Boys' and Girls' Short Course in annual session at the
Florida A. and M. College, June 1-4, gave agents training in the same
subjects as the girls. Extension Summer Short Course, held at Tuskegee
Institute, in Alabama, was attended by three of the local home agents.
In a one day agents' meeting at Lake City, two district representatives
from the Agricultural Extension Service assisted the local district agent
for Negro home demonstration effort in planning the proceedings that
specially related to this undertaking.
Agents operating within counties had assistance from the local district
agent for Negro home demonstration in planning their work, committee-
men and community leaders taking active part in the councils. Leaders
of neighborhood and county endeavors who were busy during the year
numbered 116. Farm and home visits made by the local district agent
in company with the county workers aggregated 415.

THINGS NEGRO WOMEN ACCOMPLISHED
Incomes of Negro farm families received material additions from foods
conserved, valued at $11,994.20 and through poultry and eggs sold by home
demonstration club members. Handicraft articles made from natural re-
sources, including baskets, dresses, hats, luncheon cloths, rugs, whisk
brooms and so on, likewise increased family revenues.
Camps in Hillsborough, Duval and Putnam counties, the latter two
holding theirs jointly, provided both instruction and recreation. Child
care endeavor produced good results almost everywhere, Alachua and Hills-
borough holding healthy baby shows. Hillsborough also staged a flower
exhibition, which over 500 people attended, awards for excellence in dis-
plays going to 28 women.
Food and nutrition studies everywhere stressed balanced meals and
school lunches with noticeable improvement following. Home management
sought greater efficiency and more comforts, the club activities in several
instances leading directly to installation by individuals of electric lights,
irons, refrigerators and washing machines, running water and related
kitchen conveniences.
Clothing projects proved successful in numerous cases. Gardens were
quite generally planted both for home supplies and market purposes.
Health and sanitation endeavors, including observance of Negro National
Health Week, attained achievements worth while from a permanent view-
point.








Annual Report, 1937


Short Course statistics reflect the appeal to Negro women and girls
eld by this annual event, as follows:

ENROLLMENT (Girls and Women)


County


Agent Girls


A lachua ............................................ 1 13
D uval ................................................. 1 29
Gadsden ........................................... 1 33
H illsborough ................................... 1 21
Leon ................................................. 1 53
M adison ............................................ 1 16
M arion ...................... ........ .... ... 1 19
Putnam ........................... ............... 1 6
Totals ....................................... 8 190


Leaders
7
10
13
6
1
3
2
1
43


HOMEMAKERS' AND GIRLS' 4-H CLUBS SUMMARY
Negro women belonging to homemakers' clubs in the eight counties
lumbered 1,474 and 2,479 girls were members of organized 4-H clubs,
1,958 of the latter completing their projects begun during the year. A
summary of the united accomplishments follows:
1. Food conservation:
Canned 59,971 containers of fruits, vegetables, meats, poultry,
relishes, jams, marmalades, preserves and juices.
Cured 85,877 pounds of meat.
Made 919 pounds of sausage.
Made 12,613 pounds of lard.
Made 37,060 pounds of soap.
Sold preserved products valued at $3,631.15.
2. Poultry:
Raised 17,884 chickens.
Produced 72,118 eggs.
Sold poultry products valued at $4,761.61.


3. Thrift:
1,123 women and girls used discarded materials
make useful articles.
16 made chairs of barrels.
104 made furniture of wooden boxes.
600 made rugs at home.
209 articles were sold amounting to $265.


and sacks to


4. Sanitation:
191 sanitary privies were installed according to recommenda-
tions.
100 individuals improved home grounds.
129 homes were screened.
718 homes follow recommended methods for controlling the
mosquito, flies and other insects.
5. Community work:
1,016 club members assisted in improving school, church and
cemetery grounds.
6. Food, nutrition and health:
1,113 individuals improved health habits according to recom-
mendations.
1,135 individuals adopted recommended positive preventive
measures to improve health.







92 Florida Cooperative Extension

1,216 individuals had complete health examinations during the
year.
7. Child care:
1,278 homes are adopting better adult habits with respect to
the development of children.
8. Dairying:
6,255 pounds of butter were sold, valued at $2,116.15.
177 families are using 1 quart of milk per day per child and
one pint per adult.
9. Home management:
322 homes were assisted in making adjustments to gain more
satisfactory standards of living.
649 kitchens were rearranged for convenience according to
recommendations.
322 homes following recommended buying methods.








Annual Report, 1937


STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK
(Men and Women)


GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Total days service rendered ................... ...... ........ 4,598
Members in Extension Associations or Committees ............... 558
Communities in which Negro Extension program has been
planned ............................. .............. ...................................... .. 323
plnnd -..-.-..-..---~-.-.------'- .---*---- 2
Clubs or other groups organized to carry on adult home demon-
stration work ............. .................. .....- ........ ....... 94
Members in such clubs or groups ..........................-....... 1,475
4-H clubs ............................................................................. ............ 237
4-H club members enrolled ..........-................................... 4,063
4-H club members completing ........................................... .......... 3,046
4-H club teams trained .................................. 64
Farm or home visits ................ ....................-- ..... ........ 7,353
Different farms or homes visited .......................... .............. 2,923
Calls relating to extension work ...................................................... 11,458
News articles or stories published and circular letters issued ...... 179
Letters written .................. ..................------------....... ... 5,875
Bulletins distributed ................ ...... ..... ....... ................... 6,456
Extension exhibits .................-....--.......--------....... ...... 67
Meetings held ......... ...............-.... ......- ............ .... 2,685
(Attendance .............................. 7,500
Achievement days and encampments .................... ........... 39
(Attendance .............................. 9,050
Homes and farms influenced by program ................................. 4,591
Homes with 4-H club members enrolled .................................. 2,443


CEREALS

Communities in which work was conducted .................................... 297
Result demonstrations conducted .............................--.......... 61
Meetings held ...........................---.......-.............- ....... 123
News stories published and circular letters issued ................ 38
4-H club members enrolled ................... .................................... 1,003
4-H club members completing ... ......... ....................... 780
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing .... 683
Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing .......... 13,557


LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS

Communities in which work was conducted .................................... 446
Result demonstrations conducted ................---- ...---.... 73
M meetings held ...................................................................................... 123
Meetings held .... ---.-------.----------------- --- 123
News stories published and circular letters issued ................. 47
4-H club members enrolled ................... ................. 401
4-H club members completing ................ ............................. 241
Acres in project conducted by 4-H club members completing ..... 429
Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing ............ 2,175








94 Florida Cooperative Extension

POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS

Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Others Cotton Tobacco
Communities in which work was conducted .... 168 94 40
Result demonstrations conducted ........................ 9 22 14
Meetings held .................................................. 9 71 32
NeAws stories published and circular letters .... 13 29 14
4-H club members enrolled ............................... 128. 125 105
4-H club members completing .......................... 75 68 6
Acres in project conducted by 4-H members .... 79 82 17
Yield of crops grown by 4-H members ............. 3,234 bu. 30,836 lb. 11,235 lb.

FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Communities in which work was conducted ...................................... 633
Result demonstrations conducted ................................................... 711
Meetings held .. ....................................................................................... 545
News stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 58
4-H club members enrolled ....... ........................ ........... 2,895
4-H club members completing .................................................. ..... 1,584
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing .... 229.5
Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing .............. 1,901 Bu.

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Communities in which work was conducted .................................. 73
Result demonstrations conducted ................................................. 46
Meetings held ................................................................. ................... 47
News stories published and circular letters issued ....................... 7
4-H club members enrolled ........... ......................... 20
4-H club members completing ........................... ............................ 8
Terracing and drainage, farms ......................................................... 39
A cres .................................................................................... 1,689
Land clearing practices ................................................................... 10
Acres ........... ......................... .. .......... ...................................... 75
Better equipment practices ............................................................ 272
Buildings erected or improved ........................................................ 251

POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted .................................. 157
Result demonstrations conducted .............................................. 220
M meetings held ..................................................................................... ... 174
News stories published and circular letters issued ..................... 28
4-H club members enrolled ............................................................. 642
4-H club members completing ............................................................ 440
Number units in projects conducted by 4-H club members com-
pleting ........................................................................... 10,549
Families following better practices for poultry ............................ 2,687

DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 321
Result demonstrations conducted ........................................................ 101
Meetings held ............................................ 154
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 41
4-H club members enrolled ............................................................. 311
4-H club members completing ............ ........................................ 297
Animals in project conducted by 4-H club members completing.... 474








Annual Report, 1937 95

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Result demonstrations conducted ........................ .............. 3
M meetings held ................ .............................................. 67
News stories published and circular letters issued ...................... 42
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments .............. 385
Families assisted in getting established ................................. 30
Individuals affected by marketing program ............................. 298
Organizations assisted with problems ................................... 111
Individuals assisted with problems ................. .................. 859
Value of products sold by associations ..................................$93,443.75
Value of supplies purchased by organizations ..............................$44,872.05

FOODS AND NUTRITION

Communities in which work was conducted ................................. 288
Result demonstrations conducted ........................ ... ........... 549
Meetings held ..................... ....................-.... ... 427
News stories published and circular letters issued ..................... 22
4-H club members enrolled .............................................. ........... 3,199
4-H club members completing ....................... ............. 2,268
Families adopting improved food practices ................................. 3,323
Schools following recommendations for a hot dish or school lunch 35
Children involved ..................................... ...... 1133
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs ................ 38,714
Value of products canned or otherwise preserved ........................ $8,661.79

CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION

Communities in which work was conducted ............................... 90
Result demonstrations conducted .............................................. 84
Meetings held ................................. ......- ......-....... 105
News stories published and circular letters issued ................. 9
4-H club members enrolled ............................ ............ 242
4-H club members completing ......................... ......... 155
Other 4-H club members who participated .................................. 57
Families adopting better child-development practices ................ 1,325
Individuals participating in child-development program ............. 650
Children involved ...........................-------------. 1,346

CLOTHING

Communities in which work was conducted .................................... 149
Result demonstrations conducted ......................................... 410
Meetings held ............ .--.......... ....-- ......-- -------- 336
News stories published and circular letters issued ....................... 51
4-H club members enrolled .................................................. ...... 1,895
4-H club members completing .... ...........................---..... 1,362
Articles made by 4-H club members ................................-...- 7,608
Individuals following better clothing practices ........................... 8,862
Savings due to clothing program .................. ...................... $4,696.00

HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted ....................... 300
Result demonstrations conducted .......................... .................. 721
Meetings held ..................... .. ........ .. ............................. 470
News stories published and circular letters issued ..................... 116
4-H club members enrolled ........................................................... 3,141
4-H club members completing .......... ............... ..................... 2,309
Units in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing ...... 7,801







96 Florida Cooperative Extension

Families adopting improved home-management practices ............ 5,426
Saving due to home-management program ................................... $5,596.00
Families making improvements in house furnishings ................ 2,885
Savings due to home-furnishings program ................................... $3,686.50
Families following recommendations regarding handicraft ........ 1,006

HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work was conducted .................................. 185
Result demonstrations conducted ................................................ 399
M meetings held ....................................... ..................................... 245
News stories published and circular letters issued ..................... 106
4-H club members enrolled .......................................................... 2,277
4-H club members completing .......................................................... 1,773
Individuals having health examinations ....................................... 2,011
Other 4-H club members who participated .................................... 1,295
Individuals adopting better health habits ........................... 6,394
Families adopting better health habits ........................................... 2,732

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Meetings held ......... ................................... ....... ................... 227
News stories published and circular letters issued ...................... 59
Communities assisted with community problems .......................... 369
Training meetings conducted for community leaders .................. 103
Families following recommendations as to home recreation ........ 272
4-H clubs engaging in community activities ................................... 156
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or other
relief agency ............................................ 546







Annual Report, 1937


INDEX


Aerial mapping, 25
Agencies, cooperation of, 7, 70, 78
Agents, list of, 5
Agricultural conservation, 8, 23
Agricultural economics, 8, 14, 58, 95
Agricultural engineering, 13, 94
Agronomy, 32
Ammoniation, citrus, 43
Animal husbandry, 45
Arts, rural, 69

Baby chick management, 55
Beautification, home, 13, 68
Beef cattle sales, 9, 87
statistics, 14, 94
Bees, 14, 94
Blue mold control, 10
Boys' 4-H club work, 36, 47, 50,
56, 60
Negro, 87
Breeding, dairy, 50
Bronze leaf, citrus, 43
Bulletins, 17
Bull pens, 51
By-products, dairy, 50

Calendar flock records, 55
orchards, 67
Camps, club, 39, 65, 90
Canning, 66, 67
Cattle sales, 9, 87
statistics, 14, 94
Celery marketing agreement, 61
Cereals, statistics, 12, 93
Chick management, 55
Child development, 15, 92, 95
feeding, 77
Circulars, 17
Citriculture, 8, 42
Citrus grove management, 58
Clothing, 15, 66, 83, 90, 95
Club work, boys', 8, 36, 47, 50, 56, 60
girls, 56, 70, 75, 77, 83
Negro, 86, 87
Community activities, 16, 69, 91, 96
Conservation, agricultural, 8, 23
food, 72, 90, 91
soil, 9
Contests, 4-H, 40
Corn, 32, 33, 34, 86
Cotton, Sea Island, 9, 34
statistics, 13, 94
County agents' activities, 30
Cover crops, citrus, 42


Crafts, rural, 69
Cuban tariff conference, 60
Cultivation, citrus, 42

Dairy farm accounts, 59
Dairying, 8, 14, 49, 66, 67, 92, 94
Dieback, citrus, 43
Director's report, 7
Disease control, citrus, 43
dairy, 51
Dress revue, 83

Editorial work, 17
Egg-Laying Test, 57
Egg market survey, 56
Engineering, agricultural, 13, 94
home, 68
Exhibits, 7, 59, 74

Fairs, 46, 59
Family cow, 50
Farm account books, 60
Farm management, 58
Fat Stock Show, 22, 46
Feeding children, 77
dairy cows, 50
steers, 46
Fertilizers, 33, 49
Financial statement, 11
Folders, letter, 18
Food and nutrition, 15, 66, 67, 76,
90, 91, 94
conservation, 72, 90, 91
Forage demonstrations, 49
crop statistics, 13, 93
Forestry, 13, 94
Frenching, citrus, 43
Fruits, 13
Furnishings, house, 15, 68, 95

Gardens, 66, 67, 72
Girls' club work, 56, 70, 75, 77, 83
Grove management, 58

Health, home, 16, 76, 91, 96
Hog demonstrations, 47
sales, 9
Home demonstration work, 8, 63
improvement, 80
industries, 66, 69
management, 15, 92, 95
Honey, 74
Horses, 94
House furnishings, 15, 68, 95








Florida Cooperative Extension


Improving homes, 80
Institutes, 44, 65
Irrigation, citrus, 43

Legumes, statistics, 13, 93
Livestock markets, 47

Mailing bulletins, supplies, 17
Markets, dairy, 51
egg, 56
livestock, 48
Marketing agreements, 60, 61
Marketing home products, 74
Meat cutting and curing, 47
Meat supply, home, 74
Meetings, 10, 88
Melanose, citrus, 44
Mold control, blue, 10

Negro extension work, 9, 86
home demonstration, 71, 90
News releases, 19
writing training, 21
Nutrition, 15, 76, 91, 95

Oats, 86
Orchards, home, 67, 72
Organizations, poultry, 56
Outlook, 51, 60

Parent education, 15, 95
Pastures, 34, 45, 50
Peanuts, 32, 33, 87
Planning councils, 9, 59
Pork, 87
Potatoes, economic study, 59
marketing agreement, 61
statistics, 13, 94
Poultry, 14, 52, 66, 67, 87, 91, 94
economic study, 59
feed prices, 52
organizations, 56
products prices, 53
records, 55
Printing, 17


Radio, 20, 40
Rations, dairy, 50
Records, citrus, 58
dairy, 50
poultry, 55
Recreational work, 40, 69
Rust mite control, 43


Sanitation, 16, 68, 91, 96
Scale control, 44
Sea Island cotton, 9, 34
Sheep, 14, 94
Short courses, club, 40, 65
Shows, 46
Silo building, 46, 49
Soil conservation, 9
Statistical report, Negro, 93
white, 12
Steer feeding, 45
Style dress revue, 83
Sweet potato weevil, 10
Swine, 14, 94

Tariff conference, 60
Terracing, 32
Textiles, 67, 83
Thrift work, 69, 91
Tobacco, 34, 87
blue mold, 10
statistics, 13, 94
Trips, 51
Truck crops work, 9, 13, 60, 87

Vegetable conferences, 60
statistics, 13
work, 9, 87
Velvet beans, 32

Wardrobe demonstrations, 67
Watermelon marketing agreement,
60, 61
Weevil, sweet potato, 10
Wildlife conservation, 40
Wreath making, 74