<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 List of agents
 Report of director and vice-di...
 Publications, news, radio
 County agent work
 Soil conservation program
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Dairying
 Animal husbandry
 Citrus culture
 Poultry work
 Agricultural economics
 Home demonstration work
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Food, nutrition and health
 Home improvement
 Clothing and textiles
 Negro men's work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00020
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1936
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00020
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 4
    List of agents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of director and vice-director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Publications, news, radio
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    County agent work
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Soil conservation program
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Dairying
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Animal husbandry
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Citrus culture
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Poultry work
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Agricultural economics
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Home demonstration work
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Food, nutrition and health
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Home improvement
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Negro men's work
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Index
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
Full Text









1936 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


AGRICULTURAL EX'I.NSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director




REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1936
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1936













1936 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director




REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1936
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1936







BOARD OF CONTROL

GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville
OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola
HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland
R. P. TERRY, Miami
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialis
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist2
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman2
D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, PH.D., Agricultural Economist, Farm Managemen
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
MYRON M. VARN, B.S.A., Asst. Farm Management Specialist
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
A. E. MERCKER, Field Agent, Cooperative Interstate Marketing1
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist
NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

1 In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2 Part-time.













CONTENTS
PAGE

LIST OF A GENTS ..................... ...... ... .... .- .................. 5

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR .............................. ................ 7

Financial Statement .......................... .. ...... ........... 13

Statistical R report ....................................... .................... ........ ....... 14

PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO ......................................... ........ 19

COUNTY AGENT W ORK ................. ................... -........ .---- ---.... ................ 23

SOIL CONSERVATION PROGRAM ..............------...... .................. ..................... 30

BOYS' 4-H CLUB W ORK .............................--.---.... ............. .. 35

DAIRYING ..................-....- ......... ....................... 41

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY ..................... ... .. .......... .... .. ............. 46

CITRUS CULTURE ...................................... .......... .. .................... 52

POULTRY W ORK .................................. -. .... ...-............ 58

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ....................--......--.... ...... ................... 66

Farm M anagem ent ............................ ..... .... .. .................... 66

M marketing ............- ... ........... .......... ..... ...... .......................... 71

HOME DEMONSTRATION W ORK .......-................................... ...... 74

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION ........ .......................- ........................ 87

POOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH .......................... ... ..... .................... 90

OME IM PROVEMENT .............................................................. ........ .... 94

LOTHING AND TEXTILES .............................. .................................................. 97

EGRO M EN'S W ORK ......... .......................................... ................ 102

4EGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ..............-... .. ............. ...............108

EGRO STATISTICAL REPORT ....................... ......... ... ................... 113






[3]




















Hon. Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricul-
tural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for
the calendar year 1936, including a fiscal report for the year ending June
30, 1936.
Respectfully,
GEO. H. BALDWIN,
Chairman, Board of Control.




Hon. Geo. H. Baldwin,
Chairman, Board of Control
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accord
ance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
lachua............ Fred L. Craft.......... Gainesville.............Mrs. Grace F. Warren
iker........................M D. Futch.............Macclenny. ... ............
ay..........................John G. Hentz, Jr...Panama City.................................
radford................T. K. McClane.........Starke ................... .................
revard.....................T. L. Cain...............Cocoa........................Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
roward............................ ..... ....... Ft. Lauderdale....... .................M iss Olga Kent
ilhoun...................J. G. Kelley..............Blountstown..................... ..............
.arlotte................N. H. McQueen.......Punta Gorda..............................
itrus.................................v..... ...... Inverness.. .. Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
ay.... -................. ........Green Cove Springs............Miss Beulah Felts
umbia............Guy Cox..................Lake City............................ ........
de..... .......... ..... C. H. Steffani..........Miami.... ................... .....Miss Pansy Norton
de (Asst.)........J. L. Edwards.........Miami ................................. ...........
Soto........... E. H. Vance.............Arcadia..... ............. .... ......
xie.....................D. M. Treadwell.....Cross City....................................
val...... ...... A. S. Lawton..........Jacksonville........-...... Miss Pearl Laffitte
val (Asst.)..........Frank M. Dennis....Jacksonville ....................................
cambia...-.............E. H. Finlayson......Pensacola...........Miss Ethel Atkinson
gler.... ............ Fred Barber............Bunnell ....................................... ...........
dsden..............R. P. Howard..........Quincy.......................... Miss Elise Laffitte
christ.............A. S. Laird..............Trenton............... ................. ........
If........................... ............... ... Wewahitchka....Mrs. Pearl Jordan Whitfield
milton...............J. J. Sechrest..........Jasper .... ........ ................. .........
rdee................... H. L. Miller..............Wauchula .............. ...................
rnando........... B. E. Lawton...........Brooksville ...... ............... .......... .............
hlands.................L. H. Alsmeyer.......Sebring ........... .................. .........
Isboro..................Alec White...............Tampa.............................
Isboro (West)......................... Tampa........................Miss Allie Lee Rush
Isboro (East)..................................Plant City........................ Miss Irene Riley
ies....................D. D. McCloud-.......Bonifay.........................Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
kson..................J. W. Malone...........Marianna.............. Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter
erson ..................P. R. McMullen.......Monticello............................Miss Ruby Brown
ayette.................D. H. W ard..............Mayo ........ ........ ....... ........
e ........................C. R. Hiatt..............Tavares........... Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
....................... C. P. H euck..............Ft. M yers...................... ..................................
n........................ G. C. Hodge.............Tallahassee...............Miss Ethyl Holloway
y..........................T. D. Rickenbaker..Bronson---.......--....... Miss Wilma Richardson
erty..............F. D. Yaun.............Bristol ... ................... ..........
ison .........S. L. Brothers..........Madison............... Miss Bennie F. Wilder
atee...................John H. Logan........Bradenton................Miss Margaret Cobb
ion............ .... ........................ ............. Ocala...................... ... .......M iss Tillie Roesel
loosa................E. R. Nelson............Crestview ... ............................ ......
echobee..............C. A. Fulford..........Okeechobee............... ....
nge................ K. C. Moore.............Orlando...........Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
eola..................J. R. Gunn...............Kissimmee....... ....Miss Albina Smith
n Beach..............M. U. Mounts......... West Palm Beach..........Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
co ......................J.A. McClellan,Jr....Dade City.....................-- ........
las...................Wm. Gomme............Clearwater............... Mrs. Joy Belle Hess
.......... ..........W. P. Hayman........Bartow............................Miss Lois Godbey
nam...............H. E. Westbury.......Palatka.................Miss Josephine Nimmo
ohns...............Loonis Blitch...........St. Augustine................Miss Anna E. Heist
Lucie.................................................Ft. Pierce- ...................Miss Bertha Hausman
ta Rosa..............John G. Hudson......Milton.................. .......Miss Eleanor Barton
inole................C. R. Dawson..........Sanford................. Miss Josephine Boydston
sota...................W. E. Evans............Sarasota .......................... .......
ter....................W. J. Platt, Jr........Bushnell.............. ...Miss Evelyn Loftin
annee.................S. C. Kierce.............Live Oak....... ............. Miss Eunice Grady
,or.................K. S. McMullen.......Perry..............................Miss Floy Moses
n..---...........-......L. T. Dyer................Lake Butler..................... ........... .....
sia...................F. E. Baetzman.......DeLand................. Mrs. Marguerite Norton
ulla...................N. J. Albritton........Crawfordville....................Mrs. Pearl Penuel
ton..................Mitchell Wilkins.....DeFuniak Springs..........Miss Eloise McGriff
hington..............Henry Hudson.........Chipley ......... ...... .......................
This list correct to December 31. 1936
[5]










AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION
A. P. Sp.encer, Administrative Officer in Charge...........................Gainesville
H. G. Clayton, Chairman, State Agricultural Conservation
Committee ................ .. -- .... ............-.......... .................Gainesville
Walter B. Anderson, State Committeeman.............. ..........Maianna
Ralph B. Chapman, State Committeeman ........................ ...........Sanford
James J. Love, State Committeeman...................................................Quincy
R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Supervisor...................................Gainesville
Aubrey E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Supervisor...................Gainesville
W. T. Nettles, District Supervisor..............................Gainesville
J. Lee Smith, District Supervisor.............. ........ .....Gainesville
E. Owen Blackwell, Assistant Field Officer......................... Gainesville
C. A. Lyle, Principal Clerk ........ ... .... .. ..............Gainesville

ASSISTANTS IN AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION*
COUNTY NAME ADDRESS
Alachua.................................... Lamar Hatcher................................... Gainesville
Columbia............................Gussie Calhoun............................... Lake City
Escambia..................... ............Bryan C. Gilmore......... ....................Pensacola
Hamilton............................ .J. W. Mitchell..... ......................... ....... Jasper
Holmes...................... .. Clare----- DeMasters .................................Bonifay
Jackson.....................................R. C. Peacock............................... ........Marianna
Jefferson---.........................--- E. J. Albritton....... ............... Monticello
Lake ............................................R. E. Norris.... ........ ................. ..........Tavares
Leon ..................................... A. C. Spiller..................... ....Tallahassee
Madison-...............................J. E. Donald................ .......Madison
Okaloosa .......... ......... M. B. Miller ........... ...............Crestview
Santa Rosa...........................Dan G. Allen**........- ................... .......Milton
Suwannee .............................. Grover C. Howell................................. Live Oak
W alton................................. A. G. Hutchinson................... DeFuniak Springs

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua .............................. F. E. Pinder.................... .. .. Gainesville
Columbia and
Southern Suwannee.............-E. S. Belvin...................................Lake City
Hamilton and
Northern Suwannee.............N. H. Bennett.- --........-......-.......-..White Springs
Hillsboro.................................. Elliott Robbins.......................... ...........Tampa
Jackson.............. .... ....J. E. Granberry.................. .................Marianna
Jefferson.................... M. E. Groover .............. .. ..... Monticello
Leon......................................... Rolley W yer, Jr............ .............Tallahassee
Marion ......................................... W B. Young........ ...................... Ocala

COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua -................-.............- Mary Todd McKenzie.....................Gainesville
Duval ................................... Ethel M. Powell............................Jacksonville
Gadsden ..........................Diana H. Bouie..................................... Quincy
Hillsboro....................... .....Floy Britt.......................... ....Tampa
Jefferson................................Lorena Shaw**.................................Monticello
Leon ................... .... ... ... Alice W Poole................................... Tallahassee
M adison..................................... Althea Ayer............. ........................... M adison
M arion......................................... Idell R. Kelley........................................Reddic
*This list correct to December 31, 1986.
**Resigned effective December 31, 1936.



[6]










REPORT FOR 1936


PART I-GENERAL

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR

Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the
Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Flor-
ida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1936, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the
calendar year 1936.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.


Extension programs of the past year have been carried on as usual.
Additional duties required because of agricultural adjustment and cooper-
ation with other federal programs have added considerably to both admin-
istrative and field work.
More equipment has been needed, and more clerical persons employed.
The usual purchases for stationery and supplies have naturally 'increased,
with added programs and additional calls on this office.

PRINTING AND PUBLICITY
The printing of bulletins has been restricted to a limited number of
Extension publications. Experiment Station publications are used liberally
by county and home agents and there has been a liberal supply constantly
going out to the county offices.
The Service has used one farm hour daily on the radio and this is
handled by the Editorial office. These programs are made up from con-
tributions by persons in the Extension Service, Experiment Station, Agri-
cultural College and others visiting the University, county agents, home
agents and others. We have contributed special programs during the
county agents' week and also from the 4-H club members. A short period is
given each day to current news affecting agriculture. These radio programs
are transmitted over state radio Station WRUF, located at Gainesville.
Various announcements of programs go out constantly with the outgoing
mail.
4-H CLUB WORK
The 4-H club work has been carried on under handicaps due to the
overload on county agents. Where assistants are employed they help, but
the usual educational programs expected of county agents were necessarily
reduced because of other programs that could not be set aside. The usual
4-H club projects were carried out. There has been difficulty in getting
appropriate programs for much of the horticultural sections. Programs
have been carried out in the citrus groves and an attempt has been







Florida Cooperative Extension


made to establish programs in economics. This has met with difficulties
due to the fact that programs designed for areas in horticultural sections
where many boys of club age who would be classed as farmers do not live
on the property and therefore do not have intimate contact with the farm
as is the usual case in the general farming area.
There has been liberal support from outsiders by contributions to schol-
arships, educational trips and provision for 4-H camps. Two permanent
4-H camps are operated between June 15 and September 10. These camps
have a capacity in excess of 100 4-H club members each. The camps are
well equipped as to housing and recreational facilities. They are directed
by the state club agent. County and home agents are responsible for the
conduct of campers from their respective counties.
Annual 4-iH club week programs were held at the University of Florida
for boys and at the Florida State College for Women for girls. The facili-
ties of the colleges are made available on such occasions and the programs
make considerable contributions to educational work as carried on under
the direction of the College of Agriculture.

LIVESTOCK PROGRAMS
Animal industry programs are carried out under three main divisions:
animal husbandry, which includes beef cattle and hogs, dairy husbandry,
and poultry husbandry.
Beef Cattle.-Animal husbandry work deals primarily with improve-
ment of cattle under semi-range conditions. For the most part, ranges
are fenced and little can be done in areas not fenced. Problem of greatest
importance is improvement of range cattle, and several carloads of bulls
have been purchased through the efforts of the Extension Service and on
the advice of the specialist in charge. The program deals with the im-
provement of females by culling and by selection. Consideration is given
also to the matter of over-stocking the ranges. To overcome this, progress
has been'made in the marketing of stock unfit for breeding purposes, and
in locating markets for veal calves. These calves are usually ready for
veal during the summer months. Car-lot shipments are made to Eastern
markets. Facilities for handling these are being installed by the railroad
and livestock men are finding it profitable to market calves of this age ii
preference to holding them for two or three years, which is the usual agE
for marketing grass-fed cattle.
Winter feeding received particular attention in the farm areas and silos
of the cheaply constructed type have been put into use to supply roughag<
to the semi-range area where practically no farm operations are carries
on, and the cattle are carried through the winter seasons on pastures witt
some losses.
The problem in cattle breeding has been the matter of getting a norma
calf crop and the marketing of veal will go a long way toward improving
this condition. Since the calves are weaned when six months old or young
it permits the cows to go into winter carrying a fair amount of fles
Under such conditions, a larger calf crop is the result.
Relatively few cattle are finished in the feed lot. However, a few, par
ticularly in the tobacco area, are fed each year on a ration consistin
largely of corn and cottonseed meal. The primary purpose of this is t
secure manure used in the growing of tobacco. The growers through
the Extension Service have been able to secure cattle of better grade tha
they usually find on the ranges.
An infestation of screw worm flies in this state in 1934 has present
a problem for livestock owners. However, by an appropriation from Co







Annual Report, 1936


gress, also from the State Legislature, an active campaign to combat the
screw worm has been in effect since 1935. The Extension Service has had
an active part in this program and the beef cattle specialist has served as
adviser with those employed in the counties to carry on the program.
To promote permanent pastures has been a part of the program and
this has been handled in various ways. One item of particular interest is
the mowing of. pastures. During the summer seasons the rains promote
growth of weeds in many areas. When these are mowed, the grass makes
good growth and the carrying capacity of many pastures has been doubled
where this has been wisely carried out.
Hog Programs.-During the period of low prices for hogs, many farm-
ers discontinued raising them and the sale of hogs in 1934 and 1935 was re-
duced to below the normal amount.
Since the price of pork now makes hog raising profitable, interest in
hog raising has revived. The program of the Extension Service in this
connection has largely dealt with the improvement of quality and the pro-
duction of suitable feeds. A third and interesting phase of this has been
the establishment of local markets. These have been established at ship-
ping stations and the railroads have provided loading pens. Prices compare
favorably with those in the more important hog centers and in areas where
corn and peanuts are generally raised. The production of hogs under such
conditions is one of the most profitable things that the farmers can under-
take.
Florida has problems in the control of parasites affecting livestock, par-
ticularly hogs. This requires rotation of pastures, feed lots and the con-
stant application of methods that will hold in check the effects of com-
municable diseases and internal parasites. The screw worm has also been
a menace to hog raisers but the campaign carried on has demonstrated
that these pests can be controlled or at least held in check to such an ex-
tent that no serious damage will result if reasonable care is given in the
management.
An important part of the hog program has been the introduction of
the process for the home curing of meats and several cold storage plants
ave installed facilities for chilling and curing the meat for farmers. As-
istance in handling this by K. F. Warner of the United States Extension
service has been a valuable aid to the county agents and specialists in
his project.
Dairying.-Commercial dairying in this state is confined largely to the
marketing of whole milk in cities. The establishment of creamery and
utter factories has not been profitable, so practically all of them have been
discontinued. Therefore, the main dairying enterprises are nearer the
larger cities and are subject to city regulations and sanitary measures.
his has involved a program of extensive feed production and high labor
ost, since most of the feed is purchased.
The problem therefore is the selection of dairy cattle that can be profit-
bly kept under these intensive programs. There is also a problem of sur-
lus milk during the summer season, when winter tourists have returned to
heir homes.
Parasites in young calves have been prevalent in practically all dairies
f importance and it has been necessary to keep young calves from pastur-
g on infested ground.
Replacement amounts to 20 percent of the average herd each year.
any cows are purchased from adjoining states and because of this trans-
r there has been considerable difficulty in holding diseases of cattle in
eck. During the past 12 months the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry
as conducted an active campaign for the control of Bang's disease, and







Florida Cooperative Extension


the Extension dairyman has given active cooperation. Other problems such
as exchange of dairy sires, construction of silos, selection of suitable silage
crops, and fertilization of pastures have been dealt with by the Extension
Service in this project.
Poultry Husbandry.-The Extension poultry work was modified in 1935
due to the specialist being assigned the responsibility for conducting re-
search and teaching in the College of Agriculture. Because of this arrange-
ment an assistant was appointed who has taken over a large part of the
extension field work.
The Florida Extension Service maintains a National Egg-Laying Con-
test with 100 pens. It is financed by an appropriation from the legislature
and from sales. The contest handles pens of birds from several other
states. This is aside from the regular Extension program but contributes
its part for a better poultry practice.
The poultry industry of Florida has made substantial growth in numbers
and has made progress in methods. Flocks have been managed to prevent
the spread of parasites, reduce expenses, and provide a better market.
There has been an interest in poultry exhibits, particularly for 4-H club
members. The Experiment Station has one veterinarian giving his major
time to investigation of poultry diseases. This harmonizes with the Ex-
tension program and contributes in a substantial way toward keeping
poultry raising on a substantial and economical basis.
In 1935 a study and demonstration of the management of turkeys was
undertaken. This part of the program offers considerable promise.
Poultry work is also a very important part of the home demonstration
agents' work, and in many counties it is the most important program,carried
on by home demonstration agents.
The University of Florida has recently installed additional equipment
for the teaching of poultry husbandry and these facilities will considerably
add to the opportunity for service by the Extension Service throughout the
state.
CITRICULTURE
Florida citrus production is gradually increasing. The 1936-37 crop is
estimated to produce 38 million boxes of fruit. This is the largest crop
in the history of Florida and is an increase of 10 million boxes over the
crop of 1935. This large crop is the result of extensive acreage being planted
in citrus groves and in a normal year the production of from 30,000,000 to
40,000,000 boxes of fruit will not be unusual.
This large production involves the question of marketing in much greater
degree than at any time in the past. It is apparent that unusually high
prices are a thing of the past and crops that are not managed economically
will become a liability to the owner. The big problem, therefore, is reduction
of costs in production, and on this are centered the efforts of specialists and
county agents. Problems in fertilization, cultivation, and varieties are in-
volved, and to a considerable extent the production of high quality fruit
which necessitates a system of spraying for the control of insects and dis-
eases of the fruit and the tree.
The soil conservation program will also aid in this phase of Extension
work, since the need of organic matter in the soil is apparent but fre-
quently misunderstood. It encourages growers to produce cover crops.
Due to the large production of citrus fruits, canning factories to handle
surplus grapefruit have been established and encouragement has been
given to canning and preserving methods by the Florida Experiment Sta-
tion.







Annual Report, 1936


The Citriculturist has given special attention to irrigation practices. In
a large number of groves, irrigation is of secondary importance. However,
in periods of drouth or in the higher, sandy lands, trees often wilt and lose
their fruit because of a lack of moisture in the soil. To remedy this special
attention has been given to the construction of portable irrigation outfits.
Portable irrigation plants can serve a larger area than a stationary plant,
and at small cost.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
The agricultural economics section is set up under two divisions, market-
ing and farm management. Since the beginning of the agricultural adjust-
ment program both of these have been disturbed because of personnel needed
for economics problems during the depression and because of the demands
made by the U. S. Department of Agriculture on the personnel of the eco-
nomics section of the Extension Service.
During 1934 and 1935 until June 1936, the Marketing Specialist has
assisted in the A.A.A. program in Washington. However, in spite of this,
economic studies were made, particularly in poultry and citrus. This project
was carried on by grove owners under the supervision of county agents.
This department is also furnishing much information important in handling
adjustment in agriculture.
AGRONOMY
The agronomy problems have dealt largely with cultural practices in
the production of corn, cotton and peanuts and green crops, also with crops
used for hay, silage, and crops in connection with the soil conservation
program. Particular attention has been given to winter legumes and for
the current year large quantities of vetch and Austrian peas have been pur-
chased by farmers in the general farming area.
Suitable cover crops to be used in citrus groves and vegetable areas
are principally crotalaria and native grasses. These crops determine to a
large extent their usefulness. This phase of agronomy has also been a part
of'the Citriculturist's program, since such cover crops must be used in con-
nection with commercial fertilizer in the economical production of citrus
fruit.
The Annual Outlook Report has been published each year. This report
is assembled by the specialists and supervisors in Extension work and is used
by district and county agents.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK.
This has made progress along all lines during the year, as evidenced
by reports of the State Home Demonstration Agent and her specialists
found elsewhere. They have served rural homes through both women's and
girls' clubs.
NEGRO WORK
The Negro work of Florida has been carried along in the usual way.
Negro agents have assisted county agents in handling the soil conserva-
tion program among Negroes. There is an increasing demand for Negro
Extension work and much more could be done.

FINANCIAL COOPERATION IN COUNTIES
The average appropriation has increased in 1936 and additional counties
have been added. Additional counties have made appropriations for the
support of both county and home agents and at present 58 of the 67 counties
are cooperating and only three counties of agricultural importance remain






Florida Cboperative Extension


to be supplied with county agents, but a larger number are without home
demonstration agents.
There is some tendency for the counties to financially support the Negro
work, principally home demonstration work.
The agricultural adjustment program has added considerable equipment
to the county offices and this has been a substantial improvement.
The counties have supplied clerical services and equipment in limited
amounts but not sufficient to supply all the needs.
The Rural Resettlement administration in Florida has loaned the Exten-
sion Service equipment assigned to them for their offices. This has been
used by the Negro agents to considerable advantage.
For the most part the boards of county commissioners supply the co-
operating funds. In a few counties the school boards contribute in part.
MOST IMPORTANT UNDERTAKINGS
The home demonstration program has not been materially changed
except to add duties and responsibilities, particularly in reference to county
planning and home supplies. During the period of depression this work
arose of necessity and the home agents were able to render very substantial
assistance. During the same period home demonstration workers stressed
increases for the home income. This has been an important advantage to
the programs of 1936, for on many farms a substantial addition has been
made to the income of the home on account of the sale of home products,
primarily canned foods, meats, vegetables, fruits, poultry and dairy pro-
ducts.
The county planning program has made little progress and seems to be
more acceptable in the general farming area of Florida than in the special-
ized products area. It is planned to utilize these committees to the greatest
extent in 1937 in regular Extension work and also in soil conservation pro-
grams.
The agricultural conservation program has been a large undertaking
throughout the entire year. The county agents' offices have been the central
offices in each county. The county programs have necessarily required lots
of attention on the part of agents. County and community committees have
served in a limited way but the responsibility is expected to emanate from
the county agents' offices. This has required additional space and additional
personnel and a large amount of correspondence.
During 1936 the agricultural adjustment program affected the Northern
and Western counties of Florida where basic crops were produced. The
present soil conservation program involves all of Florida and brings up
questions of vital importance that are peculiar to this sub-tropical state.
Negro agents have assisted in the soil conservation program in the
counties. Usual duties pertaining to agricultural enterprises, fairs, meet-
ings, and contacts with other Federal and state organizations have been
taken care of in the usual way.
The Agricultural Extension Service calls on the Florida Experimen
Station for assistance in subject matter and in other ways that make more
complete the Extension program in the counties. Florida has a State Citrus
Commission dealing with the marketing of citrus fruits. It has various or
ganizations directly and indirectly related to the marketing of fruits and
vegetables. The Extension Service takes no part in the management of these
but offers its services wherever such service can be used to advantage.







Annual Report, 1936 13


FINANCIAL STATEMENT
For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1936
RECEIPTS
Federal Smith-Lever ............ ............................. ..... $ 63,968.10
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal .......................... 20,716.14
Baikhead-Jones, Federal .............................................. 83,987.69
Capper-Ketcham, Federal .............................................. 26,555.74
Additional Cooperative, Federal .................................. 23,500.00
State Appropriation for Off-Set .................................... 66,141.98
County Funds for Off-Set .............................................. 15,614.29
State and College Funds ............................................... 28,646.00
County Funds ................................................................ 90,235.71

$419,365.65
EXPENDITURES
A dm inistration .. ............................................................ 13,908.55
Publications, printing ...................................................... 11,732.48
County Agent Program .............. ............................ 185,529.32
4-H Club Program (Boys) ......................................... 6,309.35
Home Demonstration Program .-...-..--..-----................ 124,935.92
Dairy and Animal Husbandry ........................................ 7,192.68
Farm and Home-Makers' Program (Negro Work).... 25,946.79
Citriculture ...................................................................... 4,839.09
Poultry Husbandry .................................................... 4,633.09
Extension Schools ..--...--..------------.....-................ 152.35
Agricultural Economics .................................................. 12,627.14
Florida National Egg-Laying Contest ........................ 5,559.16
Balance Bankhead-Jones, Federal ................................ 6,934.72
Balance State Appropriation Carried Over ................ 9,065.01

$419,365.65







14 Florida Cooperative Extension


STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Days service rendered by county workers ................................ 27,072
D ays in office .................. ................................................................... 11,987.5
D ays in field .................................................................................... 15,084.5
Number people assisting Extension program voluntarily ...... 2,370
Number paid employes assisting Extension program ............ 569
Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work 338
M embers in such clubs ................................................................ 8,366
4-H Clubs ............................................. 680
4-H Club members enrolled ......................................................... 13,601
Different 4-H club members completing .................................... 8,356
4-H club teams trained .................. ................... .. 516
Groups other than 4-H clubs organized for Extension work
with rural young people 16 years of age and older ............ 19
Members in these groups ............. ............................................... 379
Farm or home visits made ......... ........................................-....... 54,196
Different farms or homes visited .............................................. 23,940
Calls relating to Extension work .............................................. 314,474
News articles or stories published and circular letters ........... 10,251
Number individual letters written ............................................. 97,500
Bulletins distributed ....................................................................... 104,662
Radio Talks ........................................ ....................................... 132
Extension exhibits shown ........................................................ 390
Training meetings held for local leaders ................................. 488
(Attendance .................... 4,875
Method demonstration meetings held ...................................... 10,391
(Attendance .................... 147,659
Meetings held at result demonstration ................................... 3,201
(Attendance .................... 38,253
Farm tours conducted ..................................... 208
(Attendance ...................... 5,759
Achievement days held ....................................... ...... .... ...... 151
(Attendance .................... 110,510
Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.) ........ 54
(Attendance .................... 5,734
Other meetings ......... .......... ........ ... .... ................ 5,354
(Attendance ...................... 154,556

CEREALS
Communities in which work was conducted ......................... 403
Result demonstrations conducted.................................................. 308
M meetings held ............................................. ............ 188
News stories published and circular letters .............................. 176
Farm or home visits made ...................................................... 1,165
Office calls received ........................................ ........................... 7,043
4-H Club members ................................ .......................... 820
4-H Club members completing .................................................. 399
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 468
Total yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 11,591.5 Bu
Farmers following better practices recommended .................... 8,426

LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS
Communities in which work was conducted ............................ 1,064
Result demonstrations conducted .............................................. 783
M meetings held ........................................-. .... ........... ................ 413
News stories published and circular letters ............................ 495
Farm or home visits made .......................................................... 2,199







Annual Report, 1936 15

Number office calls received ........................................ 17,563
4-H Club members enrolled ................................. .......... 468
4-H Club members completing ................ .................. ........ 167
Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing-
(Seed, pounds ................ 147,618
(Forage, tons .............. 124.65
Farmers following better practice recommendations ............ 11,018

POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS
Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Other Crops Cotton Tobacco
Communities in which work was conducted 502 211 75
Result demonstrations .................................. 196 88 12
Meetings held ...-.......................... ............. 218 168 56
News stories published and circular
letters written ...................................... 308 263 62
Farm or home visits made ................... 1,857 935 310
Office calls received ........................................ 6,759 15,783 4,769
4-H Club members enrolled ......... ......... 343 202 9
4-H Club members completing ................. 147 77 7
Acres in projects by 4-H Club members
completing .............................................. 101.85 77.5 6.5
Yields by 4-H club members completing 13,199 Bu. 65,987 Lb. 6,448 Lb.
Farms following better practices ......... 5,930 9,056 2,364

FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Communities in which work was conducted ............................. 2,282
Result demonstrations conducted ............................................. 10,162
M meetings held .................................................................. 3,430
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 1,949
Farm or home visits made ............................................... .... .... 12,310
Office calls received ................................................... ................. 32,305
4-H Club members enrolled ............................................... ......... 8,378
4-H Club members completing .......... ...................... 5,286
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 920%
Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 30,984% Bu.
Farms and homes adopting improved practices ...................... 38,901

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Communities in which work was conducted ............................. 332
result demonstrations conducted .......................................... 293
meetings held ................................................... ............................ 379
ews stories published and circular letters issued ................ 156
arm or home visits made ........... ................................. 1,082
office calls received ........ .... .. ................................ 4,250
-H Club members enrolled ............ ............................... 82
-H Club members completing ............. ..................... 51
arms on which new areas were reforested by planting with
small trees -................... ..................... 265
cres reforested .......................................................... 7,609
arms adopting better forestry practices .................................. 1,360
arms adopting soil conservation practices................................ 764
cres involved .................................................... 29,010
and clearing .. .... .... ............................................ 91
cres involved ......................................................... 2,244
armers adopting better machine practice .............................. 985
umber machines involved ........................................................ 672
armers adopting better building and equipment practices.... 3,223
building and items of equipment involved ................................ 2,814







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted ............................... 706
Result demonstrations conducted ........................................ 1,943
M meetings held ................................................................................... 1,223
News stories published and circular letters issued ................ 588
Farm or home visits made ...................... ................ 3,565
Office calls received ........... ......... .............................................. 10,119
4-H Club members enrolled ................................. ... .. 1,965
4-H Club members completing ................................................ 1,121
Number chickens raised ................................................................ 40,283
Number colonies of bees ...................................... 258
Families following improved practices in poultry raising ... 12,008
Families following improved practices-bees ....................... 1,198

DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted ............................. 1,220
Result demonstrations conducted .................................................. 1,364
M meetings held ....... ........................................ ........ ......... ....... 1,070
News stories published and circular letters issued .................. 856
Farm or home visits made.............................................................. 10,685
Office calls received ...................................... 31,421
4-H Club members enrolled ....... ....... ...................................... 1,489
4-H Club members completing .................................................... 688
Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members com-
pleting ........................................... 1,120
Farmers obtaining better breeding stock ............. .................... 2,275
Farmers using other improved live stock practices ............... 28,862

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 1,739
Result demonstrations conducted ............................................ 1,112
Meetings held ........................................ 1,363
News stories published and circular letters issued ............... 1,482
Home or farm visits made ........................................... ............ 6,296
Office calls received ...................................... 83,432
4-H Club members enrolled ........................................ ............. 1,722
4-H Club members completing .................................................... 1,622
Farmers keeping account and cost records .............................. 2,454
Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts .................... 747
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments ........ 4,304
Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year 112
Farmers making business changes resulting from economic
surveys .. ..................... ... ........ ... ............ 75,659
Families assisted in getting established ............. ...................... 1,134
Marketing groups organized or assisted ............................ 90
Individuals affected by marketing program ............................ 11,089
Organizations assisted with problems ..................................... 392
Individuals assisted with problems ............................................ 7,766
Value of products sold by all groups organized or assisted ....$2,606,425.47
Value of products sold by individuals (not in organizations) $3,723,903.36
Value of supplies purchased-all associations ........................ 982,045.31
Value of supplies purchased by individuals .............................. 223,734.24

FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 994
Result demonstrations conducted ....................................... 8,708
M meetings held .. ................................................................................. 3,872
News stories published and circular letters issued ...... .......... 1,086
Farm or home visits made ................... ........... ........... 4,225
Office calls:received ......... ..... ...... ........ .. ......................... 10,563
4-H Club members enrolled ...... .......... ....................................... 8,534







Annual Report, 1936 17

4-H Club members completing ..........................--............. 5,896
Containers of food prepared and saved by 4-H club members 218,870
Families adopting better practices as to foods ....................... 13,050
schools following recommendations for school lunch .............. 91
Children in schools following lunch recommendations ............ 21,187
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs ........ 2,131,187
Value of all products canned or otherwise preserved ..............$ 401,749.61
families readjusting family food supply ............................5,330

CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
communities in which work was conducted .............................. 182
result demonstrations conducted ............................................... 805
meetings held .... .......................................................................... 359
ews stories published and circular letters issued .................. 76
arm or hom e visits m ade ............................................................. 355
Sfce calls received ....... .......................................................... 787
-H Club members enrolled ................................. ..................... 512
-H Club members completing ...... ------...................................... 492
additional 4-H club members participating .............................. 220
families following child-development plans ............................ 1,768
different individuals participating in child-development pro-
gram .. .. ..................................................... .......... 2,275
children involved in child-development program .................. 17,891

CLOTHING
communities in which work was conducted ............................ 537
result demonstrations conducted .............................................. 2,872
meetings held ..................... ....................-.....---.... 2,592
ews stories published and circular letters issued .................. 366
arm or home visits made ..--........... .................... ....... 1,629
ce calls received ---.............. ................. ............................ 3,667
-H Club m embers enrolled ........................................................... 7,945
-H Club members completing ................................................ 5,820
articles made by 4-H club members completing ..................... 44,542
dividuals following better clothing practices ........................ 18,165
families assisted in determining how best to meet clothing
require ents ........................................................................ 2,603
savings due to clothing program ..................... ................... $ 58,254.05

HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
communities in which work was conducted .............................. 1,046
result demonstrations conducted --............................... ........... 5,877
meetings held ............................................ ................................. 2,140
ews stories published and Circular letters issued ............... 347
arm or home visits made ................ ..................................... 2,005
ice calls received ........... ...................................--..... 3,909
H Club members enrolled .............. ..................................... 4,066
H Club members completing ............................................... 3,218
ojects conducted by 4-H club members completing ............ 20,986
miles following better home-management practices ........ 14,682
timated savings due to home-management program ..........$ 28,382.50
miles improving household furnishing .................................. 9,970
vings due to house-furnishings program ................................$ 27,297.55
miles following handicraft practices .... ......................... 3,161

HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
mmunities in which work was conducted .............................. 371
sult demonstrations conducted ........................................... 1,650
etings held ............................................................. 578
ws stories published and circular letters issued .................. 112







18 Florida Cooperative Extension

Farm or home visits made ....................................................... 995
Office calls received ....................................................................... 2,368
4-H Club members enrolled ....................................................... 1,899
4-H Club members completing ............................. ............ 2,071
Additional 4-H club members participating .............................. 3,594
Individuals having health examination ..................................... 4,255
Individuals adopting health measures ....................................... 11,628
Families adopting health measures ............................................ 3,693

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Communities in which work was conducted .......................... 781
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting ................ 644
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or com-
m itteemen ............................................................................. 1,443.5
M meetings held .............. ................................................................... 1,104
News stories published and circular letters issued ............. 1,265
Farm or home visits made ........ .............................. 2,456
Office calls received .............................................. ...... 5,638
Communities assisted with community problems ............. 1,030
Country life conferences ........................................... ............. 98
Families following recommendations as to home recreation 1,952
4-H Clubs engaging in community activities ........................... 267
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or
other relief agency .......................................................... 612







Annual Report, 1936


PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Informational work reflected and supplemented practically all activities
of the Agricultural Extension Service during the year. County and home
demonstration agents utilized facilities at hand, such as radio stations, news-
papers, circular letters, posters, moving pictures, and other vehicles in mak-
ing noteworthy accomplishments along these lines. The state Editorial
Office printed and distributed bulletins and other supplies needed by the
agents and prepared and distributed hundreds of news and radio releases
containing reports of progress and suggestions for better farming and
home making.
It is but natural that considerable attention was paid to the important
national agricultural conservation program as conducted in Florida. This
set-up touched the entire agricultural area of the state, and consequently
was of more widespread interest than the old agricultural adjustment
program.

BULLETINS AND SUPPLIES PRINTED AND DISTRIBUTED
Subject matter material printed during the fiscal year ending June 30,
1936, included four new bulletins and two old ones reprinted, four new cir-
culars and one reprint, the Annual Report for 1935, a 1936 educational
Calendar, the 1936 outlook report, final report of the Florida National Egg-
aying Contest, and two folders on Florida's egg quality program sug-
estions for consumers and producers.
Although the Extension Service does not print as many bulletins as
night be desired, the total outlined above is a considerable increase over
receding years. New bulletins amounted to 196 pages of printed material,
nd a total of 64,000 copies were issued. New circulars comprised 28 pages,
ith 33,000 copies printed.
Record books, wall cards, covers for mimeographed studies, monthly
-eport blanks, short course programs, work sheet and other materials con-
tituted the supplies printed. Following is a list of materials edited and
rinted under the supervision of the Editorial Office.

Pages Edition
ul. 81. Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm ............ 40 12,000
ul. 82. Feeding for Milk Production ........................................ 40 20,000
ul. 83. Pickles and Relishes .................................................... 64 20,000
ul. 84. Native and Exotic Palms of Florida ........................ 72 12,000
ul. 55. Rejuvenating Furniture (reprint) ............................ 12 7,500
ul. 65. Club Work and the Farm Boy (reprint) ............... 20 15,000
irc. 38. Questions on the Dining Room to Make You Think 4 7,500
irc. 39. Questions on Bedrooms to Make You Think ......... 8 7,500
irc. 40. Making and Using Sauerkraut .................................. 8 12,500
irc. 41. Cotton Rat Control ................................................ 8 5,000
irc. 33. The Canning Budget (reprint) ................................ 6 15,000
Annual Report, 1935 ................................................ 104 2,000
Calendar, 1936 ......... ......................................... 12 11,500
I.P. 6. 4-H Crop Club Record Book (reprint) .................. 12 15,000
I.P. 10. Livestock Club Record Book .................................... 12 6,000
I.P. 11. The Florida Agricultural Outlook for 1936 ............ 40 3,000
.P. 12. Florida's Egg Quality Program-Suggestions for
the Consumer ......................................... ........... .... 8 25,000







20 Florida Cooperative Extension

M. P. 13. Florida's Egg Quality Program-Suggestions for
the Producer ............................................. ...... 8 12,000
M.P. 14. Boy's Agricultural Club Secretary's Record Book 20 1,500
Screw worm fly placard ...................... ......... 1 12,000
Final Report, Ninth Florida National Egg-Laying
Contest ................ ............. .................... .......... 20 1,500
Announcement and Rules, Eleventh Florida
National Egg-Laying Contest .............................. 6 1,500
Cover for mimeograph, Florida Citrus Costs and
Returns ....... .... ............................................... 4 2,000
Form 5. Monthly Report Blank (for use by agents) ............ 2 17,50.0
Program, 20th Annual Boys' 4-H Club Short Course 12 500
Chick Mortality Records cards ................................. 1 1,000
Requirements and Records of Home Improvement
for 4-H Club Girls .............................................. 12 10,00(
Form S. R. 1. 1936 Soil Conservation Program Work Sheet 1 25,00(

FARM NEWS SERVICE
Farm news and informational articles were supplied to weekly an
daily newspapers and farm papers in increasing quantity during the year
The clipsheet, direct mailings, and press agencies were utilized in distribute
ing news to the newspapers, and these papers were generous in the us
of the material. A considerable increase in interest in farm news during
the year was noted, the agencies and papers requesting more and mor
from this office and from agents in the counties.
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, continued to be th
vehicle through which weeklies and semi-weeklies were served. It has no
been running for 20 years, and is an established institution among th
Florida Press. It carried from eight to 12 separate articles each wee
and these concerned the Extension Service, Experiment Station, College o
Agriculture, State Plant Board, or related agency.
Dozens of special releases were supplied to the dailies, through direct
mailings from the Editorial Office and through both mail and wire service
of the Associated Press. Both these and the clipsheet articles were widely
printed, and served to carry information regularly to readers.
Farm papers continued to print larger numbers of articles from the A
ricultural Extension Service. The Editors themselves prepared 55 differ
articles amounting to 1,096 column inches which were printed in 10 far
magazines. Probably more than this amount written by various other me
bers of the staff and submitted by the Editors was printed also. Florid
papers requested and were supplied large numbers of articles based on radio
talks made during the Florida Farm Hour over WRUF.
Records show that material prepared by the Editors was used as follow
during the year ending November 30, 1936: Five Florida papers printed
37.articles amounting to 858 column inches; one Southern journal took
articles for 134 inches; and four national magazines used eight artici
amounting to 104 inches.

FARM RADIO SERVICE
Radio is assuming a place of wider and wider importance in the educ
tional field, and farm programs are among the most popular information
programs in Florida. The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF each .week day
noon is the principal radio activity of this office, but farm flashes a
special programs over other stations blanket the entire state with far
information.
Florida Farm Hour: This program was on the air each week day from
.to 1 p.m. Approximately one-half of the hour was devoted to music and t







Annual Report, 1936


otherr half to talking, with three or more speeches going on the air each
lay. Weather and market reports daily rendered additional service to
isteners.
Regular features presented by the editors included a review of farm
lews highlights daily for 312 days, and radio's weekly farm newspaper for
il weeks, and the farm question box for 51 weeks. Staff members and
others, presented a total of 434 talks during the year. Of these the Editors
preparedd and delivered 19. Farm flashes from the USDA were read 106
imes. Thus the grand total of talks on the Florida Farm Hour during
he year amounted to 954.
The Editors arranged the programs for this hour and supervised them
aily. Speakers included workers of the Experiment Station, Extension
service State Plant Board, College of Agriculture, Department of Soci-
logy, Pharmacy School, State Department of Agriculture, State Forest
service, State Marketing Bureau, State Health Department, club boys and
irls, students, farmers, county agents, and others. Special musical pro-
rams were rendered by Choral Club of the College of Agriculture, Bill
ryan of WRUF staff, and others.
Special programs, such as for the Beef Cattle Field Day on March 27,
oys' Club Short Course, Negro 4-H club program, and others, were arranged
during the year.
Farm Flashes: This office continued to cooperate with the United States
department of Agriculture in distributing farm flash programs to com-
lercial radio stations throughout Florida. Enough material for 7 to 8
minutes each day for five days in the week was sent to radio stations located
Tallahassee, Jacksonville, Orlando, and Miami. During the first part of
e year they were sent also to Pensacola, (discontinued in June), and be-
nning later in the year they went to Lakeland (May) and West Palm
each (September). Similar material was supplied to a station in St.
tersburg, but was used only once a week.
In most cases county and home demonstration agents assisted in selec-
on and presentation of the flashes.
The USDA supplied this office with daily flashes, but due to the fact
at most of Florida's agriculture is highly specialized, many of these were
placed with more adapted material prepared in this office. On 39 occa-
ns it was necessary to send two different sets of flashes, and on one three
ts, to assure that material would be suitable for all stations.
Other Radio Work: Florida participated in the National 4-H Club
hievement Day program the first Saturday in November, as usual. Three
C stations carried this program of which 30 minutes came from Wash-
gton and 30 minutes from each local station. This office arranged the
al programs.
The Land Grant College program of the National Farm and Home Hour
s broadcast from the University of Florida on September 16, and this
ice rendered some assistance in arrangements.
A special 4-H club broadcast was staged from a Tallahassee station
ring the 4-H Girls' Short Course at State College for Women in June.

MISCELLANEOUS WORK
Cooperation was rendered various units of the United States Department
Agriculture, including the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Soil
nservation Service, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, and Ra-
Service. The Editors assisted with informational material for the pro-
ed marketing agreement with citrus, which was later adopted. Con-
erable help was given in the screw worm control campaign conducted







22 Florida Cooperative Extension

cooperatively by the Extension Service and the Bureau of Entomolog
and Plant Quarantine.
Bulletins and other materials and supplies were distributed from tt
Mailing Room, and mimeographing work for the entire organization we
done here. This was extremely heavy during the past year, partly became
of the agricultural conservation program.
The Editors made talks before county and home demonstration agent
in annual conference, held three news writing classes for 4-H club report
from five counties, and participated in the programs of the American Ass
ciation of Agricultural Editors meeting at Madison, Wisconsin. This ass
citation accepted the invitation to come to Florida for its meetingin t
summer of 1937.
A study to determine likes and dislikes of radio listeners was inaugural
with the assistance of two students assigned to this office by the Nation
Youth Administration.
The three Editors and two Mailing Clerks gave approximately half
their time to work for the Extension Service and the other half to the E
periment Station. One stenographer used the larger part of her time
work for the Extension Service.







Annual Report, 1936


PART II-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENT WORK
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director and
County Agent Leader
H. G. Clayton, District Agent
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent

The past year has been one of progress, with increasing demands made
all branches of the service. There were 57 counties cooperating in the
Drk, the largest number ever directly interested. Of these, 54 had county
:ents and 38 home demonstration agents.
The program as carried out in counties by Extension agents varies to
wide extent and is dependent on the prevailing types of agriculture. Pro-
ams in the counties are necessarily governed by prevailing sources of
come and these are in turn governed by soil types, marketing facilities,
ops grown, etc.
At the beginning of 1936 the agricultural adjustment program was
panded to deal with all phases of Florida agriculture. This has extended
e activities of agents in the sub-tropical areas. Response to the soil con-
rvation program in areas not affected by the original program has ex-
aded expectations.
The supervision of Extension work in the counties has been modified
that the work must now be handled with groups of people and to a lesser
tent with individuals.

PERSONNEL AND SUPERVISION
There has been no material change in the organization during the year.
signations, transfers and appointments were slightly more numerous
m usual. As far as permitted by funds for the purpose from the AAA,
instant agents have been appointed to supervise office work, assist with
bicultural conservation activities, and aid the agents with 4-H club work.
New agents and assistants appointed have been college graduates, most
them from the University of Florida College of Agriculture. Of the 55
nts and assistants working at the end of the year, 35 were Florida
dduates and 13 from other institutions. No special provision was made for
>fessional improvement of agents, aside from personal contacts with
each and other workers at the University of Florida.
County office and field equipment remains inadequate, but the situation
being gradually improved. Materials supplied by the Agricultural Ad-
tment Administration for use in the agricultural conservation program
ling a pressing need in many counties.
Clerical service in county offices also is still limited. Approximately
agents are supplied with stenographers from county funds. Necessary
ks and stenographers conducting agricultural conservation work assist
terially in routine details of the offices, and keep offices open while
nts are in the field.
To obtain better supervision and more assistance in subject matter,
cialists have been given some supervisory duties, and in some cases
rict agents have rendered subject matter assistance. This has worked
to advantage.







Florida Cooperative Extension


DETERMINING COUNTY PROGRAMS
Data available are used by district supervisors and specialists in setting
up county programs. These data are compiled by the Economics section
and taken from outlook reports and United States Census reports. In area
of limited agriculture programs cannot well be fully determined fron
such data, since the information is incomplete. In such cases the district
and county agents outline their programs and are governed by condition:
existing locally, using materials prepared by subject matter specialist:
of the college and experiment station.
County committeemen play an important part in shaping programs
County planning councils have contributed to the improvement of programs
and have given moral support to the work.

COOPERATION WITH STATE AND FEDERAL AGENCIES

Other agencies having had cooperation of the Extension Service to th
fullest extent possible include the following:
Agricultural Adjustment Administration, in closing out its 1935 cro
control work and in conducting the agricultural conservation program
this State.
By cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantin
an intensive campaign has been carried through to reduce damage by th
screw worm in all livestock counties of Florida. County agents' offices hav
been headquarters for the county screw worm control supervisors appointed
by the federal bureau.
The Extension Service has cooperated with the State Department c
Agriculture; the State Live Stock Sanitary Board; Florida Milk Inspectio
Service; Florida State Marketing Bureau; Vocational Agriculture Teacher
working under the supervision of the Department of Education; Stat
Board of Health; Farm Debt Adjustment Commission; Rural Rehabilit
tion Administration; Soil Erosion Project, located at Graceville, Florid
Florida Citrus Commission; the Citrus Control Board, operated in cooper
tion with the Florida Citrus Commission.
In addition, the Extension Service has had a close working cooperate
agreement with the State Plant Board and other regulatory institution
affecting agriculture.

PLANNING COUNCILS
This service has featured the organization of planning councils in
organized effort to encourage rural people to make plans and recommend
tions governing their farming operations that can be approved in sta
and federal programs. This program was sponsored by the Agricultur
Adjustment Administration.
These councils were organized under the leadership of Extension agen
and were composed of men and women who operate farms and live in rur
communities. Committees were selected to represent principal commodity
in each county. Representatives of civic clubs, school boards, boards
county commissioners, vocational agriculture teachers, and individu
farmers and farm women directly concerned with the business of
farming communities participated.
County and home agents directed the county planning councils a
through their offices the councils functioned.
The main purpose of the councils was to study economic data pe
training to Agricultural enterprises and to develop an appropriate agric
tural program fitting in the respective communities. These councils ha







Annual Report, 1936 25

served more effectively in some areas than in others, due largely to leader-
;hip interested in the purpose and outcome of the improvement. These
:ouncils serve as advisory committees to the county and home agents in
;haping their future programs and with the Extension Service to foster
;uch programs as will promote the welfare of the community as a whole.

PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS
A few of the major activities of the year may be summarized as follows:
1. Cooperation with the producers of citrus fruit for the purpose of
educing cost of production and setting up a better system of fertilization.
2. Increased, shipments of veal calves to Eastern markets. This provides
n additional outlet available to the range cattle owners of Florida.
3. Improvement in handling range grazing lands by mowing to keep
own weeds and permit succulent growth of grass.
4. Poultry sanitation and improvement in quality and marketing.
5. More diversity in farm crops for sa'e, particularly in cotton grow-
ig areas; especially of livestock, poultry, small fruits and vegetables for
cal consumption.
6. Greater community consciousness and cooperation. This paves the
ay for constructive work in the future and will simplify carrying out the
immunity and county programs.
7. Home demonstration agents have been able to direct a program
iat has increased the incomes of farm homes. This has been carried out
rough the sale of local products, poultry in particular, home-made articles,
iry products, flowers, and the conservation of fruits and vegetables that
ve been grown for home use and sold locally.
8. Improved facilities for conducting 4-H camps. While this has been
der the direction of the 4-H club agents, funds necessary to carry out
ch a program have been provided by local interests, with the assistance
projects fostered by the federal government.
9. An effective program for the control of screw worms has resulted
a definite reduction in infestations. For handling this work, a state ap-
opriation made available to the Extension Service was used cooperatively
ith a similar appropriation from the U. S. Bureau-of Entomology and
ant Quarantine. The educational program carried out has contacted prac-
ally every livestock owner, with the definite result that stockmen and
rmers are now in a position to control screw worm infestations in the
ture.
10. A special drive was conducted in 17 northern and western Florida
unties to increase plantings of winter legumes. Farmers in these 17
nties secured through cooperative purchase 111,450 pounds of vetch
d Austrian pea seed. This was planted on 3,787 acres.
Sea Island Cotton: A decided effort on the part of farmers to promote
ewed Sea Island cotton production was made. By cooperation with the
periment Station and the Cotton Section of the U. S. Bureau of Plant
ustry, a definite effort was made to secure a supply of seed suited to
s area and to encourage the control of boll weevil and other factors
portant in the growing of Sea Island cotton. In this effort to renew the
a Island cotton industry, the Federal Bureau and the Experiment Station
d the Extension Service are cooperating* to safeguard the important
tures of the program that would determine its success or failure.
Corn Demonstrations: County agents have conducted 92 corn fertiliza-
n demonstrations and 88 variety demonstrations. Approximately 4,000







Florida Cooperative Extension


acres of corn were selected as demonstration areas in which winter legum
were used for soil-building purposes. Corn yields in northern and wester
Florida have been consistently low. Therefore, cover crops and soil-buil
ing practices have entered largely into methods recommended for increase
yields. Varieties selected have been recommended by the Agronomy Depar
ment of the Experiment Station, which has determined by test variety,
best suited to the various soil types of this state.
The growing of corn in central and southern Florida has also been
project for 4-H club boys and in many instances the yields have been rel
tively high. But field corn is of secondary importance in that area.
Peanuts: The Extension Service has encouraged thicker planting
peanuts. This practice has enabled growers to increase yields. Demonstr
tions under the direction of county agents have been carried out principal
in the Jackson County commercial peanut area.
Extension agents have recommended that peanuts be interplanted wi
corn, since this interferes to a very small extent with the corn and p
vides an additional crop with relatively small additional expenses. Repo
show that 210,000 acres were interplanted with corn and peanuts in 19
in areas where this program was encouraged by the county agents.
There is a direct relationship between peanut production and hog p
duction, Improved market conditions for livestock have resulted in a
cided increase of marketable hogs during 1936. Most of these hogs we
fed out in the area best suited to peanut production, consequently the p
nut crop is encouraged as a source of fattening for livestock, and cou
agents have included that in their program as a direct source of reven
to farmers.
Feed and Pastures: Feed and pasture work enters into general farm
practices and crop rotation. With increased interest in livestock because
better markets, the Extension Service has continued the program of p
ture and feed improvement. A larger acreage than usual has been gro
during 1936.
Studies are being made of the adaptability of grasses and forage cr
for feed and soil improvement. Particular attention has been given to cr
that can be -used for silage-corn, sorghum, sugarcane-and to a les
extent the ordinary legumes. Agents have helped to introduce new variety
of sugarcane suitable for silage purposes, since cane produces a lar
tonnage than either soybeans or corn, particularly on light sandy so
There has been increased interest in finishing cattle in feed lots which
quires a liberal supply of forage crops. These varieties of cane convert
into silage have pointed the way to supply the necessary feed for
winter feeding of cattle.
Attention is also given to the planting of small grains for win
grazing and to a limited extent to supply grain for livestock.
County agents have conducted demonstrations for pasture lots, rec
mending grasses suitable for grazing work stock in preference to keep
these animals in dry lots.
County agents have conducted 19 demonstrations to determine meth
for the improvement of pastures.
Tobacco: Since flue-cured tobacco has been an important cash c
much interest is centered in this crop in 10 North Florida counties. Pr
tices for growing tobacco having been fairly well established according to
best information available. Efforts have been made to hold production
line with consumption needs. Stress has been placed on methods of fertile
tion and curing that will produce best quality. By growing legumes and
lowing soil improvement practices, yields can be increased, but the qua
is impaired.








Annual Report, 1936


Citrus Demonstrations: This program involves special practices dealing
ith production, quality and costs. The increased production of citrus has
*sulted in lower prices to producers and an important part of the program,
lerefore, has been to reduce costs. The program as carried out by the
runty agents has for its purpose primarily demonstrations in reducing
ists of fertilization and cultivation and in some instances the abandonment
groves so situated as to make them unprofitable regardless of method of
mdling.
Much interest has been centered on fertilizer applications, particularly
ith grapefruit and tangerines, when returns to growers have been below
oduction costs. In these cases growers are being guided by cost studies
inducted by the Economics Division. Growers are advised as to costs of
eir operations and receive recommendations governing fertilization, cover
ps, cultural practices, disease and insect control-all of which enter into
oduction costs.
The Agricultural Conservation program this year was applicable to the
rus area. It encouraged the planting of cover crops such as crotalaria,
ggarweed and native grasses and the best uses for these to improve
ality and production in the groves.
Vegetable Demonstrations: This program applies particularly to cen-
1 and southern Florida and to home gardens in the general farming area
d to the market gardens adjacent to the larger cities. The Extension
ogram in vegetable production has dealt largely with cover crops and soil
provement practices and summer cropping to grasses or legumes for soil
provement. It has also taken into consideration cooperative marketing
vegetables in the large producing areas.
An attempt was made to establish market agreements for vegetable
Strawberry growers but on account of the many interests involved in
h a program this effort did not meet with general approval and was
put into effect except in a very limited way.
County agents are watching results of tests made by the Experiment
tion to determine varieties, dates of planting and packages. The usual
mention to home gardens entering into the live-at-home program has been
en by county and home agents in all sections of this State.
For the past 10 years- the commercial vegetable areas have had a ten-
cy to shift to central and southern Florida territory, but in particular
the Everglades. This calls for a program of greater diversification in
vegetable growing areas of central and northern Florida. Marketing
ters to supply vegetables to trucks, established by the State Department
Agriculture, have met with favorable response. Extension agents have
ommended planting dates, varieties and soil types for vegetables to
ply the trucks.
Cooperative Sales and Purchases: The Surplus Commodity Corporation
the Agricultural Adjustment Administration purchased 67,797 gallons
sugarcane syrup, returning $23,293 to a relatively small group of farmers
northern and western Florida. Extension agents located this surplus
up for which there was no local demand, helped assemble it at car-lot
ing points, inspected it for quality, certified to the shipments and con-
ed it to the Surplus Commodity Corporation according to their instruc-
IS.
A canvas was made as to the possibility of buying for the same cor-
ation any surplus sweet potatoes, pears, corn and hay that the farmers
ht have on hand. However, it was determined that the quantity of
e surpluses was not sufficient to warrant the collection of car-lot ship-
ts.








Florida Cooperative Extension


The county agents in this area were able to pool orders for farmers fc
the purchase of seeds, containers, cooperative purchase of dairy and bee
cattle, principally breeding stock, feeder pigs, hogs and poultry for breed
ing stock and the use of 4-H club members. The total value of these prc
ducts can only be estimated because of the variety of conditions under
which they were purchased and because of the number of persons partici
pating. These cooperative purchases in 1936 exceeded $2,000,000.
Cooperative Hog Sales: In every important hog-producing area ti
county agents have conducted cooperative hog sales. For the most pa
these were the first cooperative hog sales in several years. In the pean
growing area of northern and western Florida, where the sales ha
been especially successful, the county agents have secured the suppo
of farmers and hogs sold have exceeded in number and value those so
in any other recent year, and have returned to the farmers more mon
and profit than any other crop or kind of livestock. This cooperative mov
ment has not only improved the price, because of the greater number
buyers, but has presented an opportunity for an improved quality of hol
and feeding methods which will establish hog production on a better has
for the future and will further encourage livestock management and feedir
practices that are intended to result in larger returns to farmers.
Cooperative sales have also extended to poultry, eggs, and turkeys.
this the Extension Service has a working cooperative program with t
State Marketing Bureau.
Sweet Potato Weevil Control: In Gadsden County it was determined th
a number of fields were infested with sweet potato weevils. The count
agent interviewed the State Plant Board as to methods farmers sho
adopt for control or eradication of the pest. This effort resulted in arousi
the interest of sweet potato growers in that section to follow practice
that were intended to eliminate weevils by destroying all sweet pots
plants on the farms that had been infested and securing plants from be
where sweet potato weevils did not exist. These plant beds were arrange
for by the county agent and farmers were provided with the necessa
stock, so that purpose of the program could be effectively carried o
In this the Board of County Commissioners and the State Plant Board
operated throughout the entire season with the result that there was pr
tically complete eradication on most of the farms of that area.
The county agent secured signed agreements from farmers and
inspector from the State Plant Board visited the fields, potato banks
seed beds to determine the amount, if any, of sweet potato weevils t
could be found. By this method it is hoped that farmers can prod
ample sweet potatoes in the future for local needs and markets by observi
the precautions to keep their places free from sweet potato weevils.
The labor for handling this was supplied by the W. P. A., which f
nished funds for managing the sweet potato beds and inspection of
properties. About 25,000 bushels of sweet potatoes were grown under
supervision of the county agent to fulfill a promise to farmers that th
would be a supply of seed and planting stock for future planting. A rec
inspection shows that only two known infestations have occurred in t
area. This indicates a very definite clean-up in Gadsden County.
Educational Meetings: On account of the Agricultural Adjustment p
gram, there has been an increased interest in agriculture generally. The
tension Service, through the county agents and supervisory staff, has c
ducted farmers' meetings in practically every community in Florida dur
the past year. In the general farming area the interest was centered aro
the soil conservation program, since it involved practices that must







Annual Report, 1936 29

understood by the farmers that they might participate to the full extent of
paymentss made available to them because of this program. Coupled with
his were the usual Extension activity programs. Greatest interest was
entered around the following subjects: Soil conservation; cover crop prac-
ices; beef cattle purchases for breeding purposes; feeds and silo construc-
ion; milk sales as affecting producer returns; citrus program for cost re-
luction and better fruit campaigns; 4-H club work; cooperative organiza-
ions and commodity production involving minor commodities affecting farm
income.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SOIL CONSERVATION PROGRAM
H. G. Clayton, Chairman, State Soil Conservation Committee
On February 29, 1936, the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment
Act was approved by the President to replace the adjustment programs
which operated in 1934 and 1935.
Under this program the United States was divided into five regions foi
administrative purposes. Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkan
sas, Texas, Georgia, Oklahoma, and South Carolina constitute the Southerr
Region.
This program is handled within the State under the administration o
the Director of the Agricultural Extension Service. A State Agricultura
Conservation Committee was designated by the Director of Extension an
consisted of W. B. Anderson of Greenwood, Jackson County, farmer; Jame
J. Love of Quincy, Gadsden County, farmer; Ralph B. Chapman of Sanforc
Seminole County, farmer; and H. G. Clayton, District Agent of the Agri
cultural Extension Service of Gainesville, as Chairman and Assistant Ad
ministrative Officer.
A state office was set up in Gainesville in the Experiment Statio
building to handle the program. In each county the county agent, assisted
by a county committee of three farmers, together with community commit
teemen and necessary clerical help, handles the program locally. Distri
agents of the Extension Service have direct supervision over this program
as well as the regular Extension work.
Main provisions of the program are: (1) To improve the land by adop
ing and putting into operation soil building practices on crop land; (2
to divert acreage from certain soil-depleting crops such as cotton, tobacco
peanuts and general crops to soil-conserving crops for the purpose of i
proving land and to improve prices by thus reducing surpluses and the tot
supply in line with demand conditions; and (3) to improve net farm i
come in line with income of persons not on farms, due regard being giv
to maintaining a continuous and stable supply of agricultural commodity
adequate to meet consumer demand at prices fair to both producers a
consumers.
HOW THE PROGRAM WAS HANDLED
Each producer who participated in the program executed a work she
covering his farm and in which was set forth basic information regard
the crop history and production of the farm. The committeemen, coun
agent and county clerical help assisted producers in filling out the wo
sheets.
The County Committee then studied the work sheets of the individu
producers and made such adjustments as necessary to get these on a co
parable basis and in line with county quotas of acreage and product
established by the Secretary.
The state office tabulated and worked out a county analysis of the wo
sheets from each county in accordance with procedure prescribed by t
Secretary in order to determine the percentage of the county quota to whi
the work sheet signers were entitled.
To assist the county agents and the county committees, assist
in soil conservation were appointed in 14 counties where assistance
most needed.
After the work sheets were all in, compliance was secured on each fa
upon which a work sheet was filed. Compliance consisted of measuring t
soil-depleting crops and conserving acreage for which payment was to
made. The total crop land, as well as idle land and waste land, was mapp





















0











Fig. 1.-Realizing that the soil is fundamental to successful agriculture, and is the basis of all life, Florida
farmers, encouraged by Extension agents, are saving their soils. Above, running terraces is easy for these farmers
who have attended a terracing school. Left below, terraces will prevent washing such as this. Right below, two
pieces of an old saw blade attached to the moldboard enable a farmer with one horse to plow a good terrace.







32 Florida Cooperative Extension

Following compliance an application for grant was submitted by the prc
ducer and this application was checked and approved by the compliant
supervisor, the county committee and the county agent.
The applications were forwarded to the State office in Gainesville f(
review, computations of payments, vouchering and certification to t
General Accounting Office located at Athens, Georgia. Here the doci
ments were audited and approved for payment. The Disbursing Office f(
this region is located at Atlanta, and the individual checks are written
Atlanta. The checks are mailed in lots to the respective county agen
who have charge of the distribution to producers and the securing
receipts for the individual producers.
In 1936, 23,518 work sheets were submitted and it is estimated th
application for grant will be filed by 22,000 of these producers. The tot
payments will approximate $950,000. The work sheets covered appro)
mately 75% of all the crop land in the state.
On farms where there are tenants or share-croppers the total payme
to the farm is divided as follows. The class I payment for diverting acrea
from soil-depleting crops to soil-conserving crops is divided as follows:
37 % to the producer who furnishes the land.
12%% to the producer who furnishes work stock and equipment.
50% is divided as the crop was divided.
The class II payment for putting into operation on the farm soil-buildi
practice is paid to the producer who incurred the expense in carry
out these practices, except that if two or more producers incurred t
expense the payment is divided equally among them. On tobacco farms p
vision was made whereby a different diversion of the class I payment co
be made.
In all applications the names and shares of the interested persons
set forth and a separate check is issued to each person.
In handling a program of this kind a great deal of educational w
is required. Group meetings of county agents; assistants in conservati
TABLE 1.-STATE SUMMARY OF PAYMENTS TO PRODUCERS UNDER AGRIC
TURAL ADJUSTMENT PROG.-AMS JULY 1, 1933, TO NOVEMBER 30, 1936.

Program Amount


Cotton, Rental and Benefit Payments ............................. $ 848,081.36
Tobacco, Rental and Benefit Payments .................... 510,907.94
Corn and Hogs, Rental and Benefit Payments .......... 478,449.59
Sugar, Rental and Benefit Payments ........................... 1,449,376.14
Peanuts, Rental and Benefit Payments ...................... 110,708.29
Bankhead Pool (Cotton) Sale of Certificates .................... 18,211.92
Cotton Options-from sale of options ........................ 18,963.90
Cotton Participation-from Trust Certificates ............. 84,490.00
Cotton Price Adjustment Payments ............................ 128,967.18
Cotton Ginners Adjustment Payments ............................ 6,474.75

Sub-total ...................... ........ .............................. $3,654,631.07


Cane Syrup Benefit Payments ........................................ 23,589.93


Total ......... ................ ............. ........


$3,678,221.00







Annual Report, 1936


ind committeemen pursue study of the regulations and provisions of the
programm in order that a clear understanding is had by the persons respon-
sible for handling the program locally. These persons in turn with assist-
ince from the state office conduct community and county meetings of
producers to acquaint them with the program.
Contacts and conferences are also had by the state leaders of the program
vith the Washington office and with leaders from other states in order
o adapt the program to conditions within the several states.
Table 1 gives a summary of payments received by Florida farmers
since the Agricultural Adjustment Act took effect in the summer of 1933.

1935 COTTON PRICE ADJUSTMENT PLAN
The objective of this plan was to assure producers, insofar as possible,
return of 12 cents per pound, basis 7/-inch middling, for their 1935
cotton crop sold prior to August 1, 1936. This plan was to replace the 10 and
2 cent cotton loan programs of 1933 and 1934.
Producers eligible to participate in the benefits of the plan were those
persons by or for whom cotton was produced in 1935. The adjustment
payment per pound to each eligible producer making application was the
mount per pound by which the official average price of %-inch middling
pot cotton on the 10 designated spot cotton markets was below 12 cents
er pound on the date of sale of the eligible cotton, but in no case could
e payment per pound exceed 2 cents. In case a producer had cotton under
e 1935 10 cent loan, and had not sold this cotton prior to August 1, 1936,
e rate of the cotton price adjustment payment on such cotton would be
e difference between the average of the designated spot markets on this
Lte and 12 cents.
Lint cotton not in excess of the producer's 1935 allotment of tax-exempt
tton under the Bankhead Act, was eligible for the price adjustment pay-
ent, except in cases where some eligible producers on a farm produced
ss than their allotment, then the farm production up to the full allot-
ent was eligible cotton and producers on the farm were permitted to
ceive payment pro-rata on any excess production up to the total farm
lotment.
The producer who made the Bankhead application or his successor
ade the application for the cotton price adjustment payment. If there was
ore than one person on the farm interested in the cotton price adjustment
yment, the applicant acted as trustee in such cases to properly distribute
proceeds of the payment to these persons and secure a receipt for pay-
nt from each such person. Share-tenants and share-croppers received
eir part of the payment to the farm based upon their interest in the crop.
Funds to meet the expenses of the plan were appropriated by Congress.
The general procedure in handling the program was as follows:
The producer when he sold cotton would secure from the purchaser a
es certificate. A separate form was made out for each different day's
es. On this the name of purchaser, name of seller, date of sale and
unds of lint sold were indicated. At the time of filing his application for
yment with the county agent the producer executed the form and attached
sales certificates. The county committee reviewed the applications and
held any poundage in excess of the producer's Bankhead allotment of
-exempt cotton.
Applications were transmitted from the county offices to the state of-
e. Here the papers were checked for correctness and certified for pay-
nt. Vouchers were prepared for the certified applications and these were
warded to the Athens Branch of the General Accounting Office for audit.







Florida Cooperative Extension


After audit the vouchers were sent to the Atlanta Regional Disbursing
office for checks to be issued. Checks were sent direct from Atlanta to th
county agents for delivery to producers. The producer signed a receipt fol
his check, and in case there was more than one person interested in the
check the applicant signed a trustee agreement for proper handling of tht
proceeds of the check. The applicant would then distribute the proceed
among the interested persons and secure a receipt. These forms were re
turned through the county offices to the State office where they were audited
for correctness and when in proper form served to complete the trustee
agreement for the applicant.
While this program applied to the 1935 cotton crop, applications and pay
ments were made in 1936.

GINNER'S PAYMENTS UNDER THE COTTON PRICE
ADJUSTMENT PROGRAM
As a part of the Bankhead cotton control program, ginners wer
required to furnish records of each bale ginned to the Internal Revenue Co
lector, and this necessitated special accounting work which was an added
expense to their usual operations. Provision was made whereby ginne
would be reimbursed to the extent of 25 cents per bale for each bale ginne
from the 1935 crop to compensate for the extra expense they had incurred
on account of the program.
Applications from ginners were handled through county and state o
fices and by the General Accounting and Disbursing Offices under the sa
general procedure as followed for cotton producers.








Annual Report, 1936


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK

R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
For several years club work was an integral and essential part of every
countyy agent's program. Club work was found in every county where an
Lgent was employed. With increasing demands upon the county agents
o direct agricultural adjustment work and supervise other emergency
Activities many former well conducted programs including 4-H club work
necessarily have received less attention.
Where the 4-H program has continued without serious interruption
here has been an increase in membership. The work is better and more
favorably known than ever before. The addition of training in organization
nd leadership to the club program has been a wonderful aid to agents in
securing members. In 1935 the counties with well organized clubs produced
early all completions.
There has been a most decided improvement in the socializing results
the club program. The organization of standard clubs and the adding of
creation has helped make 4-H work a vital force in developing the social
aptability of its members. During the depression the only "good times"
e boys and girls in some communities enjoyed were those in connection
ith their club work. This was shown by the stories written by new mem-
rs in which they answered the question as to why they joined the club.
he majority said it was because of the good times the club boys and
rs were having.
A feature which has been a stimulus 'to club work is the summer camp
ogram. Two well equipped district camps have made it possible to give
ral boys a real vacation at small expense and to fill them with 4-H
thusiasm to carry on their work without much supervision from county
ents.
DISTRIBUTION OF CLUB WORK
Counties of central, northern and western Florida are best adapted to
H club work. In other parts of Florida 4-H club work is difficult. In the
uthern area club work is limited to small projects with poultry, gardening
d home beautification. Some isolated areas, such as about Plant City,
ow corn after winter truck crops, and the families live on their farms.
The following table shows enrollment for 1936 as compared with 1935
districts.
Enrollment Gain
1935 1936 Number Percent
trict 1 ................ .............. 1569 1975 405 25
strict 2 ................................. 421 494 73 18 .
strict 3 ................................ 956 1550 595 62

2946 4020 1074 36
Full benefits from club work come only to the boy who completes his
r's work and turns in a record book. Only 44% reports were secured
1936, but it is hoped to raise this to at least 60% as soon as possible.

CLUB ORGANIZATION
Organization into local community clubs, and having these following
tain standard requirements, is a great aid to successful club work. At
beginning of the year a goal of 30 new local clubs was set, which was








36 Florida Cooperative Extension

exceeded by 50% by the close of the year. The number of local clubs in-
creased from 171 to 216.
The issuance of charters to local clubs during recent years has stim-
ulated interest and efficiency in the work. To obtain a charter a club
must meet the following standards: Have a membership of five or more
an adult local leader, a club organization with a constitution, and a car
fully worked out program for the year. Twelve new charters were issued
to standard clubs in 1936.
County councils of boys' 4-H club work, with representatives from eac
local club, assist the agent in making plans for and conducting club work
The boys themselves take an important part in formulating plans and seeing
that they are carried through. During 1936 councils were organized
Suwannee, Madison, St. Johns, Pasco, Alachua, and Palm Beach counties.
A State Boys' 4-H Council was organized at the 1936 short course
Thirteen counties were represented. Officers were elected and plans mad
for starting some definite moves to improve boys' club work in the state
The president and vice-president entered college in September. Thes
two went before the county agents at their annual meeting and explain
what the State Council wished to do and how the county agents can hel
The agents agreed to give their cooperation.

LEADERSHIP TRAINING
Leadership training and better local club organizations are the two mo
important needs of boys' club work at this time. More meetings for leade
ship training were held than-in 1935, but they were for recreation wor
Florida was given more time by Mr. John Bradford and the Nation
Recreation Association.
CLUB CAMPS
A WPA project brought to completion all buildings planned at Ca
McQuarrie. Three more cottages to house 10 boys or girls each were bui
A new water tower was erected and water tank moved. New concre
foundations were put under and galvanized iron roof over dining room a
engine house. A two-car garage was built.
The equipment was increased by the addition of a range boiler in ki
chen and sanitary top on dining tables. The WPA donated 120 mattress
The girls bought a piano.
The grounds were improved by clearing more ground and setting o
grass. The second dock was completed; two official spring boards install
four new boats bought, and a diamond ball field clayed and grassed. A n
sand-clay road was built from the highway to camp.
Equipment at the West Florida 4-H Camp was improved by a new
of storage batteries for the light plant and 140 mattresses donated by t
WPA. Some additions were made to kitchen equipment.
A hurricane hit the camp July 30. No one was injured and a sm
amount of damage was done to the buildings; $65 put all buildings b
in good shape. The most serious damage was done to the trees, of whi
some 200 were blown down. The CCC detailed men to help with clear
up debris about camp.
During the 1936 camp season 1,939 boys and girls attended the two d
trict camps. In addition to boys' and girls' camps, two adult meetings w
held. Over 500 men and women used the equipment during the year.
All counties but two with 10 or moreclub boys took part in a sumn
camp in 1936. The camping period in each case covered the major p
of a week. Aubrey Dunscombe served as director of the West Florida Ca
in 1936. He was assisted the last three weeks by Wilmer Bassett, a fer







. Annual Report, 1936


4-H club boy. George T. Huggins, a former 4-H club boy, now a junior in
the College of Agriculture, helped at Camp McQuarrie. These men gave
efficient service and did much to make the 1936 season the most successful
we have had in Florida.

VALUE OF 4-H CLUB CAMPS
Of all methods tried, the 4-H summer camp has proven the most efficient
way and time to give club boys 4-H enthusiasm. The training in coopera-
tion, leadership, and good sportsmanship, which are a big part of the camp
program, seem to set forth the real values of club work in a way that makes
an impress on the boys. County agents consider the camp as their greatest
aid in holding club enthusiasm at a high pitch.

STATE CLUB EXHIBITS
A state pig club exhibit was put on at the West Florida Exposition at
rallahassee November 3 to 7, and 60 club pigs were exhibited. Every
animal was a credit to club work.
A state baby beef show was held in connection with the Florida Fat
stock Show in March, 1936. Twenty-two fat steers were shown at the con-
:est. It was the first showing of fat steers fed out by club boys. All ani-
nals shown were not up to the 4-H standard but some were very good,
is several 4-H club steers placed in open competition. Madison County led
n numbers shown. The exhibit in 1937 should be larger and better as more
oys have steers on feed at this time.
A state poultry exhibit will be staged in connection with the Central
'lorida Exposition in Orlando in February, 1937. A similar exhibit was
eld several years ago with great success but had to be discontinued when
he county fair which sponsored the show quit. A state exhibit of poultry
nd eggs will be made by the poultry club members and a poultry judging
contest will be held.

JUDGING CONTESTS
The confidence and poise which club members get from taking part in a
tate judging contest makes such contests worth while.
A judging contest was held in connection with the Florida Fat Stock
how in 1935. Five counties were represented. The second one was held
S1936 and nine counties competed. Alachua County won in 1936.

SCHOLARSHIPS TO COLLEGE
Club work encourages better boys to strive for college training. The
ork should offer opportunity for a boy to get that which it makes him
ant. College scholarships offered each year enable more boys to secure
college education.
The Florida Bankers' Association for 17 years has offered three $100
holarships to the College of Agriculture. The bankers have agreed to con-
nue this offer.
The Model Land Company offers a $100 scholarship each year to a 4-H
ab boy in St. Johns County. The Hastings Potato Growers' Association
planning to offer a $250 scholarship to the College of Agriculture annually
a 4-H club boy in Flagler, Putnam or St. Johns County.
A $100 scholarship will be awarded at the State Poultry Judging Contest
March. There were seven scholarships offered for the year 1936.







Florida Cooperative Extension


OUT-OF-STATE TRIPS
The trip to the National 4-H Club Camp in Washington is the highest
ward a club boy can win in Florida. Thanks to Frank E. Dennis of
Jacksonville and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, two Florida boys at-
tended the National Camp in 1936.
The trip to Chicago and the National 4-H Club Congress and Interna-
tional Live Stock Show is a wonderful inspiration. Two boys were sent to
Chicago this year.
STATE BOYS' SHORT COURSE
The annual short course is the big event of the club year. At that
time the county club champions come to the University of Florida fox
a week of fun, instruction and inspiration.
At the 20th annual Boys' 4-H Club Short Course June 8-13, 1936, 282
boys from 23 counties were enrolled.
RECREATION SCHOOLS
In cooperation with the National Recreation Association training school
for leadership in recreation have been held in the state for 10 years. Mr
John Bradford has represented the association. Considerable progress ha
been made. The state has been covered in the 10 years. Almost every count
with club work has been touched. Organized recreation councils have bee
functioning for several years in some counties due to the schools.
RADIO
The radio has been used in promoting 4-H club work in Florida. It
making 4-H club work better and more favorably known. Station WRU
at the University put on at least one 4-H talk a month. During the Boy
Short Course a 4-H program went on the air each day.
On National Achievement Day in November a 4-H program was put o
at WJAX, WSUN, and WIOD chain stations. WRUF also put on a speci
4-H program that day.
Two talks on club work were made over WDBO at Orlando during t
year.
OUTSTANDING ACHIEVEMENTS
Best Club Work by a County Agent: To James A. McClellan, Jr., an o
4-H club boy, goes the credit for having the best boys' 4-H club work
Florida for 1936. With an estimated 412 boys available for 4-H club wo
he enrolled 263 boys with 319 projects the first year he was in the coun
He got reports from 218 boys on 267 projects, or an average of 82 perce
reports. There were 11 well organized local clubs in the county with
working county council which functions in many ways to make the cl
program effective.
Pasco County has done everything suggested for a good club program
Ten boys attended the short course and 36 went to club camp. A judgi
team competed in the state beef cattle judging contest and won fourth pla
Although the State Pig Club Show was held 275 miles away, Pasco Coun
had the largest number of pigs of any county exhibiting. Two demonst
tion teams were trained and put on public demonstrations. A club ra
was held and the club contest was made a county-wide affair.
The first loan from the Production Credit Association for 4-H club p
poses in Florida was promoted by McClellan and 26 Jersey heifers w
brought in from Tennessee. Also 25 purebred pigs were brought into
county by club boys.







Annual Report, 1936


Club work was used to put on some demonstrations in swine production,
featuring rotation of pastures. Trench silos to keep feed for winter use
were built by the dairy club boys. Mr. McClellan is striving to make his
4-H club projects real demonstrations of doing the job as it should be done.
Club work is a vital force in the lives of Pasco County 4-H club boys.
Best Local Club: It seems that the Lake Worth Club of Palm Beach
County has a claim on the honor of being the best local club in Florida.
This club has functioned so long and so well that it has become a local
institution.
Located in an area restricted as to numbers by its physical surroundings,
the Lake Worth Boys' 4-H Club has enrolled every boy available in its
neighborhood. The club meets the first Sunday in every month at a vege-
table packinghouse and has not missed a meeting in years. The boys start
at 10 years and leave with regret when they are 21.
When the president of the club was accidentally killed the club assisted
with the services and made a 4-H club wreath. Club work to the members of
his club means something.
The club record for 1936 was 12 business meetings and 4 recreational
meetings. In addition, the boys promoted two Sunday dinners for the
parents and members of club boys' families with an attendance of 196
t the 2 meetings. Gardening is a favorite project. Some take up poultry,
airing and pineapples. One boy has a herd of six cattle valued at $275.
)ne boy netted $180.35 from his dairy project and one sold $137.35 worth
f products from his poultry project. Two boys started in the pineapple
growing business with a few slips about 3 years ago and now have de-
eloped their plantings to where they sold $127.60 worth of pineapples
ast year and kept all slips to increase their planting. One boy netted
73.41 from his vegetables.
The same man has served as local leader since the club was organized.

STATE WINNERS IN PROJECT WORK
Meat Production: Leroy Fortner won the gold watch offered by Thomas
Wilson for best project work in livestock. Leroy reported that he carried
projects and that at the end of the year he had $500 worth of livestock
nd crop products on hand and bank account of slightly over $200. He has
beef herd of five Herefords which he is trying to develop in Alachua
county.
Leroy lost one arm in an accident some years ago, but has not allowed
at to interfere in his activities. In the 1936 short course he was given
norable mention as the best first baseman in the diamond ball tournament.
e is one of the outstanding 4-H club boys in Florida.
Baby Beef: Francis Beach of St. Johns County showed the champion
by beef at the State Show in 1936. He won the trip to Chicago offered
Frank E. Dennis.
Fat Barrow: Eugene Boyles of Suwannee County showed the grand
ampion fat barrow at the State Pig Club Show in 1936. Eugene won the
ip to Chicago. He took his fat barrow to Chicago and while he did not win
proved that Florida can raise good hogs.
Breeding Pig: Howell Bell of Lafayette County showed the grand cham-
on breeding pig at the State Pig Club Show. He won the $100 scholarship
the University of Florida offered by Frank E. Dennis of Jacksonville.







Florida Cooperative Extension


STATE WINNERS IN LEADERSHIP
Washington Trip: Eugene Boyles of Suwannee County and Donaldson
Curtis of St. Johns County represented Florida 4-H boys at the 1936 Na-
tional 4-H Camp. Donaldson Curtis entered college in September, while
Eugene has another year in high school.
Bankers' Scholarships: Percy Davis of Okaloosa County, Donaldson Cur-
tis of St. Johns County, and Mitchell Hope of Pasco County won the 3 bank-
ers' scholarships for 1936. All entered the University of Florida in Septem-
ber.
CONTRIBUTORS TO BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
Frank E. Dennis of Jacksonville donated $250 to club work. This money
was used to send one boy to the National 4-H Camp and to pay for a trip
to Chicago and for a scholarship to the University.
The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad paid for one trip to the National 4-H
Club Camp.
The Florida Bankers' Association contributed three $100 scholarships
to the College of Agriculture.
The Model Land Company of St. Augustine gave a $100 scholarship tc
a St. Johns County club boy. Walter Badger won this scholarship for 1936
and entered college in September.
The Central Florida Exposition, the Florida Fat Stock Show, and thE
West Florida Exposition contributed to club work by sponsoring state clu
shows.
Service clubs throughout the state, appreciating what 4-H club wor
is trying to do, have given many scholarships to the short course and hav
contributed to the building of camps.
The boards of county commissioners of the various counties contribute
many scholarships to the short course and have helped with prizes for thI
county club contests.
For all of this help the boys, their agents and leaders are grateful.







Annual Report, 1936


DAIRYING
Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
Dairy Extension work in Florida in 1936 has been conducted along similar
lines to those of previous years, and has had a working program in prac-
tically all counties where county and home agents are employed.
Dairy information was carried to farmers through personal visits, farm-
ers' meetings, news stories and radio talks, motorcades to demonstrations,
method demonstrations with adults and juniors, result demonstrations, cir-
cular letters, county and state dairy meetings, and personal letters.

DAIRY SITUATION
Florida has long been regarded as a dairy cattle and milk deficiency
area. The 1929 United States Census shows 73,966 cows being milked on
22,615 farms, while the 1934 Census shows that 86,360 cows were being
milked on 28,518 farms, an increase of practically 6,000 farms. The in-
crease in numbers of dairy cows was largely in rural sections, being family
cows purchased to supply milk for the home rather than for the building
of larger commercial dairies. The number of farms in Florida increased
approximately 13,000 during the five-year period so that the number of
cows has not kept pace with the number of farms.
Feed production is the outstanding problem in improving dairy condi-
tions in the state. The present acreage of hay crops in Florida is approx-
imately 100,326 acres, with a production of 58,902 tons. Florida needs an
additional 230,000 acres in hay to produce the amount of forage required.
However, with proper amounts of ensilage, 20,648 acres of hay would be
efficient.
FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS
The Agents in Animal Husbandry and Dairying have coordinated their
york in the field of feeding and pastures, since the same kinds of grasses,
ilage, hay, and other forage crops are adapted to both beef and dairy
battle.
Cane and Forage: The agent in Duval County has a definite soil adap-
ation program and dairymen have moved from small farms located on Nor-
olk sandy soils out to larger farms with types of soils best suited for grow-
ng forage. Cane was introduced as a forage to produce large yields. More
han 50% of the hundred dairies located in Duval County are growing cane
o supplement grazing crops and several dairymen use the surplus cane
o store in trench silos for winter feed. The work has extended to 22 coun-
ies in 1936 that have introduced cane as a forage crop.
Volusia County, with 12 demonstrations, reports yields this year of as
inch as 50 tons per acre from the first year's planting of Cayana 10 and
S0. J. canes. It is recognized that the silage from cane and Napier grass
not of as good quality as corn. There is probably about 60% as much
feeding value in a ton of these crops as in a ton of corn ensilage. However,
he very great difference in yields is an important factor in establishing
he use of forage cane. This year seven counties conducted demonstrations
ith high yielding forage canes.
Pastures: The present improved pasture acreage is approximately
,844 acres, with some 14,000 to 15,000 acres of this being mowed regularly.
airmen stack the surplus grass mowed in these pastures and during
asons of scant pastures, the cows feed from these stacks and the seed is
battered back on the fields.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Results from the Florida Experiment Station have proven that mowing
is a great aid in spreading the sod grasses such as Bermuda, carpet, and
Bahia, and in keeping down weeds.
Silos and Silage: One hundred and forty-eight trench silos and 57 up-
right silos were constructed in Florida in 1936 to provide stored forage for
winter feeding for cattle.
The trench silo has done more to popularize silage feeding than any other
one thing in Florida. Trench silos have been constructed in all but about 16
of the 55 counties having agents. Ten counties constructed their first trench
silos in 1936.
Farmers in Pasco County, under the leadership of the agent in his first
year's work, dug the first trench silos adapted to the family cow. Thirty-
nine of these family cow silos were dug and 90% were a financial success.
Club boys took the lead in these demonstrations. Corn, sorghum, Napier
grass, and cane were the forages used in these small silos. The forage
was placed in layers in these trenches and they were filled without the use
of ensilage cutters.
As a result of the first trench silo built in Manatee County in 1935,
farmers of that area put in five trench silos, three metal silos, two concrete
silos, and one wooden hoop silo in 1936. Where these farmers had previously
stored 275 tons of silage annually, this year they had 2,150 tons.
Mineral Supplements: These are desirable on practically all farms
essential on some where forage crops grown are deficient in mineral ele
ments. Two mineral mixtures recommended are: Steamed bonemeal,
parts, and salt, 1 part, in one end of the trough; and salt, 100 parts, re
oxide of iron, 25 parts, and pulverized copper sulphate, 1 part, in the other
end of a double covered trough available to all cattle on the farm. Thi
is essential on farms producing forage for family cows and where mil
by-products are sold. On dairy farms where large amounts of concentrate
feeds are fed, there is less danger of mineral deficiencies but the practice
of making these minerals available on all farms is recommended. Report
from county agents indicate a greatly increased interest in the use of min
eral supplements.
Citrus By-Products: As a result of recent investigations carried on b
the Florida Experiment Station and citrus canning plants, some 5,000 t
10,000 tons of dried citrus pulp is being made available for dairy feeding
purposes in 1936. Dairymen in the citrus growing area have been using th
fresh pulp for a good many years. However, the irregularity in cannin
citrus fruits makes it difficult to secure this fresh pulp on a satisfactory
basis. The period when citrus pulp is not available reduces the milk flo
considerably.
THE FAMILY COW

Thirty-two county agents report giving the family cow first consider
tion in their dairy programs. Health authorities report that there ar
large numbers of families having pellagra in some of our largest agricu
tural counties. This condition can be controlled by proper diets, and it
the belief of county agents and Extension workers that there is a pla
for the family cow on a large number of farms that are without cows
this time.
The Pasco County agent, with one of his farmers, accompanied t
State Dairy Extension Agent on a trip to Middle Tennessee to purchase
grade and registered Jerseys to be placed on farms of the county with o
purpose in mind, the supplying of milk to the home. It is thought tha
as the increased herd accumulates, surplus cows may be marketed to t







Annual Report, 1936


market milk dairy centers nearby as a further source of cash income on the
farm.
Demonstrations established in Madison County over a period of 10 years
show that it is practical to interest farmers in improving the class of dairy
ows on the farm, even where no milk market other than the farm family
s available. Several thousand dollars in cash are returned to the farms of
his county each year from the marketing of Jersey cows to the market milk
fairies of southern Florida.
In the last four years, the county agent has placed some 350 grade heifers
n Hernando County to be used as family cows. In 1936 he reports the
ale of $3,700 worth of cows, the herd increase from initial purchases of
trade heifers.
Some agents have an active program outlined for the establishment of
underground silos, the growing of Napier grass, cane, and other adapted
orages. During the year, some 365 cows were brought into Florida and
laced on farms for family use by county Extension workers. Many hun-
reds of others were introduced as a result of the program.

MILK PRODUCED FOR BY-PRODUCTS PLANTS

Economic conditions for the last six or seven years have been unfav-
rable for the development of milk by-products plants. However, the out-
ok for 1937 is more favorable.
A cheese plant at Thomasville, Georgia, for the last two years pur-
ased milk from some farms in Jefferson and Leon counties, Florida. A
rge portion of this milk was produced by Negro farmers.

RAISING DAIRY HEIFERS

The intensive Bang's disease eradication program has been the occasion
r slaughtering many cows in Florida, and has changed conditions for get-
ng herd replacements for Florida dairies. Market milk dairymen are pur-
asing registered bulls and raising heifers to replace the cows formerly
irchased.
The upward trend of prices in dairy heifers has created a great deal of
terest in sections of the State in the growing of surplus heifers.

4-H DAIRY CLUBS

Club members developed 167 calves and completed their record books in
36.
Cooperative arrangements were made with the Production Credit Cor-
ration of Plant City for financing the 4-H club members in Pasco County.
is work will be extended in 1937 as an approach for enlarging the pro-
am. The Pasco County Agent organized a trained group of his 4-H Club
mbers to put on a calf feeding demonstration at community meetings
oughout the county.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES

There were 96 registered sires placed with farmers and dairymen in
rida in 1936 through the cooperation of county agents. Duval County
Practically reached the 100% goal in dairy farms headed by registered
ry sires. Plans are made to place at least one registered sire with each
cows distributed in these counties.







Florida Cooperative Extension


EDUCATIONAL TRIPS AND FARM TOURS
Field Day in Flagler County: Some 55 Flagler and Volusia county dairy-
men and business men assembled at Homer Miller's farm to see the first
trench silo in that area. Mr. Miller also had three concrete silos.
University of Florida Dairy Day: In cooperation with Dr. A. L. Shealy
and Dr. R. B. Becker and other dairy leaders in the College of Agriculture
and Experiment Station, the first University of Florida Dairy Day was held
at Gainesville.
Dr. Becker presented a fine demonstration of registered Jersey bulls and
their daughters from the Experiment Station and College dairy herd, giving
the results of breeding abilities of these sires, with charts showing the in
crease or decrease of production of daughter over dam.

STATE AND COUNTY DAIRY ORGANIZATIONS
There are 16 county and one state dairy associations in Florida. Th
Miami Home Milk Producers' Association is a cooperative marketing associa
tion with 18 dairy farmer members. This cooperative owns a milk distribute
ing plant in Miami capitalized at $100,000 that markets 2,000 to 3,000 gallon
of milk per day as fluid milk and milk by-products such as cream, buttermilk
chocolate milk, ice cream, and cottage cheese. The plant is also equipped
with machinery for condensing purposes.
The Tampa Home Milk Producers' Cooperative is another marketing
association. Practically all producers in the Tampa area and some producer
distributors belong to the Association. The cooperative owns a sma
dairy plant with pasteurizers, cream separators, a small drum type mi
powder plant, churn can washers, sterilizers, and other equipment needed
in utilizing surplus milk. This plant.has been very serviceable in stabilizing
milk prices in the Tampa area.
About 1,000 gallons of skimmilk a day was being converted into mi
powders in late November, 1936. Some of the cream from this milk w
shipped to other towns in South Florida and other portions went into t
manufacture of ice cream and butter. The milk powders were marketed
bakeries, sausage plants, and candy plants and for various other purpose
in the Tampa area.
The two cooperative plants were the outgrowth of organization a
marketing work fostered by the Agricultural Extension Service. The Mia
organization has been functioning for seven years and the Tampa pla
for four years.
The county dairy associations are chiefly concerned with production pro
lems. However, marketing problems are adjusted through these county o
ganizations. The State and county dairy organizations have given valua
aid to the county and State extension workers in developing county a
State dairy programs.
MISCELLANEOUS
Cooperation with the Milk Control Board in the Marketing of Fluid Mil
The Dairy Extension Agent has cooperated with the Milk Control Board
three milk production cost surveys in Duval, Hillsborough, and Dade cou
ties. Mr. Bruce McKinley of the Economics Department of the Experime
Station also cooperated in these studies. The producer-distributor market
his milk direct to the consumer and the distributing plants had deriv
many benefits from the Milk Control Board in the adjustment of trade pr
tices and in the marketing of milk. In many sections of the state, mi
prices had been raised.






Annual Report, 1936 45

One dairyman in the Jacksonville area made the statement that his pay
check was increased over $500 a month as a result of this survey and all
the producers in these areas received increased pay checks each month as
a result of the better proportioning of the consumer's dollar to the milk pro-
ducers. The price range in cost of producing milk to the dairy house was
from 31c to 35c per gallon.
The Miami Home Milk Producers' Association was given aid in securing
a cooperative loan from the National Bank for Cooperatives.
United States Bureau of Animal Industry and State Livestock Sanitary
Board: The county agents of Florida have given whole-hearted support to
the Bang's Disease Eradication Program as conducted through the offices
of Dr. T. W. Cole, Federal Building, Jacksonville. The November 1936 re-
port shows 884 herds numbering 17,582 cattle had 574 reactors, approxi-
mately 3%. The 1934 report shows approximately 25% reactors, thus
marked progress is being made.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Walter J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman

The Extension Animal Husbandman and county agents have undertake]
project work with' beef cattle, hogs, meat curing, sheep, and work stocl
improvement.
At the request of the manager, the Animal Husbandman visited th<
Indian Reservation and made recommendations for pasture improvement

WORK WITH BEEF CATTLE
The U. S. Department of Agriculture reported 788,000 cattle in Florid
on January 1, 1936. About two-thirds are under fence and one-third o0
open ranges.
Beef projects concern largely cattle production and fitting cattle fo
market. Both juniors and adults participate in the two phases. For adult
the ultimate goal is to locate purebred bulls for commercial herds, to hav
the majority of beef cattle in the state of high quality, and to produce an
sell each year a maximum calf crop, thus insuring a profitable industry.
CATTLE IMPROVEMENT
One of the main problems has been to secure sufficient good bulls for her
improvement. Purebred breeders within the state are insufficient to supply
the demand. Purebred beef cattle breeding centers are far removed froi
Florida, making it difficult for Florida cattlemen to secure good bulls. Th
office has supplied information to county agents and cattlemen as to where
good bulls could be purchased.
One breeder sold all his Florida raised bulls as yearlings. A pack
offered to take old bulls and any other livestock in payment for good bul
which he brought in from outside, and placed more than two carloads
this manner. He also sold 200 bulls in addition.
One dealer has sold 100 purebred and another 100 high grade Brah
bulls to range cattlemen in Florida.
Records show that more than 700 purebred and a large number of hi
grade bulls, as well as 1,075 high grade and purebred cows, have been place
in Florida during the year.
HERD MANAGEMENT

Controlled Breeding: Controlled breeding and the getting of a large
early calf crop is becoming more popular with cattlemen. Bulls have be
put on winter feed in 15 counties.
By good management good calves will weigh from 400 to 500 poun
as compared with common range calves weighing 200 to 250 pounds. 0
farmer in 1935 produced 80 calves sired by common bulls that sold for $8
In 1936 the same 80 cows dropped calves sired by purebred bulls that sold f
$1,375. The cows were wintered well and the calves were dropped early.
High grade calves brought 5c to 6c per pound when buyers refused
take common calves at 4c.
Northern and eastern areas are potential markets for Florida fat calv
stocker and feeder cattle. In the past Florida cattle have been discrimi
ated against in these areas because of poor breeding and finish. In 19
for the first time on record, about 7,000 Florida calves were good enough
sell on these markets.







Annual Report, 1936


More than 16,000 Florida calves have been sold to the packers this sea-
son, many of these calves going to the East. Good, growth calves dropped
early, sired by good bulls, and out of the best cows brought good prices.
As a result of a field day in Osceola County on November 5, 1935, when
cattle owners from many nearby counties saw yearling heifers and spring
calves sired by purebred beef bulls (on the ranges of H. O. Partin and Irlo
Bronson) and observed particularly the size and quality of these calves and
yearlings, many purebred bulls have gone into the counties of Highlands,
Glades, Hardee, Charlotte, and Okeechobee. Parker Brothers, after seeing
the cattle (on the Partin and Bronson ranges) stated, "We can raise the
same kind of cattle." In 1936 Parker Brothers sold more than 1,000 calves.
Dehorning: Cattlemen have been thoroughly informed that steer feeders
demand dehorned animals. Recommendations are to dehorn animals when
hey are young, and during cool weather, regardless of the method used.
his season 300 calves in Osceola County were dehorned by the use of a
hot" iron. This method, on check-up, showed about 95% efficiency.
Castrating: Due to screw worm infestation, the emasculator for blood-
ss castration has been used extensively throughout the state. With this
astrument during the year 8,588 bulls were castrated, with 41/% slips.
'his is a very creditable showing.
STEER FEEDING
Efforts have been continued on more economical methods of steer feed-
g. This work has been carried on as a part of the farm operation.
The shade tobacco men in Gadsden and Madison counties secured 1,400
,eers from the West this season. We have advised with these men on the
handling and feeding of local farm grown feed including sugarcane.
Attention of cattle feeders has been called to results of steer feeding
ials at both Quincy and Gainesville experiment stations in the comparison
Ssilage from sorghum, Napier grass, and sugarcane, and with different
ughages.
Although the 1935-36 steer feeding period was not as profitable as the
ar before, still there are more steers on feed this year than last-3,000
ad-and more cattle in bean fields this year than last-9,598.
The trend in steer feeding is to finish out younger cattle on home-grown
eds.
The steer feeding work is almost wholly confined to the counties of Mar-
Levy, Alachua, St. Johns, Lafayette, Columbia, Suwannee, Madison,
fferson, Leon, Calhoun, Jackson, Washington, and Okaloosa.
PASTURE WORK
Records show that around 15,000 acres of pasture have been mowed
d that 6,500 acres have been run over with a weed cutter.
Interest has also been aroused in destroying the scrub palmetto. Dem-
strations with a new cutter for destroying palmettoes have been held
the counties of Osceola, Polk, Highlands, and DeSoto. These demonstra-
ns are being watched very closely by cattlemen.
A reliable estimate shows now that Florida has about 77,000 acres of land
improved pasture.
SILO WORK
Fifty trench and three upright silos have been filled with sorghum, sugar-
e, and corn for feeding and wintering cattle. One beef cattle man in Levy
nty erected two upright silos this year after using a trench last year.
Marion County man, after 20 years, again put up and filled a cypress
ve silo.







Florida Cooperative Extension


One cattleman in Madison County is feeding about 600 head of steer:
from three trench silos 16 feet wide at the top, 14 feet at the bottom, nine
feet deep, and 200 feet long.
Many small trench silos were dug in Levy, Madison, Lafayette, St. Johns
Alachua, and Holmes counties.
One drawback has been the cost of the cutter and the power to operate
it. One farmer uses the engine of an old automobile, attaching a pulley
and using it for a power plant.

MARKETING WORK

To aid in the marketing of beef cattle and demonstrate that Florida be(
cattle would feed out well, in 1934 the Jacksonville Fat Stock Show an
Sale was organized. The first sale was held in March 1935. At the 19
sale 638 head of ca
tie were sold m
against 147 for 193e
there were 71 e
t hibits against 1
18 4-H club calv
against none; ni
teams in the 4-
judging against fiv
10 cars of catt
were bought to
outside of the sta
as against none; a
18 Florida county
furnished the cat
in 1936 as compare
with 9 in 1935.
The outstandi
feature of the sh
was a Florida ye
ling steer's winni
grand champions
and selling for
a pound. This st
was bred and
ished by Mr.
Fig. 2.-This grand champion steer at the 1936 Queen Chaires
Fat Stock Show and Sale was bred and raised in Dixie County.
Florida by a Dixie County cattleman. This show
resulted i n m
other Florida calves and cattle being put on feed this year. Cattle
Madison and Alachua counties are being fed under sheds to protect
manure.
Fifteen counties report the sale of 9,600 steers, some going to out-of-st
buyers. Scales and pen facilities have been installed. The Extension Ani
Husbandman cooperated very closely in getting these pens established
Ft. Meade and at Arcadia.
There was established at Gainesville in October 1935 an auction mar
under private supervision. The Extension Service and county agents
operated with this market in making their first birthday a feeder cattle
when 400 head of cattle were sold. During the first year this auction
ket operated, it handled more than half million dollars worth of lives







Annual Report, 1936


FAIRS
In 1936 the Florida State Fair had an exhibit of out-of-state cattle-
Angus, Shorthorns, and Brahmas-with a few Florida breeders represented.
In 1937, the Florida Cattlemen's Association will sponsor the cattle show
at Tampa. This agent assisted the Florida Cattlemen's Association to work
out a premium list and plans for a representative show.

LIVESTOCK ASSOCIATIONS
The Florida State Cattlemen's Association is becoming a factor in live-
stock development. County agents have been instrumental in organizing 21
county livestock associations that function through the state organization.

HOGS AND MEAT CURING
PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

The main hog industry is confined to the peanut producing areas.
During the year, records show that 421 purebred boars and 1080 high-
,rade sows and gilts were placed on farms, and comparatively few good sows
nd gilts are reaching the cooperative markets.
Improving Quality: To improve the type and quality of hogs, a study
f type and quality of meat and market hogs has been carried to the farmer
through the county agents, who pointed out advantages of selection and
breeding.
Feed Production: A "complete yearly cycle" of feed and pasture is neces-
ary for economical hog production. Feed and pasture work is linked with
he parasite control by a rotation of crops, having the sows farrow in
arasite free fields and pastures, and keeping them from infested hog
allows and lots.
To be profitable, hogs must graze on maintenance crops and fattening
ops.
Cooperative Hog Marketing: Ten years ago, the Gulf Coast Cooperative
og Marketing Association was formed at Trenton and has functioned
ntinuously even during the depression. Their sales are:
Season No. Hogs Money received Price per hog
34-35 ..... ..................... 8,465 $ 64,935.55 $ 7.56
)35-36 ...- ..................-. 14,444 164,155.74 11.35
first of season, 12/1/35 .... 4,500
first of season, 12/1/36 .... 8,000 120,000.00 15.00

Regular cooperative hog marketing has increased this year, seven new
operative sale places being established, one each in the counties of Escam-
a, Walton, Washington, Jefferson, Taylor, Suwannee, and Sumter, making
total of 13 in the state with the old established cooperatives in Levy, Gil-
trist, Gadsden, Calhoun, Jackson, and Holmes counties.
At these cooperative markets the hogs are weighed and graded accord-
g to market demands. These sales are used by county agents and
rmers to market finished hogs, exchange breeding animals and purchase
id sell feeder pigs.
MEAT CURING FOR HOME USE

Meat curing, in cold storage and ice boxes, is generally practiced by
rmers in hog producing counties. To aid in insuring a bountiful supply
delicious home cured meats, meat cutting and curing demonstrations
ve been held in many sections of the hog producing area.







Florida Cooperative Extension


In the cutting work, clean-cut, uniform work has been the aim. In the
curing, the 8-2-2 formula has been recommended for a mild cure; i.e., for
100 lbs. of meat, 8 lbs. of salt, 2 lbs. of sugar, and 2 oz. of saltpeter.
Bulletin No. 81, "Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm," has bee
generally called for.
Six privately owned cold storage plants have been constructed in 1936
One plant at Madison doubled its capacity. There are now 47 cold storage<
plants in 21 counties curing meat, most of them using the brine cure.
Last season, 1935-36, reports show meat cured as follows:
In cold storage houses .................. 5,763,813 lbs.
In ice boxes ........................................ 107,000 lbs.
County Agents' reports show assistance to 328 farm families in hom
curing meats.
A number of home cured meat exhibits were displayed at county an
state fairs. These meat shows presented a good appearance and carrie
the lesson of "delicious home cured meat"!

WORK STOCK
With the majority of work stock approaching the age limit of usefulness
and with a considerable annual outlay of money for replacement of far
horse power, it seems well that projects be initiated for producing a few far
mules and horses. This work has met with some appreciation and indication
are that it will increase with the coming year.
County agents and farmers have been supplied with information o
prices and locations of mares and jacks and have been put in touch wit
breeders and dealers of jacks, stallions, and mares.
Reports show 11 jacks, 13 stallions, and 400 mares bought by farmer

CORN-HOG WORK FOR AAA (1935 and 1936)

The Extension Animal Husbandman has continued to represent t
Extension Service in handling the 1935 corn-hog control work, adjusting
discrepancies in contracts and transfers, and closing out county corn-h
control associations. This work has progressed satisfactorily and is almo
completed.
A trip was made to a regional meeting in Atlanta for instruction
handling the 1936 corn-hog control program.
With representatives of the Agricultural conservation program, whi
replaced the AAA, the Extension Animal Husbandman arranged for a mee
ing of cattlemen at Kissimmee to discuss plans, ways, and means where
cattlemen might participate in the range and pasture phases of the program

SCREW WORM CONTROL WORK
This agent has acted in the capacity of contact man for the State Ser
Worm Control Committee, working in cooperation with county agen
state and county livestock associations, and representatives of the Feder
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
Aid has been extended in finding and selecting field men, in the approa
work, and in arranging for schools of instruction. This office furnish
suggestions on methods of handling livestock under screw worm infestati
In cooperation with Mr. W. G. Bruce, regional director of screw wo
control, material was prepared for Extension Bulletin 86, "Screwworms
Florida".







Annual Report, 1936


4-H CLUB WORK
Club boys have carried projects with both hogs and beef cattle. With
betterr market prices for their animals, the boys have revived interest in
)ig and barrow clubs, and have shown considerable interest in cattle rais-
ng.
The ultimate goal in junior project work with beef cattle is to develop
n boys a good understanding and appreciation of the best practices in beef
'attle production and management, and to develop leadership in livestock
reductionn.
Progress has been made towards the goal. In 12 counties junior
)reeding projects were started. Twenty-three boys were furnished with
wo grade Hereford cows each and two boys were furnished with one cow
ach, with the understanding that they would breed these animals to
approved bulls. These boys have, with their parents, agreed to keep records
d use the animals as a nucleus for a high grade herd, following sugges-
ions and instructions given by the county agents and this office on breeding,
ending, and herd management.
The Jacksonville 1936 Fat Stock Show and Sale furnished an impetus
Sthe 4-H fat calf work, when 18 boys led their calves into the ring and
rancis Beach (St. Johns County) won a trip to the International Live
stock Show in Chicago. Madison County boys won seven of the 10 prizes
fered on 4-H fat calves. This Show, coupled with the good work of the
>unty agent, is having an excellent effect on the club work in Madison
county.
This year 22 Madison County boys are feeding calves. Many of these
>ys bought their calves with money from tobacco sales.
County agents reports show that 66 4-H club members completed beef
ejects.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS CULTURE

E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist

CONDITIONS THAT DETERMINE THE PROGRAM
Citrus fruits produced in Florida compete in the domestic and foreign
markets with citrus fruits produced in other states and countries, as we
as with other competing fruits. Thus production and marketing problem
have a very real national aspect. On a per-capita basis, production of citrd
fruits in the United States has increased about 48 percent during the la
decade; while the population has increased about 6 percent. Consequent
market prices have declined to the point of dangerously low net returns
Florida citrus growers.
The chief problem of the Florida citrus industry directly confrontii
the Extension Service is to bring about still further reductions in cost
producing citrus fruits so that they can be sold at a price within reach
more consumers in the low income groups and that will return to the pr
ducers a profit; and, at the same time, improve the quality of the fruit
as to give it a stronger consumer appeal and thereby increase demand a]
consumption. Three-fourths of the resident citrus fruit growers of the sta
are being reached by our citrus program. The greatest part of the wo
was carried on in 20 central and southern Florida counties.
The county agents and citriculturist have been assisted in carrying o
the program by district agents, the Professor of Soils in the College
Agriculture, members of the Experiment Station staff and specialists of t
United States Department of Agriculture Extension Service. Very c
structive cooperation has been received from the Florida Citrus Commissi
and the commercial insecticide interests.

GROVE MANAGEMENT
An endeavor is made to bring together the best known practices
different phases of citrus culture into a consolidated grove manager
program and set it up in a demonstration grove. This plan has encoura
some county agents to purchase or lease citrus groves and use them
demonstration groves. It is a recognized fact that the county agent
assumes a share of the responsibilities in the management of a dem
station grove becomes more practical in coordinating the different gr
operations into an efficient and economical grove management progr
and thereby wields a greater influence in converting growers to be
cultural practices.
Sixty-one groves are now listed as demonstration groves in the m
citrus-producing counties. One county agent estimates that through
influence of his demonstration groves, the profits to citrus growers of
county have increased $140,000 annually.

SOIL MANAGEMENT
The work under this major project includes fertilizing, cultivate
cover crops, irrigation and soil amendments.
Fertilizing: The fertilizer cost constitutes 30% to 60% of the total
of maintaining a citrus grove. The fact that successful citrus fruit gro
depends in a large measure upon proper fertilization is brought out in
following table of data compiled from a summary of grove cost records
the Assistant Extension Economist.







Annual Report, 1936


TABLE 2.-RELATION OF FERTILIZER USED TO COST AND RETURNS OF 220
GROVES. CROP YEAR 1933-34.
Groups

I II III


No. groves ..................................... 60 66 94
No. acres .................................. ... 420.5 1325 1548
Average age .................................... 19 17 19
Percent grapefruit ......................... 40 30 24
Cost per box ..................................... 32 30 24
Fertilizer cost-
cents per box .......................... 12.3 11.6 14.1
per 100 trees ............................ $19.28 $33.65 $56.10
Lbs. plant food* per 100 trees ........ 275 485 767
Production, boxes per 100 trees .... 157 291 399
Net returns per 100 trees .............. $12.80 $55.00 $88.03
Returns per box .............................. .45 .59 .67


RELATION OF INCREASED OUTPUT TO RETURNS
Percent Increase
Plant Fert. Other Net
Groups Food Cost Costs Yield Returns

1 to 3 176 190 107 154 588
1 to 2 76 74 51 85 330
2 to 3 58 67 38 37 60

*Av. ratio of N-P-K, 5-21-4.
Those growers represented by Groups II and III of the table have
adopted the better methods of fertilizing as taught by the Extension Service.
A total of 207 demonstrations of better fertilizing practices were conducted
this year.
Cultivation: Improper cultivation of bearing citrus groves has been
attacked from the standpoints of both waste of money and adverse effect
on quality of the fruit by too much cultivation. Fourteen counties have
taken part in this project and 5,200 acres are in demonstrations of proper
grove cultivation. Proper cultivation practices have resulted in a saving
on the operation of $3 to $8 per acre over improper practices. Improvement
in quality of fruit has resulted, in some instances, in a value increase of 10
to 20 percent.
Cover Crops and Organic Matter: The predominating soil types on which
citrus is grown being of a sandy character, low in natural fertility, presents
the dominant problem of supplying organic matter. Consequently the value
of manures and various forms of waste vegetable matter has been brought
out in 211 demonstrations. In 37 groves the grass and/or legume cover crop
yields were increased 10 to 200 percent by the use of 1,000 to 2,000 pounds
per acre of untreated phosphate. In 105 demonstrations the cover crop
yield was increased 100% to 150% by the use of $1.00 worth of nitrogen
fertilizer per acre. In addition to increasing the organic matter by this
increase of cover crop grown during the rainy season, research has shown
that the leaching of plant nutrients is reduced and the soil is desirably
shaded, thus giving protection to tree roots during this hot season.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Crotalaria is the best planted cover crop, but getting a stand is very
uncertain. With the cost of seed around 10 cents the pound or 50 cents
to $1.00 per acre, our demonstrations encourage growers to reseed in early
spring where the chances of a crop are even only fair. If the crop fails the
grass cover crop comes during the rainy season.
The AAA Soil Conservation program greatly stimulated interest in grove
cover crops this year, even though it was put into effect late in the season.
This program is directly in line with what the Extension Service has been
teaching for many years. From the grower's standpoint the fact that the
Agricultural Adjustment Admifiistration recognizes our cover crop practices
as sound and is willing to remunerate him for carrying them out greatly
emphasizes the importance of the whole program of cover crops and soil
building. In one large county it is reported that 92% of the citrus acreage
participated in the Soil Conservation program this year. Every citrus-
producing county has taken part in this cover crop program.
Irrigation: Less time was devoted to this phase of the project this
year than last, owing to the fact that the drought periods were shorter
and less intense. However, assistance was given to 70 growers in either
the installation of plants or improvement of the methods of applying irri-
gation water. The portable irrigation plant developed in 1934 and described
in the Annual Report of 1935 is proving to be very useful and very prac-
ticable. One of the largest dealers in irrigation equipment has donated one
of these portable irrigation plants for demonstration purposes.
The records of a cooperating grower show that his grove produced an
average annual yield of 9,600 boxes of fruit for the 5-year period last
before installing his irrigation plant. For the 5-year period under irriga-
tion the grove has produced an average of 11,800 boxes. He says irrigation
has for him "taken some of the gamble out of citrus fruit production."
Soil Amendments: Dolomitic limestone applied at the rate of 200 to 300
pounds per acre continues to prevent and correct "bronze leaf" of citrus in
the 16 demonstrations started four years ago. The number of demonstrations
has been increased to 50 this year. This work is being carried on in 17
citrus-producing counties. One county agent reports: "Growers are sold
on the use of dolomite. One caretaker has used 650 tons. Ninety percent
of the groves of this county have been treated with dolomite or some
other carrier of magnesium." The results are attributed to demonstrations
started four years ago.
County agents report having made 510 tests for soil acidity, phosphorus
and calcium. The results of these tests are used as a basis for soil treat-
ments in many cases.
Zinc for Frenching: The effectiveness of zinc sulphate in soil applica-
tions for frenching has been demonstrated in 11 groves this year. While
foliage applications are quite generally used and have been effective in pro-
ducing quick results, soil applications, when made on a mulch of vegetable
matter under the trees, produce more lasting results. One to two years are
required to show results from soil applications, while results may be seen
in one to two months following a foliage application. The desirability of a
combination of the two methods will be demonstrated next year.
Splitting of Valencia oranges results in a loss of many thousands of
dollars annually. Results with soil amendments during the last four years
point rather definitely to the conclusion that this trouble is due to nutrient
deficiencies often accelerated by soil moisture deficiency. A marked reduc-
tion in splitting of Valencias was noted in demonstration plots where zinc
sulphate was applied primarily to correct frenching, where dolomite was
applied for "bronze leaf" and where copper sulphate was applied for am-







Annual Report, 1936


moniation. This is shown in part in Table 3. The good results of all of
these special treatments have been amplified when applied on a mulch or
when used in conjunction with an ample supply of irrigation water.

TABLE 3.-DEMONSTRATIONS IN REDUCING SPLITTING OF VALENCIAS.
Number Percent Split and Dropped Percent
of Dem- Materials Lbs. I Reduced
onstra- Used per Treated Untreated Av. All
tions_ Tree Range Av. | Range I Av. Plots

2 Zinc
Sulfate 1 to 3 4.9- 7.9 6.2 12.5-49 28.5 80
4 Copper
Sulfate 1 to 3 4.5-21.5 12 16.6-44 27.1 55.5
2 Zinc and
Copper 1 to 112 7.0-15 11 15 -45 26 51.5

DISEASE CONTROL
Citrus diseases of most economic importance are melanose of oranges,
stem-end rot and blue mold decay. In view of the fact that a rapidly increas-
ing proportion of the grapefruit crop is being canned, and the canners
are not paying a premium for fruit free of surface blemishes like melanose
and scab, interest in the control of diseases of grapefruit has reached a low
ebb and the Extension program has declined accordingly.
Melanose: Largely through the cooperation of the Florida Citrus Com-
mission on the Better Fruit Program, grower interest in melanose control
of oranges has been greatly stimulated. While the program was launched
too late in the season for much spraying, increased interest resulted in more
than the usual effort along lines of prevention. Double the amount of prun-
ing over the previous year was done. Five hundred growers have adopted
citrus culture programs designed to prevent melanose by reducing to the
minimum, the production of dead wood. This is done by maintaining higher
vitality in trees by more adequate fertilization, by less injury from improper
cultivation, and by an ample supply of water. Some splendid results were
obtained in 17 spraying demonstrations with 11/-1%-50 bordeaux. Weather
conditions in the spring did not generally favor melanose development on the
fruit. Consequently the crop as a whole is unusually free of melanose blem-
ishes this year.
Blue Mold Decay: Owing to extra non-project activities, very little time
could be devoted to this phase of the work this year. Some time was
devoted to packing companies, assisting in improving methods in the use
of borax.
INSECT CONTROL
In the early part of this year the Florida Citrus Commission, a body
authorized by an act of the Legislature of)1935, appointed an advisory com-
mittee to direct the efforts of the Commission in matters of better fruit pro-
duction. The Extension Citriculturist was made a member of that commit-
tee. The first thing the committee did was to compile a set of spray and
dusting schedules for citrus diseases and insects. The next thing was to put
on an educational campaign to acquaint the growers with provisions of the
program and put it into effect as soon as possible. This task was delegated
to the Extension Service and the work was well done.







Florida Cooperative Extension


A series of educational meetings covered every important citrus-pro-
ducing community in the state. Spray and dusting schedules were thor-
oughly discussed and the importance of greater effort in the production of
better fruit was appropriately emphasized. It took six weeks to cover
the state, holding as many as three meetings some days, using every avail-
able man. A copy of the Better Fruit Program was either mailed or handed
to every accessible grower. The meetings were followed by radio talks
on the program, and many newspaper and magazine articles on the subject
were published. The campaign was climaxed by a presentation of the Better
Fruit Program at the annual meeting of the State Horticultural Society by
a member of the Commission and the Extension Citriculturist.
Rust Mite: The best job of rust mite control on any crop in the history
of the industry amply repays all for the efforts put forth on this project
and special program.
Scale and Whitefly: The importance of scale and whitefly control by
spraying depends largely upon the copper spraying done for melanose and
scab control. Natural control is usually effective where the balance is not
disturbed by fungicidal sprays. The control of these insects, therefore, be-
comes largely a problem in the individual grove management. Aside from
keeping before growers certain fundamentals in both natural and artificial
scale and whitefly control by the use of 2 to 6 well placed demonstrations
in each county, no great amount of time has been devoted to this phase of
the work this year. Of course the use of red aschersonia cultures in white-
fly control is always timely stressed. Six hundred cultures were used in
demonstrations this year, covering 1,000 acres. The saving is $10 per acre.

MARKETING
The Extension Service began to assist in marketing problems this year.
In March assistance was rendered in the grower referendum on the citrus
marketing agreement, covering the whole citrus belt with 31 meetings in
less than two weeks. At these referendum meetings a copy of the marketing
agreement and summary was handed to each grower present. The working
provisions of the agreement were explained, all questions answered and
ballots cast. The vote was about 6 to 1 in favor of the agreement.
Representatives of the Extension Service- have been present at most
meetings of the Control Committee and have rendered service in instances
where opportunities were presented. The fact has been constantly stressed
that quality production is an important and fundamental factor in success-
ful marketing.
NON-PROJECT ACTIVITIES
Meetings and Tours: During the year 303 meetings were held in 19
counties, at which citrus culture problems and various perplexing phases of
the industry were discussed. Seventeen tours were conducted to demonstra-
tions and to the experimental plots at the Citrus Experiment Station. These
tours were made very educational. At the close of one tour a large grower
remarked: "What I have seen and heard today is worth $1,000 to me."
Grove Visits: Demand made upon Extension workers during the year
for special service was very heavy. Numerous requests came from growers
for personal visits to their properties and consultations on various grove
problems. This type of service consumes considerable time, and constitutes
a very important part of our year's work, from the grower's standpoint at
least. During the year 3,000 grove visits were made in 19 counties going
into all phases of citrus production.







Annual Report, 1936 57

Growers' Institute: Nine counties participated in a four-day growers'
institute at Camp McQuarrie, Lake County, in August. The citrus program
was the main feature of the institute. All major phases of citrus culture
were discussed by Extension workers, members of the College of Agri-
culture teaching division, and Experiment Station staff. Method demonstra-
tions in irrigation were given. Two hundred growers enrolled for the
courses.
MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES
The AAA Soil Conservation program has taken a large part of the
county agents' time during the last six months. Consequently certain other
phases of the work have been pushed aside temporarily. As the work
becomes better organized less time will be required to administer the
program. It promises to greatly strengthen soil management projects.
One hundred growers were assisted in making better finance plans.
Assistance was rendered the federal and state frost protection service
in conducting grower meetings and in establishing field stations.
News Articles and Radio Talks: Five hundred news articles on various
phases of citrus culture were prepared by county agents and the citricul-
turist and published in local and state papers and magazines. Eighty-seven
radio talks on citrus culture were delivered from six Florida stations.







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY WORK

Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
Dan F. Sowell, Assistant Extension Poultryman
E. F. Stanton, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
The poultry extension program for 1936 was enlarged to include three
additional projects: (1) The Florida Egg Quality Program, (2) turkey
management, and (3) The National Poultry Improvement Program. The
Florida Egg Quality Program has a very distinct place in the development
of the state's poultry industry. It deals with the production, marketing and
consumption of Florida eggs. The breeding and disease control program is
most important, as it tends to increase the quality of poultry in the state
and reduce losses. Until last year very little had been done with turkeys,
but with the industry growing and developing the project known as turkey
management was inaugurated. This program should bring about better
production methods, lower costs and greater returns.
Other long-time programs considered vital to the industry are: Growing
healthy chicks and pullets and the Calendar Flock Record program. These
programs include baby chicks, the production of broilers, the development
of pullets, and the feeding and management of the laying flock. In both
programs studies are made which would include cost of production factors
as feeding, management, housing, vaccination, growing green feed, and
adoption of a rigid sanitation program.

FEED PRICES
The commercial poultry producer in Florida buys practically all feed
used for chicks, broilers, growing pullets, and laying birds. A study of
poultry farming has revealed the fact that feed is a most important item,
representing approximately 50% of the total cost of egg production. If only
cash costs were used it would be considerably higher.
The price that poultry producers pay for feed varies not only from farm
to farm in the same year but from year to year-and the relationship of
poultry feed prices to poultry products prices has a direct bearing on exten-
sion work.
A basic poultry ration generally used is composed of equal parts of a
mash mixture (100 pounds bran, 100 pounds shorts, 100 pounds yellow corn
meal, 100 pounds fine ground oats, 100 pounds of meatscraps, 55% protein,
and 25 pounds alfalfa leaf meal) and a grain mixture (100 pounds cracked
yellow corn and 100 pounds wheat). The average yearly price of this ration
for the base period (1926-1929) was $2.80 per 100 pounds; in 1934 it was
$2.05; in 1935 $2.24; and in 1936 (11 months) $2.24.

PRICES OF POULTRY PRODUCTS
The average yearly price of No. 1 (Grade A, 24 ounce) white eggs
was 41.1 cents per dozen (1926-29); 29.3 cents in 1934; 32.6 cents in 1935;
and 28.7 cents in 1936 (11 months). Prices were highest during the months
of October, November, and December and lowest during March, April and
May.
The average yearly price of heavy hens was 26.7 cents per pound (1926-
29); 16.1 cents in 1934; 18.9 cents in 1935; and 20.2 cents in 1936 (11
months).
The average yearly price of heavy fryers was 36.6 cents per pound (1926-
29); 21.2 cents in 1934; 23.2 cents in 1935; and 24.1 cents in 1936 (11
months).









TABLE 4.-RELATION OF POULTRY RATION INDEX TO EGG, HEN, FRYER, INDICES.
1935"


Ratio Jan. Feb.


Eggs to feed ...................... 92 111

Hens to feed ...................... 82 80

Fryers to feed ................ 67 74




Ratio Jan. Feb.


Eggs to feed ..................... 94 119

Hens to feed ...................... 96 96

Fryers to feed ................. 86 86


Mar.


1936

Apr. May


June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.


104 112 113 109 90 82 99

90 96 97 95 96 103 99

78 84 88 85 85 84 81




June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. k

SI







60 Florida Cooperative Extension

RELATION OF POULTRY RATION INDEX TO
EGG, HEN, AND FRYER INDICES
To illustrate the importance of changing feed prices and poultry pro-
ducts prices upon returns that may be expected and upon the type of poultry
extension work conducted Table 4 gives the relationship of feed to poultry
products for 1935 and 1936. The base period is the 3 year average 1926-
1929. Since July 1936 the feed-poultry products ratios have become more
favorable.
BABY CHICK AND PULLET MANAGEMENT
Florida poultrymen know that healthy pullets are necessary for profitable
egg production. They are finding that the nearer they meet the require-
ments of the six points included in the Florida Grow Healthy Chick Program
the more successful they are in growing these pullets.
During the past year extension recommendations were followed by 1,769
families in purchasing baby chicks, 2,936 in chick rearing, 2,047 in produc-
tion and feeding, and 2,872 in sanitation.

GREEN FEED
Florida records show that the most successful poultry producers feed
succulent green feed throughout the year. Practically all agents have em-
phasized the importance of succulent green feed, and have furnished poultry-
men with information pertaining to types of green feeds, planting dates,
and cultural methods.
The green feed and sanitation programs have been worked out by means
of the multiple yarding system. By rotating the birds at regular intervals,
contamination of the yards is reduced, and a supply of green feed is more
easily obtained. Because of soil type some producers found it more prac-
tical to grow green crops outside the yards and cut them for poultry feed.

CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS
Many Florida poultrymen are familiar with the cost of culling. Culling
demonstrations have been held throughout the state. The importance of
the poultryman doing his own culling and adopting a systematic culling
schedule has been emphasized. Poultrymen have been advised to grow
healthy pullets which are bred to lay for replacing culled stock. During
the past year 640 families have followed an organized improved breeding
plan.
CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
The program of poultry record keeping has been increasing in value and
scope since 1925 when first inaugurated. These 12 years of records have
demonstrated their value and importance. Studies of these records and
dissemination of data obtained to various poultry interests has resulted in
greater poultry efficiency.
The Calendar Flock Record Program has been developed to take care
of two groups of poultry raisers, the individual with the small flock and
the commercial producer. Two different books are in use at present.
Each month a report is sent to all cooperators and to the press giving
a summary of the records tabulated, together with poultry, egg and feed
prices and indices and poultry news and timely poultry information.
All poultry records start October 1 and are completed September' 30.
During the year just ended poultry raisers from 20 counties kept com-
plete records, 4 more counties than during the previous year.







Annual Report, 1936 61

Table 5 gives the results obtained for the past two years.
TABLE 5.-FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS, SUMMARY, OCTOBER 1, 1934-
SEPTEMBER 30, 1936.

Items 1934-35 1935-36


Number of farms ........................... ... ................... 37 49
Average number of birds ........................................ 17,410 22,132

Average number of birds per farm .......................... 470 452
Average number of eggs per bird per year ........ 163.04 180.18
Average percent culled ................................ 49.25 41.07

Average percent mortality .................................. 20.38 17.13


Average egg production during 1935-36 was considerably higher than
in 1934-35, and there was a reduction in percentage of culling and mor-
tality, indicating better management practices.
Table 6 shows the number of flocks, average size of flocks, and average
number of eggs per bird for the past year by groups.
The highest egg production per bird was obtained by the group averaging
943 birds to the flock. The average size of the commercial or large flock
was increased by 125 birds per farm.

TABLE 6.-FLOCKS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE.

10-250 251-500 Over 500
birds birds birds


Total number of flocks ...................... 21 11 17

Average size of flock ............................ 110 344 943
Average number eggs per bird ....... 168.71 173.96 183.31


The 13th year of record keeping was started October 1, 1935, with
increased numbers. Records are now being summarized for the year
1935-36, showing in detail the cost of production and factors affecting
returns.
JUNIOR POULTRY WORK
Poultry raising is one of the most popular phases of 4-H club work.
There were 2,634 boys and girls enrolled in poultry projects during the
year. Poultry was taught at both the Boys' Short Course and the Girls'
Short Course. The club members were divided into beginners and advanced
groups, and subject matter was presented accordingly. Instruction in
poultry was given at summer 4-H camps and at other 4-H meetings during
the year.
Club poultry exhibits were judged in six county fairs and demonstrations
in judging were given.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Plans have been made for a state-wide 4-H poultry and egg show and!
poultry judging contest at the Central Florida Exposition in February,
1937.
POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS
The Florida State Poultry Producers' Association has been very active-
in promoting the poultry industry, and has been of great assistance in the-
development of the poultry extension program. The state association is:
composed of county poultry associations.
During the year the extension specialists have helped with the organiza-
tion and perfection of two new county associations.
A poultry magazine, The Florida Poultryman, has been sponsored by
the state association. The State Egg Show was sponsored by the state-
association and has now become an annual eveht. Poultry talks and demon-
strations have been given at meetings of county poultry associations. These,
associations are assisting county and home demonstration agents in anal-
yzing and working out constructive poultry programs for the counties.

FLORIDA POULTRY COUNCIL
The Florida Poultry Council was organized two years ago. The purpose-
and aim of the organization is to develop and protect the poultry industry
of the state.
The Council is quite different from other poultry organizations in that
it is a fact-finding group and representatives of the various phases of the
industry are selected as members.
The council's membership is composed of representatives of the following
groups: Poultry producers (farm and commercial), hatcheries (commercial
and breeder), poultry breeders (farm and commercial), egg and poultry
dealers, packers, feed dealers, the poultry press, State Department of
Agriculture (Marketing and Inspection Bureaus), Livestock Sanitary Board,,
Poultry Division of College of Agriculture, Agricultural Extension Service,.
State Health Department, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, teachers.
of vocational agriculture and home economics, and delegates from the
Florida State Poultry Producers' Association, Florida Baby Chick Associa-
tion, and American Poultry Association of Florida.
Work of the council is accomplished in the main by various committees.
The following committees were appointed for the year 1936: Marketing,
Breed Improvement, Research and Education, Disease Control, Poultry
Shows, Organization, and Legislation and Legal Advice.
The Council has been most active during the past year sponsoring and
developing the Florida Egg Quality Program and the Natioanl Poultry
Improvement Program.
EGG QUALITY PROGRAM
The Egg Quality Program, sponsored by the Florida Poultry Council,.
has been put on with the cooperation of the State Marketing Bureau, the
Inspection Bureau, the Department of Agriculture, county and home dem-
onstration agents, vocational agriculture and home economics teachers
and the Florida State Poultry Producers' Association. The purpose of
this program is to call to the attention of all persons concerned with the
production, sale, and consumption of eggs in Florida, factors affecting egg
quality that the prevailing quality of all eggs sold may be improved and
that nearby producers having a proper knowledge of the facts may-
strengthen their present position in the market.
The following plan of organization was outlined as a guide for each
county in the state.







Annual Report, 1936 63

A. The use of the various educational, regulatory, marketing, and civic
agencies which may contribute to the success of the program.
B. Group Meetings.
1. Producers: Producers meetings to be held in county and in com-
munities in the county. County agent, home demonstration agent, vocational
teacher and home economics teacher cooperating in planning and advertising
meetings, aided by the Extension Poultryman, the Market Bureau Specialist
and the Egg Inspector, county poultry association, and representatives of
feed companies.
Instruction on subjects such as: Handling eggs on farm; proper cooling;
correct packing; grading and candling; good production practices.
2. Retailers: Meetings or personal calls on merchants in interest
of proper care of eggs in stores, to preserve good quality.
3. Consumers: Solicit their cooperation and instruct them in buying
Florida eggs. Teach them to know good quality eggs as indicated by the
grades set up under the Florida Egg Law.
Points of Consumer Contact
Through 4-H club boys and girls.
Vocational agricultural boys and girls.
Parent-teachers clubs.
Home demonstration clubs.
Girls in home economics classes in city schools.
Women's clubs.
Business and professional women's clubs.
Personal contacts supplemented with meetings, newspaper stories, radio
talks, and other mediums. At meetings the program was discussed and
recommendations were adopted.
C. Survey at end of year to check up on effectiveness of the program.
D. Compilation of survey, including results and recommendations for
revising the program.
Three pamphlets were published, one each for the producer, the retailer
and the consumer. Information pertaining to egg quality has been
dispersed also by means of radio, news stories, circular letters and group
meetings. The first Florida State Egg Show, held at the 1936 Florida State
Fair, has promoted interest in egg grading and candling demonstrations.
Egg grading and candling were taught at 4-H club camps.

NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
This program sponsored by the United States Department of Agri-
culture is under the supervision of the State Livestock Sanitary Board in
this state. The Agricultural Extension Service is cooperating and assisting
in the development of the program. Reports thus far this year show that
more breeders and hatcheries are in the plan than ever before.
This program will result in better flocks with high egg production and
lower mortality.
Dr. D. C. Gilles, Poultry Service Veterinarian, has assisted in Extension
Poultry meetings during the year and with the testing work at the Florida
National Egg-Laying Contest.

CHICKENPOX VACCINATION
Practically all commercial producers vaccinate pullets for chickenpox,
.and the practice is becoming more common among small flock owners each







64 Florida Cooperative Extension

year. Agents throughout the state report satisfactory results from demon-
strations given. Reports indicate at least 100,000 pullets were vaccinatedI
this year with the assistance of county and home demonstration agents.

USE OF LIGHTS ON LAYERS
The use of artificial lights, to keep the early hatched pullets out of a
molt, and to increase the fall and winter egg production of both pullets and
hens, is a common practice in Florida.
All-night and morning are the two systems of lighting recommended.
The all-night system is most popular in communities where electricity is
not available and oil lanterns are used. Both systems have given good
results.
EGG MARKETING SURVEY
At the request of the Florida Poultry Council, an egg marketing survey
of the Tampa market was made.
With the cooperation of the Agricultural Economist in Marketing, the
State Marketing Bureau, and the National Youth Administration of Tampa,
data were collected in 1,150 consumer studies, 125 retailer studies, 15 whole-
saler studies and 12 hotel and restaurant studies. These data are being
summarized and the results published early in 1937.

TURKEY MANAGEMENT
Florida has six counties in which turkey production is one of the major
farm enterprises. In view of the fact that blackhead has been a serious
menace in these counties a system of sanitary management was outlined.
and presented to turkey producers. Group meetings and news letters were
used in developing the program.
Two hundred turkey record books were distributed to farmers. These-
books will be summarized to ascertain the cost of production and to obtain
definite information on management practices used by Florida turkey pro-
ducers.
Reports from producers who had blackhead in their 1935 flock state-
that their flocks have been free of blackhead this year and that they intend.
to continue the program. The program will be further expanded in 1937
because of its success this year.

MARKETING
The State Marketing Bureau has worked in close cooperation with county
and home demonstration agents and with the Gainesville office.
F. W. Risher, Poultry Marketing Specialist, has assisted county and
home agents in locating markets for eggs and poultry meat. He has-
attended meetings of poultry associations, discussing marketing problems.
In cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau and the Inspection
Bureau, daily quotations of eggs and poultry are given over WRUF and
data are collected from the district egg and poultry inspectors to study
marketing conditions in the state.
During the past year 1,307 families have followed marketing recom-
mendations. In 1936 the agents assisted in selling $238,158.22 worth of
poultry and eggs.
FARM PLANNING COUNCILS
A member of the Poultry Extension Staff has met with the poultry com-
mittee of the Farm Planning Councils in several counties, and acted as
an adviser in the formulation of county plans.







Annual Report, 1936


Fig. 3.-High pen in the Tenth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest.
Ten of these S. C. White Leghorns laid 2,906 eggs and were credited with
3,000.85 points.

FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST
The Tenth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest was started October 1,
1935, and came to a close September 21, 1936. For the first time in the
history of the Contest 100 pens were entered. Birds came from 23 different
states and 10 different counties in Florida.
The highest production since the contest was started was obtained during
the Tenth Contest, the average egg production being 212.1 eggs per bird
for a value of 210.2 points. Thirty-three birds produced over 300 eggs
during the 51 weeks' period.
A complete report of this contest is printed in a special bulletin.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

F. W. Brumley, Economist in Farm Management
R. H. Howard, Assistant Economist in Farm Management
D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

The major projects in farm management in 1936 included the summariza-
tion of citrus accounts; the making of farm surveys; and assisting the
organization and operation of county agricultural planning councils. A
larger number of citrus accounts were closed for the crop year 1935-36
than for any year since the work was started in 1930-31. In cooperation
with the Planning Section of the A.A.A., farm surveys were made in 17
counties. County agricultural planning councils were organized in 44 coun-
ties.
Minor projects and miscellaneous activities were carried on during the
year. Many farm management meetings were held at which the results
of farm surveys, cost accounts or other economic data were discussed.
Assistance was given before 4-H club camps and the Citrus Institute at
Camp McQuarrie. Plans were made for the summarization of poultry
accounts during the winter of 1936-37. Members of the department also
assisted with the educational meetings pertaining to the watermelon and
citrus marketing agreements. With the cooperation of other agricultural
workers at the University of Florida, the Florida Agricultural Outlook for
1937 was prepared. These projects and activities will be discussed in detail.

CITRUS ACCOUNTS
The citrus account project has been carried on for the past six years
and is now in the beginning of its seventh year. The purposes of this project
are:
1. To provide growers with a simple yet complete record book in which
to keep grove expenses and receipts of a year's operations.
2. To encourage the record keeping by assisting growers with their
books and summarizing their records to determine costs of production and
returns.
3. To provide growers with a summary of comparative yields, costs of
production, fertilizer practices, prices of fruit received by kinds, and net
returns on similar groves.
4. To provide data covering a long period of years that may be studied
to determine factors affecting cost of production and profits.
Each grower who furnished his grove records for the 1933-34 crop year
was furnished a copy of the state summary together with a summary of his
record which included data for the current and past.years. This enabled
the cooperators to compare their costs and returns for different years as
well as with other groves. In addition to the individual summary of costs
and returns furnished the grower cooperators, the amount and kind of
available plant food applied per 100 trees and average price received for
fruit by varieties was shown in their grove summary. Approximately 2,500
copies of the state summary have been supplied growers, fertilizer com-
panies and their salesmen, libraries in the United States and Puerto Rico,
packinghouses, different government agencies, and business men upon
request.








Annual Report, 1936


There will be about 342 citrus accounts closed for the year 1935-36. All
fruit returns for these cost records will not be available until the crop
produced during the year is sold, which will be about August 1937.
The specially prepared citrus record book was revised before starting
the 1936-37 accounts.

FARM MANAGEMENT SURVEYS
Facts concerning the organization and operation of farms are needed by
farmers and agricultural workers in each type-of-farming area. The supply
of such information was greatly increased during 1935 and 1936.
Prior to the summer of 1935, such information was available in only 22
Florida counties. During the summer of 1935, the Extension Service and
Department of Agricultural Economics of the Florida Experiment Station
cooperated in making surveys in 8 counties. During the winter of 1935-36,
572 additional records were secured in 17 counties by the Extension Service
in cooperation with the Planning Section of the Agricultural Adjustment
Administration.
These surveys showed great variation in income between different
areas. Some of the areas in southern Florida were affected by adverse
weather conditions while others received more favorable weather and
relatively high prices. In spite of great improvement in financial returns
to farmers in general farming areas in western Florida since 1931, the
average labor income for farmers in these areas is still considerably below
what it should be.
Results of these surveys were made available to farmers and agricul-
tural workers in many ways during 1936. Mimeographed reports were
prepared for 12 areas. Farm meetings were held in 15 communities for the
purpose of discussing the results of the surveys with the cooperators and
other farmers. Individual visits were made to the farmers from whom
records were secured in 9 counties.
Flue-Cured Tobacco Area: Farm management survey records were
secured from 110 farmers in the flue-cured tobacco producing areas of
Columbia, Suwannee, Hamilton and Madison counties. The average labor
income varied from $40 per farm in Columbia County to $274 in Hami'ton
County. The percent of cash receipts from tobacco and from crops was
highest in Hamilton County, whereas the percent of cash receipts from
cotton was highest in Madison County. Livestock accounted for over 60
percent of the cash receipts in Columbia County.
Records for 24 farms located in Suwannee County were also obtained
in a similar study made for the year 1931. Due to a more favorable
growing season and higher prices, the average labor income for the 24
farms in 1935 was $158 compared with a minus $437 in 1931. A large per-
centage of the increase in the cash receipts was due to higher prices received
for tobacco and hogs. The average income per farm from the sale of water-
melons was considerably less in 1935 than in 1931.
In addition to the net income received by the farmers in the four coun-
ties, they also had the use of farm products consumed in the home.
Jefferson County Area: Records were obtained from 40 Jefferson
County general farmers located mainly between Florida highways 1 and 19.
The average cash receipts on these farms amounted to $999 and were
comprised of $467 from crops, $278 from livestock, $103 from livestock
products, $71 from A.A.A. payments, and $80 from miscellaneous sources.
The average farm expenses amounted to $689 which, when subtracted from
the cash receipts, gives a cash farm income of $310. Seven percent interest
on average investment of $5,554 amounted to $389. When this and other







Florida Cooperative Extension


non-cash expenses were deducted from the farm cash income, it resulted
in a minus $135 labor income.
Leon County Area: Survey records were also obtained from 33 farmers
located in the north and northeastern part of Leon County. Approximately
one-third of the farms were operated by the owners, one-third by renters,
and one-third by farmers who rented land in addition to that which they
owned. Of the total number of 33 farms, 27 were operated by colored
farmers.
Total farm receipts averaged $270 per farm, of which approximately
50 percent was comprised of crops and 50 percent livestock and livestock
products. After deducting cash farm expenses of $156, there remained $114
cash farm income. Non-cash expenses such as unpaid family labor, decrease
in capital and interest on investment amounted to $229. When these were
deducted from the cash farm income, the operator's labor income was a
minus $1.15.
Washington, Holmes and Walton Area: A total of 113 farm survey
records were obtained from farmers producing chiefly cotton and peanuts
in Washington, Holmes and Walton counties. The percent of the total
cash receipts from crops ranged from 61.9 percent in Washington County
to 74.8 percent in Walton County. Hogs amounted to 16 percent and
eggs 14 percent of the cash receipts in Washington County. In Holmes
County, cotton accounted for 43 percent of the cash income compared with
50 percent in Walton. The farms in Washington and Walton counties
failed to pay all farm expenses and 7 percent interest on the capital, and
had minus labor incomes of $62 and $45 respectively.
The value of food products furnished the home by the farm averaged
$294 in Washington, $332 in Holmes, and $331 in Walton. Every farm
surveyed in the three counties had a farm garden and cured their own
pork for home use. Milk was available for home consumption on all farms in
Walton and Washington counties. Sweet potatoes were produced on about
80 percent of the farms in the three counties.
Truck Farming Areas: Eight areas were surveyed in southern Florida.
They included five truck crop areas, poultry farms located in two counties,
and citrus groves in another county.
The farms in Seminole County were very profitable for the season
studied, but the other ardas experienced rather unfavorable crop years.
The most profitable farms in each area except Lee County received a higher
percent of their cash income from the most important crop in the area
than was received by the average farmer.
Enterprise Study of Dade County White Potatoes: During the past
year, the study of the early white potato area of Dade County was repeated.
The data covered 24 growers' records which represented approximately 69
percent of the total acres harvested. The data thus obtained for the two
crop seasons were summarized and an attempt was made to determine
some of the more important factors affecting cost of production and returns.
The findings were returned to growers in this area as a mimeographed
report entitled, "An Economic Study of White Potatoes in Dade County,
Fla., 1935-36 with Some Comparative Data for the 1934-35 Season". Each
grower who cooperated with the Agricultural Economics Extension Service
was furnished his individual summary. This enabled the growers to
compare their costs and returns as a basis for checking their efficiency
in farm organization and management.
A potato growers' meeting was held in Dade County in cooperation with
the county agent, at which time the results and findings of this study were
discussed. There were about 45 potato growers at this meeting.







Annual Report, 1936


COUNTY AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
This project began in the fall of 1935 and was continued through 1936.
It was supervised by a state directing committee composed of the director
and members of the Extension staff, and the Department of Agricultural
Economics. District agents assisted materially in organizing the councils.
The purpose of the project was to organize a county agricultural
planning council in each important agricultural county having a county
agent and to provide this council with all available information concerning
the agriculture of that county. The functions of these county councils
would be as follows: First; to serve as an advisory committee to the
county and home demonstration agents in helping them develop a strong,
well rounded county agricultural program. Second; To assume part of
the responsibility for thinking through the agricultural problems of the
county, the state and the nation. In other words, they would serve as a
group of agricultural leaders that county, state and federal officials might
call upon for farmer consideration of proposed plans affecting the agri-
culture of the country and from which would come suggestions for formu-
lating sound county, state and national agricultural programs.
The time and efforts of those working on the agricultural planning
project in Florida during the past year were divided among the following
items: 1. Preparation of county agricultural data. 2. Organization of
county agricultural planning councils. 3. Securing of answers from the
councils to questions prepared by the Agricultural Adjustment Adminis-
tration. 4. Making of farm management surveys in 17 counties covering
the crop year 1935. 5. Summarizing and returning the results of the
surveys to farmers. 6. Tabulating of census data by the same areas as
were used in tabulating the farmers' answers to the questions prepared by
the A.A.A. 7. Assisting in the preparation of county soil maps for the
use of county agricultural workers and the county councils.
1. One of the first transactions in the project was to summarize all
available county agricultural statistical data for the use of the county
councils. Such data were prepared in mimeographed form for 50 counties.
2. A total of 44 county planning councils were organized. At that
time 52 counties had agents. Three of these agents were appointed during
the period when the councils were being organized; and the group of
farmers called together by five agents preferred not to organize councils.
3. One purpose for which the councils were organized was to secure
answers to the following questions: (1) What would be the probable
production of the various farm products in 1936, assuming normal weather
conditions, present farming practices and prospective prices but without
either production or marketing control programs? (2) What would be the
probable production of the various farm products in 1936 under the same
assumptions as in (1), but if farm practices were adjusted to maintain
soil fertility and control erosion? The answers to these two questions for
30 counties in northern and northwestern Florida were secured by March 1.
4. During the months of December and January farm organization,
or type-of-farming, surveys were made in 17 counties covering 572 individual
farms. This work was financed cooperatively by the State Extension
Service and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. The purpose
was to collect information regarding type of farming, yields, and income
resulting from farming in counties for which such information was lacking
prior to the surveys. The results of this work were discussed in detail
earlier in this report.







Florida Cooperative Extension


5. Results of the surveys secured during the winter were tabulated
and brief summary reports prepared for 12 areas. The results were
discussed with farmers and county agricultural workers in farm meetings,
and individual summaries showing the weak and strong points of each
farmer's business were returned to cooperating farmers.
6. The farmers' answers to questions (1) and (2) were tabulated by
five areas. While the agriculture of these areas is not uniform in all
respects, there are a number of predominant characteristics of the agri-
culture in each area. To study the history of agriculture in each of these
areas and to compare the farmers' answers with the acres of crops and
number of livestock products in these areas, tabulations were made from
reports of the United States Census of Agriculture for the period 1900 to
date.
7. Only a small number of Florida counties had been surveyed by the
Bureau of Chemistry and Soils of the U.S.D.A. and maps for many counties
already surveyed are out of print. County agricultural planning councils
and county agents need soil maps for use in studying the agricultural
problems of their counties. To fill this need, a portion of the clerical help
on this project was used in making tracings of generalized soil maps for
54 counties. The original maps classifying the soils in these counties were
prepared by the Agronomy Department of the College of Agriculture, in
cooperation with the Resettlement Administration and the Florida Experi-
ment Station.
FAIR EXHIBITS
During the year exhibits were made at four county fairs on request.
Two of these were in Lake and Orange counties where a fairly large sample
of records had been furnished on groves for a period of 5 years. The
respective county data were used in chart form at these fairs. About 400
copies of these statistical summaries were passed out to growers and
others requesting them at each of these exhibits.
Displays were also made at the Volusia and Pinellas fairs. Approxi-
mately 200 copies of the statistical summary were given to growers and
others requesting them at each fair.

POULTRY ACCOUNTS
In the fall of 1935, over 250 poultry account books were distributed to
poultrymen. These books will be summarized during the winter of 1936-37
for all poultrymen who desire this service. Present indications are that the
number of books to be summarized will exceed 100.

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES
Citrus Institute: At the annual Citrus Institute held at Camp McQuarrie
beginning the latter part of August, assistance was given during the four
days in arranging entertainment and details of management. An analysis
of the long-time citrus costs of production and returns, some factors
affecting costs and returns, and other miscellaneous information were
discussed with growers who attended the citrus program.
Thirty-one of the 1935-36 citrus accounts were closed with the grower
cooperators who attended the Institute during the week. There were six
new cooperators who asked for a citrus record book.
4-H Club Camps: Two weeks were spent in two 4-H camps in which
farm management subjects were taught. The program consisted of four
30-minute periods daily for 4 days. Subjects taught included: farm and







Annual Report, 1936


home records, their value and how to keep them; enterprise records, with
particular emphasis on 4-H club projects; how to write a project story,
what it should include, and sequence of story; and organization of farm
and home.
Watermelon Marketing Agreement: The Assistant Farm Management
Specialist attended most of the Watermelon Control Committee meetings
prior to the tentative approval of the 1936 marketing agreement. He also
attended the growers' and shippers' hearing on this proposed marketing
agreement. After the hearing with Florida growers and shippers, four
district educational meetings were held in the more concentrated and
important producing area. Principal'features of the proposed marketing
agreement were discussed by a representative of the Special Crops Section
and the economic background and outlook for the future crop was discussed
by this department. At the close of these meetings a vote was taken
from growers as to whether they favored or opposed the agreement. As a
whole, the growers of Florida favored the agreement. South Florida growers
as a group were opposed to it, however.
The watermelon marketing agreement was designed to aid the growers
in more orderly marketing of the crop that they might realize larger net
returns. It appears that the agreement was of help to growers primarily,
and to a lesser extent to shippers.
Citrus Marketing Agreement: Assistance was given at 14 of the
growers' educational meetings pertaining to the provisions of the agree-
ment and economic situation of the citrus industry. About 600 growers
attended these meetings, most of whom voted upon the proposed agree-
ment. In general, both the growers and the shippers favored a control
marketing agreement.
Outlook Information: Current information relating to the production
and prices of Florida agricultural products and statistical data pertaining
to business conditions are regularly filed in the office of the Agricultural
Economists. This information is readily available to other members of the
Extension staff at all times.
Following the national Outlook Conference held in Washington in
October and in cooperation with other members of the Florida Extension
Service, College of Agriculture and Experiment Station, the Florida Agri-
cultural Outlook for 1937 was prepared and published.

MARKETING ACTIVITIES
The Extension Economist in Marketing was able to devote only five
months of the current fiscal year to his regular duties in the state because
of being on leave of absence with the Agricultural Adjustment Adminis-
tration in Washington. While in Washington, he was assigned to the Potato
Section and placed in charge of the Program Planning Unit and later in
charge of the Allotment and Review Unit. After the Potato Act of 1935
was repealed, it took some time to clear all records and get potato stamps
returned. He resumed work in Florida on July 15.

MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND FLORIDA CITRUS COMMISSION
Because of the urgent demand on the part of the citrus industry, it has
not been possible to adhere strictly to the program of work as outlined
at the beginning of this year. The United States has one of the largest
citrus crops on record and effort is being made in Florida by the Florida
Citrus Commission and the Citrus Control Committee to cope with the







Florida Cooperative Extension


situation. This agent was requested to work closely with these organiza-
tions and give assistance in connection with their program.
The Extension Economist in Marketing assisted in holding meetings to
obtain growers' votes on the proposed marketing agreement; 10 meetings
were held at which approximately 300 growers were present. The programs
dealt with production trends in citrus. Later it was found advisable to
make certain amendments to this agreement when additional grower ballots
were secured by a circular letter sent direct to growers. These ballots were
collected by county agents.
This agent has assisted the Control Committee by supplying county
agents, vocational agriculture teachers and secretaries of production credit
associations with information on prorates, regulations and operation of the
Control Committee.
Though the Florida Citrus Commission is not a part of the federal pro-
gram, an attempt is being made by this Commission to closely coordinate
the state program with the federal program. They have power, by state
legislation, to define grades and standards and collect assessed advertising
taxes and to determine how these advertising taxes are to be expended.
The Extension Economist in Marketing has worked closely with this Com-
mission.
Proposed String Bean Marketing Agreement: Conferences were held
with string bean growers to determine the necessity and program for a
marketing agreement. However, it did not appear practicable to undertake
a bean marketing agreement for the 1936-37 crop.
A request came from bean growers for the Agricultural Adjustment
Administration to buy beans for relief purposes. We visited this territory
and held a number of conferences with bean growers, shippers, and county
agents with reference to the plan.

FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION
At a meeting of the Orlando Citrus Production Credit Association, the
Extension Economist in Marketing reviewed the service that this associa-
tion was rendering and the possibilities for service in future.
He also assisted in a school for directors and secretaries of production
credit associations for North Florida and South Georgia. Balance sheets
and operating statements of associations represented were analyzed. Also
loan policies and membership relationship were discussed.
This agent has worked closely with state representatives of the National
Fruit and Vegetable Exchange. This is a cooperative marketing organiza-
tion for distributing agricultural products. Meetings were held at which
representatives outlined the service available to growers and shippers.

CONSUMER EGG SURVEY, TAMPA
The State Poultry Association has felt for some time that some con-
sumer marketing study should be made to obtain from consumers, hotels,
retailers, and wholesalers, what in their opinion the producers could do
to supply a product which would more nearly meet consumer demands.
After a meeting with the Research Committee of the State Poultry Associa-
tion, it was decided that a survey of the Tampa egg market might reveal
information valuable to Florida producers. Practically all eggs produced
in Florida are sold within the state. Therefore, a knowledge of the state's
markets would be of more importance to Florida producers than general
market surveys of other markets.
Before beginning the actual obtaining of information, the Economist
conferred with the Extension Poultrymen and county and home demonstra-







Annual Report, 1936 73

tion agents in the areas studied, as well as State Marketing Bureau repre-
sentatives and poultrymen. Approximately 1,150 records were obtained
from housewives, 12 from hotels and restaurants, 125 from retailers, and
15 from wholesalers. These records will be summarized and distributed.

MISCELLANEOUS
Assistance was given the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in
a survey to find the cost of marketing citrus fruits. The Economist con-
tacted motor truck carriers and obtained rates charged to Northern points.
It was found that although freight rates had a considerable influence on
the price trucks charged, a more important factor was competition among
truckers themselves. Whether or not truckers were able to obtain return
loads was also an important factor influencing the price charged.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART III-WOMEN'S AND


GIRLS' WORK

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent, North Florida
Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent, South Florida

ORGANIZATION
The staff of the office of Home Demonstration Work consists of a
state agent, three district agents, four specialists food conservation,
nutrition, home improvement, clothing-and 36 county home demonstration
agents. The Extension Service poultrymen, dairy specialists, agricultural
economists; agricultural engineers and other agricultural specialists assist
in the home demonstration program. Each district agent, in addition to
supervisory duties, is responsible for a state-wide program in a specialized
field including community organization, farm family living outlook, and
home industries.
Miss Flavia Gleason, state agent since 1923, resigned on September 15
after 13 years of valued service to the program of home demonstration work
in Florida. Miss Mary E. Keown was appointed state agent on that date,
transferred from the position of district agent for East Florida which she
has filled since 1927.
A specialist in textiles and clothing, Miss Clarine Belcher, was appointed
in January, the first additional position to be created in the State Home
Demonstration office in the past 10 years.
The position of Negro district home demonstration agent, vacant since
1933, was filled in August by the appointment of Beulah S. Shute.
Boards of County Commissioners in Putnam, Madison and Sumter
counties made appropriations in October for establishing home demon-
stration work in their counties and agents were placed in those counties
during the month.
Records show that home demonstration work is conducted in 529 rural
communities. Organized home demonstration clubs for women number 327
with a membership of 8,141. Home demonstration work for girls, known
as 4-H work, has an enrollment of 9,712, working in 479 clubs, an increase
of 507 over 1935.
The home demonstration agents-state, district and county-develop a
plan of work which makes reliable information on agricultural and home-
making subjects available to people who want it, at the time they need it,
and in the form in which it can be used by them. Specialists provide
subject-matter information on their particular phases of work and assist
in evolving effective methods of teaching both adults and girls.

EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING OF HOME
DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
Following the policy established for some years, home demonstration
agents to be appointed in Florida are expected to have at least a bachelor's
degree in home economics with additional training and experience in rural







Annual Report, 1936


life which will provide a satisfactory background for successful home dem-
onstration work. In filling the positions open during the year, well trained
people were secured.
Demands have been so heavy and services of agents so much needed
that Extension Service workers have not had opportunity for leave from
their posts of duty for additional study which many of them desire in order
to render more useful service to the farm families with whom they work.
Conferences of men and women agents to bring to them specific seasonal
information as well as program-planning conferences for the general
development of a state-wide Extension Service program have been arranged
by the supervisory staff. District agents and specialists aided the agents
throughout the year to keep abreast with useful professional information
needed in their work.

DETERMINING THE HOME DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM
The program of Home Demonstration Work must meet the needs and
desires of the rural people of Florida as recognized and expressed by the
people themselves, and is determined finally by facts available on present
farm conditions.
Information secured from agricultural outlook material is used in
developing the program. Economic data assembled by the specialists and
supervisory staff are studied and interpreted in terms of family living in
Florida. Findings of research workers from the Experiment Station are
applied to Florida conditions. Such information is presented to state and
county workers and to individual club members, community clubs, county
councils and committees who work with the agents to determine the most
helpful programs to be carried on during the year.
Home demonstration agents analyze situations affecting the farm homes
in their respective counties, and confer with supervisors and specialists
regarding them. County councils composed of representatives of each
organized community in the county discuss with their agent the community
and county needs and decide on the goals to be set for the year ahead.
Long-time as well as immediate objectives for their unified and county-wide
efforts have been determined by each council and this determines the general
plans for home demonstration work.
Therefore, no two counties have conducted identical programs nor
expect the same results. The type of work developed in each of the 37
counties also depends on the length of time in which home demonstration
work has been established-for example, many counties have conducted the
program continuously for 20 years or more while others have been at work
only for the past few months, and still other counties have no organized
home demonstration work conducted by a county worker and must look to
the state office for the assistance they secure.
The supervisory staff has studied these varying needs and with the help
of the home demonstration agents guide the development of the kind of
program that renders the most useful service.
Successful home demonstration work, as its name implies, is based on
the establishment in the home by a member of the farm family who has
the help and advice of the home demonstration agent, of a demonstration
which puts into use in that home improved methods of doing the everyday
home tasks or of using the agricultural resources of that home or com-
munity so that the demonstrator secures better living for herself and
members of the family. By conducting this definitely planned demon-
stration under actual home conditions and with the facilities available,
the demonstrator realizes through the simple records she keeps and the







76 Florida Cooperative Extension

results she secures, the advantages of this effort to herself and her family.
She is encouraged to undertake further improvements. The demonstration
not only brings satisfaction to the members of the family most concerned
but it stands as an object lesson to the community and others are inspired
to follow the example of their neighbor. So justifiable pride in the results
of successful enterprise comes to the demonstrator and real community
leadership is developed a factor greatly needed in all rural life.
Better living for most farm families in Florida has required greater
production or conservation at home of the food supply needed by the family
so that the amount of available cash, usually limited, might be spent not
for food which could be supplied through their own efforts but for other
goods or enterprises which contribute to better living. Therefore home
demonstration work in Florida encourages year round gardens, calendar
orchards, farm poultry flocks, home cows, canning and preserving, all
conducted as a part of a careful plan for adequate family nutrition. Pro-
ductive phases of the work have contributed also to the cash income of
many farm families as shown by the fact that sales from these home
industries brought $199,863.14 in cash to farm women and girls in 1936.
Every bona-fide 4-H club girl is required to conduct a "living, growing
demonstration" in her own home. This demonstration may be gardening,
poultry, beekeeping, or related project. In addition to production, the girl
enrolled learns to use these products of the farm on the farm table. This
work gives her an understanding of the relation of agricultural activities
to better farm family living and at the same time, can furnish some cash
income to enable the girl to realize other goals.
A well fed, healthy family, a well clothed family with the members living
in a comfortable, attractive home-all this accomplished through their own
efforts by using the resources at hand-might be stated as the goal of
home demonstration work in Florida. In 1936, likewise in all the 24 years
since its establishment in Florida, this program of work has offered as-
sistance to rural people in planning and securing these objectives.
The 17,853 girls and women who are members of the 806 organized
clubs have become real local leaders and dynamic forces in securing com-
munity progress. So great has been the development of the capability of
these leaders that 1,404 women and girls last year acted as volunteer local
leaders for the agents, each one especially trained in some phase of home
demonstration subject matter and serving as chairman of that particular
activity in her county to which she devoted considerable time.
To meet the demands on their time and energy it has been necessary
for the agents to plan their work carefully, using every available means to
serve the people and to cooperate with other agencies which desire assistance
from them. The agents have held 11,098 meetings this year as compared
with 10,135 in 1935, but it is interesting to note that 213,529 people attended
these meetings in 1936 as against 141,270 in 1935. This increase of 72,359
shows that interest of the general public is increasing.
At the same time, the agents have had 42,642 calls at their offices,
answered 24,894 inquiries made over the telephone, and 2,838 news stories
were written for the local press-other means of reaching people with
timely information they desire.
The success of home demonstration work depends on the agent having
first-hand information of the home situations and the confidence of the
women and girls enrolled. Therefore, each agent allowed time in planning
her schedule to make visits to the homes and farms. Last year the agents
made 18,493 home visits to 7,939 homes in addition to all other organized
work.







Annual Report, 1936 77

RESULTS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Since home demonstration work is a part of a program intended to
develop a wider use of the agricultural resources of the state and to
improve farm family living, naturally its plan of work emphasizes food
for the family properly produced, used and conserved. When fresh fruits,
vegetables, meats, poultry and dairy products are produced at home, the
result is economical, well-balanced meals and healthy, well-nourished
families.
To contribute to the family food supply, maintain the health of the
family, and increase the family income, particular attention has been
given to the following phases with results as stated below:
Poultry: Fundamentals emphasized were growing healthy chicks and
pullets, growing green feed, culling, calendar flock records, junior poultry
work, and the egg quality program. Reports show that 1,753 women and
1,235 girls followed recommended practices in the management of poultry
flocks which included 25,863 standard-bred chickens. Eggs and poultry
products were sold to the amount of $95,337.27.
Home Dairying: Herein the aim has been to improve the quality and
increase the quantity of milk used at home through better management
and with a view to better nutrition. Club members have bought 701 dairy
cows, and 2,167 families report using a quart of milk for each child and
a pint for each adult.
Gardening and Perennial Plantings: Under this heading was emphasized
a year-round supply of fresh fruits and vegetables for the health of the
family, increasing the income by lowering cash expenditures and planning
for the sale of surplus products, improvement and beautification of the
home through planting useful ornamentals and native shrubs and flowers,
including county flowers both annual and perennial.
Vegetable gardens were grown by 4,718 4-H club girls and 4,178 women;
3,354 all-year gardens were grown by women and girls.
Conservation: Food conservation through canning and preserving has
assured a more varied diet for many families and eliminated waste of
fruits and vegetables in the garden, fields, groves and packinghouses. It
has promoted the use of Florida products and furnished a means for
increasing the family income. Club members have made canning budgets.
The program of conservation deals with serving economical, well balanced,
satisfying, attractive meals from the garden and orchard, farm, grove, meats,
poultry, fish and other Florida products. A total of 1,815,980 quarts of
good food were saved by women and in addition 127,852 quarts of foods
were canned by 4-H girls; 420,281 pounds of meat were cured by home
demonstration families.
If these 1,794,684 quarts of fruits and vegetables are valued at only 10
cents a quart and the 149,148 quarts of meats at 50 cents a quart, the
farm women and girls have saved more than $254,042 through home canning.
Utilization-Food, Nutrition and Health: Utilization of Florida farm
foods in the state has increased, and women and girls are greatly interested
in the value of different foods needed by the farm family to protect health
and prevent disease. Careful planning, producing, utilizing and wise buying
of the family food supply safeguarded the health and insured satisfactory
distribution of the cash income to meet the needs and desires of hundreds
of Florida families. For example, 3,696 women were enrolled as demon-
strators; 3,498 girls completed demonstrations in 35 counties; 1,863 families
in 32 counties planned, produced and preserved a home food supply, and
2,365 families followed food buying recommendations in 25 counties. Home







Florida Cooperative Extension


demonstration women adopted better methods of food preparation in 23
counties as follows: In baking, 1,550 women; meat cookery, 1,171; vege-
table cookery, 2,008; dairy products, 687; poultry products, 1,169, and
5,997 families in 34 counties reported serving better balanced meals.
Clothing for the Family: Meeting the clothing needs of the farm
family with the related problems of buying and construction of clothing
has been the basis of the clothing work accomplished. Assistance has
been given in planning, selecting, constructing and caring for clothing
in the home, with the goal of saving money and time and enabling mem-
bers of the family to be well dressed at low cost. Showing their interest
in this instruction 10,817 girls and women were enrolled for clothing con-
struction and 1,672 method demonstrations were given on clothing subjects.
Home Engineering: Objectives in home engineering have been to save
the health and strength of women by having water and lights put in the
home; to have some means of sewage disposal; to build new homes after
a plan which will save time and strength and protect the health of the
family and which will be well constructed and beautiful; to protect the
life of equipment on hand through proper care. It is reported that 636
houses were painted and 61 whitewashed; 1,771 kitchens improved; 188
water systems and 24 sunshine water heaters installed.
Home Sanitation and Health: Education of farm people to the dangers
and sources of hookworm, the mosquito and other avoidable sources of
disease has been included in all phases of home demonstration work.
Protection against them through clean premises and other recommended
methods has been shown so that all members of the family may be well
and happy. In this phase of work the State Board of Health, physicians,
sanitary engineers and nurses have given splendid cooperation in rendering
more effective service in improving sanitary conditions in and around the
home and in the community. One hundred twenty-five sewage disposal
plants were installed; 456 homes screened; 249 sanitary toilets built.
Electrification: With power lines extending into rural areas agents
have given considerable time to showing the value of electric appliances
in the home and to securing information on costs and possibilities of ex-
tended service.
Home Management: Home demonstration agents have developed the
idea of management and wise planning in connection with all phases of
work.
Increased interest has been shown generally in better management
through use of time, energy and income. Account keeping, business centers
and family councils on the family budget have increased. The home
management program has emphasized improved laundry practices, re-
arrangement of equipment for convenience and time saving, sanitation for
health, and above all, everyday good housekeeping. Reports show that
2,118 women improved everyday good housekeeping; 961 kept home ac-
counts; 815 budgeted their expenditures.
Consumer Education: A knowledge of their responsibilities as con-
sumers has caused many home demonstration women to request help on
purchasing. To know what standards to expect in return for an invest-
ment has been taught in connection with all phases of work and 1,393
women report making a study of buying methods in order to save money
and know values.
House Furnishings: Emphasis has been given to furnishings which
can be secured at low cost or made at home and to the wise purchasing
of permanent furnishings. An attractive, economically furnished home
has proved a direct source of family happiness to many Florida families







Annual Report, 1936


during 1936. In all, 2,003 women and girls repaired and remodeled furni-
ture and 931 refinished walls and floors.
Beautification of Home Grounds: There were 2,375 women and 1,735
girls who made definite plans for beautifying the home by suitable plant-
ings, using native plants and useful ornamentals, with every county urged
to plant the county flower.
Home Marketing-Money-Making Home Industries: Because the cash
income of farm families often is too low to provide for needed purchases
or to allow desired improvements in the home, farm women and girls
have sought ways of supplementing that family income. They have utilized
surplus products or planned to produce specific products which could be
used in the manufacture of standardized quality articles for sale. Through
the tourists who seek products with local color and through their own
initiative in finding markets still undeveloped, home demonstration women
and girls have found ready sale for quality products and in consequence
have realized a considerable addition to their incomes. Sales reported by
women and girls were made from the following commodities:

Baked products, using Florida marmalades, jellies, etc. ..............$.. 6,087.47
Canned products .... ............. ............. .................................... 12,715.17
Fresh vegetables from home gardens ..................................... 25,798.50
Fresh fruits from calendar orchards .............. ................ ...... .. 19,007.07
Eggs and poultry ............................. .................. 95,337.27
Butter, milk and cottage cheese ..................... ................... ...... 21,573.96
Other articles sold (plants, flowers, craft articles from native
products, honey, etc.) ................ ........ ....................... 19,343.70

$199,863.14
Community Activities: Women and girls have been encouraged to
show wholesome interest in community needs. All clubs have been re-
sponsible for at least one community-wide activity. Emphasis has been
given to keeping up the morale of the rural people through maintenance
of good health, provision of good reading material, and through inexpen-
sive forms of family and community recreation.
Permanent community houses have been secured in 48 communities
and 49 rural libraries have been established. Special recreation schools
for training leaders to develop community recreation have been conducted
by the National Recreation Association and Extension workers in six
counties. Community achievement programs and displays of work have
been held in 114 communities with an attendance of 98,775 persons; 85
tours to established demonstrations were conducted during the year; 1,879
home demonstration members made improvements in school and church
grounds.

METHODS AND PLANS FOR DEVELOPING AND STRENGTHENING
THE WORK
As stated previously, members of the state staff study conditions and
outlook data and discuss these facts in the light of local needs with the
agent and council members to assist them in determining the most helpful
service the agent can render during the year. Goals for the year are then
set up.
Supervisory Program: The supervisory staff of the state office em-
phasized the development of the following objectives for their work in
all counties during the year: ..







Florida Cooperative Extension


1. Assisting in developing the type of programs that would meet the
needs of the greatest number of rural people.
2. Adapting our immediate programs to meet present conditions, at
the same time carrying out and giving emphasis to our permanent and
.long-time demonstrations in the homes.
3. Serving a larger number of people in each county maintaining home
demonstration work through wider use of local leaders wherever possible
and by urging each home demonstration member to be responsible for
passing information along and interesting at least two non-members.
Older 4-H girls were urged to act as leaders for younger girls.
4. Rendering some definite assistance in unorganized counties to spread
more widely the influence of home demonstration work.
5. Further development of home demonstration clubs, county and state
councils, increasing number of standard clubs and councils, working with
larger number of older girls, maintaining high percentage of completions,
and securing better records.
6. Giving more attention to efficient distribution of agent's time and
work in county; and distribution of the time of specialists, district agents,
and state agent.
7. Working out a more satisfactory arrangement for providing agents
with better demonstration equipment and necessary assistance.
8. Emphasizing the demonstration as an object lesson by encouraging
records, more tours, home visits and meetings at result demonstrations.
9. Giving preference in the employment of new agents as far as train-
ing is concerned to college graduates who have majored in home economics
and had at least two years' teaching or similar experience. Newly ap-
pointed agents have spent several days in the state office prior to assum-
ing their duties in the county, to become more familiar with available
material and methods used in development of the work.
10. Staff conferences regarding the development of home demonstra-
tion activities were held each month as far as practicable, in the state
home demonstration agent's office, and conferences of the entire extension
staff were arranged as often as the director found it advisable to call them.
Farm and home demonstration agents were encouraged to work jointly
in developing county agricultural councils and in county agricultural plan-
ning activities.
In conducting effective home demonstration work certain principles
and methods proved valuable in all counties and the plans and programs
of all agents have taken the following into consideration:
Demonstrations Established in the Homes: Home demonstration clubs
for women and girls and county councils are chief avenues through which
the home agent works; special events are arranged as the district and
county agents think advisable to create interest and spread the influence.
Plans of Work: A definite program and plan of work is required of
each home demonstration worker at the beginning of the year and results
accomplished are checked at the close of the year, serving as a gauge of
success or failure and a guide for future plans.
By having a well planned, unified program based on needs and with
each worker assuming her share of responsibility and making a definite
plan for doing her part, far-reaching results have been secured.
Clubs and Councils: All agents follow a regular schedule of organized
club meetings, usually meeting with each senior and junior club once each
month. The county councils usually meet quarterly. State and district
agents frequently accompany the agent to club and council meetings, thus
learning the situations in the county and forming a friendly and under-







Annual Report, 1936 81

standing contact with the people of the county. Specialists work in the
counties according to definite plans as the assistance is needed and they
also aid the agent in formulating effective methods for carrying out
her work.
Records: Simple but practical record books prepared by the state staff
are furnished to each home demonstration member so that she may keep
an accurate record of her own work. Statistics used in this report are
compiled from such record books. These records serve as a stimulus to
greater achievement and give valuable factual data on needs and opportun-
ities' for service which the home demonstration agent may give in rural
homes.
Exhibits: Many girls and women have realized the satisfaction of show-
ing to their friends on Achievement Day their worthwhile achievements
and these have served to spread Extension information. Thirty-four coun-
ties report 300 events at which were shown educational exhibits carefully
judged so that exhibitors might have quality standards and compare their
improvement and quality with that of their neighbors.
Publicity: Newspapers throughout the state have been generous in
the amount of space given to news stories and seasonal information of
value to rural people. Thirty-five counties report 2,838 news stories pub-
lished. News reporters appointed in home demonstration clubs, both girls
and women, have learned to write simple reports of their activities and
to submit these stories to the local papers, giving these amateur reporters
excellent experience and additional contact with local business people.
Eighteen agents report 38 radio talks given over WRUF and other radio
stations. Florida 4-H girls and agents participated in the National 4-H
Achievement Day program presented from four stations in Florida in
November.
Circular letters have been used during the year to further extend useful
information to persons who may not be able to attend organized club
meetings or to visit the agent's office. Reports show 1,779 different circular
letters written through the year.
Tour: Farm people have proved that certain home activities are valu-
able from an economic standpoint and are eager to share this knowledge
of better living with all who are interested. Fine reports have been made
by the farm people themselves of the value of the pantry tours, home
improvement tours, garden tours, and other visits to these successful dem-
onstrations. Eighty-five tours were reported with 3,462 interested persons
attending. Better buying tours to business houses conducted in several
counties familiarized the homemaker with local shops and their merchandise
and trained the women in buying standards. Other tours to nearby counties
or to the State College or University have been used as a means of educa-
tion and recreation for many groups of farm people.
Bulletins and Circulars: During the year mimeographed and printed
publications have been prepared on the subjects of gardening, conservation,
nutrition, home improvement and clothing. Material for use in the cloth-
ing program is in preparation. Bulletins in greatest demand include those
pertaining to food conservation, economical meals, and house furnishings.

SPECIAL EVENTS TO MARK ACHIEVEMENT AND TO
DEVELOP PROGRAM
Achievement Days: Completion of the year's work in each community
and county is observed by achievement programs and exhibits. These events
give recognition to all members for worthy endeavor, help the demon-







Florida Cooperative Extension


strator and the agent to check progress and improve quality, and allow
the public an opportunity to know more about the work in the county.
Fifty-one achievement days were held in 1936 by the women, with an
attendance of 50,488, while the girls held 63 achievement programs attended
by 48,287. In 1935 the total number of programs held was 93 as against
114 in 1936, but attendance rose from 12,640 to 98,775.
Camps: The camps actually are short courses of training for the girls
and women and provide a valuable means for giving instruction and recrea-
tion and generally strengthening the county home demonstration programs.
During thesummer of 1936 33 camps were held for girls and 16 for women
and were attended by 1,573 girls and 1,232 women. Many interested local
people contributed to the success of these camps by acting as instructors,
and at the same time became familiar with plans of work in their counties.
College 4-H club girls, older 4-H club girls and local leaders all aided the
agents. Thirteen counties held camps at Camp McQuarrie in the Ocala
National Forest and seven camped at Camp Timpoochee in the Chocta-
whatchee National Forest, both owned by the Extension Service and
equipped through the combined efforts of extension workers and club
members.
A two-day farm and home institute held at Camp Timpoochee brought
inspiration and recreation to adult farm people of West Florida.
Out-of-State Trips: Margaret Taylor of Escambia County and Beatrice
Arnold of Dade County received awards of scholarship trips to the National
4-H Camp held in June. This camp is held annually under the direction
of the Extension Service of the United States Department of Agriculture.
Only two 4-H girls and two 4-H boys may attend from each state and
these are selected for their achievement in club work and because of their
leadership ability. In addition to the educational programs participated in
by the club members, directed tours to interesting places in and about
Washington add to the outstanding educational advantages of the camp.
Trips to the National 4-H Club Congress held in Chicago at the time
of the International Live Stock Show are awarded by the State office to.
Florida 4-H girls who have made excellent records in various phases of
club work. These scholarship trips are given by interested business firms.
Winners of these awards in 1936 were Toi Strickland of Holmes, Edith
McKeown of Jackson, Louise Grantham of Jefferson, Harriet Wallace of
Marion, and Frances Webb of Dade County.
State Short Course for 4-H Girls: The 24th Annual Short Course for
4-H Club Girls was held at Florida State College for Women in June. The
capability and attitude of the girls themselves, their morale, the type of
program and the greatly improved work seen in the counties as a result
of the Short Course training, proves the wisdom of requiring that those
girls awarded Short Course scholarships must be county winners at least
14 years old. There were 582 girls and 67 local leaders and 36 home dem-
onstration agents in attendance at the 1936 Short Course.
Scholarships for club girls and leaders were provided by club members
who earned the money for their representatives and by county commis-
sioners, school boards, women's clubs, men's clubs, banks, merchants and
interested individuals who wished to give this opportunity to girls of
their county.
Each girl who receives a scholarship is made responsible for making
4-H club work render a larger service by passing on to others the knowl-
edge she has gained, helping younger girls with their work, and acquaint-
ing girls who are not members with the purpose and results of 4-H club
work-in short, assisting the agent wherever she can. The "Short Course







Annual Report, 1936


.girls" help effectively in county camps and in special programs in their
own communities. All facilities of the Florida State College for Women
-were used during the course. Faculty, social directors, dietitians, college
nurses, all gave their time and interest generously to make a successful
program. Dormitories, laboratories and classrooms were used exclusively
by the girls during the week.
Former 4-H club girls now in College served as leaders for the younger
girls and were given responsibility for many details.
The Junior Home Demonstration Council held its annual meeting during
Short Course, electing Lorena Wetherbee of Orange County as president.
The Junior Council maintains a scholarship fund to assist worthy club
members to attend college.
Home Demonstration Council for Women: The Senior Home Demon-
stration Council representing the 28 county councils participated in the
program of the Woman's Institute in June and held its annual meeting at
that time. Mrs. Nellie Murphy of Dade County was elected president.
State and county staff members assisted with the program and aided
council members in planning their year's program of work. The Senior
Council maintains a scholarship fund awarded to a worthy junior-year
student at the Florida State College for Women who has been a 4-H club
member and had a creditable record in club work and at college.
Training Course for Local Leaders: A training course for volunteer
local leaders was held as a part of the Short Course program, attended by
67 women, with special instruction in the history and program of home
demonstration work, duties of a local leader, and methods for successfully
assisting the agent in her program. The women given this course requested
additional instruction, and many similar courses have been given in the
counties.
LOCAL LEADERS
The work has grown to such an extent that in most counties it is im-
possible for the agent to meet all demands made on her time and energy.
Furthermore, if the activities have grown as they should, the agent is
not the only source of the kind of information included in the home demon-
stration program; rather the rural people themselves are passing along
to others the useful knowledge they have gained. Records show that home
demonstration women and girls have realized their responsibility and are
serving as volunteer local leaders for the agent, strengthening work in
the county and developing a fine type of leadership among rural people
where it should be found. In 1936 1,472 persons acted as volunteer local
leaders. Of this number 201 were older 4-H club girls helping with the
girls' program.
That these project chairmen and 4-H local leaders might work effec-
tively, 63 special training meetings were held in the counties on subject-
matter and methods.
In several counties groups of older 4-H girls or former 4-H girls now
married or at work, have formed "Alumnae Clubs" to strengthen 4-H club
work in their counties.
The College 4-H Club, organized at the Florida State College for Women
and having a membership in 1936 of 78 former 4-H girls, has become a
recognized campus organization. Members help with the annual girls'
Short Course and aid freshmen to become acquainted with college life.
Throughout the year these girls maintain close relationship with the State
Home Demonstration Office.
SPECIAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS BY GIRLS
There were 9,712 girls between 10 and 20 years of age in 479 clubs
in 35 counties. The percentage of older girls doing active work with their







Florida Cooperative Extension


club program increases each year. At present 6,418 members are below
14 years of age and 3,294 are 14 years old or more.
A regular program to be executed progressively over a period of years
is planned so that the girl may have the advantage of practical training
in home making and agricultural duties which she naturally carried on in
her own home as a member of the farm family. Each girl is expected to
conduct a "productive" demonstration-poultry, gardening, beekeeping-so
that she will learn the relationship of these activities to better family
living and at the same time have opportunity to earn some money through
applying successful business methods to these enterprises.
Records are kept on all phases of 4-H work and at the end of the year
the girl must exhibit her work and write a story of her progress.
Each active club member each year conducts demonstrations in at least
three phases of home demonstration work-one productive and two home-
making. Homemaking activities include different phases of home improve-
ment, yard beautification, food preparation, nutrition and health, canning
and clothing. The demonstration is conducted in the home under ordinary
living conditions but these demonstrations must be well thought out to
meet family needs and means must be provided to carry them to completion.
During 1936 71 percent of club girls completed their demonstrations and
submitted their records for judging and scoring.
* Club meetings are conducted regularly so that the girls learn how to
direct an orderly program and acquire poise and confidence and pride in
their own achievements. They recognize the fact that real leaders earn
that title through achievement and not appointment.
National honors have come to Florida 4-H club girls this year. Frances
Webb of Dade County, a fourth year girl, won first place in the clothing
work competing with state winners of 42 other states. In addition to her
clothing work Frances has excelled in home improvement and yard improve-
ment as well as leadership through her club and county council.
Ruth Durrenberger, a 4-H club girl for seven years in Orange County,
after graduation from a home economics course in college and a year's
experience assisting in home demonstration work, was selected as winner
of the Payne Fellowship which provides funds for a year's study in the
United States Department of Agriculture. Girls from every state competed
for this honor.
Records of Florida State College for Women show that former 4-H
club girls to the number of 101 have received their college degrees in the
past 10 years and 15 earned two-year certificates. Campus honors have
been earned by college 4-H girls through the election of Margaret Delaney
to membership in Omicron Nu, honorary home economics society.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
The friendly relationships enjoyed with other organizations at work in
the state has brought gratifying associations to home demonstration workers
during the year and the recognition and courtesies extended by them to
home demonstration work is acknowledged with appreciation.
Nine School Boards in the state cooperate with the Extension Service
in maintaining a budget for home demonstration work. School authorities
in nearly all counties arrange for time for the agents to conduct 4-H club
meetings where such arrangement has been desirable because of consolidated
schools or lack of other community centers.
The interest of the home demonstration club members, both girls and
women, in community progress has made possible establishing school lunch
rooms in rural schools, stimulating interest in securing departments of







Annual Report, 1936


agriculture and home economics, establishment of school libraries, beauti-
fying school grounds and in otherwise assisting with educational institu-
tions. For example, last year 1,879 home demonstration members made
definite improvements in beautifying school grounds and 49 home demon-
stration clubs established community libraries.
College and university authorities have arranged scholarships or given
employment for deserving 4-H girls and boys otherwise unable to secure
funds for their further education.
Business Organizations of men and women throughout Florida have as-
sisted in strengthening home demonstration work by gaining an under-
standing of its purposes and by offering scholarships or awards for achieve-
ment of women and girls. The total value of such awards in 1936 was
more than $5,000.00. Fair associations have worked with the agents in
arrangements for exhibits of results of home demonstration work and their
award lists have encouraged its objectives.
State Board of Health: For years home demonstration agents have
looked to the medical, nursing and health authorities of the state for
reliable information to be used in their applied work in home and community
health and sanitation. Fine assistance has been received from state and
county officials and through the use of the printed bulletins and publica-
tions furnished by the State Board. Home demonstration agents under-
stand rural conditions and needs and because of their wide acquaintance
with local people have been able to stimulate intelligent interest and sup-
port of the work of the health authorities.
The State Congress of Parents and Teachers, through its state officials
and particularly its home service department, keeps in touch with home
demonstration agents. The program of both organizations has developed
in harmony and to mutual advantage.
The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs maintains a Department of
Home Demonstration whose chairman is a former home demonstration
agent, as is the chairman of the Department of Home Economics of the
Federation and the editor of the Federation publication. The president of
the State Federation also has been a home demonstration agent recently,
so the Federation can be expected to understand the purposes of home dem-
onstration work. Federation members have given strong support both
in counties and in the state generally. County and state workers assist
with programs before local clubs, which aid in furnishing scholarships for
Short Course and club camps.
National Better Homes Week: Each county home demonstration agent
is county chairman of Better Homes Week and the State Home Improve-
ment Specialist is state chairman.
Government and Emergency Agencies: Sometimes it has been a per-
plexing problem to know how to supply the kind and amount of cooperative
assistance requested from this office by other agencies engaged in work
in Florida, and at the same time to continue to develop the kind of permanent
home demonstration program which renders the best service to rural people.
The program of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and Soil
Conservation has affected the work of all extension agents. Home demon-
stration agents assumed their share of responsibility for explaining the
significance of this program to the farm families and to interested civic
groups. Considerable effort has been made to bring about some under-
standing of national and international problems and situations as they
relate to agricultural adjustments and how they affect the affairs of the
individual farm family.
Directors of the Resettlement Administration have been in constant
touch with the home demonstration agents, both state and county. The







Florida Cooperative Extension


.state home demonstration staff advised with the state director of resettle-
ment on the program to be conducted and furnished subject-matter assist-
ance for its development. Recommendations for appointment of personnel
were requested and given.
The Works Progress Administration, through its various divisions, has
given assistance to county agents by assigning a certain number of certified
local people to work under their direction. In cooperation with these
agencies the office of home demonstration work has supplied them with
subject-matter information, demonstration materials, exhibits, bulletins,
and trained and supervised a large number of workers for their respective
duties as canning assistants, teachers, etc.
The National Youth Administration has arranged for a number of young
women and girls to assist in county offices, the agents thereby training
these girls to greater usefulness as a result of which numbers of
these girls have been able to secure regular employment. Several former
4-H club girls have been enabled to work their way through Florida State
College for Women using the NYA scholarships awarded them.
The Farm Credit Administration through its division of Family Credit
presented discussions of family credit during the annual agents' conference
and as a result the agents have a better understanding of the purposes and
development of agencies concerned with farm debt adjustment and credit,
so they can assist farm families wherever possible.
National Recreation Association: Special recreation schools for the
training of leaders to develop community recreation have been conducted
in six group centers of the state by representatives of the National Recrea-
t'on Association under the direction of extension agents. Recreation
Councils formed in five counties were composed of men and women, boys
and girls interested in community life.

MEASURING PROGRESS AND RESULTS
The content of this report and the miscellaneous facts quoted below
substantiated by records in the state and county offices indicate considerable
progress in the home demonstration program in Florida during the last
year and the accomplishment of practical results. The records show the
following:
An increase of three counties making financial arrangements to employ
home demonstration agents.
Number of women enrolled increased by more than 1,000.
Number of girls enrolled in 4-H clubs increased by 500.
31 more clubs organized for women than in 1935.
213,529 people attended home demonstration meetings compared with
141,270 in 1935.
42,642 calls were made by people at agents' offices compared to 31,193
last year.
Telephone inquiries made to office increased during last year by 4,132
to a total of 24,894.
Nearly 100 additional local leaders volunteered their services for the
year, making the number now 1,472.
The family food supply increased-amount of food canned doubled from
1;023,817 quarts in 1935 to 2,366,532 in 1936.
Number of lighting systems installed increased from 98 in 1935 to 224
in 1936.
Number of water systems increased from 107 to 188.
956 homes remodelled by demonstrators compared with 662 in 1935.
Women and girls added to the family cash income by sales of home
produced articles totaling $199,863.14.







Annual Report, 1936


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION

Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation
The entire program of home demonstration work in Florida carries
the ideal of "the more abundant life for every family", a higher standard
of living, better housing, better food, better clothes, labor-saving equip-
ment, leisure and facilities for travel, education, recreation, and the develop-
ment of cultural and spiritual values ever before the workers. That part
dealing with gardening and food conservation, forms the basis of a well
conceived plan for family nutrition and at the same time furnishes the
medium for securing a substantial part of the funds that will enable the
Florida rural family to realize the ideals set forth above.
However, owing to extent, topography, the variation in soils, climate,
seasons and drainage, and the many types of occupations by which Florida
people earn their livelihoods, the "live-at-home" program must be modified
to meet varying conditions and situations in different parts of the state.
Nevertheless, it is believed that the majority of families living in rural
sections can produce much of the food that is needed in the home, and
can add greatly to their food supply and family income.
The promotion, therefore, of year-round gardens, permanent and varied
fruit plantings and their cultivation, the preparation and utilization of
surplus products according to the newest knowledge of canning technology,
that the family shall have a balanced and healthful food supply, composes
a large part of the program of the Economist in Food Conservation.
In addition, the income obtained through lowering cash expenditures
for food and by the sale of surplus fruits and vegetables, both fresh and
canned, is an item of increasing importance and promotes thrift and
economy in the home. Also, the improvement and beautification of the farm
home through the increased plantings of not only the "economic orna-
mentals" but also of native shrubs and flowers, particularly the "county"
flower, all tend to develop a greater appreciation of the esthetic, economic
and nutritional values of Florida fruits and vegetables, and the part they
play in making a finer farm life.

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
Records submitted on gardening activities show 3,354 year-round gar-
dens with a cash valuation of $42,711.80 for vegetables sold, and 4,178
part-time gardens. These figures show an encouraging increase of 367 in
the number of year-round gardens made this year. Club girls to the
number of 4,784 enrolled in gardening in 1936.
Florida home demonstration families not only supplied their homes
with fresh vegetables but in many instances, high grade, well-standardized
canned goods are achieved from the planned surplus of the farm and home
garden. The gardens are grown with that idea in mind and one county
alone reports an estimated value of $22,000 for vegetables grown by club
members. Out of this $2,500 worth of canned vegetables were sold.
Home demonstration records for 1936 show that gardens have been
worth from $150 to $1,375 to each family reporting. From the standpoint
of health, they are worth infinitely more. A record shows that one family
in a north Florida county spent only $45 for food and enough fresh vege-
tables were exchanged to pay this bill. The fresh vegetables pay for
many things. They buy food not produced on the farm, household comforts
such as rugs, radios, cook stoves and curtains. They defray doctors' bills







Florida Cooperative Extension


and make contributions to the preacher. All this is due to better farm and
garden management as worked out in the home demonstration program.

CALENDAR ORCHARDS
Many home demonstration agents report that the canning budget has
exerted a stimulating influence for more and varied plantings of fruit trees.
For the year 1936, the number of calendar orchards planted is given
as 486. Plantings were made of 24,966 fruit trees, 69,783 berry vines, and
4,422 grape vines. Fresh fruit having a cash value of $19,007.07 was sold
from 4,018 homes.
FOOD CONSERVATION
Making a budget of the canned food needs of the family and canning
according to that budget as well as a surplus for emergencies and barter
has still been the project of greatest interest and progress in the home
demonstration program of work. As stated before, food conservation
logically follows production in the live-at-home program and cannot well
be separated. Likewise, food conservation and the canning budget are
inseparable and the counties have responded well to what is planned to be
not only an asset to the family health, but a creative and a remunerative
program.
Reports indicate that the majority of club members still figure that 600
containers or more of canned foods are needed to meet Florida conditions in
nearly all sections of the state. In fact, many fill considerably more than
that amount and convincingly justify their budgets. Canning projects
enrolled 3,624 4-H club girls who filled 107,852 containers. The total amount
of canning done by women in 1936 has more than doubled over the amount
canned in 1935; the women canned 2,366,532 quarts of fruits, vegetables,
meats and fish.
Since recent research tends to prove that where fine fresh foods only
are used for canning and the latest information on processing procedures
is used in selecting, preparing, precooking, processing, cooling and storing,
the final products serve admirably in place of the same products freshly
cooked. For this reason, many club members feel that it is far more prac-
tical and less expensive to can abundantly of certain vegetables during the
season of their best growth and nutritive value and discontinue the struggle
against climatic conditions, pests, and other ills that menace production in
Florida at certain times in the year.

CANNING CONTESTS
A total of 871 women from 27 counties entered three jars each in the
Three-Jar-Can-for-Quality Contest featured for 1936. This consisted of one
choice vegetable, one fruit, and a fine meat. This contest created in the
participants a desire for improvement in their canning practices. Scoring
of the containers submitted is done by the women themselves under the
direction of a home demonstration agent. Through the judging of their
own handiwork and that of their neighbors, women learn to recognize not
only what constitutes high grade products as to nutritive value, but develop
and fix standards of workmanship which are guides and incentives toward
further achievement in the newer knowledge of canning technology.
The Canning Budget with its achievement days, concluding tours and
pantry, displays is stimulating and worthwhile as may be determined from
the records, stories and publicity material received. That this contest has
influenced the building of better, more convenient and efficient storage
places so greatly needed in rural homes, is also learned from county reports.







Annual Report, 1936 89

The many minor phases of the productive program of home demon-
stration work-beekeeping, growing and using herbs, utilizing native
material, standardizing fancy packages of canned and preserved products,
baked articles such as orange breads and citrus cakes, all delicious and
distinctive-continue to serve not only to promote Florida products, but
also to increase the income of farm families.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH

Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist
The food, nutrition and health program for 1936 in general emphasized
the importance of planning, producing, conserving and utilizing the family
food supply necessary to meet nutritional needs of the farm family. It
was developed from factual information collected over a period of years
and was based on the Outlook for Farm Family Living as adapted to meet the
needs of Florida farm families. Through the cooperative planning of the
entire Extension Staff it was possible to furnish interested farm people with
reliable information and to assist them to recognize their own problems
and in this way help them to develop a program through their own efforts
which met their individual family needs and conditions. During 1936,
4,793 families reported the use of timely economic information as a basis
for readjusting their plans for the family food supply.
In making a practical plan the several types of farming areas were
considered because the same conditions that determine types of farming
influence farm tenure, income, food supply, food habits and customs,
standards of living, and ways of thinking of the people of the farm.
Taking into consideration types of farming areas, income levels, dietary
habits, climatic and soil factors that affect production and storage of food,
modified plans for the food supply to fit various conditions were made:
first, for farm families with very small cash income and little opportunities
for producing the food supply; second, for large trucking areas where it
is possible to have large gardens and a good supply of fruit but little
possibility for livestock or poultry for food purposes; third, for sections
as on the coast, in flatwoods or grazing areas where much of the soil is
sandy or sub-marginal; and fourth, for families who have considerable
capital and good possibilities for food production.
The ultimate goal of the food, nutrition and health program is to have
every farm family benefit itself and others in the community by empha-
sizing, (1) the necessity of balanced diet for health, (2) the plan for a
family food supply, (3) the production, conservation and utilization at
home of dairy and poultry products, vegetables, fruits, meats, and honey
with the surplus developed into standardized quality products for sale;
(4) food storage under the temperature and humidity conditions character-
istic of the area; (5) the principles of food preparation with special
emphasis on quality standards; (6) meal planning, including attention to
special needs of mothers and children; and (7) intelligent buying of foods
that are not produced.
Demonstrations were established in the homes by the 3,696 women and
3,498 girls completing their work in 1936 to meet some individual or family
need in food, nutrition and health. These women and girls benefitted from
improved farm and home nutritional practices and at the same time served
as demonstrators for teaching and inspiring other families of the community
to adopt similar plans in their homes. The home demonstration agents,
extension nutritionist and other specialists assisted, advised and stimulated
these demonstrators by home visits, conferences, letters, bulletins and
other material. Two hundred and three meetings were held at these result
demonstrations in 16 counties.
The food, nutrition and health program has been divided into two phases:
"Feeding the Family Program" for the adults enrolled, and the "Healthy
Living Program" for the girls enrolled.







Annual Report, 1936


WORK WITH HOME DEMONSTRATION WOMEN
The general purpose of the nutrition program for women has been
to promote careful planning, producing, utilizing and wise buying of
the family food supply essential for good nutrition and health, and to
develop a sense of responsibility of the home-maker for the health of the
individuals of her family and the community.
Essentials for Good Nutrition: In many counties this demonstration was
begun by emphasizing the factors necessary for good nutrition (milk or
fresh air, sunshine, happiness, rest, food and posture); adequate food and
preparation and uses of the classes of foods. Instruction was given about
foods necessary for building, repairing, and protecting the body as well
as furnishing energy. Every individual enrolled was encouraged to learn
how to select food, thus understanding the value of food, the body
requirements and protection against dietary diseases through proper food
selection and preparation. A simple record in the form of a score card
showing daily food habits and suggested goals for achievement was kept in
connection with this demonstration by each woman enrolled.
This demonstration on meal planning and preparation of foods essential
for good nutrition was established in many communities and counties. The
"Feeding the Family" record card was used by women enrolled for checking
food selection, health of the family members, table service, and hospitality.


k YR fSIUYWUM


7%
-.47


HODI PRODUETIDN

AIDS m A VELL BALNCED

mLY FOOD SUPPLY


Fig. 4.-Food supply budgets for the year enable farm families to grow
and preserve enough products for their own needs, and some to spare.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Method demonstrations on kinds of food needed in a balanced diet, meal
planning, table service, diets for overweight and underweight, posture, and
invalid cookery were given to individuals and groups when the need of
such work was found through analyzing the general food habits and health
situations in the homes and community. A total of 5,997 families reported
they had served better planned meals as a result of the nutrition program.
Also 2,196 girls and women reported improving their posture according
to teachings of the home demonstration agents, and 2,435 girls and women
in 24 counties reported improved health practices.
Planning, Providing and Utilizing the Family Food Supply Essential
For Good Nutrition: Planning a yearly, weekly, and daily food supply, meal
planning, food buying, child feeding, school lunch, special diets, and enter-
taining in the home were features of this program.
Two thousand homemakers report they packed the school lunches of
their children according to recommendations of the home demonstration
agents in 31 counties. Ninety schools in 16 counties followed recommenda-
tions for a hot dish added to the school lunch or established a school lunch.
The record kept by the demonstrators was the "Yearly Farm Food
Supply". Annual achievement exhibits, tours and meetings were held
where the demonstrators showed and discussed their achievements and gave
reports on the results as shown by their records. The exhibits consisted of
displays in homes, stores, fairs, or achievement day group meetings.

PROGRAM FOR GIRLS IN HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
The general purpose of the junior or "Healthy Living Program" is to
develop with each of the 3,498 girls completing their demonstrations an
understanding of and a desire for positive health through the recognition
of the contribution made by proper food selection and preparation to her
normal growth and development; to stimulate her interest in school lunches;
and to create a feeling of responsibility in the girl towards securing an
adequate sanitary and economical food supply for family and community
through home production and home consumption. This program is divided
into the four demonstrations: Health Improvement, Food Preparation and
Meal Planning, Baking, and Judging Baked Goods.
Health Improvement: At the beginning of this demonstration, each
girl enrolled made a check on her health, using a chart to show where
improvements should be made, and listed means that she could use to
improve her health. Ariother check was made at the end of the year to note
improvements as a result of following the health program.
This result demonstration included right selection of food, good posture,
care of teeth and eyes, cleanliness, and mental and physical health improve-
ment. Some activities of this demonstration were physical examination
given through the cooperation of physicians, health units and county
nurses; monthly health and posture programs composed of demonstrations,
songs, stunts, playlets, etc.
A health improvement and posture handbook and records were supplied
for developing this program. Emphasis was placed on improving the health
as well as maintaining good physical condition of the girl enrolled.
Food Preparation and Meal Planning: Under this demonstration each
4-H girl checked her food and health habits during the year to note improve-
ment and need for further improvements and at the end of the year on
Achievement Day made an exhibit of her food preparation work. This food
preparation work included the selection and preparation of vegetables, fruits,
milk, eggs, meats and cereals, meal planning and preparation of breakfast,
dinner, and supper. As a final achievement the girl took complete charge







Annual Report, 1936


of the family cooking for at least two weeks, planning, preparing and
serving three balanced meals each day.
The girls report they planned and served 9,273 meals during the year
and prepared 43,017 food dishes for their families.
Baking and Judging Baked Products: This demonstration was planned
for girls who had been enrolled for some time in food preparation work
and were 14 or more years old. Each member checked her own food and
health habits. She showed an exhibit of required baked products with record
and story for the year in which she -was enrolled and made a recipe box
containing recipes used.
Individual and team demonstrations were developed in connection with
this phase of nutrition work on the preparation and judging of breads,
cakes, pies and making of recipe files and community, county and state
contests.
A 4-H club baking guide and record with mimeographed supplement
giving general directions and recipes was supplied to the 4-H club members
enrolled.
The Young Homemaker: The Young Homemaker program for older
4-H club members included planning and preparing family foods, school
lunch, meals, and parties for special occasions, invalid cookery, helping with
marketing, making recipe files, gift boxes, etc., and assisting with younger
members of the family. These club members also assisted with the family
food supply demonstration in planning of food budgets and keeping records.

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
In addition to regular county activities, special work was done in food,
nutrition and health by girls attending the Annual 4-H Club Short Course
and at camps. Special method demonstrations were given in food selection
and preparation, baking, meal planning, posture, self-improvement, and
health. These especially trained girls returned to their counties and assisted
in further development of the "healthy living program" by acting as
demonstrators in the different activities.

RESULTS OBTAINED
In summing up the year's results it has been evident that families who
have adopted the food supply plan are realizing a more satisfying life by
living on more home produced commodities and less cash. This was an
important point, since prices of many of the food commodities formerly
purchased by farm families had increased in price, thus making it almost
impossible to supply family needs and have any desirable standard of living
unless these commodities were produced for family use on the farm. Pro-
ducing at home many foods formerly purchased, such as breads, cereals,
canned products, and cured meats, was a means of raising health standards
and conserving cash income.







94 Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME IMPROVEMENT
Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement
The limited cash income of many rural families in Florida is a factor-
which must be considered in planning home improvement. Better incomes
mean better homes. The activities of the entire farm with its soils, its farm
enterprises, its farm crops and livestock, its production of food for the-
family, enter into any plan for home improvement. Therefore, the estab-
lishment of a demonstration in home improvement is valuable to the com-
munity as well as the individual and the 2,464 farm women and 1,958
girls who have conducted such demonstrations in 1936 have contributed to
the economic as well as esthetic wellbeing of the community.

POINTS EMPHASIZED
Home improvement work for home demonstration girls has been planned:
to furnish definite instruction and assistance to the girls enrolled in 4-H
clubs. The demonstrations have been outlined definitely to cover work
which a girl may accomplish in one year and follow a progressive plan for
improving the entire home over a number of years. The demonstrations
include the following:
Better Housekeeping-emphasizing definite home tasks performed daily
in the home; care of rooms.
Porch Improvement-care of porch; room improvement.
Home Sanitation-emphasizing the possibilities of cleaning up the home
premises and trying to induce others in the neighborhood to do the same.
Beautification of Home Grounds-starting with simple foundation plant-
ings of periwinkles and leading on to more extensive beautification of yard
with grass, shrubbery, flowers, vines, trees, and stepping stones.
The Home Improvement program for women has been divided into the
phases of home management, rural engineering, home furnishings, thrift,
home sanitation, beautification of home grounds, electrification, and planning
the entire home site.
In this way definite assistance is given to the demonstrator along the
lines in which she wishes to conduct her home demonstration. The slogan
used in home improvement work is: "Health and Comfort for the Farm
Family and Beauty and Orderliness in the Farm Home".
Planning the program to meet the needs of the family as a whole has
received emphasis during the year. Making a house plan on paper has
inspired many people in their thinking about the new home they plan to
build or the old one which might be remodeled. Home demonstration
members have given thought to the various types of roof most suited to
the use in sections of Florida where they live, also of all building material,.
insulation; heating and cooling devices; good lighting, both natural and
artificial, for comfort as well as to encourage more night reading; storage
space; larger and more private sleeping areas; and a dining room for
rural families so they may assemble together to enjoy social contacts with
other members of the family, also where the growing children may get
admonition and inspiration from their parents.

HOME MANAGEMENT
The home management program presents the idea that the farm woman
has a responsibility for being interested and for having information in:







Annual Report, 1936


-matters of the farm which pertain to the general wellbeing of the family.
Emphasis in the home management program has been given to the value
of planning for food production, food conservation, clothing conservation
.and adequate storage spaces because these factors influence better family
living. In many of the farm enterprises the farm women must participate
actively, and in most of them she needs to take an intelligent interest.
Farm families have been encouraged to set definite goals for home
improvement. Some of the goals can be achieved without cash expenditures
while for others, money is required.
"Time" and its expenditure has been given a larger consideration;
"living rich" is also being stressed more, thus bringing about more apprecia-
tion of the esthetic things of life, starting with the beautiful flowers and
fruits about the farm home; the joy of harmonious and healthful living;
nature study of insects for 4-H club members; time for a "hobby"; time
for more love and consideration in the family and in the neighborhood, and
time to contemplate and meditate.
A larger viewpoint has come to the family because of the radio, and
libraries which are being established in the rural communities and in many
homes where books are bought for the family reading; reading centers
with electric lights or brilliant lamps for night reading; business centers
for keeping the family up with economic data. Home demonstration families
report they subscribe to 4,008 magazines and newspapers. All this shows
a healthful growth and change. It seems the family old and young enjoy
staying at home more because of this new emphasis and the added comfort
they find there.
The limited capital income of the rural family is a great handicap in
normal times, and it is necessary to consider carefully ways and means for
the accomplishment of desired improvements in the home. Adoption of a
family budget or account keeping has helped many families to find the
money for the needed home improvements. In 1936, 453 families kept home
.accounts and 470 budgeted their expenses in relation to family income to
avoid unwise buying.'
HOME ENGINEERING
Popular goals for the year in home engineering are those built upon
the findings of the Farm Housing Survey as applied to the local community
and its houses. These facts have served as a measuring rod for the thinking
,of the men in the family and for discussions at community meetings.
Demonstrators have made a list of needed improvements with an
estimated cost for same. With a knowledge of the expected income, the
family is then able to set a home improvement goal for the year or longer
which can be successfully carried out with all the family working and plan-
ning together. Remodeling, repairing and drawing on paper the kind of home
they would like-to have, and studying good house plans so that they will
know and appreciate a comfortable, convenient and healthful home has
helped many families. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin
1738 on Farm House Plans and Bulletin 1749 on Modernizing Farmhouses
have been invaluable in getting people to think and to "want" improvements.
'Reports show that 956 homes were remodeled according to plans
furnished by home demonstration agents, 294 more than in 1935, an increase
of 30%. More than twice as many lighting systems were purchased in 1936
as in 1935, and the number of water systems nearly doubled.
Definite goals for home improvement which will be enjoyed by all
members of the family are set by the demonstrator after an analysis has
been made of the needs and desires of the family. Consideration is given
to income and the possibility of productive and conservation activities so







Florida Cooperative Extension


that the goals set for accomplishment may not be beyond the possibility of
accomplishment.
A bathroom with running water has been a popular goal; 1,791 families
report they bought or made practical labor-saving equipment for their
homes during 1936; 108 kitchens were completely renovated.

HOME SANITATION
The home sanitation project has emphasized clean, well kept premises
and conditions that promote the health of the family. Breeding places of
the mosquito often cause losses of hundreds of dollars to Florida families
because of time necessarily lost from work by "chills and fever" (malaria),
or from unnecessary doctor bills and medicine.
The State Board of Health has cooperated with home demonstration
agents in demonstrations of sanitary toilets and septic tank systems.
In 1936 333 sanitary toilets were built and 111 sewage disposal plants
were installed. The work done under the direction of the State Board of
Health, in cooperation with Rural Rehabilitation and P. W. A. programs,
has been valuable in arousing hundreds of people to the work of home
sanitation through building outdoor toilets.
The Malaria Catechism, issued by the State Board of Health, has shown
many a "doubting Thomas" the cause of malaria. Demonstrators screened
536 homes against mosquitoes and flies in 1936.
Special instruction on home sanitation was given to the 600 4-H girls
attending the State Short Course. Good results all over the state are seen
following this leadership training.

HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Many families who have furnished their homes by the "thrift route"
since 1924 now are buying good furniture and gradually furnishing their
homes with better quality furnishings. More intelligent purchasing of
furnishings is evident where the income is limited; a 'growing' room is
stressed where certain essential pieces of furniture of good quality are
purchased first and for the balance box furniture that is artistic and
comfortable is used, looking forward to the purchase of other permanent
units when money is available. Better treatment of walls and floors has
been taught with the result that 1,526 women and girls reported they had
refinished walls, woodwork or furniture. Wallpaper has been used exten-
sively and insulation has been studied and installed in some homes. Home-
makers 1,393 strong have followed better buying practices in their shopping.
Playrooms for their young children were made by 165 mothers.

BEAUTIFICATION OF THE HOME GROUNDS
The men of the family have seen that beautifying the home grounds
and painting the house and out-buildings enhances the value of the rural
home.
Women and girls have studied good pictures of plantings; they have
referred to Florida publications and the nursery catalogs to find out what
should be planted in certain locations; they are studying the native shrub-
bery, also vines and trees, and are learning the names of Florida flowers.
Reports of 1936 show that 923 lawns have been improved or planted; 1,500
families planted trees, vines or shrubbery; 674 stepping-stone walks were
made, mostly by 4-H club girls.







Annual Report, 1936 97


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES

Clarine Belcher, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
Clothing demonstrations have been established in the homes which would
serve the needs of the rural families, and 10,817 women and girls were
enrolled for clothing instruction in 1936. The program has been planned
to be a growing and long-time endeavor, with an ever-enlarging goal for
the provision of adequate clothing and textiles for the family and for the
home.
Factors considered in developing the clothing program were the growing
interest in the always popular subject of clothing, the varied economic
situation of the families enrolled, the physical and climatic conditions of a
Southeastern area, and the great diversity of practices and habits of rural
families within the state.
A definitely outlined clothing program for 4-H club girls has been
conducted throughout the state since the beginning of home demonstration
work in 1912, but the program for women's work had not been unified for
the state as a whole until this year, although practical and far-reaching
activities for women enrolled always have been conducted in all of the
counties.

PROGRAM WITH HOME DEMONSTRATION WOMEN AND GIRLS
The clothing supply for the Florida farm family, with special emphasis
on meeting wardrobe needs for the members of the family, is the basis of
the clothing program for women. At present there are two definitely out-
lined demonstrations recommended for the women's work; one on construc-
tion of clothing and the other on better buying. Both of these demon-
strations were planned so that the woman demonstrator might improve
her personal wardrobe. It is the plan later to add further demonstrations
for the wardrobes of various members of the family as well as the buying
of household textiles and remodeling and renovation of clothing on hand.
The purpose of the junior program is to help the 4-H club girl under-
.stand the contribution to the family living she may make through under-
standing her own wardrobe needs, how best to meet these needs, and to
realize her responsibility to other members of the family and home in
supplying clothing for the family and textiles for the home.
The junior program has been increased in scope this year with additional
subject matter especially to suit girls' needs and suggested activities which
are included in the following six demonstrations: Fundamentals in home
sewing, the Florida 4-H club uniform and cap, the well dressed club girl for
school, the well dressed club girl for "best wear", the well dressed club
girl for street and travel, and the well dressed club girl for informal party
wear. The clothing demonstrations are developed through teaching the
construction of the required articles, the understanding of related subject
matter and activities, achievement exhibits, and team demonstrations.

THE WARDROBE DEMONSTRATION
The clothing program for women, "The Clothing Supply for the Florida
Farm Family" with special emphasis on the mother's personal wardrobe,
was begun in April 1936 in nine representative counties. These counties
represented all types populated with persons with decided differences in
social and economic needs.
This demonstration included information on the articles needed for an
economical and becoming wardrobe, and included the use of commercial







98 Florida Cooperative Extension

and guide patterns, the fitting and finishing of outer garments, the
selection of accessories and underclothing, the care of clothing, and personal
grooming.
Since the demonstrations are still under way in most of the nine counties
selected, the accomplishments as shown in actual figures are small but the
interest and appreciation which has been manifested are encouraging.
Reports show that 75 women have made inventories of personal clothing
on hand. Personal clothing has been put in wearable condition by 62
demonstrators; some improvement in personal appearance by the use of
correct diet, good posture, exercise and better fitting garments has been
noted by every woman enrolled.
Sixty-five women planned and provided at least a part of adequate
personal wardrobes. Clothing account records have been kept for a period
of six months during the warm season of the year. The results of the
improvement of clothing storage space this year were small but included
building new closets, remodeling and adding equipment to others and the
building of improved storage spaces by some families either because of low
incomes or because the women lived in rented houses; all the women who
were developing the wardrobe demonstration reported making garments at
home, usually the greater number of which were used by the members of
the family; a remarkable spirit expressed in terms of service to others
prevails among the women in this special group. Fifty-one women entered
the dress revue, many for the first time, as a conclusion of the wardrobe
demonstration.
All 35 counties having home agents have conducted clothing programs
with 4-H club girls for the year 1936. The revised program for girls was
introduced at the annual Agents' Conference in October 1936, so the achieve-
ments reported are results of the previous program.
Planning, selection, construction and care are the points receiving
emphasis in this year's clothing program.

PLANNING THE CLOTHING SUPPLY
Meeting the clothing needs of various members of the family has been
the goal of the clothing work developed in the counties. Thus planning,
a fundamental need in all programs for achieving better rural life, is being
encouraged and some results can be noted.
At the annual State Short Course held in Tallahassee in June, "Planning
the 4-H Club Girl's Wardrobe", was presented to 532 girls. This demon-
stration series included selecting and exhibiting suitable designs and
materials for the various garments and accessories needed in the entire
wardrobe of a 4-H club girl, and costs at current prices were checked by
the girls themselves.
Thus the practicing of planning clothing expenditures which resulted in
wiser purchasing has been followed by 1,118 individuals who have budgeted
clothing expenditures, and 2,453 families who have been assisted in using
timely economic information in meeting clothing requirements.

CLOTHING SELECTION
Quality of articles of clothing selected and their artistic aspects were
emphasized in the selection of clothing in the home.
Information on buying fabrics for outer and under wear, especially
stressing cotton and synthetic materials, ready-made outer and under
garments, hose and shoes, have been included in the clothing information
made available to women and kirls. Cooperation of the retail merchants
over the entire state, has been; of great assistance in conducting educational























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Fig. 5.-4-H club girls learn to sew a fine seam and to make useful, practical, and attractive clothing.