<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Credits
 Report of the director
 Publications, news, radio
 County agent work
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Dairying
 Animal husbandry
 Citrus culture
 Poultry work
 Agricultural economics
 Home demonstration work
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Home improvement
 Food, nutrition and health
 Negro men's work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00019
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1935
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00019
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of the director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Publications, news, radio
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    County agent work
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Dairying
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Animal husbandry
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Citrus culture
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Poultry work
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Agricultural economics
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Home demonstration work
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Home improvement
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Food, nutrition and health
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Negro men's work
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Index
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
Full Text









1935 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director




REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1935
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1935













1935 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director




REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1935
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1935
















CONTENTS
PAGE
REPORT OF DIRECTOR ..................--............----......-.................-.........--.......-.....-- 7

Financial Statem ent .............................................................. ................ 12

Statistical Report ........................................................................................ 13

PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO ............................................................................. 18

COUNTY AGENT W ORK ..................................................................................... 21

Agricultural Adjustment Program ............................ ........-..... ........... 28

BoYs' 4-H CLUB WORK ............................--...... .........- ................--..---..--- 35

DAIRYING .........-.... ............... ....... ............ ............ .......... .. 40

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY ......................................... ..........--.......----- 44

CITRUS CULTURE ..............-.-............... ................ ......... 48

POULTRY W ORK ....................................................... .... -.. --- ...... 52

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS .................................----........................ 60

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK .............................. ....... ....................... 65

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION ...........................- .-.... --...--...- 77

HOME IMPROVEMENT .......................................................... 80

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH .................................... .....-- ....- 84

NEGRO M EN'S W ORK .......................... ............... .... ............ 87

NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ........................ ........................... 90

Negro Statistical Report ....................... ...... .. ................. 92




















Hon. Dave Sholtz,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricul-
tural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for
the calendar year 1935, including a fiscal report for the year ending June
30, 1935.
Respectfully,
GEO. H. BALDWIN,
Chairman, Board of Control.




Hon. Geo. H. Baldwin,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Service; College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accord-
ance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida.








BOARD OF CONTROL

GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach
OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola
HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist2
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman2
D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, PH.D., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing*
A. E. MERCKER, Field Agent, Cooperative Interstate Marketing
CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Controll
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY KEOWN, District Agent*
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Acting District Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
EVA R. CULLEY, B.S., Acting Nutritionist
NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent

IIn cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2 Part-time.
*On leave of absence.









COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua..................Fred L. Craft..........Gainesville....................Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Brevard..................T. L. Cain.................Cocoa..................................Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward....................................................Ft. Lauderdale........................Miss Olga Kent
Calhoun.................J. G. Kelley..............Blountstown................Miss Josephine Nimmo
Charlotte...............N. H. McQueen.......Punta Gorda................................... ............
Citrus......................................................Inverness................Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Clay.................................... ...........Green Cove Springs............Miss Beulah Felts
Columbia................ Guy Cox...................Lake City ........................... ...............
Dade.......................C. H. Steffani.........Miami....................... Miss Pansy Norton
DeSoto...................E. H. Vance............Arcadia ........... ...................................
Dixie ......................D. M. Treadwell.....Cross City........................................ ..............
Duval.....................A. S. Lawton...........Jacksonville........................Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.)......E. G. Pattishall**...Jacksonville ........... .................................
Escambia...............E. H. Finlayson.....Pensacola........................Miss Ethel Atkinson
Gadsden.................Paul Calvin............. Quincy................................Miss Elise Laffitte
Gulf...........................................................Wewahitchka....Mrs. Pearl Jordan Whitfield
Hamilton............... J. J. Sechrest.......... Jasper ........... ............ ..............
Hardee...................H. L. Miller ............Wauchula ....-...........- .........................
Hernando...............B. E. Lawton...........Brooksville ............. .......................................
Highlands..............L. H. Alsmeyer.......Sebring ..........................................................
Hillsboro...............Alec White.............Tampa ................. ....................................
Hillsboro (West)..................................Tampa................................Miss Allie Lee Rush
Hillsboro (East).....................................Plant City........................Miss Clarine Belcher
Holmes...................D. D. McCloud........Bonifay........................Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Indian River............................................Vero Beach........................Miss Manilla Wells
Jackson..................J. W. Malone..........Marianna---................ Miss Alice W. Lewis
Jefferson................P. R. McMullen ....Monticello..........................Miss Ruby Brown
Lafayette..............D. H. Ward..............Mayo ........... ...... ......
Lake........................C. R. Hiatt...............Tavares...............----- Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lee ..........................C. P. H euck ............. Ft. M yers.............................................................
Leon........................G. C. Hodge............Tallahassee....................Miss Ethyl Holloway
Levy..........................................................Bronso...... ........Miss Wilma Richardson
Liberty...................F. D. Yaun...............Bristol ................ ............................
Madison..................S. L. Brothers..........Madison ...................................
Manatee----.................John H. Logan........Bradenton........................Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion................... J. Lawrence
Edwards.............. Ocala......................................Miss Tillie Roesel
Okaloosa................E. R. Nelson............Crestview ........ ......................
Okeechobee............C. A. Fulford.........Okeechobee ................. .......................
Orange...................K. C. Moore............Orlando.................. Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola..................J. R. Gunn..............Kissimmee........ ..........Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach...........M. U. Mounts..........West Palm Beach........Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
Pasco......................J. A. McClellan, Jr..Dade City.............. ...................
Pinellas..................Wm. Gomme............Clearwater................ Mrs. Joy Belle Hess
Polk........................W. P. Hayman........Bartow................. .... Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam..................H. E. Westbury......Palatka ............. ......................
St. Johns..............Loonis Blitch..........St. Augustine-----...................Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie................................................Ft. Pierce......................Miss Bertha Hausman
Santa Rosa...........John G. Hudson......Milton-......................-Miss Eleanor Barton
Seminole................C. R. Dawson...........Sanford................- Miss Josephine Boydston
Sarasota................W. E. Evans-..........Sarasota ................. ..............................
Suwannee..............S. C. Kierce............Live Oak............................Miss Eunice Grady
Taylor....................K. S. McMullen......Perry......................................Miss Floy Moses
Union.....................L. T. Dyer................Lake Butler..............................
Volusia...................F. E. Baetzman......DeLand................ Mrs. Marguerite Norton
Wakulla.................N. J. Allbritton......Crawfordville...........Mrs. Pearl Penuel
Walton...................Mitchell Wilkins...-DeFuniak Springs..........Miss Eloise McGriff
Washington...........Henry Hudson.........Chipley ..............................
*This list correct to December 31, 1935.
*Resigned effective December 31, 1935.












AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director, In Charge................................................Gainesville
H. G. Clayton, Chairman, State Cotton Allotment Board................Gainesville
R. S. Dennis, In Charge Potato Adjustment Program....................Gainesville
J. Lee Smith, In Charge Peanut Adjustment Program..................Gainesville
W. J. Sheely, In Charge Corn-Hog Adjustment Program................Gainesville
D. E. Timmons, In Charge Tobacco Adjustment Program ................Gainesville
E. Owen Blackwell, Executive Secretary............................................ Gainesville
C. A. Lyle, Assistant Clerk .................................................................. Gainesville

ASSISTANTS IN COTTON ADJUSTMENT
COUNTY NAME ADDRESS
Alachua.......................................Lamar Hatcher......................................Gainesville
Columbia....................................Gussie Calhoun.......................................Lake City
Escambia................................ Bryan C. Gilmore....................................Pensacola
Hamilton..................................... J. W. Mitchell............................................... Jasper
Holmes.........................................Win. L. Slay................................................Bonifay
Jackson........................................R. C. Peacock ...................................... Marianna
Jefferson......................................E. R, Nelson.... ..................................Monticello
Leon............................................. A, C. Spiller ........................................ Tallahassee
Madison .................................J. E. Donald................................................ Madison
Okaloosa ...................................... M. B. Miller ........................................Crestview
Santa Rosa.................................T. K. McClane, Jr........................................Milton
Suwannee.................................... J. W. Tedder...... .................................. Live Oak
Walton.........................................John G. Hentz..........................DeFuniak Springs

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua....................................... F. E. Pinder ................................................ Alachua
Columbia and
Southern Suwannee.............E. S. Belvin..............................................Lake City
Hamilton and
Northern Suwannee.............N. H. Bennett.................................White Springs
Jackson.......-.......................... J. E. Granberry ...............................Marianna
Jefferson .............................. M. E. Groover....................................... Monticello
Leon.......................................... Rolley Wyer, Jr...................... ....Tallahassee
Marion ......................................... W. B. Young................................... .... Ocala

LOCAL HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua....................................Mary Todd McKenzie..................................Waldo
Duval............ ------....................... Ethel M. Powell.................................Jacksonville
Gadsden...................................... Diana H. Bouie .....................................Quincy
Hillsboro......................................Floy Britt...................................................... Tampa
Jefferson.....................................Lorena Shaw..........................................Monticello
Leon.......................................... Alice W. Poole...................................... Tallahassee
Madison.......... ...................... Althea Ayer.................. ----..................--- Madison
Marion......................................... Idella R. Kelley ......................................... Reddick
*This list correct to December 31. 1935.










REPORT FOR 1935


PART I-GENERAL

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR
Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the
Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of
Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1935, and a summary of the activities of the Service for
the calendar year 1935.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.


During 1935 the Extension Service has been in a more conspicuous
position than at any previous time in its existence. The agricultural
adjustment program has interested practically every grower of basic agri-
cultural commodities in this state. The farmers have contacted the county
agents' offices for many reasons and their interests have been centered
in the Extension Service.
The county agents' offices have been taxed to capacity and the same
urgent demands have been placed on the supervisory staff. This has meant
more organization among farmers which has been extremely helpful in
handling adjustment contracts. Since the program also required the
appointment of committeemen to assist in adjustment work, it has given
greater opportunity for Extension agents to select and work with the
leaders of agriculture.
The county agents' offices have each employed from 5 to 25 extra people.
This, too, has increased the responsibilities and has required better office
management.
In Central and Southern Florida the Extension Service has not materi-
ally changed its program of horticulture, dairying, livestock, and poultry.
These programs have occupied the greater part of the county agents'
time, together with the addition of work that fits into resettlement pro-
grams, and in this the home demonstration agents have had the most
active part.
There has been a widespread interest in live-at-home programs.
Under the direction of the Economics Section in cooperation with the
State Marketing Bureau, marketing agreements as outlined by the AAA
have been presented for consideration. They dealt with celery, straw-
berries, watermelons and citrus fruits. Of these, the celery and water-
melon marketing agreements have been successful. The strawberry
marketing agreement failed to function. County and district agents
have served counties and communities through their offices and have dis-
tributed information leading to the organization for marketing agreements.
On account of large production of horticultural products in South
Florida, marketing and finance problems stand out as most important
from the farmer's standpoint. The county agents' offices have assisted
farmers in securing loans for production purposes and have cooperated








Florida Cooperative Extension


with Farm Credit Administration in the organization and selection of
committees and officers to handle loans. They have cooperated with
Emergency Seed Loan Office, Columbia, South Carolina, and assisted small
farmers in securing operating funds needed for seasonal crops.

ASSISTANCE TO RURAL RESETTLEMENT
The county and home agents have been active in assisting in resettle-
ment work. They have helped in drafting programs. In the selection of
county supervisors, the Director of Rural Resettlement was supplied with
names of available persons, most of whom have had agricultural college
and home economics training.
In the case of resettlement work with rural homes, the State Home
Demonstration Agent was asked to select the original personnel appointed
to serve. These agents were placed in practically every county and were
known as "assistant home demonstration agents" for a limited time.
Later, however, their status was changed and they were no longer respon-
sible to the home demonstration agents.

ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE TO AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT
In the resettlement work, it was the plan that the county and home
agents should serve on committees to pass on clients who made application
to the Rural Resettlement Division for loans.
The Economics Section of the Extension Service has supplied economic
data needed in the agricultural adjustment program affecting Florida.
Members of the Economic Section served with chairmen of Triple A pro-
grams.
4-H CLUB WORK
The 4-H club work, particularly with boys, has been handicapped
because of other pressing duties. In former times the district agents
assisted with the organization of 4-H club work, but with added administra-
tive duties the responsibilities of club work were left to the 4-H supervisor.
In addition, county agents were unable to give it the necessary attention.
The county agents were able to secure some assistance from older club
members, who, under their direction, could meet the clubs to keep the
organization of 4-H clubs intact. Some of these assistants were paid from
FERA funds. In counties throughout Central and South Florida, where
the AAA program was not active, 4-H club work was not seriously dis-
rupted.
4-H Club Camps.-Two 4-H club camps have been established. In West
Florida on Choctawhatchee Bay is the first one, which has accommodations
for 250 persons. This has been reported previously. Improvements and
enlargements are being made that add to the usefulness of the camp. Ex-
penditure of approximately $1,000 was made for reroofing, repairs and
added equipment, and other improvements will be added. The camp was
also used as a meeting place for farmers.
Last year the Central Florida camp in the Ocala National Forest was
in skeletal form, with bare facilities to accommodate the needs. Since
then improvements have been added, mostly from donated funds and
supplies. This camp is now equipped to accommodate 100 persons. The
camp is located near a small lake and with sufficient grounds to provide
recreation and sports.
In handling these camps the Extension Service provides supervisors
and instructors, in addition to specialists who contribute time and arrange
programs appropriate to 4-H club members.







Annual Report, 1935


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Home demonstration work has made substantial gains, with additional
counties cooperating financially. As the rural needs became more con-
spicuous, rural women of Florida have made their appeal for home demon-
stration agents. Their programs have dealt largely with economics of
the home and the organization of rural women for the betterment of the
community and for the improvement of 4-H club work with girls.
The home demonstration agents have contributed to resettlement work.
A complete report of the State Home Demonstration Agent is submitted
separately.

ASSISTANCE IN SCREW WORM CONTROL WORK
The Extension Service was called upon to assist in the control of the
screw worm fly. This infestation reached Florida in 1933 and has gradually
spread until all counties with livestock are infested. To help control it
Congress appropriated a sum of money to be used for educational work in
infested states. The Florida Legislature made funds available to the
Agricultural Extension Service for screw worm work.
At the request of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, the
Agricultural Extension Service organized a State Screw Worm Committee.
The membership consisted of the director of the Experiment Station, director
of Extension; Chairman, Livestock Sanitary Board; State Veterinarian;
Commissioner of Agriculture; and the President of the Florida State Live-
stock Association. This State Committee adopted the plans of the Bureau
of Entomology. The work was then placed in charge of a director of
screw worm activities who was assigned by the Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine. The state program was merged with the federal pro-
gram, making one program for Florida, paid for from federal and state
sources. This program provided for screw worm supervisors in all infested
counties. The county agents' offices were made headquarters for supplies
and county information, and contacts with farmers were made through
the Extension Service.

LIVESTOCK PROGRAM
Animal Husbandry.-The Animal Husbandry work continued in co-
operation with the Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, D. C., until
June 30, 1935, when the Bureau withdrew its support. The Agent worked
with' cattlemen in the improvement of their livestock, pastures and feeds.
Various phases of the project are reported in detail by W. J. Sheely.
The Extension Animal Husbandman acted as leader in the corn-hog
adjustment program. He was also made the official Extension representa-
tive for the screw worm control program, particularly that part financed by
state appropriation.
Dairy Work.-The dairy work and Animal Husbandry work are closely
associated, particularly in matters of feeds and pastures. The Extension
Dairyman has given constructive help to commercial dairies in matters
of herd management and economies in feeding. Florida has had a dairy
association functioning for several years and the Extension Dairyman has
assisted in the work of that organization, particularly in its interests
as to the eradication of Bang's disease.
The Bang's disease program supervised by the Bureau of Animal In-
dustry has been generally accepted by dairymen as a program in the right
direction. The Extension Dairyman has given that program his loyal
support and has encouraged county agents to give it the consideration
needed to make it successful.







Florida Cooperative Extension


On July 1, 1935, the animal industry divisions of the University of
Florida were organized under one division of the college. Dr. A. L. Shealy,
head of the Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science,
was placed in charge of the divisions of Dairying, Animal Husbandry, and
Poultry. This change has not materially affected the Extension program.

POULTRY WORK
In July the Extension Poultryman was assigned to additional duties in
the supervision of research and teaching in the College of Agriculture. This
required employment of an assistant who began his duties in October 1935.
Since a large part of the poultry of Florida is made up of commercial
flocks, some of which are small, emphasis has been placed on the keeping
of records and returns from small commercial and farm flocks. The
Extension Poultryman has furnished the subject matter to county and
home agents and has had the responsibility in poultry management affect-
ing The Florida National Egg-Laying Contest. The Farm Management
Specialist has collected data on poultry management that county and home
agents will use in their programs.
CITRUS WORK
The Economics Section has conducted a series of citrus cost studies.
These studies are to be used as a basis for recommendations in fertiliza-
tion and grove management. The citrus industry represents the largest
horticultural interest in this state and since the acreage has been gradually
increased until a 30 to 40 million box crop is easily possible under normal
weather conditions, growers must put various economies into effect or
their groves will not be profitable. In addition, the Extension Service
program has been dealing with control of insects and diseases and general
management practices.
Special attention has been given economical irrigation on certain types
of groves.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Agricultural Economics work is divided into marketing and farm man-
agement. The marketing phases have been almost suspended during the
past year.
In connection with the adjustment program, farm record books were
given to farmers with the hope of getting more complete records as a
basis for future agricultural programs. There has been special attention
given to farm management in poultry work, conducted in cooperation
with the Extension Poultryman.
CHANGES IN STAFF
The following changes in staff have taken place. Dr. A. L. Shealy,
Head of the Department of Animal Husbandry in the Experiment Station,
was placed in charge of all this work in the College of Agriculture, includ-
ing Extension animal husbandry, dairy husbandry, and poultry work.
Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman, has been assigned by the
Board of Control as Head of Poultry, Division of Animal Husbandry, and
has been given supervision of the teaching, research and Extension work
in this line. D. F. Sowell was appointed as Assistant Extension Poultryman
to do field work formerly handled by Mr. Mehrhof.
R. S. Dennis, county agent of Taylor County, was temporarily trans-
ferred to position of Assistant District Agent to handle cotton contracts
under the Triple-A program. This arrangement was discontinued June 30.








Annual Report, 1935


However, he was reappointed at a later date to supervise the Triple-A
program with tobacco and potatoes and at that time received a permanent
appointment as Assistant District Agent.
Miss Mary E. Keown, who was granted leave of absence on July 1, 1934,
was granted further leave until December 31 and her position was filled
temporarily by appointment of Miss Anna Mae Sikes, the former Extension
Nutritionist. This also continued employment of Mrs. Eva Culley, to fill
the place vacated by Miss Sikes, the title being Acting Nutritionist.
During the past year many changes have been made in the counties
by transfer of agents from one county to another and additional persons
being appointed. This brought a change in location by 30 percent of the
county agents. On account of renewing activities in agriculture, additional
counties have made cooperative arrangements for employment of county
and home agents.
NEGRO WORK
In Negro work 15 counties have been served; eight of these by women
and seven by men. Two counties contribute to the support of Negro
home demonstration work. All other counties are supported by State and
Federal funds.
There have been practically no changes in the arrangement of the
plans of Negro work, which work is confined largely to counties growing
basic commodities. The Negro agents have not been required to take an
active part in the adjustment program. Negro home demonstration work
is supervised by the State Home Demonstration Agent; it also receives
some supervision from the local District Agent for men's work. The usual
emphasis has been placed on encouraging rural farmers to adopt better
practices in handling livestock and farm crops and particularly farm
management problems which involve balanced Agriculture, production, and
soil improvement.
Emphasis has been placed on home canning, gardening and poultry for
the women's work.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER INSTITUTIONS
The Extension Service has maintained close cooperation with all depart-
ments of the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station and Florida
State College for Women.
Other institutions have received and given cooperation. Among them
are the State Marketing Bureau, the Commissioner of Agriculture, the
State Live Stock Sanitary Board, the State Forestry Service, the State
Board of Health, the Rural Resettlement Administration, the State Plant
Board, the State Department of Education, including vocational agriculture;
in addition to county organizations, such as, the State Cattlemen's Asso-
ciation, the State Dairymen's Association, the State Poultry Association,
the State Horticultural Society, and the State Fern Growers' Association.
The Extension Service further cooperated with Florida Farm Debt Ad-
justment Commission. By appointment of the Governor of Florida, the
Vice-Director and State Home Demonstration Agent were members of
this commission. A report just issued by the commission indicates a scale-
down of $124,488.00 indebtedness on Florida farms and groves in the past
two years. This involved 142 cases and amounted to $633,414.00. This
compares favorably with reports from other states.

SOURCES OF REVENUE
The Extension Service has three main sources of revenue: (1), Funds
supplied by the United States Department of Agriculture and the Agri-








Florida Cooperative Extension


cultural Adjustment Administration; (2), Extension funds appropriated by
the Florida Legislature, used in part to offset Federal appropriation; and
(3), County appropriations.
Offset funds required for Federal allotments have been appropriated
in part by the State Legislature, in part through county appropriations.
STATE FINANCES
The attached financial statement shows that finances from federal
sources including Triple-A total $171,139.98, and from state sources
$163,841.98; of these state sources, $86,715.98 are supplied by county
boards.
The Legislature of 1935 increased its annual appropriation in support
of the work.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT

For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1935

RESOURCES
Federal Funds
Smith-Lever and Supplemental.................................................. $ 84,684.24
Capper-K etcham .............................................................................. 26,555.74
A additional Cooperative.................................................................... 23,500.00
U S. D A ....................................................................... ...... .. 4,000.00
Bureau of Animal Industry........................................................... 2,400.00
Agricultural Adjustment Administration.................................. 30,000.00
State Funds
State appropriation including offset for Federal funds............ 68,546.00
Continuing Appropriation............................................................. 5,000.00
County Appropriations.............. ........ ... ..... ......... 86,715.98
College Appropriations......................... ..... ... .............. 3,580.00
$334,981.96
EXPENDITURES
Projects
Administration ..................... ... ........ ...... ......... ... $ 8,752.79
Publications ....................... .... ........................................... 10,211.39
County Agent W ork............... ......... .................................... 145,262.13
Boys' Clubs....................................................................................... 7,001.04
Home Demonstration W ork ............................. ........................... 96,861.57
Food Conservation-... ............................ .......... .3,349.81
N nutrition ............................ ......... .................... 3,580.00
Home Improvement........... ............ ............................. 3,907.50
Dairy Husbandry.......................................................... ...... 5,138.80
Animal Husbandry..... ....... .. .......................... .. 4,533.19
Farm and Home Makers (Negro work).................................. 22,672.20
Citriculture ................ ..... ... ........................... 4,589.27
Poultry Husbandry.... ....... ............................... ..... 4,052.39
Extension Schools..... ... .. ......... .................... ... 1,114.21
Agricultural Economics...................................... ......... ....... 8,063.06
Florida National Egg Laying Contest........................................ 5,892.61
$334,981.96







Annual Report, 1935 13

STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Statistical Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports
Days service rendered by county workers .................................... 24,633
D ays in office ............................................... ................................... 1,157.5
Days in field ................................................................... 13,057.5
Number people assisting Extension program voluntarily ........ 2,304
Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work .... 309
M em bers in such clubs ........................................................................ 7,733
4-H Clubs ............................ --- ....... ------...............-- .....---- 631
4-H Club members enrolled ..-- -----..................................... 11,576
Different 4-H club members completing ........................................ 8,213
4-H club team s trained ...................................................................... 439
Groups other than 4-H clubs organized for Extension work
with rural young people 16 years of age and older ............... 23
M embers in these groups ................................................................ 324
Farm or home visits made ......----.-- ........... ................ 41,176
Different farms or homes visited .......................................... 19,623
Calls relating to Extension work .................................................. 314,097
News articles or stories published and circular letters ............ 8,010
Number individual letters written .........--................................... -93,928
Bulletins distributed ......................................................................... 93,802
Radio talks ........... ........ ............................ ... 161
Extension exhibits shown ................................................................ 352
Training meetings held for local leaders ........................................ 547
(Attendance............................ 6,973
Method demonstration meetings held .......................................... 9,649
(Attendance............................ 135,171
Meetings held at result demonstration .......................................... 2,890
(Attendance............................ 29,781
Farm tours conducted ..................... ................................ ..... 171
(Attendance............................ 4,615
Achievem ent days held ... ............................................................. 116
(Attendance............................ 24,279
Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.) ............ 54
(Attendance............................ 2,856
Other m eetings.. ..................................................... 4,384
(Attendance.......................... 150,933


CEREALS
Communities in which work was conducted ...........................
Result demonstrations conducted ................... ...........................
Meetings held ...............................................
News stories published and circular letters ...............................
Farm or home visits made ............ ........... .......
Office calls received ............. ......... ................ ............
4-H Club members ....... .............. ................................
4-H Club members completing ............................................
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing
Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing
Farmers following better practices recommended .... ............
Farms for which adjustment contracts were signed .................

LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS
Communities in which work was conducted ...........................
Result demonstrations conducted ....................................
Meetings held -- ..... .........................................
News stories published and circular letters ..........................
Farm or home visits made ................ .................................
Number office calls received ........... ..........................


374
381
334
308
1,213
8,380
826
370
472
12,959 Bu.
6,887
1,336


661
688
438
390
1,638
19,507







Florida Cooperative Extension


4-H Club m embers enrolled ................................................................ 242
4-H Club members completing ........................................................ 114
Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing-
(Seed.................................................... 58,589 Lb.
(Forage ............................................. 116.7
Farmers following better practice recommendations ............... 5,653
Farms for which adjustment contracts were signed ............. 3,137

POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS
Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Other Crops Cotton Tobacco
Communities in which work was conducted 483 217 87
Result demonstrations .................................. 219 53 14
M meetings held .................................................. 285 335 54
News stories published and circular
letters written .......................................... 326 552 135
Farm or home visits made .......................... 1,632 1,542 374
Office calls received .................................... 9,707 87,088 9,649
4-H Club members enrolled ....................... 326 230 4
4-H Club members completing .................... 170 89 3
Acres in projects by 4-H club members
com pleting ................................................ 113.5 92 3
Yields by 4-H club members completing.... 12,517 Bu. 68,252 Lb. 3,308 Lb.
Farms following better practices .......... 7,027 9,366 1,458
Farms for which adjustment contracts
were signed ............................................. 657 10,703 1,227

FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND BEAUTIFICATION OF
HOME GROUNDS
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 2,023
Result demonstrations conducted ...................................................... 9,335
M meetings held ................................................. .... 3,613
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 1,356
Farm or home visits made .............................. .. ......... 11,366
Office calls received ....................... ............................. ........... 27,972
4-H Club members enrolled ............................................. ............ 8,669
4-H Club members completing ........................................................ 5,609
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 1,604.5
Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 44,961 Bu.
Farms and homes adopting improved practices ............................ 36,146

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 174
Result demonstrations conducted .................................................... 279
M meetings held ...................................................................................... 291
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 110
Farm or home visits made ............... .. ........................................ 752
Office calls received .................................... ..................................... 2,325
4-H Club members enrolled ................... ........................................... 52
4-H Club members completing ........................................................ 6
Farms on which new areas were reforested by planting with
sm all trees ...................................................................................... 16
A cres reforested ............................................................................. 64
Farms adopting better forestry practices .................................... 965
Farms adopting soil conservation practices ................................ 608
Acres involved ..................................................... 22,216
Farmers adopting better machine practices ................................ 1,039
Number machines involved ........................................ ................ 1,047
Farmers adopting better buildings and equipment practices .... 2,053
Building and items of equipment involved .................................. 1,922







Annual Report, 1935


POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted ............................ 542
Result demonstrations conducted ..................................... 1,287
M meetings held ..................................... .......................................... 1,105
News stories published and circular letters issued ............. 416
Farm or home visits made ....................................................... 2,315
Office calls received ..................................................................... 9,864
4-H Club members enrolled ............................. .......... 1,626
4-H Club meetings completing ........................................ 987
Number chickens raised .......................-............... ..................... 38,841
Number colonies bees .... .......................................... 203
Families following improved practices in poultry raising........ 8,882
Families following improved practices-bees ..... ................ 534

DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted ............................... 1,014
Result demonstrations conducted ........................................ 1,137
M meetings held ......................................... .......................................... 1,317
News stories published and circular letters issued .............. 687
Farm or home visits made ............ ......... ............................... 10,168
Office calls received ............... ........... ..................................... 30,106
4-H Club members enrolled ............. ................................ 997
4-H Club members completing ...................... ......................... 501
Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 1,117
Farmers obtaining better breeding stock ................................ 1,467
Farmers using other improved livestock practices ............. 21,962
Number of farms for which adjustment contracts were signed 1,336

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 1,096
Result demonstrations conducted ............... ........................... 1,194
Meetings held ... ....................................................... 885
News stories published and circular letters issued ................. 474
Home or farm visits made ............ ................................ 3,503
Office calls received ........................... ..................................... 16,932
4-H Club members enrolled ........... ..................... ......... 935
4-H Club members completing ........................................ 747
Farmers keeping account and cost records .................................. 3,417
Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts ....................... 575
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments ........ 7,552
Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year 101
Farmers making business changes resulting from economic
surveys ........................... ....... ............................................. ,586
Families assisted in getting established ........................................ 2,762
Marketing groups organized or assisted ....................................... 70
Individuals affected by marketing program .............................. 9,570
Organizations assisted with problems ......................................... 235
Individuals assisted with problems ..-....................................- 7,361
Value of products sold by all groups organized or assisted......$3,629,224.08
Value of products sold by individuals (not in organizations).... 2,509,560.70
Value of supplies purchased-all associations ... ............ 992,188.31
Value of supplies purchased by individuals ............... ........... 1,076,394.10

FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted ............................. 926
Result demonstrations conducted ................................... 6,913
M meetings held ........... .. ........... ............... ............... 4,239
News stories published and circular letters issued ............ 852
Farm or home visits made ..... ...................................... 3,861
Office calls received ...---........................ ......... 8,768
4-H Club members enrolled ............................................ 7,943







16 Florida Cooperative Extension

4-H Club members completing .--..... ........................... .......... 5,842
Containers of food prepared and saved by 4-H club members 189,811
Families adopting better practices as to foods ............................ 28,760
Schools following recommendations for school lunch ................ 64
Children in schools following lunch recommendations .......... 14,894
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs ........... 1,863,704
Value of all products canned or otherwise preserved ................ $405,479.70
Families readjusting family food supply .................................... 3,737
CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 121
Result demonstrations conducted .................................................... 315
M meetings held ....................................................................................... 161
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 43
Farm or home visits made ............................................................... 265
Office calls received ........................................................................... 451
4-H Club members enrolled ................................................................ 525
4-H Club members completing ....................................................... 476
Additional 4-H club members participating ................................ 621
Families following child development plans .............................. 2,973
Different individuals participating in child-development
program ..... ..................... ......-.. ........ .................................... 2,252
Children involved in child-development program ........................ 17,377
CLOTHING
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 486
Result demonstrations conducted ................................................. 2,045
M meetings held- ...................................................................................... 2,394
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 318
Farm or home visits made ................................................................ 1,038
Office calls received ........................................................................... 2,668
4-H Club members enrolled ............................................................ 6,970
4-H Club members completing ....................... ......................... 5,382
Articles made by 4-H club members completing ........................ 39,648
Individuals following better clothing practices ............................ 29,313
Families assisted in determining how best to meet clothing
require ents ........................... ........................................ ............ 2,246
Savings due to clothing program .............................................. $25,550.47
HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 838
Result demonstrations conducted .................................................... 5,073
M meetings held ......................---- ... ..... .................... 1,979
News stories published and circular letters issued ...................... 352
Farm or home visits made ................................................................ 1,682
Office calls received .............-.............................................................. 2,687
4-H Club members enrolled ............................................................ 3,504
4-H Club members completing ....................................................... 2,407
Projects conducted by 4-H club members completing ................ 16,060
Families following better home-management practices ............ 13,151
Estimated savings due to home-management program ............ $25,811.00
Families improving household furnishing .................................. 9,264
Savings due to house-furnishings program ........................... $27,897.50
Families following handicraft practices ........................................ 7,709
HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work.was conducted ................................ 392
Result demonstrations conducted ................................ .............. 1,415
M meetings held .................. ...........--..- ....--.. ......-....-.... ..... .............. 785
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 152
Farm or home visits made .............................................................. 994
Office calls received ............ ......---- ........... .......................... 1,552







Annual Report, 1935 17

4-H Club members enrolled .............................................................. 4,130
4-H Club members completing ........................................................ 3,322
Additional 4-H club members participating .................................. 2,221
Individuals having health examination ........................................ 3,733
Individuals adopting health measures ............................................ 13,210
Families adopting health measures ................................................ 3,063
EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 641
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting .................... 591
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or
com m itteem en .................................................................................. 1,190
M meetings held ................ .................................................................. 918
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 1,057
Farm or home visits made .............................................................. 2,968
Office calls received .......................................................................... 4,124
Communities assisted with community problems ........................ 952
Country life conferences .................................... ........ ..... 85
Families following recommendations as to home recreation ... 1,116
4-H Clubs engaging in community activities ................................ 206
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or other
relief agency .................................................................. .............. 2,389







Florida Cooperative Extension


PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Agricultural Adjustment activities continued to occupy a good part of
the time of the three Editors during 1935. Most of the news and informa-
tional material about programs with basic crops, marketing agreements,
and compulsory control features was handled through this office, generous
cooperation being received from Washington.
The Editor made one trip to Atlanta to become better acquainted with
the corn-hog program, and later spent two weeks in the office of the Re-
gional Contact Section, Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Washing-
ton. There a study was made of the various AAA programs which related
to Florida, and of methods of disseminating information. Considerable in-
formational material was assembled there for use on returning to Florida.
The Editor attended the annual meeting of the American Association
of Agricultural College Editors, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., in August,
and participated in its program.
Bulletins and supplies were distributed from the Mailing Room, and this
work was extremely heavy during the year, since there is a great demand
for supplies by the county and home demonstration agents during times
of emergencies. The three editors and three mailing clerks devoted about
one-half of their time to work for the Agricultural Extension Service and
the other half to duties of the Experiment Station.

PUBLICATIONS
Bulletin printing was rather heavy during the fiscal year ending June
30, 1935. Four new bulletins were printed and three old ones were re-
printed, for a total of 244 pages and 217,000 copies. In addition, 2,500
copies of a 32-page outlook report were printed and distributed, two cir-
cu'ars amounted to 24 pages and 25,000 copies, and numerous record books
and other supplies were printed. Following is a list of material printed
during the year:
Pages Edition
Bul. 77. Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida............ 40 12,000
Bul. 78. Rose Growing in Florida....-......... ......................... 28 10,000
Bul. 79. Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets-......--.... ....-- 48 15,000
Bul. 80. The Home Garden................................... 16 30,000
Bul. 64. Save the Surplus (Reprint)........................................... 52 20,000
Bul. 70. The Goodly Guava (Reprint)......................................... 32 10,000
Bul. 75. Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits (Reprint)................ 28 20,000
Circ. 36. Saving the Sweet Potato Crop..................................... 4 10,000
Circ. 37. School Lunches .................................................................. 20 15,000
Misc. Pub. 5. Florida Agricultural Outlook for 1935................ 32 2,500
Misc. Pub. 6. 4-H Crop Club Record Book ..............................-. 12 7,500
Misc. Pub. 1. Citrus Grove Record Book (Reprint).................. 500
Misc. Pub. 2. Record Book for Commercial Poultry Flocks
(R print) ........................................................................... .......... 500
1935 Extension Calendar............................................ .................. 12 10,000
Rules, 10th Florida National Egg-Laying Contest...................... 2,000
Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 issues)*.......................... 1 33,600
Monthly report, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest.............. 4 800
Farm Radio Programs (monthly).................................................... 4 30,000

Ten issues of 800 copies each were paid for by the State Plant Board.







Annual Report, 1935 19

The biennial report of the Agricultural Extension Service to the State
Board of Control, incorporated and printed in the University of Florida
report, was edited in this office. Then, too, the Annual Report for 1934,
104 pages and cover, was edited and printed.
Monthly report of the Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley was prepared
and mailed there, by the Supervisor.

NEWS SERVICE
Naturally, the agricultural adjustment work being done in Florida in
1935 was the subject of considerable news material distributed by the
Extension Editors. This news was placed before the public in simple,
understandable news terms, and "propaganda" was avoided. Much of the
material relating to AAA released through this office was supplied by
the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and other branches of the
United States Department of Agriculture, while much other material was
based entirely on local activities.
The Agricultural News Service continued to be the medium for dis-
tributing news stories to weekly papers, and to a certain extent to dailies
and farm papers. This is a clipsheet issued each week in the year, and the
material it contains is widely clipped and used by Florida papers. It
contained from 8 to 11 or 12 separate stories in each of the 52 issues, and
most of them related to the Extension Service. Some, however, were about
the work of the Experiment Station, the College of Agriculture, the State
Plant Board, and other institutions.
Service to the dailies was supplied in the form of special stories to one
or more papers, mimeographed stories for general distribution, and releases
through the Associated Press, both wire and mail service. Farming ques-
tions and answers, supplied by this office, were printed each Sunday by one
large daily paper. Occasional mats were supplied both dailies and weeklies.
Special articles written by members of the staff were printed in large
number by five general farm and specialized citrus and poultry publications
in Florida. Majority of these articles were handled by the Extension Editors
and forwarded to the papers. Others were sent direct by staff members.
The Editors themselves prepared 46 different articles for four Florida
farm papers during the year. These, when published, amounted to 1,160
column inches. The farm and grove section of 35 Florida newspapers is
here classed as a farm paper and included in this list.
In addition, nine articles, amounting to 80 column inches, prepared by
the Editors were printed in two Southern farm journals and three articles,
14 column inches, in three national farm publications.

RADIO SERVICE
The special service of farm flashes, supplied by this office in cooperation
with the Radio Service of the United States Department of Agriculture,
was expanded during the year with the addition of one more station. For
the first nine months of the year these farm flashes, each about seven
minutes in length, were broadcast five days a week by four Florida radio
stations; for the last three months, by five stations; and occasionally, aver-
aging about once a week, throughout the year by another station.
Records show that for the 261 broadcasting days this year, 339 separate
flashes were sent. Of these, 146 were prepared by the USDA and 193
locally. In many cases two separate flashes were prepared for the same
day, to get material adapted to both North Florida and South Florida. In
other cases, where material was suitable, it was used on all stations.
These farm flash programs now cover the entire State of Florida, being
used regularly over radio stations in Pensacola, Tallahassee, Jacksonville,







Florida Cooperative Extension


Orlando, and Miami, and occasionally over one in St. Petersburg. County
agents cooperate in checking the copy and furnish some material for most
of them.
The Florida Farm Hour programs were continued over WRUF, going
on the air every week day in the year. These come from 12 to 1 p. m., and
consist of music, weather reports, special talks by staff members and others,
market reports, and other features. The program is arranged and super-
vised by the Editors, and they wrote 23 of the 513 prepared talks given
during the year.
The feature, farm news highlights, given daily, and prepared by the
Editors, attracted widespread attention and much favorable comment during
the year. Each day the principal items, both national and state, of interest
to farmers were summarized and presented as a feature of the Florida
Farm Hour.
In addition to the 513 special talks and the farm news highlights, farm
questions and answers were read each Tuesday, USDA farm flashes were
presented about twice a week, and weekly news items (largely from the
Agricultural News Service) every Saturday. The special talks were pre-
pared, and often delivered, by staff members of the Extension Service, Ex-
periment Station, College of Agriculture, and others.
Livestock market reports and weather reports were given daily. Towards
the end of the year both of these were expanded by the addition of poultry
and vegetable market reports and the frost forecasting service for citrus
and truck crops.
The Agricultural Extension Service cooperated in staging the National
4-H Club Achievement Day broadcast on November 2. This was a 1-hour
program over all NBC stations, the first and last 15-minute periods being
supplied by the Washington office and the NBC chain, and programs
featuring club boys and girls and leaders were staged over each one.
Printed programs for the Florida Farm Hour, with hints about the
flashes used on other stations, were distributed each month, except July
and August.
MISCELLANEOUS
Students in the College of Agriculture were aided in editing and pub-
lishing the first issue of The Florida College Farmer, which was revived
during the 1935-36 school year after a lapse of two years.
Courses in news writing were given to home demonstration women and
girls in two different counties. Representatives from each club in the
county assembled in the home demonstration office for the course, which
required two days in one county and one day in the other. Home demon-
stration news reports following this training were noticeably improved.
University of Florida Week was observed throughout Florida November
10-16, 1935. Theme for the week designated by the directors of the Uni-
versity of Florida Alumni Association was "The University's Contribution
to Agriculture, Livestock and Forestry." A brochure outlining the principal
of these contributions was prepared by the Extension Editors and used
as a basis for talks before 50 civic clubs throughout the state. The Editor
spoke before one club during the week.
A talk on news writing and publicity was made to the home demonstra-
tion agents at their annual conference. Another talk on agricultural news
was presented before the State Press Association at its annual gathering.








Annual Report, 1935


PART II-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENT WORK
A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader
H. G. Clayton, District Agent
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent

The number of counties cooperating in the employment of county agents
during 1935 has increased from 44 to 49. All new appointees are graduates
of the University of Florida College of Agriculture. The positions were
filled in some cases by transfers, which resulted in a larger number of
counties having new agents than at any time previously.
Interest in Extension work in the counties has been stimulated by the
AAA program in the area of Florida growing basic crops. The county
agents have acted as representatives of the Secretary of Agriculture and
the State College of Agriculture in handling farmers' contracts under the
AAA.
REGIONAL PROBLEMS
The State is divided into regions from the standpoint of crop production.
Region 1 consists of the counties lying in North and West Florida, Region
2 those counties lying in Northeast Florida and the East Coast, and Region
3 those lying in Central and Southwest Florida. There are many problems
in common. However, the difference in type of agriculture in the three
sectioAs makes it advisable to modify the programs to suit each of the
sections.
On account of better prices received for farm produce on the whole,
farmers of this state have had a more successful year in 1935 than in any
other year since 1929. Prices for practically all commodities have greatly
increased from that period. While operating expenses have also increased,
net returns have given the farmers a larger income and therefore increased
buying power. This is reflected in general prosperity and improved con-
ditions now found in practically all sections.
EDUCATIONAL MEETINGS
Educational meetings were used generally for conducting Extension
work throughout the state. On account of the limited time the county
agent could give to individual farmers, it was apparent that collective
groups could profit by discussions dealing with farm problems. This
expedited signing of contracts and handling the usual Extension programs
in the counties. Meetings and farm tours were arranged by county agents
and help was supplied from the State office.

THE SCREW WORM SITUATION
During 1934 the screw worm infestation was general in North Florida
counties. This pest spread into practically all counties in 1935. An ap-
propriation by Congress was made available for the work in Florida and
the work was directed by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant -Quarantine.
A state appropriation was made also. A state Screw Worm Control Board
was appointed, which board authorized the expenditure of state funds to
be handled in accordance with the plans of the Federal Bureau.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Screw worm control supervisors were placed throughout the livestock
sections of the state. These supervisors worked in.cooperation with the
county agents and with the livestock people. Educational work in 1935
has served to develop proper treatment and methods against screw fly
injury, but more especially for better management of livestock. There
has been close cooperation in handling this screw worm project.

SOIL IMPROVEMENT
There has been a soil conservation and improvement program which
involves soil-building crops and the construction of terraces on many farms
in West Florida. Drainage and terracing, while not major problems, have
their place in most of the agriculture of the general farming area, where
primary crops are cotton and tobacco.
Austrian peas, vetch, cowpeas, velvet beans, and crotalaria were used
in demonstrations, which were conducted mainly for soil improvement pur-
poses, but also to determine the adaptability of these crops to types of
soils in which they were planted. These demonstrations followed recom-
mendations of research workers of the Florida Experiment Station and
the United States Department of Agriculture. Since the value of these
soil improving crops depends to a large extent on the use made of the
land afterwards, that, too, was a consideration in recommending their
use to farmers.
Studies have shown that production costs with winter legumes are
higher than with summer legumes. In fact, the practice of growing winter
legumes is much less practical in some sections than in others and while
the yields have been improved for the following crops in some cases, the
expenses have not been actually justified. In any case, where soil improve-
ment practices cost $5 per acre or more and increase the yield of corn
not more than 10 bushels, the practice could hardly be justified from one
season's returns.
Summer legumes, principally crotalaria, cowpeas, and velvet beans grow
more readily and with less cost, and are therefore more generally used
than winter legumes.
Crotalaria has become an important crop in Florida, due partly to the
ease with which it is produced and its habit of reseeding. This crop, most
varieties of which cannot be used for stock feeding, is not looked upon with
as much favor by livestock people as crops that are adapted to livestock
feeding. However, the large tonnage produced makes it a soil improving
crop that can be recommended in most sections of the state.
Following these leguminous crops, yields of field crops increased from
10-20% and in some instances were even much higher.
The saving of crotalaria seed has yielded considerable returns to many
farmers in the cotton growing area. However, during the past year, the
demand for seed was limited and a relatively small amount was gathered,
but the large amounts left on the land will provide for a good stand for
the 1936 crop.
Velvet bean crops for the most part were interplanted with corn and
grazed off during winter months by cattle. A relatively small amount of
seed was gathered for seed purposes.

CEREALS
Demonstrations with small grains, principally oats and rye, were mainly
for winter pasture purposes. However, many farmers produced a small
acreage to provide for hay and green feed during spring months, particu-
larly for their mules. In the West Florida area much attention was directed







Annual Report, 1935


to the experiments carried on at the Florida Experiment Station branch
at Quincy. The season was favorable and the crop yielded relatively well.
The growing of these cereals, however, is limited to a relatively small
acreage, but is encouraged by county agents, particularly for feeding pur-
poses. For the most part there was a relatively small amount of fertilizer
used, although some farmers give their crops a top-dressing of nitrate
of soda and this produced in all cases a larger yield because of the fertilizer
application.
Demonstrations with corn were carried on in the usual way. The
practice of corn planting being fairly well established, it was largely a
matter of varieties and cultivation. Recommendations on varieties were
submitted by the Florida Experiment Station and for the most part What-
ley's Prolific was recommended, being generally well adapted to the area.
However, in Central and South Florida other varieties, depending on time
of planting and type of soil, were used. Corn in the southern part of the
state is grown as a cash crop and in some cases sold as a vegetable crop.
It occupies a relatively small place in the production of crops in South
Florida and, even though yields are relatively high in some instances, it
is comparatively unimportant as a commercial crop in most of the area.

FIELD CROPS
On account of the agricultural adjustment program, there were some-
what fewer demonstrations of the ordinary type with cotton and tobacco.
These being basic crops in the North Florida area, the adjustment program
was the only consideration in which farmers were interested. However,
the adjustment program made it possible to emphasize the necessity of
good cultural and fertilizer practices. On account of reduced acreage it
was desirable that farmers produce as large tonnage as possible on the
land they cultivated. The reduced acreage, therefore, caused better cul-
tural methods than usual, particularly on the better farms.
About the only tobacco demonstrations were in the seedbeds. These were
sprayed in order to have strong, vigorous plants free of disease, ready to
set by March 1.
FEED AND PASTURE CROPS
Reports from the Extension Dairyman and the Beef Cattle Specialist
place considerable emphasis on the growing of feeds and pastures. Pastures
in particular have been important, especially to dairymen, due to the
increased price of grains that must be bought for the dairies near larger
cities. Some dairymen in the larger cities have purchased additional lands
and have seeded them to carpet grass. Some have used a small amount
of fertilizer, and have mowed the pastures to keep down weeds. This
practice has given a decidedly improved pasture and has made it possible
for the dairymen to raise a larger part of their feed, thereby lowering
the cost of producing milk.
In Duval County the agent secured a supply of Italian rye grass seed
for several dairymen and this was broadcast over the pastures and served
to supplement the winter forages available. While these pastures are
temporary, they have served a good purpose in producing green feed through
the winter months at a considerable saving in costs to the dairymen.
The production of pastures for beef cattle also has been an important
part of the work in 1935. Since beef cattle on pasture have received prac-
tically no grain, the improvement of the pastures is considered a major
item in the county agents' program, particularly in those counties where
large areas of grazing lands are under fence.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SILAGE CROPS
Definite progress has been made in providing silage crops for both dairy
and beef cattle. For a number of years the number of silos in the state
of Florida has been gradually increasing. In recent years with cheaper
types of silos, the number of these feed preservers has grown rapidly.
During 1935 dairymen and beef cattle raisers have constructed surface or
underground silos with capacity from 50 to 200 tons. Crops used for silage
are sorghum, Napier grass, corn, and sugarcane. These have provided
large quantities of cheap feed and have served as excellent demonstrations
as means of reducing feed costs, particularly for beef and dairy cattle.
Some varieties of sugarcane have been used as soiling crops and give
promise of greater development for better livestock. These varieties yield
from 10 to 20 tons per acre on good soils. By storing it cheaply, it pro-
vides an excellent silage crop.

LIVESTOCK
BEEF CATTLE
Improved prices of livestock have resulted in the purchase of purebred
breeding stock in car-lots from areas outside of Florida and the livestock
breeders of Florida had a good sale for their breeding stock. The improve-
ment of pastures has gone hand in hand with this and those farmers who
own the larger areas and have been financially able to fence them have ex-
pressed an interest in the improvement of the stock and the range.
The range men have gradually improved their cattle for several years
with the result that some additional markets have been opened up. In
central Florida, in particular, county agents have been particularly active
with range cattle work. They have accompanied the owners into Texas
and other livestock producing areas for the purpose of getting breeding
stock by the carload.
These demonstrations have been productive of much improvement. This
has culminated in two important livestock exhibits, one held at the South
Florida Fair and a second at the Florida Fat Stock Show and sale in Jack-
sonville. At both places unusually good prices were paid for these finished
animals and they are in demand by the buyers.

DAIRYING
Report of the Dairy Specialist indicates the interest among dairy farmers
and particularly those engaged in commercial dairying. The problems of
dairying are principally those of feeds and improvement of the dairy ani-
mals for production purposes. Through the home demonstration agents
special attention has been given to the use of dairy products on the farm
and considerable interest has been taken in better farm dairy cattle.
The big problem, however, is the cost of production in commercial
areas. Special attention has been given to the improvement of pastures
and larger ranges, particularly in the areas near larger cities. Due to the
higher cost of feed in 1935, dairymen were compelled to reduce their feed
costs, and better pastures and the construction of pit silos have added
much to improvement of feeding practices.
In connection with these dairies, there has always been a problem of
parasites with young animals. Formerly it was not the practice of dairy-
men to raise calves to supply their future producers, but on account of
difficulty in securing animals of quality, many dairymen are now giving
special attention to the raising of their own stock. The management of
herds to control parasites has been one of the big problems in the past.








Annual Report, 1935


This means crop rotation and less permanent pastures for young livestock
and feeding methods that will prevent infestation of parasites, particularly
for the first six months of a calf's life.
One additional outstanding problem has been the eradication of tuber-
culosis and Bang's. disease. Tuberculosis eradication has been conducted in
a systematic way until a large part of the herds have been practically freed
of this disease.
The Extension dairyman and county agents have accompanied dairymen
to other sections of the country to secure producing animals that are needed
for the increased winter trade prevalent in Florida.

HOGS
Due to the agricultural adjustment program, it was not desirable at
the beginning of the season to encourage production of a larger number
of hogs on farms, but because Florida is a meat deficiency area it gave
opportunity to produce larger hogs. Consequently, even with the agri-
cultural adjustment program, shipments of hogs from Florida resulting
from 1935 production have been larger than in previous years, due prin-
cipally to the better prices and to heavier animals being marketed. With
low prices for hogs since 1932, good breeding stock has been difficult to
secure. However, those few breeders who have had good breeding stock
have found a ready sale for the animals. At the end of the season with
hogs selling at above average price, there is increased interest in hogs
and many farmers are returning to hogs as their main money crop, par-
ticularly in that area where peanuts and corn are principal grain crops.
The agricultural adjustment program has stimulated improvement in quality
and demonstrations with farmers have been built around the problem of
better quality together with cheaper feeds.




















Fig. 1.-Demonstrations in cutting and curing pork aided Florida farmers
in saving a larger and more satisfactory home meat supply during 1935.

During the period of low priced pork, interest was centered around
home curing and this program got well underway and under the direction
of the Animal Husbandman, demonstrations in butchering, cutting and
curing methods were given. Also, cold storage has been made available
to most areas. Help has been given by the United States Department of








26 Florida Cooperative Extension

Agriculture and a much larger supply of home cured meat of better quality
has been placed in the farm homes since the beginning of this program.
County agents have continued their efforts in the control of hog cholera.
In increasing number, agents have cooperated with the Live Stock Sanitary
Board in the treatment of hog cholera and in control of other hog diseases.
Special attention has been given to parasite control with hogs and
cattle. This has been a program of unusual importance, since farmers are
finding it necessary to rotate pastures in order to hold the parasites of
livestock in check.

GOVERNMENT CATTLE TO 4-H CLUB MEMBERS
The Government purchases from the drought area of the West in 1934
brought to this state about 90,000 cattle. Practically all of these were
slaughtered and canned in cooperation with the Commodity Division, FERA.
A number of these better animals were held over to determine their
adaptability to Florida conditions. These were finally closed out at the
end of the year and 50 animals consigned for 4-H club work. These were
animals two years old and over and were placed in counties where there
were facilities for taking care of them.
Results of this demonstration cannot be determined until one or two
calf crops are produced. The animals were given normal or average care
and since they were of better than average breeding, it will be of interest
to know their progress the next five years. They were turned over free
of all costs and placed with representative 4-H club boys who were in
position to feed and care for them properly.

CITRUS FRUITS
On account of the adjustment program District Agents turned over
practically all of their supervisory citrus program to the Citriculturist.
A unified citrus program was planned and approved by the Extension
Service and research workers of the Experiment Station and centered
around the economical production of improved quality of fruit and around
irrigation.
On account of a freeze in 1934, many groves in the state were severely
injured, resulting in dead wood which caused an unusual infestation of
melanose. This required a spraying program, particularly for melanose,
and also a fertilization program to help restore these injured groves to
good productive condition. The Citriculturist gave special attention to
these two problems and his recommendations to the county agents em-
phasized the necessity of bringing these groves back to normal bearing
at limited cost. Because of these special treatments and a favorable season,
the groves have made remarkable recovery.
Special attention was given to irrigation by the Citriculturist in groves
where irrigation is possible at relatively low cost. The control of insects
and diseases has been carried out by county agents in cooperation with
other research workers in the field of horticultural work in the central
part of Florida.
VEGETABLES
The work with vegetables comes under two divisions: First, commercial
crops and, second, home gardens. The commercial crop area has had the
usual problems of marketing, fertilization and disease and insect control.
Demonstrations in these commercial crops are more difficult to handle than
in most other crops, since earliness is of importance as compared with
even the cost of production. However, special attention has been given
to organic materials in fertilization and the content of fertilizer in respect







Annual Report, 1935


to nitrogen. Cover crops, such as native grasses and crotalaria, have been
a part of the program. There were demonstrations in the use of new
insecticides and fungicides as recommended by the Florida Experiment
Station.
County agents in all sections of the state have had as a part of their
program the home garden. This has added considerable to the food supply.
In this, the county and home demonstration agents have cooperated and
both have cooperated with employees of the Rehabilitation Service who
were assisting the relief families with the cooperation of the county and
home agents.
AGRICULTURAL LOANS
The Farm Credit Administration, through its various branches, is be-
coming well established throughout this state and it is the policy of the
Extension Service to cooperate with them to the fullest extent. Farmers
have been assisted in making the greatest use of these agencies. The
Production Credit Associations have functioned in each case with the co-
operation of the county agents in the respective districts. The Federal
Land Banks, while longer established, have invited the Extension Service
to cooperate in their program. The greatest service with agricultural
loans has been with emergency crop loans. In this the county agents
have received applications from farmers and transmitted them to the dis-
trict offices.
OUTLOOK INFORMATION
An outlook report is published annually and placed in the hands of
county agents as a part of their program. This report is under the super-
vision of H. G. Clayton and is brought up to date with the assistance of
the specialists in charge of the various divisions of the Extension Service.
To get this outlook information to the farmers, District Agents and
Specialists have conducted outlook meetings to interest the farmers as a
guide for their production in 1936.

EXHIBITS
County agents of South Florida supervised many exhibits at the South
Florida Fair. These exhibits attracted national attention because of the
superior quality and attractive designs. While these are aside, in some
respects, from the Extension program, they have become a contribution
by the Extension Service, due to the requests of the County Boards who
cooperate. Other exhibits of lesser extent have been displayed at smaller
fairs and in addition to this there have been numerous exhibits put on by
persons who cooperate with the Extension agents. These have been useful
in displaying products of 4-H clubs and have served a useful purpose as
demonstration activities.

COOPERATION BY STATE AND COUNTIES
The financial statement shows an increase in state funds for Extension
work over the amount allotted in 1934.
County appropriations have slightly increased and there has been a
greater increase in the number of counties appropriating than in any
other period in the history of Extension work. This makes it possible to
carry through 1936 a larger number of county and home agents and the
situation in this respect is decidedly better than for several years past.
County Boards in most cases have appropriated the maximum amount
permitted by law and in most instances have cooperated in other cases
to improve the service by furnishing office equipment and clerical help.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAM

The Agricultural Extension Service was assigned the responsibility for
the direction and supervision of 'production adjustment programs. These
programs affected, for the most part, the general farming area. The only
exceptions were corn and hog contracts in a few of the Central and South
Florida counties. This, however, was a minor part of the program. The
following persons were assigned the supervision of commodity programs:
Cotton-State Board of Review, Chairman, H. G. Clayton.
Peanuts-Supervisor of Contracts, J. Lee Smith, District Agent.
Tobacco-Supervisor of Contracts, D. E. Timmons.
Corn-Hogs-Supervisor of Program, W. J. Sheely.
Compliance Supervisor of all commodities-J. Lee Smith.
This program required that county and community committees handle
work in the respective counties. This was done by the appointment of
three county committeemen and with as many community committeemen
as were necessary, depending on the number of farmers and contract sign-
ers in the county. These community committeemen were selected by the
respective associations that were designated by the Secretary of Agriculture
to handle programs. They served in administering the contracts in the
counties and worked under the supervision of the county agent, whose
office was made headquarters for the program. Meetings were called by
him when matters of importance were to be considered. The county agents
are, therefore, the key-men in the county programs, handling all com-
modities.
The county agents' offices were supplied with office equipment and with
sufficient clerical assistance to handle contracts. They required from two
to 10 additional persons in each county during period of greatest activity.
Filing systems were set up where the records were kept intact and where
data could be obtained regarding each program. The county agent's office
was also made the disbursing office for checks that were received by them
for distribution in the county.
The compensation for extra services was paid by the Agricultural
Adjustment Administration. Committeemen received $3.00 per day and
clerical assistance received from $2.50 to $4.00 per day, depending on the
type of clerical work to be performed.
All instructions were submitted from the Central Office at Gainesville
to the county agent and forms supplied from Washington were transmitted
through the Gainesville office to the county headquarters. In all programs
except corn-hog, the expenses were borne directly by the Agricultural
Adjustment Administration. However, in the corn-hog program the ex-
penses were deducted from the benefit payments to farmers and this
required a county budget and receipts for expenditures submitted before
the farmers received their benefit payments from the corn-hog reduction
program. All county certificates for services were certified in the Gaines-
ville office and checks were issued from the Adjustment Administration,
Washington, D. C., to the Gainesville office for distribution throughout
the state.
The potato adjustment program affected some 40 Florida counties for
a short while near the end of 1935. An allotment of tax-free potatoes could
be sold in Florida and for this exemption stamps were issued. The state
allotment was prorated to counties and each county allotment was broken
down into producers' allotments. This program was underway with almost
a complete sign-up in the commercial potato areas at the time that all
control programs of the Agricultural Adjustment Act were declared un-
constitutional, January 6, 1936. In the meantime, growers had made some







Annual Report, 1935


adjustment in their acreage and were anticipating controlled production
and relatively increased prices because of it. The program, however, was
discontinued when the Agricultural Adjustment Act was declared uncon-
stitutional on January 6, 1936.
In the handling of the adjustment program, Assistant Cotton Adjustment
Agents were employed in cotton counties. They were paid by the Agricul-
tural Adjustment Administration. These men were placed in the county
under bond, since they were required to handle tax exemption certificates
and stamps. These agents were employed in all the main cotton-producing
counties in Florida and assisted the county agents in handling the Cotton
Adjustment Program. Results of the adjustment program as measured
by the payment to farmers is indicated in the following tables.

TABLE 1.-RENTAL AND BENEFIT PAYMENTS BY COUNTIES, JANUARY 1, 1935,
THROUGH DECEMBER 31, 1935.


County


Alachua..................
Baker ....... .............
Bay............................
Bradford....................
Calhoun......................
Citrus............... ........
Clay.............................
Columbia.......... ..
Dixie....................
Escambia--..........
Flagler........................
Gadsden....................
Gilchrist.....................
Gulf...........................
Hamilton...............
Hernando--...........
Holmes.......................
Jackson.................
Jefferson.................
Lafayette.................
Lake.............................
Leon.............................
Levy ........... ..............
Madison-..............
Marion......... ......
Okaloosa...... ..........
Orange........................
Polk......................
Putnam-...................
St. Johns-.................
:Santa Rosa................
Sumter...................
Suwannee.................
Taylor........................
Union.......................
Wakulla......................
Walton.....................
Washington-................


Total Cotton Tobacco Corn-Hogs


$ 46,428.54
1,630.17
144.47
7,124.75
6,911.34
1,313.20
332.20
45,410.65
3,130.75
20,576.63
117.00
107,371.00
10,189.32
32.49
39,909.27
193.50
44,093.60
87,974.04
31,721.00
14,106.91
20.30
22,669.22
32,079.73
57,120.21
17,270.35
24,962.87
289.50
1,469.70
1,441.60
5,181.47
47,183.44
670.53
68,549.82
2,275.02
8,041.85
1,679.50
25,954.54
10,286.79


Totals.................... $795,857.27


$ 4,682.49
385.67
144.47

3,466.86

...................
13,331.53
59.74
19,621.03
117.00
1,506.64
285.41
32.49
19,390.42

40,543.97
64,664.64
13,078.19
3,703.72

17,118.78
2,302.81
21,148.79

21,809.95



46,780.39
234.77
19,852.56
928.27
351.27
613.90
21,477.37
8,619.73


$346,252.86


$ 15,220.72
359.41

1,711.70
335.36

5,532.33


99,805.38

19,457.80

342.29
1,451.01
1,087.98
4,621.67
20.30
945.43
10.50
28,177.90







18,487.86
864.92




$198,432.56


$ 26,525.33
885.09

5,413.05
3,109.12
1,313.20
332.20
26,546.79
3,071.01
955.60

6,058.98
9,903.91

1,061.05
193.50
3,207.34
21,858.39
17,554.83
5,781.52

4,605.01
29,766.42
7,793.52
17,270.35
3,152.92
289.50
1,469.70
1,441.60
5,181.47
403.05
435.76
30,209.40
1,346.75
6,825.66
1,065.60
4,477.17
1,667.06


$251,171.85







Florida Cooperative Extension


REVIEW OF AAA WORK
As a matter of record, the Agricultural Adjustment Act became effective
on May 12, 1933. Its principal provisions were declared unconstitutional
on January 6, 1936. It was supplemented by the following compulsory
control laws: Bankhead Act for cotton, Kerr-Smith Act for tobacco, and
Warren Potato Act for potatoes. These three were repealed by Congress,
the repealing act being signed by President Roosevelt on February 10, 1936.
In 1933 the only adjustment program attempted was the plow-up cam-
paign with cotton. That year 4,434 Florida growers with 61,000 acres of
cotton signed contracts and plowed up 22,800 acres, nearly one-third of
their crop and about 20 percent of the state acreage. The program
throughout the cotton belt was hailed as a success, and the price of cotton
advanced from 5 to 9 cents per pound. Plans were laid for more extensive
work the next year.
The State Agricultural Extension Service, with its corps of county
agents, was drafted to conduct adjustment activities in Florida, each agent
being a representative of the Secretary of Agriculture. This service or-
ganization had charge of the plow-up campaign in 1933 and the programs
with cotton, tobacco and corn-hogs in 1934, the same crops in 1935, with
the addition of peanuts and sirup.
Committees of farmers were set up in each community to check appli-
cations from farmers for participation in the voluntary programs, to meas-
ure acreage and check compliance, and handle other features of the work
locally. In each county a county committee of leading farmers checked
applications and forwarded them to the state office. State boards of al-
lotment and review made allotments and reviewed cases where complaints
had been entered. Each contract signer was a member of the County Con-
trol Association. County and community committeemen were elected by
members of the association.
For their cooperation in the projects during the three years, Florida
farmers have been paid rental and benefit payments totaling $1,674,835.13,
as shown by figures given in accompanying tables, which have been pre-
pared by E. O. Blackwell, executive secretary for the State Allotment
Board. It is estimated that some $448,578.47 remains to be paid, which
will give a grand total of $2,123,413.60 coming to Florida farmers in direct
payments for adjustment.
TABLE 2.-SUMMARY OF BENEFIT PAYMENTS, ALL COMMODITIES, FLORIDA.
1933 1 1934 1935 Estimates I
(Paid) (Paid) (Paid) (To be paid) Total
Cotton........... $260,050.09 $228,955.62 $346,252.86 $204,950.43 $1,040,209.00
Tobacco........ 63,106.05 181,816.99 198,432.56 15,059.00* 458,414.60
Corn-Hog ..... ............... 145,049.11 251,171.85 78,569.04 474,790.00
Peanuts.............. ... .................. ................... 100,000.00 100,000.00
Sirup.... ... .... ..... ............... .................. 50,000.00 50,000.00


Totals............ $323,156.14 $555,821.72 $795,857.27 $448,578.47 $2,123,413.60

This item includes only the 1935 estimated rentals as no estimate at
this time, February 1, 1936, can be made of any parity benefits because
of the exchange of poundage between producers.








Annual Report, 1935


TABLE 3.-ESTIMATES OF SALES RECEIPTS AND BENEFITS TO PRODUCERS OF
FLUE-CURED TOBACCO FROM 1931 TO 1935.

Production Price per Benefit Total
(Pounds) Pound Payments Receipts

1931........................ 4,356,000 6.6e $ 287,000.00
1932........................ 1,260,000 11.0c 138,000.00
1933.................... ... 3,750,000 12.0c 450,000.00
1934........................ 3,432,000 20.0c $193,991.'00* 886,000.00
1935......................... 5,943,000 18.1c 15,059.00** 1,090,059.00

Benefits include a parity payment received by cooperators based on
receipts from the 1933 crop.
** This item includes only the 1935 estimated rentals as no estimate at
this time, February 1, 1936, can be made of any parity benefits because
of the exchange of poundage between producers.


TABLE 4.-FARM VALUE COTTON LINT AND SEED, 1932-1935.


County


Alachua................
Calhoun....................
Columbia..................
Escambia....................
Gadsden.......... .....
Hamilton..................
Holmes.....................
Jackson..-..-. ........
Jefferson---................
Lafayette................
Leon-...........................
Madison......................
Okaloosa..................
Santa Rosa.............
Suwannee....................
Waltcn--.....................
Washington............
All Others..................
Sea Island...................


Total Value
Seed and Lint............
Benefits Paid..............


Total Crop Value......


No Control
Program
1932

$ 6,173.74
3,742.34
18,627.07
36,407.40
2,751.74
27,658.32
63,017.48
98,177.23
27,552.54
4,445.12
45,363.66
33,020.71
51,083.29
103,718.81
28,575.59
35,031.57
16,263.42
6,389.97
... ...............


Voluntary
Plow-up
Program
1933


$ 12,258.68
15,985.45
46,167.26
91,116.68
12,259.71
69,925.34
198,181.36
278,148.42
68,278.46
13,109.70
84,205.69
79,870.22
106,025.65
241,923.99
66,804.47
109,332.63
27,404.48
32,383.90
........................


$ 608,000.00 $1,553,382.09
...................... 260,050.09


Voluntary Acreage
Reduction Program
1934 [ 1935*


$ 16,054.98
20,556.42
56,696.93
105,315.84
15,513.52
89,404.97
420,788.84
381,375.42
64,365.47
16,258.36
73,615.92
91,806.37
113,078.48
370,445.98
98,850.08
133,714.33
33,184.21
40,195.60
........................


$ 15,668.80
20,800.04
53,943.92
133,287.97
6,433.55
87,362.82
286,145.80
392,272.54
45,331.27
18,174.35
84,404.91
137,358.00
135,780.35
266,620.16
101,376.47
157,046.78
74,673.06
20,701.92
20,160.00


$2,121,221.72 $2,057,542.71
228,995.62 346,252.86


$608,000.00 $1,813,432.18 $2,350,177.34


$2,403,795.57


* Estimated value.








Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE 5.-FLORIDA INCOME FROM COTTON, 1933-1935.


Voluntary
County Plow-Up
1933


Alachua..................... $ 3,244.50
Baker........................ ....................
B ay............................... ..................
Calhoun.................... 2,074.00
Columbia..................... 6,419.50
D ixie......................... ...............
Escambia................... 13,844.22
Flagler......................... ....................
Gadsden....................... 2,389.50
Gilchrist.................... 531.00
Gulf...................... .....
Hamilton.................. 7,366.00
Holmes........................ 19,587.03
Jackson...................... 40,455.75
Jefferson.................... 8,619.50
Lafayette---................. 5,320.00
Leon............................. 14,829.25
Levy............................. 3,029.50
Madison................. 13,500.11
Marion....................... 260.00
Okaloosa.-................... 29,299.00
Santa Rosa.... ....... 52,197.50
Sumter... ---.............-.. ..
Suwannee.................. 16,991.60
Taylor................... 782.75
Union.................... 175.00
Wakulla.................. 593.25
Walton....-.............. 15,118.68
Washington................ 3,422.45


Total....................... $260,050.09


BENEFITS
Voluntary Voluntary Total
Reduction Reduction Benefits
1934 1935 1933-34-35

$ 1,387.10 $ 4,682.49 $ 9,314.09
57.83 385.67 443.50
90.00 144.47 234.47
2,595.15 3,466.86 8,136.01
7,412.16 13,331.53 27,163.19
............... 59.74 59.74
10,630.12 19,621.03 44,095.37
................ 117.00 117.00
977.11 1,506.64 4,873.25
234.86 285.41 1,051.27
............ .... 32.49 32.49
12,620.79 19,390.42 39,377.21
21,663.68 40,543.97 81,794.68
47,987.43 64,664.64 153,107.82
6,109.93 13,078.19 27,807.62
2,060.93 3,703.72 11,084.65
11,686.37 17,118.78 43,634.40
670.33 2,302.81' 6,002.64
17,287.71 21,148.79 51,936.61
52.00 ................... 312.00
20,361.01 21,809.95 71,469.96
33,119.64 46,780.39 132,097.53
........... 234.77 234.77
13,133.07 19,852.56 49,977.23
412.92 928.27 2,123.94
114.17 351.27 640.44
141.65 613.90 1,348.80
13,047.35 21,477.37 49,643.40
5,102.31 8,619.73 17,144.49


$228,955.62 $346,252.86 $ 835,258.57


Unpa'd Estim ate...................................................... .... 204,950.43

Total Benefits, State, 1933-1935.................... ... ....................$1,040,209.00


WORK OF D. E. TIMMONS
The Extension Economist in Marketing spent a large proportion of his.
time assisting in the administration of AAA programs.

BASIC COMMODITIES
Tobacco.-The Extension Economist in Marketing directed the work of
the tobacco adjustment program in Florida until September 18, 1935, when
he was granted leave of absence to work with the Potato Section at Wash-
ington.
He supervised the work of the state office, advised county agents of
changes in administrative rulings, and assisted them and their committee-
men in making recommendations concerning contracts and allotments to
applicants. The state office checked the 1934 allotment cards against the
carbon copies of the tax-payment warrants issued at warehouses, checked








'Annual Report, 1935


new contracts, handled the referendum vote on the Kerr-Smith Act, issued
allotment cards for 1935, and summarized reports from-the county offices.
In this connection,-a mimeographed report was prepared by the Exten-
sion Economist in Marketing on June 26, 1935, giving the status of "The
Flue-Cured Tobacco Adjustment Program in Florida from May 12, 1933
to April 30, 1935". This study developed the fact that since 1930 Florida
flue-cured tobacco producers witnessed such low prices that a large number
of growers ceased to produce tobacco. Of 1,038 contract signers for 1934,
209 or 20 percent, had not produced any tobacco since 1931. There were
303 who had planted two of the base years, and only 323 who had planted
all three of the base years. Almost one-half of all contract signers planted
tobacco only one of the base years, 1931-33. There were 198 non-contracting
producers in 1934 in Florida.
The 1,038 flue-cured tobacco contracts represented 3,805.8 acres aver-
aging 740 pounds yield per acre. The 198 non-contracting producers planted
approximately 864 acres, with an estimated yield of 672 pounds per acre.
The 2,806,914 pounds of flue-cured tobacco sold by Florida contract
signers brought an average price of 21.74 cents per pound in 1934, as
against the average price received by producers in 1931 of 6.6 cents per
)ound, and 12.0 cents per pound in 1933.
Florida contract growers sold most of their tobacco during 1934 in
Ialdosta, Ga., and Live Oak, Fla., Valdosta ranking first in volume of
-eceipts with 1,614,000 pounds, and Live Oak second receiving 947,000
rounds.
There were 1,173 regular contracts and 67 Special Base contracts, mak-
ng 1,240 flue-cured tobacco contracts in effect in 1935. Of this total, there
vere 135 new contracts signed in 1935.
The Extension Economist in Marketing assisted the producers in the
transfer of surplus allotments from one grower to another. On completion
f the marketing season in August 1935,.the allotment cards together with
he growers' warehouse receipts were forwarded to the state office and
here checked against duplicate tax-payment warrants from Washington
nd the marketing cards made up from the data developed in this checking.
Data on the 1935 crop were not compiled, due to the leave of absence
ranted the Extension Economist in Marketing.
Corn and Hogs.-The Extension Economist in Marketing was a member
f the State Board of Review. He assisted the committee in adjusting
orn and hog contracts and in the handling of appeal cases. It was neces-
ary to spend some time in the field contacting county agents, committee-
len and contract signers who had appealed for adjustments in their con-
racts. It was also necessary in one case that he represent the State
board of Review in connection with an appeal case that went to the Corn-
:og Section in Washington. At this meeting the Extension Economist in
marketingg presented to the Corn-Hog Section the results of farm survey
materials in Florida which showed that the allotment to contract signers
i Florida was too little as regarding corn yields. It is a general prac-
ce, in large areas of West Florida, for the farmers to plant one row of
)rn and one row of peanuts and in some instances to plant either the
)rn row or peanut row with velvet beans. Farm survey data indicated
lat where corn was planted by this method, there was approximately a
) percent higher yield if corn were reduced to a solid basis on land planted
corn and peanuts than if planted in solid corn. By reducing the inter-
anting to a solid corn basis and comparing with a state average yield,
was obvious that growers would receive abnormally low rental payments
r their corn acreage. The Corn-Hog Section, after studying the statistics
'esented, made administrative rulings which took into consideration the
cts brought out in data presented.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Extension Economist in Marketing also assisted in the setting up
of the Corn-Hog Control Associations and in the making of their regular
budgets. This was incidental, however, to his regular duties as a member
of the Corn-Hog Board of Review.
Potatoes.-The inclusion of potatoes as a basic commodity and the pre-
liminary work done in Florida prior to the framing of the bill, made it
necessary for the Extension Economist in Marketing to spend considerable
time with potato growers, dealers, and in conference with officials in Wash-
ington. One section of the state felt that making potatoes a basic com-
modity, or any similar legislation, would affect that section adversely.
Another section of the state felt that they had had extremely low prices
and that if some legislation was not made the farmers of those communities
were doomed to bankruptcy. The Extension Economist in Marketing,
through meetings, kept the farmers and dealers in each of these areas
informed as to proposed legislation and discussed with them the progress
being made.
In meetings held in Washington and the state, the policy of the Extension
Economist in Marketing was to carry information from growers to Wash-
ington and from Washington to growers in an unbiased manner.
After it was determined that there would be a potato control program,
meetings were held explaining the plan. Growers were notified at these
meetings that it would be necessary to make applications for sales allot-
ments if they were to receive tax-exemption stamps. Preliminary forms
and instructions for the handling of the potato program were made and
sent to county agents.
A.A.A. RECORD BOOK WORK
The Extension Economist in Marketing assisted in holding educational
meetings to explain the purpose of the records and the value of records
to Tarmers. Record books were distributed to farmers by county agents
to record farm operations as a basis for farm management practices. These
meetings were attended by 1,174 growers.








Annual Report, 1935


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent

On account of enlarged duties imposed upon District Agents, the time
they could allot to club work has been very limited this year. The result
is that where formerly there were four supervisors promoting boys' 4-H
club work, there is but one with a little assistance from one district agent.

4-H SUPERVISORY PROGRAM FOR 1935
Older 4-H Boys as Emergency Leaders.-From experience in 1934 it
was evident that using the older 4-H club boys as emergency leaders was
the most satisfactory way to overcome the almost complete lack of time
for club work on the part of the county agent. It was planned to assist
county agents in the counties affected by the several adjustment programs
in organizing the older 4-H boys for the purpose of carrying on the work
during the emergency. The counties with adjustment problems were the
counties in which the larger part of the club enrollment was to be found.
This fine plan came to naught because the county agents were too busy
with adjustment work to find time to set a date for organizing the older
club members.


Fig. 2.-Class instruction, as shown above, and recreation make annual
4-H club camps attractive to boys and girls, and maintain their interest
in the work.

Club Camps.-In the club program for Florida the camp is a vital factor
in promoting club work. Nine years ago a district camp was started in
West Florida to serve 10 counties. This central camp proved so useful
and so satisfactory that in 1934 a second district camp was begun in
Central Florida. The camps were built by donations. The one in West








Florida Cooperative Extension


Florida was large enough to handle 120 and was equipped with electric
lights and a sanitary sewage disposal system. The one in Central Florida
was just begun in 1934 and it seemed advisable to devote the time necessary
to enlarge this camp and to install needed sanitary equipment. Three
months of the state club agent's time were given to securing donations
and to supervising'the erection of building and the installation of a lighting
plant and a modern sanitary disposal system at the Central Florida camp.
The result is that we now have two very fine 4-H club camps in Florida
which are a big factor in the 4-H club program.
Two former 4-H boys were employed as camp directors during the
summer months. D. R. Matthews had charge of the West Florida Camp
and W. W. Bassett, Jr., of the camp in Central Florida. Both of these
men are able and conscientious. Both did the job at hand very well indeed.
Recreation Leadership Training.-The fact that so many young people
are backing up on the farms without jobs to take up their time made it
seem advisable to devote some time to the recreational side of rural life.
Through cooperation of the National Recreational Association, six leader-
ship training schools were held in the state. The schools were a success
and in some counties recreation councils were formed and meetings held
monthly during the year. This work is building a more desirable rural
social life. It was noticeable in the stories written by new club members
in the counties where the recreational schools were held that the good
times had by club members were given as the major reason why the new
member joined the club. Recreation training is a big part of the summer
4-H camp program. Beginnings of improvement, in rural social contacts
seem evident.

PROBLEMS, METHODS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Relations with Counties.-The big problem in 4-H club work has been
to overcome the lack of time on the part of county agents. 'The average
county agent in the general farming area of Florida has been unable to
take care of anything except the adjustment work. Some succeeded in
allocating their .time in such way that they were able to carry on the
regular extension program in a limited way. An attempt was made to
turn the major part of routine boys' club work over to the older club boys.
A few county organization meetings were held at which two older boys
from each community were present. The boys were impressed with the
opportunity: for service. The result in counties where such organization
meetings were held was enough to prove that the older boys can and will
carry the club program over in emergency. Of course it is doubtful as
to the efficiency of this plan for a period over a year or two in length.
Assisting County Agents in Determining Club Program.-Twelve agents
were assisted in planning a 4-H program for boys. The work in Alachua
County:was exceptional. County Agent F. L. Craft and'Assistant Agent
J. A. McClellan organized the club work in this county in a complete way.
Each local club was organized and a county council was formed. Several
innovations were instituted by Mr. McClellan, which aroused and held the
enthusiasm of the different clubs.

PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS
ENROLLMENT

Through the assistance of older boys a 14% increase in enrollment was
secured. The number of projects started increased from 3,080 to 3,507
This was most gratifying. Then the result of neglect on the part of th(
county agents began to show up. For the third year the agents did nol







Annual Report, 1935


have time to supervise the club work personally. The older boys did their
best but it takes the personal contact of the agent himself to hold 4-H
!lub work at the proper standard. The boys started their projects but did
not complete them. This was noticeable last' year when the percent of
;ompletions dropped to 53%. In 1935 but 49% of the projects started were
completed With 428 more projects than in 1934 there were but 82 more
:omp'etions.
The following figures show the gains and losses in the different projects
.or 1933, 1934 and 1935.

Gain or
Project 1933 1934 1935 loss 1935
over 1934
................................ .... .. ........... 583 719 825 +106
)otatoes....................... ........................... 192 237 276 + 39
Jotton........................................................... 111 222 229 + 7
Jruck and Garden......................................... 338 443 513 + 70
loultry...................................... 277 337 388 + 51
ig..................................... ................ 376 466 547 + 81
alf. ............................................................. 203 247 246 1
Iiscellaneous........................................... 341 409 483 + 74

'otal..-......--........ ...................... 2415 3080 3507 +428


ORGANIZATION
The number of organized clubs increased from 154 to 171.
The value of well organized local clubs was demonstrated in Escambia
countyy this fall. Some of the clubs in this county have been operating
ar 15 years. Leadership is supplied by old 4-H boys. E. P. Scott resigned
s county agent a month before the club contest was to be held. The new
county agent arrived on Wednesday and the contest was held on Friday
nd Saturday. He did not visit a club. When the contest was held three
tubs brought in over 90% reports. All the work, even putting up the
exhibits, was done by boys under the leadership of the club officers.
If more assistance could be given the county agents in perfecting work-
ig local club organizations the enrollment .would be increased, but the
greatest improvement would be in the percent of completions. From pres-
it records it would seem that it would be possible to secure at least 80%
sports. This would mean much to club work as it is detrimental to a boy
Encourage him to start a project and then not help him finish it.

FARM CROPS
Corn.-Three hundred seventy boys grew 472 acres of corn, producing
.,959 bushels, an average yield of 27.4 bushels per acre. The decrease
i average yield from 37.4 bushels in 1931 shows the effect of low prices
id the general let-down in the attempt to increase the yield per acre.
oys as well as farmers are not striving to keep up production per acre.
ew boys used fertilizer and there appears to be a tendency to forget
te value of high yields in lowering the cost of production per bushel. This
ems to be a sad mistake and a step backward.
Cotton.-This project showed a further decline, due to the cotton reduc-
-n program. Eighty-five boys grew 92 acres at an average yield per
re of 740 pounds of seed cotton. Here again the tendency to neglect the
Llue of high yield is manifest.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Peanuts.-The yield per acre of peanuts held up very well. Closer
spacing accounts for the increased yield.
Home Garden and Truck Crops.-With agricultural conditions improving
someivhat, interest in gardens decreased. This is a "hard times" project.
During the depression many families have had reason to be thankful for
the 4-H club garden, as it furnished a good part of the family living. When
other crops began to pay the boy turned to them, as there was not a profit
to him from the garden.
Sweet Potatoes.-This is one of the best profit producing projects in
club work. One hundred and eleven boys grew 94 acres of sweet potatoes
averaging 94 bushels per acre. The expense per acre is low and there is
usually a sale for the crop at fair prices.
Horticulture.-We have been unable to work out successful projects for
club work with citrus. The period between planting and bearing is too long.
Record keeping and cost accounting seem to be the only phases which will
work.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
The rising prices of meat animals has made the pig clubs profitable
once more. There is a shortage of good breeding animals in the state
at present.
Dairy.-This project had one member less than in 1934. The farm
family did not have enough money to buy calves. Some of the older dairy
club boys have a start for a herd of purebred cows.
Swine.-There was a 16% increase in enrollment over 1934. It would
have been larger had the boys been able to locate breeding stock. For
the first time since the depression started, we have had some real finished
barrows at the club contests. This project made the boys money and will
likely grow in size next year.
Beef Cattle.-Twenty-nine boys grew 42 animals in this project. It is
new for Florida. We are not sure of the profit to be made. Fifteen boys
are feeding out a baby beef each for the State Fat Stock Show next spring.
Plans are being formulated to put on some 15 demonstrations in the pos-
sibility of a boy building a herd of beef cattle.
Poultry.-The number of chickens raised per club member is increasing
and profits are growing. A boy should not start with less than 50 chicks.
The following table gives completions and yields for major club projects
in 1935:
Organization
171-Organized community 4-H clubs
Enrollment and Completions
2955-Members enrolled
3507-Different projects carried by club members
1369-Members completed .......................... 46%
1733-Projects completed ......................... 49%
Project Work
Yield ............................12,959 bushels corn
41,909 lbs. peanuts
45 tons hay (peanuts)
278 bushels seed (forage crops)
66 tons hay (forage crops)
1,549 bushels Irish potatoes
8,629 bushels sweet potatoes
68,252 lbs. seed cotton
3,308 lbs. tobacco
26 homes (home beautification)







Annual Report, 1935


Animals Involved........17,500 birds (poultry)
215 animals (dairy cattle)
42 animals (beef cattle)
648 animals (swine)
Leadership and Recreation
6-Judging teams trained
7-Demonstration teams trained
55-Leadership training meetings held with 760 attending
19-Achievement days held with 3632 attending
30-Club camps held with 915 attending
1-State Short Course held with 253 attending

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
Annual Short Course.-The 19th annual Boys' Club Short Course was
leld at the University of Florida in June with 253 boys attending. This
s the most inspirational club meeting of the year. All the counties with
>oys' club work except two were represented.
Out-of-State Trips.-But one out-of-state trip was made by Florida 4-H
,oys in 1935. Two boys, Herman Youngblood of Okaloosa County and
). C. Hanks of Escambia County, represented Florida at the National 4-H
,amp in Washington, D. C., in June.
Scholarships.-The Florida Bankers' Association continued its three
scholarships to the College of Agriculture. These scholarships were won by
)scar Watson of Santa Rosa County, Thomas Henry of Suwannee County
nd Francis Hildebrand of Orange County.








Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRYING

Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman

Dairy work has been carried on in the following counties during 1935,
in cooperation with county agents: Escambia, Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes,
Jackson, Liberty, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, Madison, Suwannee, Lafayette,
Hamilton, Columbia, Alachua, Marion, Duval, St. Johns, Union, Lake,
Volusia, Seminole, Orange, Polk, Brevard, Hillsboro, Pinellas, Hernando,
Sarasota,. Manatee, DeSoto, Hardee, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, and Dade.
Some dairy work was carried on with farmers in counties not having county
agents: Bay, Flagler, Clay, Citrus and Broward.

DAIRY FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS

The production of forage crops has continued to be the important factor
in developing the dairy extension program in the State in 1935. Pastures
for dairy cows suffered severely in the winter of 1934-35 because of cold,
dry winter in a large area of the State.
There has been continued interest among dairymen this year in locating
their dairies on soils best adapted to growing forage crops. Government
loans offered on lands and livestock have increased opportunities for dairy-
men to secure land better suited to growing forage. Within the last three
years, 207 dairymen have purchased 23,640 acres of farm lands for growing
pasture and forage crops. Duval, Hillsboro and Dade lead in numbers of
acres of farm lands purchased.


Fig. 3.-Trench silos with dirt floors, walls and ceilings provide inex-
pensive but satisfactory storage for silage. Numbers of them have been
constructed in Florida recently, and they are aiding dairymen in saving
forage.








Annual Report, 1935


BUILDING SILOS AND REMODELING DAIRY BUILDINGS
County agents report they had 29 demonstrations in repairing dairy
)arns and helped in the construction of 38 silos for dairy purposes in 1934.
Thirty-two of these were trench, semi-trench and pit silos and six were
ibove-ground. Trench silos were built in nine counties for the first time
n 1935. Demonstrations conducted in all sections of the state have proven
dilage will keep in Florida in any kind of silo that is practical in any other
section of the United States.
Eighty-four farmers in Duval County planted sugarcane as a soiling
mnd silage crop in 1935. Improved forage cane as a forage crop for dairy
:ows was introduced into 12 counties of Columbia, Suwannee, Nassau, Clay,
5t. Johns, DeSoto, Orange, Volusia, Brevard, Sarasota, Manatee and Dade
n 1935. Cooperative purchases and sales were arranged with counties
having cane for sale and those needing seed.
Silage crop adaptation demonstrations in growing sorghum, Napier
;rass and cane in comparison with corn silage have been continued in 1935.
?hese crops have helped greatly in stabilizing the dairy industry and in
producing an abundance of cheap roughage on soils in the citrus area of
he State that are not adapted to growing corn.
Eight farm tours were conducted in Suwannee, Duval, Marion, Hernando,
lillsboro, and Manatee counties to visit result demonstrations with silos
nd forage crops. The farm tours were attended by 194 interested dairy
armers from 15 counties. As a result, trench silos were built for the first
ime in nine counties in 1935 and improved varieties of forage cane were
lanted in 12 counties for the first time in 1935.

PASTURE AND GRAZING CROPS
The dry, cold weather in the latter part of 1934 and the first five months
1 1935 limited the number of acres seeded to pastures in 1935. There were
,825 acres seeded by dairy farmers in the State.
Demonstrations in mowing pastures conducted throughout the State
3r some six years have proven valuable. The increased grass yields, so
oticeable on the better grass lands, have interested an increased number
f farmers in mowing pastures each year. There were 8,360 acres of
permanent pasture mowed by dairymen in 1935. More dairy farmers are
becoming interested in pastures. Field meetings conducted by county agents
'ith assistance of the Agent in Animal Husbandry and the Extension
'airyman have proven valuable in bringing pasture demonstrations to the
attention of a large percentage of farmers.
Demonstrations in fertilizing pasture and grazing crops with commercial
'rtilizers have proven profitable. With carpet grass and lespedeza fer-
lizers meant the difference between success and failure. There has been
i increased tonnage of grass and this grass carried higher protein, vita-
iin and mineral content, and has a greater feeding value. In a demonstra-
on in Sarasota County, dairy cattle showed a preference for .fertilized
cass, to the extent that the fertilized areas didn't need mowing to prevent
*eding in the rainy season when grass on the unfertilized area grew
iyond the needs and formed seeds instead of leaves and went into the rest
age. Dairy farmers fertilized 1,865 acres of grazing crops this year.

RAISING DAIRY HEIFERS
The very marked upturn in prices for meat animals has greatly in-
eased the culling of dairy animals. Increased prices on grain feed in
134-35 and decreased volume of market milk resulting from cows slaugh-
red for Bang's disease made culling profitable.








Florida Cooperative Extension


The advance in grain prices in 1934 caused a lot of the low producing
cows on farms not growing the forage requirements to fall into the loss
column. With increased price of meat, dairymen are now culling the sub-
marginal cows. Around the larger market centers the advance in price
of milk through price supporting measures under the Milk Control Board
gave temporary relief. The slaughtering of cows reacting to Bang's dis-
ease during the summer season of 1935 reduced the summer surplus and
helped equalize production with consumptive requirements unusually well.
The present problem in dairy Extension work is to get fewer heifers
from only the best cows in the herd, fed a more liberal ration during the
first six months. High quality roughage for the winter season presents
a problem on many farms. The average dairy cow in Florida is at least
20% under size. Demonstrations in growing heifers are helping to correct
this condition. Approximately 60% of the dairy heifers in the State are
infested with stomach and internal parasites as a result of being under-
nourished and due to the fact that calves are placed on infested pastures
before they are old enough to resist parasites. Therefore, in calf feeding
demonstrations calves are kept on cultivated fields and not allowed to range
on sod pastures. The system of breeding cows for fall freshening is quite
ideal for growing dairy heifers, free from internal parasites.
FARM DAIRYING
Farm dairying with enough good cows to produce milk as a part of
the family living and furnish a regular part of the cash income on the
farm is an important part of the dairy Extension program. The very low
prices for milk products has made the marketing of cream unattractive in
most farming sections.
Farmers are giving more attention to farm dairying. Demonstrations
in feed growing and herd improvement are being conducted as a part of
the farm dairy program. The county agents are making surveys to deter-
mine the approximate number of additional family cows that are needed
to supply milk to farm families in 1936. A plan for properly financing
the grade heifer calves with a schedule of values that will provide for the
4-H club members to receive pay for the club heifer at the time she becomes
the family milk cow is much needed.
County Agent J. J. Sechrest placed 100 family cows in Hamilton County
in 1935. County Agent N. J. Albritton placed 26 family cows in Levy
County. These are among many agricultural counties without any large
market milk centers that have taken a very active interest in increasing
the family milk supply in North and West Florida. County Agent C. P.
Heuck put on a "live-at-home" program and conducted a motorcade of
farmers to Hillsborough County to study forage and pasture crops.
B. E. Lawton, county agent, assisted in securing 51 heifer calves during
1934, 40 heifers in 1935, in Hernando. Seven years ago Madison County
farmers, under the direction of the county agent, bought 540 registered
and'high grade dairy cows that later became family cows. In 1935, farmers
in Madison County sold 175 dairy cows to market milk centers at good
prices, from this foundation stock.

GOOD MARKET FOR DAIRY COWS
Surplus dairy cows will bring in a substantial revenue in Florida for
some years to come. It is possible that later on, butterfat prices will justify
the development of creameries and other by-product milk factories, after
the dairy cows are established with a practical farm feeding program.
With the large demand for herd replacements in the market milk centers
of the State, there is a good market for farm milk cows.







Annual Report, 1935


The large number of cows reacting to Bang's disease and mastitis that
'ere slaughtered in the market milk centers in 1935 greatly increased the
demand for Florida-grown dairy cows.

DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS
The Bang's disease eradication program disrupted milk production rec-
rds in 1935. It was not advisable to attempt the organization of two herd
improvement associations planned for 1935. However, in eradicating Bang's
disease dairymen have become much more interested in herd improvement
ad a system of herd records than ever before. The difficulty market
ilk dairymen.have in finding disease-free cows has forced their attention
i a breeding program. The very important reason for dairy records as
iderstood by the average dairyman is that he wants information for
killing. However, about 20% of the dairy farmers in the State have kept
'me kind of individual milk records of the weights of the milk and feed
Sa guide in proportioning the amount of feed for each animal. Feed
!cords have directed the attention of Florida dairymen to the importance
the forage program in a very substantial way. In northern Marion
)unty 95% of the dairymen keep records and about this percentage produce
1 the forage feed requirements now.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES
There were 74 registered dairy bulls placed on farms in Florida during
35 by Extension agents. This work promises to expand in 1936, as a
sult of increased interest in breeding herd replacements on Florida farms.
terest in proven sires is increasing. Educational work in evaluating
digrees and selecting registered bulls is receiving more interest from
irymen. There have been more exchanges of dairy bulls among neighbor
rmers than in the past, 58 being reported.

4-H DAIRY CLUBS
Twenty-two county agents enrolled 237 4-H club members with 215
iry animals in 1935. Of these, 27 were registered females and 188 were
,h grade females. The 4-H club has for its purpose a general training
Sboys and girls in methods of growing dairy heifers and feeding and
managing them as family cows.
The dairy clubs are only adapted to counties where the club members
Enrolled for longer periods than one year. It is not possible for a
=mber to complete properly dairy club work in less than three years.
is naturally reduces the number of boys and girls enrolled in dairy club
rk.
The 4-H club members are rendering very valuable services in improving
, quality of dairy animals oh farms and in introducing better methods
growing dairy heifers.
A large percentage of the 4-H dairy club heifers in Florida have been
ides. Registered heifers have been used in several counties with fair
ults. The depression with the years of low prices for dairy cattle, milk
I milk products reduced interest and profits in registered dairy animals.
has not seemed advisable to promote registered dairy heifers.

COUNTY AND STATE DAIRY ORGANIZATIONS
There are 19 county and one state dairy associations. The state or-
lization with over 500 members has been functioning continuously now
10 years.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Walter J. Sheely, Agent in Animal Husbandry

This work has been a cooperative project with the Bureau of Animal
Industry, Extension Service and College of Agriculture until April 30, 1935.
On that date the Extension Service took over the entire expense of the
office.
During the year the Agent in Animal Husbandry has been a member
of the State Board of Review of the corn-hog adjustment work. Since
June 10, 1935, the Agent has supervised corn-hog compliance work.
The Agent in Animal Husbandry was designated as contact man for
the State Screw Worm Control Committee to work in cooperation with
county agents and the representative of the Federal Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine.
Cooperation of individual farmers, county and state livestock associa-
tions, packers, stockyards, Chamber of Commerce of Jacksonville, and cold
storage people has aided materially.
BEEF CATTLE

For profitable beef cattle production it is important to develop the
maximum early calf crop. This involves herd management, breeding, se-
lection and feeding.
Since, due to the quality of Florida cattle, they have been discriminated
against in markets, efforts have been made to improve this quality by
grading up.
Securing wellbred bulls at nominal prices is a problem, since Florida
is a long distance from breeding centers and home breeders do not have
sufficient to supply the demands.
This office has located bulls in other states, secured prices, marked out
the points on road maps, and put the information in the hands of county
agents and individual cattle owners and dealers, resulting in 350 purebred
bulls being brought into the state. More than 200 bulls have been placed
by this office and county agents.
Pasture Work.-Grass and weeds do not occupy the land at the same
time for profit. We have'urged the use of the mowing machine. This year
55 pastures were mowed. Where pastures with weeds have been mowed
each year the stand of grass shows a decided improvement.
Trench Silos.-The first trench silos for beef cattle were put in in Jack-
son County in 1931. Silos are now used in Alachua, Duval, Hernando,
Jackson, Jefferson, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Walton, Washington and Holmes
counties. This season 20 new trench silos were constructed.
Growing Feeder Cattle.-Since Florida is a feed deficiency state and
most of the cattle are raised under semi-range conditions and sold grass-
fat, efforts have been made for producing feeder cattle of such quality
that steer feeders of this state and other states would look this way for
their cattle each year to go on feed.
West Florida shade tobacco growers feed their cattle each year for
the manure. They have been buying their cattle from out of the state.
In 1932 a movement was started to secure Florida raised steers. In 1933,
steers to be fed out in Gadsden County were secured in Liberty County.
The Quincy Experiment Station used Liberty County cattle in 1934 and
the Gainesville Experiment Station used Alachua County cattle in experi-
mental work. This year, there are other cattle from Liberty County being
used as feeders in Gadsden County. In 1934 Florida steers were grazed
and fed out at Winston-Salem, N. C., with good results. In 1935 another
bunch was sent to Winston-Salem.








Annual Report, 1935


Florida cattle exhibited at the First Florida Fat Stock Show at Jack-
sonville, March 5-6, 1935, attracted attention of buyers from other states
and an increased demand from feeders in other states for Florida grade
cattle is in prospect.


















Fig. 4.-Better breeding and better feeding are bringing vast and
rapid improvement in Florida's beef cattle industry.

Feeding Cattle.-More cattle are on feed this year than were on feed
in the same period last year, notwithstanding the fact that sales of cattle
have been heavier than at this time last year. Cattle on feed as reported
by county agents are 2,452 head, with 4,778 additional head being fed in
bean fields.
A new part this year in cattle feeding is that 21 boys in five counties
are feeding out calves for the Fat Stock Show and Sale at Jacksonville
next March.
Marketing Cattle.-Efforts are made to aid in developing economic and
systematic marketing of all classes of livestock.
With the aid of the Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce, National Stock
Yards, State Marketing Bureau, and other agencies, the first Florida Fat
Stock Show and Sale was held in March 1935, at which time 147 steers
were sold. At this show and sale cattle were graded according to standard
market grades by competent judges. To further aid in this Fat Cattle
Show, K. F. Warner, Extension representative from the Bureau of Animal
Industry, conducted demonstrations to show the different cuts and corre-
sponding prices that were received, thus taking home to the people the
matter of good grade cattle resulting in high quality meat.
A livestock auction market opened October 21, 1936, in Gainesville in
cooperation with the business men and the State Marketing Bureau, with
the idea of developing a continuous market for all classes of livestock.
Farmers from a wide area in Florida and some from Georgia have already
patronized this market.
In 1933, attempts were made in Dixie County to sell cooperatively a
number of steers and calves with very little success. This year, 1935, there
were sold $38,000 worth of cattle cooperatively, including 1,746 steers and
748 calves.
For the last five years, attempts have been made to interest the Eastern
buyers in coming to Florida for fat calves during the summer. Hitherto
Florida calves have been of inferior quality, carrying too little beef breeding







Florida Cooperative Extension


to interest the Eastern trade. This year, as a result of selection of cows
and the breeding of purebred bulls, the calves were of such quality that
Eastern buyers came into the counties of Orange, Osceola, Polk, Hardee,
DeSoto, Okeechobee and Highlands, and took approximately 100 cars of
calves to the Eastern market. In Osceola County alone, 1,700 calves moved
out.
Local packers were also interested in the Florida calf market in the
East. One packer in Jacksonville killed a number of cars of Florida calves,
chilled them and sent them to the Eastern market in refrigerated cars.
The writer was present and saw the first 100 calves killed and dressed
in preparation for the Eastern market. Further, Swift and Company of
Moultrie took several cars of calves for their trade.
The quality of the calves as a result of breeding and selection attracted
the attention of out-of-state buyers as well as aroused the local packers
to the opportunities of killing Florida calves and sending them to the East.
This marketing of cattle was so handled that it benefited both the large
and small producers.
The following is a tabulation of some beef cattle activities:
1935 1934
Number purebred bulls placed __ .p.......... ........................ ...... 305 313
Number bulls being fed this winter ............................................ 553 321
Number steers on feed ..-............ ........................ ... 2,452 **
Number steers in bean fields ................................ ......... 4,778 **
Number farmers selecting and developing best heifers .......... 223 **
Number new silos filled for beef cattle (trench) .................... 20 15
Number pastures on which mowing machine used ................ 55 53
Adult result demonstrations ........ ................. ............................. 305 162
.Number method demonstrations ................................. ............ 196 180
Number 4-H members completing ................................... 29 11
Number animals in 4-H club projects completed ...................... 37 48
Number farmers assisted in obtaining purebred sires ................ 173 86
Number farmers assisted in obtaining purebred or high grade
fem ales .................................................................. 87 26
Number herd improvement associations .................................. 5 **

SWINE WORK
A drop in hog prices two years ago caused a decrease in number of
hogs and apparent lack of interest in hog development. However, with ad-
justment programs and natural conditions forcing a decrease in number of
hogs and an increase in price, there has been a new impetus given to the
hog work. Farmers are now making inquiries as to where they can secure
additional breeding stock. We have had more inquiries this fall for breed-
ing stock than was the case a year ago.
Special emphasis has been given the curing of meats for home use.
Contacts have been made with cold storage people and information and
suggestions furnished these people on the better methods of curing meat
for farmers. They have been urged not to increase their prices for curing.
The cold storage people have been urged to perform a service to the live-
stock industry in Florida and to the farming people by developing standard
methods of curing good quality meat.
This work has brought results, for within the last few years the quality
of meat cured in these cold storage places has materially improved. This
work has attracted attention throughout the country.
Special emphasis has been put on the curing of sufficient meat for home
use on the farm, beginning with hogs and growing them out to the finished
product. The writer and the county agents have held numerous meat
cutting and curing demonstrations that seem to net results.







Annual Report, 1935


From reports that we have received from cold storage people, practically
3% million pounds of meat were cured last year. (Ten of the cold storage
plants made no reports.) Our records show that about 90,000 pounds of
additional meat were cured in ice boxes.

SCREW WORM CONTROL WORK
This campaign was in cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine and was similar to the one carried on by county agents.
the year before. In 1935 the Federal Government made appropriations for
screw worm work and about $90,000 was allotted Florida for educational
work. About the same time the Florida State Legislature appropriated
$50,000 for cooperative work.
A State Screw Worm Control Committee consisting of Dr. Wilmon
Newell, Dean and Director of Extension Service; A. P. Spencer, Vice Di-
rector; Honorable Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture; Dr. J. V.
Knapp, State Veterinarian; P. E. Williams, President, State Livestock
Association; Dr. W. L. Koon, Chairman, Livestock Sanitary Board; was
selected to handle the work in the state in connection with the Federal
Government. Walter J. Sheely of the Extension Service was designated
to be contact man for this committee.
In order to participate in the Federal appropriation, this State Com-
mittee had to set forth the necessity of spending the Federal funds in this
state. W. J. Sheely, in cooperation with the county agents, secured an
estimate of screw worm infestation, the number of livestock-cattle, hogs,
horses, mules-and the approximate amount of benzol and pine tar that
would be needed for screw worm control work. This information the com-
mittee used in making their application to the Federal Government for aid.
W. G. Bruce was designated by the Federal Government as state super-
visor of the Screw Worm Educational and Control Program, with W. E.
Stiles as assistant; 6 district supervisors and 35 county supervisors-later
3 additional men were appointed as county supervisors-receiving state pay.
A school for supervisors was held the last of May and first day of June
:o inform the district and county men on methods of handling screw worm
:ases in all classes of livestock. This office aided in making arrangements
mnd getting men and material for this school.
This office aided in arranging cooperative connections between county
agents, livestock men and the screw worm control representatives, also at-
:ended the meetings and furnished subject matter material on livestock.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS CULTURE
E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist

Conditions in the citrus industry continue to focus attention on lower
production costs and better quality of fruit.. This naturally leads into
sounder and more economical grove management, involving more efficient
disease and insect control, better fertilizing and cultivation practices and
a constructive program of soil utilization. The freeze of last December
brought into the picture grower finance problems and emergency measures
in rebuilding frozen groves.
As a whole, our program of work has centered around (a) grove man-
agement, (b) soil management, (c) disease control and (d) insect control.
GROVE MANAGEMENT
Most substantial progress toward better grove management practices
has been made by the use of demonstration groves. The plan is very popu-
lar among the better trained and more experienced county agents, and the
number of demonstration groves listed has passed the 50 mark. The saving
to the owners of these demonstration groves, due to the adoption of im-
proved practices, was more than $15 per acre last year. The average yield
of these groves is greater than that of other groves, and the quality of
the fruit is above the average of the community.
The facts, together with the improved conditions that the demonstration
groves present, have a very strong influence in converting growers to
better practices. County agents report more than 500 growers added to
the list in 1935, following their recommendations in improved grove man-
agement.
SOIL MANAGEMENT
The work in soil management including fertilization, cultivation, cover
crops, irrigation and soil amendments, has grown very rapidly during the
last three years.
Fertilizing.-The fertilizer cost constitutes 30% to 60% of the total
operative cost of producing citrus fruits. Successful fruit growing depends
much upon this factor.
County agents report 1,096 growers following their recommendations in
fertilizing citrus groves in 1935 for the first time. These recommendations
embody improved practices set forth in demonstrations of the past few
years, and result in a great saving to growers.
Cultivation.-Demonstrations have established the fact that root pruning
of citrus trees by deep plowing and other methods of deep cultivation
weaken the trees, disturb the nutritive balance and render them more
susceptible to disease attack. It has been demonstrated that poor texture
of fruit is often traceable to deep or excessive cultivation.
More than 4,000 acres are in demonstrations in grove cultivation. Eleven
counties have taken part in this project. Just enough cultivation is done
to incorporate the cover crop with the top soil at the end of the growing
season to prevent burning of the cover crop and grove in case of an acci-
dental fire. No further cultivation can be justified in a bearing grove under
ordinary conditions. This practice results in a saving over the old practice
of $4 to $8 per acre.
Cover Crops.-The dominant problem in the production of citrus fruits
in Florida is the supply of organic matter. More than 1,000 growers have
adopted improved practices in growing and handling the grove cover crop.
This is one route to lower production cost and better quality fruit. The
use of organic matter, produced in the cover crop and supplied by hauling







Annual. Report, 1935


in manures and coarse organic material, constitutes the foundation for
not only economical, fertilizing of citrus, but for the production of quality
fruit and maintaining vigorous trees.
Fifty-two communities have thken part in this project.
Irrigation.-Irrigation water is needed in 75% of the groves to supple-
ment the rainfall during winter or spring of three years out of four to
produce better quality fruit and heavier cover crop.
Further improvements have been made in methods of applying irrigation
water, at a big saving to growers. The type of irrigation plant developed
last year and described in the Annual Report is proving very practicable
and very popular. More than 100 growers have been assisted in the in-
stallation or improvement of irrigation plants. Several striking demon-
strations of the cold protection afforded by irrigation were evident last
December. Groves well irrigated during the late fall and just before the
cold spell withstood the low temperature much better than those lacking
water.
Soil Amendments.-The so-called "bronze leaf" or "copper leaf" is be-
coming a serious disease in many groves. During the last three years
soil amendment demonstrations have been conducted in 16 groves of eight
principal citrus producing counties. Of the seven different treatments in
these demonstrations, one consists of an annual application of 300 pounds
per acre of dolomitic limestone. In three of the groves ini:which this work
is being conducted "bronze leaf" has developed. The dolomitic limestone
has corrected this trouble in every instance and at the same time has
marvelously stimulated the growth of crotalaria in the grove. This treat-
ment is checked with regular limestone in a manner to produce strong
evidence that the "bronze leaf" of citrus and the "frenching" of crotalaria
are manifestations of magnesium deficiencies. If this can be successfully
verified we have made a very valuable discovery.
In the demonstrations with raw phosphate, further definite results are
manifested in the stimulation of cover crops and in improving soil condi-
tions. County agents made 538 tests for soil acidity, phosphorus, calcium
and potash. These results are used as a basis for soil treatments.

CORRECTING "FRENCHING" AND SPLITTING
Spraying citrus trees with zinc sulfate to correct "frenching" is recom-
mended by the Florida Experiment Station and has been practiced in our
Demonstrations for the last three years, but the results are not entirely
satisfactory as the spraying gives only temporary relief in many instances.
In December 1933 an extensive fact-finding demonstration was put on
with the use of both zinc sulfate and copper sulfate in soil applications for
'frenching" and splitting of Valencia oranges. These two chemicals were
ised at different rates, both alone and combined. Results showed up this
?ear with the "frenching" corrected almost 100% and splitting of the
Valencia oranges also reduced about 75% where the two chemicals were
applied to the soil at the rate of 11/2 pounds each per tree. The trees made
nuch more growth and the crop of fruit was increased more than 60%.
go additional applications have been made.
The annual loss from splitting of Valencia oranges in Florida runs into
hundreds of thousands of dollars. No remedy for this disease has been
worked out. It seems that we have found a lead.

DISEASE CONTROL
The two diseases of most economic importance are melanose and blue
nold decay. The former mars the appearance of the fruit, while the latter
;akes heavy tolls in transit. Most effective work during the last seven







50 Florida Cooperative Extension

years in the control of these diseases has been along the line of prevention.
In the control of these and other diseases the county agents report 587
growers following their recommendations this year.
Melanose.-Melanose has been satisfactorily controlled in most demon-
stration groves, and in many other groves, by the adoption of a cultural
program that results in a reduction of dead wood produced from year to
year. This is done by more adequate fertilization, less cultivation and, in
many instances, irrigation. More pruning was done last spring than usual
on account of the dead wood resulting from the December freeze. Some
good results were obtained by spraying with bordeaux 1/2-1%h-50. The
crop as a whole is fairly free of melanose this year.
Blue Mold Decay.-The goal set in 1925 on blue mold decay control has
been reached. The goal was a reduction of picking defects to 4%, and
the elimination of the sharp pointed, scissors type clipper from the picking
equipment. In the same communities where picking inspection revealed
an average of 15% picking defects in 1925 recent inspections showed only
3.6%. This improvement has been brought about largely through our edu-
cational program in which packers and growers have cooperated 100%.
During the last two years the campaign against blue mold decay has
been carried into a few packinghouses where full use has been made of
borax and waxes." Where fruit is to be colored with gas, it goes through
a bath of borax on the receiving platform. It receives a second borax
treatment as it is washed for packing. The results have been most grati-
fying. Decay in transit has been reduced to less than -V of 1 percent.
Scab.-Our scab control program has received a serious set-back on
account of so much of our grapefruit going into cans, and the prices having
been very low during the last three years.
Frenching.-More than 100 demonstrations in spraying trees with zinc
sulfate for "frenching" were conducted this year in 10 counties. The
results for the most part were satisfactory. Soil treatments with zinc
sulfate were also demonstrated.

INSECT CONTROL
Rust Mite.-The rust mite is the most important insect, from an eco-
nomic standpoint, in the Florida citrus grove. It presents the grower's
greatest opportunity for profits in insect control.
The most outstanding educational program of the last 10 years in rust
mite control was put on last year. It was planned to repeat this program
in the spring of 1935, but the freeze of December 1934 seemed to have
destroyed the prospects of a crop and removed the opportunity to accomplish
results, therefore the plan was abandoned. The crop turned out much better
than was expected, and county agents report 654 growers cooperating with
them in rust mite control. The results of our special efforts on this project
last year have been apparent all over the citrus belt this year. After
all, a good job of rust mite control has been done this year.
Scale and Whitefly.-Natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is
being further developed, and is saving growers many thousands of dollars
annually. This year as usual red aschersonia gave splendid control of
whitefly in many groves.
Considerable time is being devoted to a study of individual grove con-
ditions where natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is most effective,
to determine the minimum amount of spraying required for satisfactory
control under the given conditions. Many of the demonstration groves
have not been sprayed for scale and white-fly in two years, and are just
as free of scale injury as the check groves, some of which are sprayed







Annual Report, 1935 51

;wice a year. Besides the trees are in a more vigorous condition and are
reducingg larger crops of fruit.
Three cents invested in nitrogen and applied to the tree often will ac-
;omplish more in the long run in ridding the tree of scale than 15 cents
invested in oil spraying. If a tree is properly fertilized it will be able to
withstand a light scale attack until the scale fungi have time to develop
Lnd put the pest under control. A hungry tree is a feeble fighter.
In many demonstration groves, by reducing cultivation to about one-
ourth, growing a heavy cover crop, and not pruning out the center of the
rees to "let the sunshine in", a condition has been brought about which
avors the development of the scale fungi to the extent that it has not
'een necessary to spray the groves for scale control for the last three to
ive years. These demonstrations affect directly more than 15,000 acres
'f grove.
MISCELLANEOUS
Grove Visits.-There is an ever increasing demand made upon Extension
workers for what is called special service. Requests come from growers
or personal visits to their properties and consultations on various grove
problems. This service consumes a large part of the county agent's time,
nd unquestionably constitutes a very important part of his year's work,
perhaps the most important from the grower's standpoint. It is through
these grove visits that lasting contacts are made between growers and the
extensionn Service. It is through these visits that the county agent's
supply of first hand information about current grove conditions is obtained,
nd that the needs and viewpoint of the grower along various lines is fully
appreciated. During the year, 3,389 grove visits were made, going into
itrus-producing problems, in 11 counties of the state.
Meetings and Tours.-During the year, 490 grower meetings were held
t demonstrations and elsewhere, attended by more than 5,000 growers and
~eir wives. In addition, 23 grove tours were conducted, in which 240
rowers took part. In these meetings and tours every phase of citrus
alture was discussed. The demonstrations covered the principal phases.
Miscellaneous Service.-The freeze of last December brought about con-
itions that called for many emergency measures. Unusual demands were
lade upon the Extension workers for services in the treatment of cold-
ljured groves. Information on proper pruning and fertilizing of trees
'as made available to growers by circular letters, press articles, radio
dlks and through meetings. Federal emergency loans were made available,
nd the county agents assisted more than 3,000 growers in obtaining these
nd other loans. About 500 were assisted in making better finance plans.
More than 300 growers were assisted in making arrangements for the
marketing of their fruit.
Four hundred twenty-three growers were assisted in becoming self-
ipporting.
Growers' Institute.-Eight counties cooperated in putting on a 4-day
rowers' institute in September at Camp McQuarrie in Lake County. Citrus
ilture programs held the most important place in the institute. Every
base of citrus culture was discussed by Extension workers, members of
ie College of Agriculture, teaching division, and of the Experiment Sta-
on Staff. Several method demonstrations were given. The institute was
;tended by more than 200 growers and their wives, and was declared a
g success.







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY WORK
Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
Daniel F. Sowell, Assistant Extension Poultryman
During 1935 the poultry extension program was developed around two
main projects: Growing healthy chicks and pullets, and calendar flock
records and management. These two projects divide the poultry work into
two separate fields. The first deals with the chick, its growth, and the
rearing and management of pullets till they are placed in the laying house.
The second deals with the laying flock, including feeding and management.
Both projects include items which affect cost of production, such as man-
agement of chicks and pullets, cost records, feeding, vaccination, growing
green feed and adoption of a sanitation program.
FEED PRICES
The price that poultrymen have to pay for feed is a most important
item. Farm management records show that feed represents approximately
50% of the total cost of egg production and on a cash cost basis it would
be considerably higher. Poultry feed prices vary from year to year and
the relationship of poultry feed prices to poultry product prices has a
direct bearing on the poultry Extension work in the state.
It is desirable to know the variation in price of the ingredients that
go into a poultry ration as well as the variation in the price of the poultry
ration.
The poultry ration as used in this report is composed of equal parts
of a mash mixture (100 pounds bran, 100 pounds shorts, 100 pounds yellow
corn meal, 100 pounds fine ground oats, 100 pounds meatscraps 55% protein,
and 25 pounds alfalfa leaf meal) and a grain mixture (100 pounds cracked
yellow corn and 100 pounds wheat).
The poultry ration for the period (1926-29) averaged $2.80 per 100
pounds. The price decreased to $1.55 per 100 pounds in 1931-32. During
the next three years it increased to $1.60 per 100 pounds in 1932-33, $1.96
in 1933-34, and $2.27 in 1934-35. The poultry ration price during the year
1934-35 increased to January and has been on the decline up through No-
vember 1935, at which time it cost $2.13 per 100 pounds.
During the period December 1933 to November 1934 cost of the poultry
ration increased 36 cents per 100 pounds, or approximately 20 percent. On
the other hand, a year later (December 1934 to November 1935) cost of
the poultry ration decreased 10 cents per 100 pounds or 4.4 percent.
PRICE OF POULTRY PRODUCTS
Daily quotations of poultry products are given by the State Marketing
Bureau at Jacksonville and these prices have been tabulated over a period
of years.
The average yearly prices for poultry products for the base period
(October 1, 1926-September 30, 1929) are as follows: No. 1 white eggs,
41.1 cents per dozen; heavy hens, 26.7 cents per pound; and heavy fryers,
36.6 cents per pound.
The average price of No. 1 white eggs decreased to 23.7 cents per dozen
in 1932-33. Since that time the price of eggs increased to 27.7 cents in
1933-34 and to 32.7 cents in 1934-35. This represents an increase of 5 cents
a dozen over the price for last year, or an increase of approximately 18
percent. The average April price of fryers for the base period was 42.7
cents per pound. There was a decrease in the April fryer price through
the year 1933. But in 1934, the April price of 25.2 cents per pound was
about 1 cent higher than the April price in 1933. The price was slightly







Annual Report, 1935


higher for April, 1935. See Tables 6 and 7 for prices of eggs, hens, and
fryers by months for the 1933-34 and 1934-35 seasons.

BABY CHICK AND PULLET MANAGEMENT
The Florida Grow Healthy Chick Program including these six points-
hatch early, clean eggs and chicks, clean brooder houses, clean land, bal-
anced rations, and separation of pullets from cockerels-is one of the most
important projects undertaken by the Extension Service.
The points considered in the main during the past year were quality
chicks, clean brooder houses, and clean land.
The ultimate aim of any pullet program is in the placing of a high
quality, well grown pullet in the laying house each fall. Agents and pro-
ducers realize its importance, with the result that a sanitation program
was developed and stressed during the year. Records kept by farmers
over a period of years show the value and need for such a program.
In Florida three systems of brooding chicks are generally used (1)
colony brooder houses; (2) brooder houses with wire floors and sunparlors,
and (3) battery brooders.
A number of producers are now attempting to work out a plan in the
development of their pullets to have a 3- or 4-year rotation range. A
program of this type has been most successfully presented by means of
meetings, circular letters, bulletins, and farm visits.

SUCCULENT GREEN FEED
The development of a green feed program for poultry production is
both sound and advisable in Florida. Data tabulated from records kept
by producers indicate the value of feeding succulent green feed to poultry
of various ages. The use of succulent green feed as a part of a feeding
program was emphasized by the agents during the year. In cooperation
with the Agronomy Department of the Agricultural Experiment Station,
information pertaining to types of green feeds, planting dates, etc., have
been furnished the producer.
In many cases the green feed program was worked out in connection
with the sanitation program. A double yarding system was inaugurated
so that the birds could be rotated at regular intervals and green feed grown
in the yard when the birds were ranging in the other yard. In other cases
due to layout of the farm and type of soil some producers found it more
economical and practical to grow the green feed outside the yards, cut it
and feed it to the birds.

CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS
Poultry producers are rapidly finding out that it is absolutely essential
to have a high producing flock to succeed,'and one way to have a flock
of this type is to practice culling. The more successful poultry producers
find it desirable to cull every month of the year. Meetings, newspaper
articles, and farm visits were means of advising producers about the im-
portance of early maturity,, intensity, and persistency as shown by changes
in pigmentation and molt.
Demonstrations showing the method of culling were given by various
agents during the year.

CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
Record keeping has become one of the most important phases of the
poultry Extension program. 'During the past 11 years this project has
demonstrated its value and importance. A study of the records has re-










TABLE 6.-MONTHLY PRICES OF POULTRY PRODUCTS,* DECEMBER, 1933-NOVEMBER, 1934, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.

Product Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. April May June. July Aug. Sept. Oct.


No. 1 white eggs-cents per doz........................ 34.4 28.7 25.6 19.2 19.8 20.1 23.5 28.0 31.6 36.8 38.0
Heavy hens-cents per lb..................................... 14.0 14.3 15.5 16.0 15.5 15.8 16.0 15.7 14.8 16.6 17.2
Heavy fryers-cents per lb..........-----.. ----....................... 16.1 17.6 20.2 23.9 25.2 24.9 22.5 20.1 18.7 19.7 20.0

Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau.



TABLE 7.-MONTHLY PRICES OF POULTRY PRODUCTS,* DECEMBER, 1934-NOVEMBER, 1935, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.

Product Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov.


No. 1 white eggs-cents per doz.............. 40.0 35.8 31.8 23.0 24.9 26.3 26.8 31.5 35.6 39.0 39.3 37.0
Heavy hens-cents per lb...............-----............ 17.5 17.5 17.8 18.3 18.0 18.0 18.7 18.2 18.4 19.3 21.0 21.7

Heavy fryers-cents per lb---......---....... 20.5 21.5 24.3 26.1 25.9 26.4 23.1 21.2 20.3 21.0 22.4 23.2

Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau.








Annual Report, 1935


vealed many facts which have been of assistance to producers in increasing
the efficiency of their enterprise.
The calendar flock records program has been devised to take care of
two groups of poultry raisers, the one with a flock of less than 250 birds,
and one who has a commercial flock. Two different books are in use.


























Fig. 5.-Mrs. G. W. Boles of Santa Rosa County keeps records on
her turkeys, and finds that they gross between $400 and $500 a year. The
flock paid for the home place and built the home for the family. Ranges
are rotated and disease is held down.

In the development of this program it is necessary to hold the interest
of the producer throughout the year so that he or she will keep the book
complete. To help hold this interest, a monthly report is issued to all
cooperators, and in this report a summary of the monthly records are given,
together with poultry, egg, and feed prices and indices, and timely poultry
information.
All poultry records start October 1 and are completed September 30.
During the year just ended poultry raisers from 16 counties kept com-
plete records.
Table 8 gives the results obtained for the year 1934-35.
An item of particular interest is the average number of birds per farm.
It has increased for the past three years. In 1932-33, the average number
of birds per farm was 258; in 1933-34 it was 354, and in 1934-35 it was
470 birds.
The percent culling was the greatest during the past three years.
Adult mortality increased from 12.26 percent in 1933-34 to 20.38 percent
in 1934-35, indicating the need for considerable study along this phase of
poultry husbandry.
Table 9 shows the number of flocks, average size of flocks and average
number of eggs per bird for the past year by groups.







56 Florida Cooperative Extension

TABLE 8.-FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS, SUMMARY FOR YEAR
(OCTOBER 1, 1934-SEPT. 30, 1935).

Items _

Number of farms.......... ....................... .... .............................. 37
Average number of birds....................... ........... 17,410
Average number of birds per farm.................. .............. 470
Average number of eggs per bird per year................................... 163.04
Average percent culled .................... .......................... ...... 49.25
Average percent mortality................ .................................. ........... 20.38


The highest egg production per bird was obtained by the group Averaging
815 birds to the flock:
SThis project was started again on October 1, 1935, and over 250 poultry
record books were distributed, indicating an" increased interest in this
program.
TABLE 9.-FLOCKS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE.
1 10-50 51-250 251-500 Over 500
I Birds Birds Birds Birds
Total number of flocks.................. 3 11 6 17
Average size of flock ................... 34 140 319 815
Average number eggs per bird.... 141.49 157.51 154.93 164.94

JUNIOR POULTRY WORK
Poultry raising is one of the popular phases of 4-11 club work for.both
boys and girls. There were 1,596 boys and girls efirolled during the year.
The work was outlined similar to the previous year in that there were two
types of projects known as poultry production and poultry improvement.
The poultry improvement project is the more practical and popular.
Poultry was taught at both the Girls' Short Course and the Boys' Short
Course held in June. The instruction was divided into two groups, one
group for beginners and another for advanced work. The advanced group
received poultry instructions in the form of managing a flock of 100 birds,
including locating the buildings, types of houses, incubation, brooding,
rearing, managing the layers, and keeping'records.
Poultry subjects were discussed at 4-H club meetings and on farm visits.
At five county fairs 4-H club. members exhibited birds and these birds
were judged, with. demonstrations given 'in judging and discussions of
methods of preparing birds for show.

POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS
The various poultry associations in the state have been of great assist-
ance in the development of the poultry Extension program.
The Florida State Poultry Producers' Association has been organized
for over 10 years and has been very active in promoting and protecting
the poultry industry in the state. The state association is composed of 28
local or county poultry associations. The state association has sponsored
a poultry magazine known as The Florida Poultryman. The First Egg
Show on a state-wide basis will be held in February 1936 at the Florida
Fair. This is another activity of the state association.







Annual Report, 1935 57

Various local and county poultry associations have held regular monthly
meetings, at which time special poultry talks or demonstrations have been
given. These associations are assisting county and home demonstration
agents in analyzing and working out constructive poultry programs for the
counties.
The Florida Baby Chick Association is an organization of hatcherymen
and others interested in the development of the baby chick industry. While
the hatchery code was in effect, the association members were active in
seeing that the code was carried out. The members have assisted and
fostered the Grow Healthy Chick Program.

FLORIDA POULTRY COUNCIL
The Florida Poultry Council was organized January 15, 1935, the organ-
ization meeting being held at Orlando.
The Florida Poultry Council is composed of delegates representing all
phases of the poultry industry. Included in the organization are poultry
producers (farm and commercial), hatcheries (commercial and breeder),
poultry breeders (farm and commercial), egg and poultry dealers, packers,
the poultry press, State Department of Agriculture (Marketing and Inspec-
tion Bureaus), Livestock Sanitary Board, Poultry Division of College of
Agriculture, Agricultural Extension Service, State Health Department,
National Egg-Laying Contest, teachers of vocational agriculture and home
economics, and delegates from the Florida Poultry Producers' Association,
Florida Baby Chick Association, American Poultry Association of Florida,
and the State Feed Association.
The Council is a fact finding group. Only two regular meetings are
leld a year, the main work being accomplished through committees. The
following committees were appointed for the year 1935: Marketing, Breed
improvement Research and Education, Disease Control, Poultry Show, Or-
ganization, and Legislation and Legal Advice Committee.
The most outstanding work started by the Florida Poultry Council
luring the year is Florida's Egg Quality Program and the National Poultry
improvement Program.
The Council has great possibilities in rendering advice for the safe
development of the poultry industry of the State.

FLORIDA'S EGG QUALITY PROGRAM
The Florida Egg Law states that eggs are to be sold on a weight and
quality grade similar to United States grades. The Florida Poultry Council
las adopted an educational program including the producer, dealer, and
consumer. All departments doing educational work in the State are co-
,perating in developing this program. Only the preliminary part of the
programm has started but it will be in full swing during the 1936 season.

NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
The revised uniform plan for flock improvement and disease control
.s announced by the United States Department of Agriculture is under the
supervision of the State Livestock Sanitary Board. The Agricultural Ex-
ension Service is cooperating with Dr. D. C. Gilles, Poultry Service Vet-
rinarian of the Livestock Sanitary Board, in the development of this pro-
aram. A program of this type should result in better flocks with higher
gg production and lower mortality.
Dr. Gilles has assisted in Extension poultry meetings and with testing
vork at the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest.







Florida Cooperative Extension


MARKETING
The State Marketing Bureau has worked in close cooperation with the
county arid home demonstration agents and with the Gainesville office.
F. W. Risher, Poultry Marketing Specialist, has assisted county and
home demonstration agents in locating markets for eggs and poultry meat.
He has attended meetings of poultry associations, discussing the marketing
and grading of eggs and poultry.
In cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau and the Inspection
Bureau, daily quotations of eggs and poultry are given over WRUF and
data are collected from the seven district egg and poultry inspectors to
study the marketing conditions in the State.
The Extension agents have assisted the Inspection Bureau in arranging
meetings to discuss the new Florida Egg and Poultry Laws.

CHICKENPOX VACCINATION
Poultry producers in the State are realizing more each year the value
of vaccinating pullets for chickenpox. It is practiced by practically all
commercial producers. In some sections demonstrations were given with
very satisfactory results. As a rule the pullets are vaccinated at 12 to
16 weeks of age.
HOME-MADE BRICK BROODERS

Brick brooders still are popular in many sections of the State. The
first brick brooders in Florida were built in northwestern counties, but some
are now found as far south as Highlands County. The majority of the
operators find this method of providing heat for baby chicks very satis-
factory.
POULTRY MEETINGS
In cooperation with local and state associations, poultry meetings were
held throughout the year. State Departments and commercial manufac-
turers assisted in presenting practical poultry information to those interest-
ed in poultry production and marketing.
NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST
The Ninth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest started at Chipley
October 1, 1934, and ended September 22, 1935. There were 74 pens of
pullets entered from 18 different states. There were 15 pens of heavy
breeds and 59 pens of light breeds.
Average egg production for the 51 weeks period was 210.4 eggs per
bird, for a value of 210.2 points. This production was slightly higher than
the production obtained in the Eighth Contest. There were 16 birds that
produced 300 or more eggs. Twenty-one pullets made a 300 point average
or more for the year, and eight pullets produced 300 or more eggs with
a value of more than 300 points.
There was one Rhode Island Red and one Barred Plymouth Rock that
made a 300 point value.
Some additional data from the Ninth Contest follow:
1. The average feed cost per bird was $2.26.
2. The average feed cost per dozen eggs was 12.88 cents.
3. The average pounds of feed per bird per year was 91.12 pounds.
4. The average amount of feed to produce 1 dozen eggs was 5.197 pounds.
5. The average mortality was 26.72 percent.
6. The average egg price was 26.2 cents per dozen.







Annual Report, 1935


The Tenth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest started October 1,
1935, with all 100 pens filled for the first time.

FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS
At the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, in addition to the regular
official contest, feeding and management demonstrations started in 1933
were repeated.
The demonstrations conducted were
1. A comparative study of white corn and liquid milk versus a grain
and mash ration in feeding for egg production.
2. A comparative study of the value of meatscraps, fishmeal, and milk
solids as sources of protein for egg production.
3. Lights versus no lights for egg production.
4. A study of shell texture and egg quality.
A report showing the two years' results will be issued in the near future.

COOPERATIVE WORK WITH THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY
AND FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
The following projects have been conducted in cooperation with W. F.
Ward, Superintendent, Chinsegut Hill Sanctuary, Bureau of Animal In-
dustry; M. W. Emmel, Assistant Veterinarian, Experiment Station, and
N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman, Agricultural Extension Service.
1. A study of the value of different sources of protein for the production
)f broilers.
2. A study of the value of all-night lights versus no lights on Single
,omb White Leghorn hens for egg production.
3. Confinement versus non-confinement in rearing pullets.
4. Value of range rotation in rearing pullets.
5. Growth studies of cockerels and pullets.
6. The development of a high quality strain of Single Comb White
Leghorns and Rhode Island Reds.
7. The use of peanuts and peanut products in rearing turkeys.
Progress report of these trials will be found in the Annual Report of
:he Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist
F. W. Brumley, Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. Howard, Assistant Economist, Farm Management
D. E. Timmons, Agricultural Economist, Marketing

During practically all of the year the Economist in Marketing was
assigned to special duties in connection with the agricultural adjustment
program, and his report is included under that heading.

FARM MANAGEMENT
During the year a number of studies were made in the major type-of-
farming areas as a basis for future planning of agriculture in Florida.
These studies were of great assistance in supplying information requested
from various sources. The Farm Management Economists have cooperated
with the other specialists and different divisions of the College of Agri-
culture in collecting, assembling and supplying information to those re-
questing it. The main projects carried on during the past year were: Citrus
accounts, farm management surveys, poultry accounts, agricultural ad-
justment work, feed and egg prices, program planning, and miscellaneous.

CITRUS ACCOUNTS
The citrus account project is now in its sixth year. The purposes of
this project are:
1. To provide growers with a simple record book in which they may
keep expenses and receipts of their grove operations.
2. To assist growers in keeping and summarizing their records and
determining cost of production.
3. To provide growers with a summary of comparative yields, cost of
production, fertilizing practices, prices of fruit received by varieties
and net returns on similar groves.
4. To provide data that may be studied over a long period of years in
an effort to determine factors affecting cost of production and profits.
Table 10 shows a summary of the citrus record work by years and
counties for the five years beginning September 1, 1930.
TABLE 10.-SUMMARY OF THE NUMBER OF CITRUS RECORD ACCOUNTS BY
COUNTIES, FROM 1930-31 TO 1934-35.

Counties 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35* 1935-36**

Lake.......................... 39 61 88 85 115 130
Polk...................... 17 59 80 83 90 91
Orange............... 46 42 48 42 50 74
Highlands........... 12 35 44 40 38 42
Miscellaneous 1
Counties................ 5 12 8 8 10 13

Total ........................ 119 209 268 258 303 350
Estimated, based upon number of cost records completed as of August
31, 1935. Fruit returns will not be available until the crop of 1935-36
has been sold.
** Accounts started.


G60







Annual Report, 1935 61

The first annual summary of costs. and returns for Florida citrus groves
n a crop-year basis was prepared for the 1932-33 season. This change
n method of handling the accounts was requested by county agents and
:rowers cooperating. The former accounts were handled for a year's busi-
Less, as most farm accounts are handled, which included all expenses and
eceipts incurred during a 12-months period. However, the new method
inaugurated during the past year included the fruit receipts and expenses
incurred primarily in producing the same crop. It is believed that the
rop year furnishes a more adequate basis for studying factors affecting
osts and returns on a single crop.
Each individual grower was furnished a copy of the state summary,
together with a summary of his record which included data for the current
nd past years. This enabled cooperators to compare their costs and returns
or different years, as well as with other groves in their county and in
he State for the current year. All growers who furnished the analysis
.nd quantity of fertilizer used during the year were given a summary
f the pounds of available plant food applied per 100 trees to compare with
he average amounts applied on other groves. More than 1,500 copies of
his summary have been supplied growers, fertilizer companies and their
alesmen, libraries in the United States and Puerto Rico, and business men
pon request.
1933-34 Accounts.-The 1933-34 accounts are now being summarized and
he report will be released within six or eight weeks. This report will be
he second summary issued on a crop-year basis. Results of the first two
*ears' work were summarized on a seasonal basis, and for the third year
summary was prepared and distributed to cooperators and others re-
uesting a copy on both seasonal and crop year bases. There were 301 grove
accounts started in 1933-34, but due to change in ownership of groves and
he cold injury to fruit and trees, only 258 complete accounts have been
ummarized. A special effort was made to get cooperators to complete
heir accounts on groves affected by cold by estimating the number of
oxes lost, but many growers were discouraged and did not care to finish
he accounts.
1934-35 Accounts.-The fruit returns for this cost year will not be avail-
ble until the crop produced during the year is sold, which will be about
Lugust 1936. There were 303 cost accounts completed for the year. The
ew who did not request new books either sold their groves during the year
r the groves were severely damaged by the December 1934 freeze. How-
ver, about 10 percent more books were distributed this year than last year.

FARM MANAGEMENT SURVEYS
Farm organization data were available in only 22 counties prior to the
ummer of 1935. During the past year, the Assistant Extension Economist
operated in farm management surveys in Dade County for the early
rhite potato and tomato areas; Broward County for the Dania tomato and
'ompano truck areas; Palm Beach County, Belle Glade-Chosen truck area;
nd Escambia County, general farming and white potato area. The farm
records taken in the Dade County early white potato area were summarized
nd the findings returned to the farmers in that area.

POULTRY ACCOUNTS
October 1, 1935, marked the eleventh year in which poultry account
ooks have been distributed free to poultrymen of Florida by the Florida
extensionn Service. This has been a cooperative project with the Extension







Florida Cooperative Extension


Poultryman since 1931. One hundred or more books have been distributed
each year.
These books serve a two-fold purpose. They are used by poultrymen
for keeping records of receipts, expenses, egg production and mortality.
They are also used by all poultrymen who wish to enter their flock in the
Florida Calendar Flock Records.
During the years 1927-32, from 40 to 100 poultry record books were
summarized each year for the cooperators by the College of Agriculture
and the Extension Service. Each. cooperator was furnished a summary
of his year's business, showing costs of production, profits and a list of
factors for use in studying the strong and weak points of his business.
Many practical ways of increasing profits were found by studying these
records and the results were made available to all poultrymen in the state.
None of these books have been summarized since 1932. While three
years is a relatively short period, there have been several new developments
in management practices since that time. During September 1935, in co-
operation with the Extension Poultryman, County and Home Agents, teach-
ers of vocational agriculture, and feed companies, over 250 books were
distributed to poultrymen in all parts of Florida. About two-thirds of this
number were distributed in Dade, Duval, Hillsborough, Marion, Nassau,
Putnam, Pasco, Pinellas and Polk counties.
Next fall the Extension Service plans to make another state-wide
summary of these books for all poultrymen who keep them during the year.
It is hoped that the results of this year's work will furnish information
on thetrelative profitableness of many of the new methods, such as con-
finement housing, individual batteries for layers, and methods of marketing,
compared with the older and more established systems.

AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT WORK
The farm record books, prepared by the Agricultural Adjustment Ad-
ministration, were distributed to producers desiring them. During January
1935, 31 meetings were held in 20 Central and West Florida counties. The
principal subject discussed at these meetings was how and when to make
a farm inventory. In addition to the discussion of inventories at these
meetings, a brief resume was given of the methods to be used in keeping
farm expenses and receipts. All farmers who attended these meetings
were offered one of the AAA record books and a supply of these books
was left in the County Agents' offices for those farmers who did not attend
one of the meetings but later might request one of the books.
In Escambia County, where most interest was shown in keeping farm
records, three additional meetings were held in May at the request of the
County Agent.
Again in July, another series of meetings was held in 18 counties for
the purpose of discussing in more detail the importance and methods of
keeping the farm expenses and receipts.
At the beginning of the year a 15" x 21" farm record poster was pre-
pared and displayed in all County Agents' and Production Credit Associa-
tion offices.
Various state control boards and committees of the agricultural adjust-
ment programs were assisted in several ways during the year. The Ex-
tension Economist served on the State Board for Cotton during the month
of August and part of September. Other adjustment boards were assisted
in assembling and preparing statistical information for use in connection
with the programs.







Annual Report, 1935 63

FEED AND EGG PRICE DATA
Average profits of a large number of poultrymen fluctuate with the
)rices received for eggs and the prices paid for feed. Egg and feed prices
ire available for the Jacksonville market for a longer period than for
my other market in Florida. The average monthly price of eggs, as quoted
>y the Florida State Marketing Bureau, and the weekly prices of feeds
is quoted by a Jacksonville feed dealer, have been tabulated in this office
or several years.
During the three-year period October 1, 1926, to September 20, 1929,
he average yearly wholesale price of eggs at Jacksonville was 41 cents.
3arly in 1929, egg prices began to drop very rapidly. They were lowest
luring 1932-33 when the average price was 23.7 cents, or 59 percent of the
.926-29 level. Beginning in the fall of 1933, egg prices began to rise and
Averaged 27.7 cents for the year 1933-34 and 32.7 cents for 1934-36.
Feed prices also declined during the period 1929-32, and in 1931-32 and
932-33 were relatively lower than egg prices, giving eggs a higher pur-
'hasing power than during the base period. However, eggs lost their ad-
'antage soon after prices began to rise, as feed prices rose faster than
'gg prices. The ratio of egg prices to feed prices was relatively low until
n the spring and summer of 1935, at which time eggs experienced less
han the normal seasonal decline and feed prices declined slightly.

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
This is a cooperative project between the Agricultural Adjustment Ad-
ninistration, the U.S.D.A. Extension Service, State Extension Service, Col-
ege of Agriculture, and Florida Experiment Station. It is, in short, a
proposal for large-scale cooperative planning in the development of county,
tate and national agricultural programs.
The project involves the setting up of county agricultural planning
committees composed of leading farmers and agricultural workers in each
county where there is a County Agent. In Florida it has been decided to
all these bodies "County Agricultural Planning Councils". The leader of
he project in each county will be the County Agricultural Agent. Each
council should be divided into smaller committees representing one or more
f the types of farming in the county.
It will be the duty of these councils to help assume the responsibility
or thinking through the agricultural problems of the county, the state
nd the nation. They can be a media through which state and federal
agencies may get farmer approval of proposed plans and from which may
ome many suggestions for formulating a county, state and national agri-
ultural program.
From the standpoint of time, the functions of these councils may be
ivided into immediate and future tasks. The immediate task will be to
estimate, after a careful study of all available facts, the answers to certain
questions needed in the formulation of county, state and national agricul-
ural programs. The future work of the councils will be to act as a group
f local thinking people in assisting the County Agent in carrying on a
ound agricultural program in each county. They can assist him in giving
broader dissemination of facts and information available on the agri-
ulture of the county and by helping him to round out an agricultural pro-
ram fitted to the needs of the farmers of the county.
In carrying out this project in Florida, special emphasis has been placed
n the long-time advantages of having such county agricultural planning
councils. The results of such councils or committees in counties in which
,ey have functioned in the past have been very beneficial.







64 Florida Cooperative Extension

This project is a very broad one and should have many far-reaching
effects. It is the first time an effort has been made to assemble all avail-
able agricultural economics data on a county basis. It is hoped all of the
councils will continue to function permanently.

MISCELLANEOUS WORK AND PROJECTS
The most important regular work accomplished during the year was
Sthe presentation of the results of previous farm management work carried
on by the Department of Agricultural Economics. These were presented
by the use of mimeographed material and charts at farm meetings, insti-
tutes, County Agents' Week, and other meetings. Over 6,500 farmers were
reached by these methods. In addition, much of this material was mailed
to farmers, agricultural workers and other interested parties.
A representative of this department served on the Florida Poultry
Council. Assistance was rendered those who prepared the 1936 Agricul-
tural Outlook for Florida.







Annual Report, 1935


PART III-WOMEN'S AND


4-H WORK

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Flavia Gleason, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Home Demonstration Agent
Lucy B. Settle, District Home Demonstration Agent
Anna M. Sikes, Acting District Home Demonstration Agent

ORGANIZATION
The home demonstration state supervisory staff consists of state agent,
Iree district agents and subject matter specialists in home improvement,
iod conservation, and nutrition. There are 36 county home demonstration
rents working in 35 counties in Florida. This is an increase of four
,unties cooperating in financing and conducting home demonstration work
,er last year.
Records show work underway in 501 communities. There are 296 or-
inized home demonstration clubs for women with a membership of 7,122.
iere are 615 girls' 4-H clubs with a membership of 9,215 girls 10 to 21
!ars of age.
The type of work conducted is somewhat dependent upon the classifica-
m of county according to the following grouping: (1) counties in which
e work has been established for 15 to 20 years or more, (2) counties
which the work has been established for a year, (3) counties in which
e work has been established within the last few months, and (4) un-
ganized counties. The supervisory staff endeavors to study the needs
d, with the home demonstration agents, guide the development of the
nd of program that renders the best service in meeting needs of those
ncerned.
EMERGENCY WORK
Emergency work has continued to increase demands upon the agents'
ne. On the other hand it has served to an advantage in that it has, (1)
veloped more forcibly the agents' leadership abilities, (2) increased the
mber of contacts with the agents, (3) given increased emphasis to various
livities that home demonstration agents have been stressing all along,
) because of this extra pressure a larger number of families are par-
ipating in home demonstration work, (5) increases in the number of
cities appropriating are due to a great extent to interest aroused by
rural home assistants in the rural rehabilitation program, working in
cities without home demonstration agents, but in close cooperation with
,te supervisory staff of home demonstration work, (6) a large amount
canning equipment is available in many counties as a result of the rural
labilitation program.
[ME-ELEMENT DURING SCHOOL YEAR AND 4-H CLUB WORK
Although 4-H club work is growing, the time that girls can devote to
during the school year is affected considerably by the long distances
ny must travel, leaving almost no time before or after school for work
home. Consequently, particular emphasis is being placed upon the type







Florida Cooperative Extension


of work these girls do at home over the week-end during the school year
and upon more detailed 4-H club project activities during the school' vaca-
tion period.
SUPERVISORY PROGRAM
The state staff gave particular attention to development of the following
major objectives during the year:
1. To assist all home demonstration agents in developing programs
that meet the needs of the greatest number of rural people.
2. To adapt programs to meet present conditions and at same time give
emphasis to permanent and long-time demonstrations in the homes.
3. To render some definite assistance in unorganized counties in order
to spread more widely the influence of home demonstration work and in-
crease the number of county home demonstration agents as funds permit.
4. To further develop home demonstration clubs, county and state coun-
cils, to increase number of standard clubs and councils, work with larger
number of older girls, maintain high percentage of completions and secure
better records.
5. To give more attention to efficient distribution of agents' time;
distribution of work in county; and distribution of the specialists' time,
district agents' time, and state agent's time.
6. To work out a more satisfactory arrangement for providing agents
with better demonstration equipment and necessary assistance.
7. To emphasize the demonstration as an object lesson by encouraging
more tours, home visits and meetings at result demonstrations.
8. To employ the best trained workers available and acquaint them
as far as is possible, with the job before it is assumed.

DETERMINING EXTENSION PROGRAM
Program planning is practically a year-round procedure from the stand-
point of state Extension workers, although county programs are in most
cases adopted during the latter part of the calendar year for the ensuing
year.
In counties where home demonstration work has been established for
some time agents, home demonstration women and 4-H club girls, also
members of the state staff, have a rather clear understanding of conditions
and there are considerable factual data at hand obtained through ques-
tionnaires, surveys, special project studies, records and reports of previous
work that help to some extent in program making. These with goals
previously set and achievements for the year as well as needs are analyzed.
Outlook material for Florida farm homes in particular and the nation in
general serve as guides. All economic data that specialists and the super-
visory staff members are able to assemble that affects farm family living
are studied, presented to state and county workers and to individual club
members, clubs in the communities, to county councils and committees
working with agents in determining the most helpful programs during the
year.
Agents analyze situations affecting the farm homes in their respective
counties and confer with specialists and supervisors regarding same. In-
terest through participation as well as experiences of the local club mem-
bers themselves bring about far reaching results.
The community home demonstration and 4-H groups meet monthly and
during latter part of summer or early fall in connection with program
planning for next year they give particular attention to discussions of
conditions, individual and community needs, along with their accomplish-
ments for the past year and setting goals for the next year.








Annual Report, 1935


EMPLOYMENT OF AGENTS
It is the policy to employ agents who have at least the bachelor degree
in home economics and experiences which provide a good background for
home demonstration work.
In filling the new positions this year well trained people were secured.
All of them are college graduates with excellent records over a period of
several years as teachers of home economics. In addition three of them
were successful rural rehabilitation assistants for a year or more.
Demands have been so constant and services so needed on the job that
Extension workers have not had an opportunity to leave their posts of duty
this year for study.

ASSISTANCE IN PLANNING WORK
As stated previously, members of the state staff study conditions, eco-
lomic and outlook data, and discuss these and various local situations
with the agent and home demonstration councils to assist in determining
;he most helpful service the agent can render during the year. With
.acts at hand that help to determine the type of program to be followed
he agent is in position to set her goals for the year.
Demonstrations established in homes, home demonstration clubs for
vomen and 4-H clubs for girls, and county councils are the chief avenues
through which the home agent works, and special events are decided upon
Ls the agent and district agent think are best suited to creating interest
Ind spreading influence of home demonstration work.
During the first part of each year a definite program of work with
ilans for developing is required of each agent. In this she lists goals set
nd methods to be used in obtaining them. This program is studied to-
*ether carefully by district and state agent. They approve or make sug-
*estions for strengthening, as the case may be. This program is checked
y the district agent with the agent from time to time during the year.
Lfter reports have been submitted at the close of the year a comparison
made of the goals set with results accomplished and this is referred to
he agent with comments and suggestions for the next year.

[EASURING PROGRESS AND RESULTS OF EXTENSION TEACHING
Simple but practical, usable record books prepared by the state staff
re furnished each club member in which she can keep accurate records.
The increase in interest and number of records submitted, in number
Solder girls remaining in 4-H club work, and in number of women estab-
3hing definite demonstrations in their homes is attributed in part to the
rstematic forms used especially in women's work, and to the understanding
lat council members have for the need of accurate records. The percent-
,e of members keeping full records is far from satisfactory but the number
increasing.
There is a very good percentage of 4-H club girls who continue active
their 4-H club work, so strengthening the work generally and providing
fine group of leaders for the younger members.
Goals set at beginning of each year are always compared with achieve-
ents and discussed with agents. For the most part goals were exceeded.
le need for providing a living at home and the need for assistance or
vice so as to get best returns for efforts, also the confidence in the agents,
Feel brought this about.
The State Home Demonstration Council for senior work offers each year
award for the best county council book which is judged on appearance,








68 Florida Cooperative Extension

arrangement and effective development of the county council program dur-
ing the year. This has been an excellent means of bringing about far
greater interest in.keeping record books in the clubs and causing individual
members to keep better records not only for themselves but for their clubs
and councils.
The State Council loving cup was this year awarded to Palm Beach
County. The president of the State Council is a member of the Palm Beach
County Council and an enthusiastic demonstrator who keeps accurate records
of her work.

STRENGTHENING HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
The development of practical programs, fitting home demonstration
work into the economic situation, establishment of result demonstrations,
increasing the family income through home earning activities, distribution
of concise, tabulated reports of accomplishments in the county, presenting
facts and figures regarding the work to civic organizations, Florida prod-
ucts dinners, thrift meals, exhibits, tours to established demonstrations in
the home-such as pantries, poultry flocks, home improvement, gardens
and orchards-also shopping tours, achievement days, use of the press
and radio, assistance with emergency relief activities, are methods which
continue to be most successfully used in creating sentiment for home
demonstration work because these afford opportunity for better under-
standing of the work.
The willingness "and readiness with which home demonstration offices
cooperate with other organizations in assisting with worthwhile endeavors
have obtained good will from many groups.

CIRCULAR LETTERS
Reports show that during 1935 the agents prepared 1,507 different
circular letters for distribution to their club members. This was a decrease
from last year due to lack of clerical assistance as provided the year before
by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. Attractive drawings
that catch the eye and tell a story in themselves are used for illustrating
these principles and showing them carried out in practice of the home.
Recognition of successful result demonstrations inspires the demoiistrator
to attempt greater accomplishments. Realizing this, the agents almost
doubled this year the number of meetings at result demonstrations with
more than double attendance. Circular letters assisted in informing the
members of the demonstrations.

PUBLICITY
Members of the home demonstration organization present talks over
WRUF and other radio stations during the year. Twelve county home
demonstration agents report 31 radio talks during the year. Agents wherE
there are local broadcasting stations frequently broadcast subject matter
information of interest to home makers and information regarding de-
velopments in home demonstration activities. We participated in the Na-
tional 4-H Achievement Day Program presenting programs from foul
stations in Florida.
Newspapers throughout the State have given space generously for news
stories and regularly appearing columns of an informative nature. Thirty-
five counties report 2,326 news articles .or stories published.
News reporters elected or appointed in both girls' 4-H and women's
clubs have as their duties the reporting of individual and club activities
A special course given during Short Course for 4-H club girls by the







Annual Report, 1935 69

extension Editor and occasional courses given by him in the counties to
members of county home demonstration councils have proven of much help
these reporters.
HOME VISITS
We continue to realize and emphasize the importance of home visits
ith a specific purpose in mind. Reports show that the home demonstra-
on agents made 14,205 home visits to 7,437 homes during the year. It is
dit that much has been accomplished by these personal contacts.

TOURS
Farm women and girls are proving that certain home activities are
dtremely worth while and profitable from an economic standpoint. These
successful women and girls and their accomplishments are set up as object
*ssons. Fine reports have been received of the pantry tours this year,
s follow-up of planning canning budgets for the family. There were 97
>urs conducted with an attendance of 2,905 interested persons.

CLUB AND COUNCIL MEETINGS
All agents follow a regular schedule of club meetings, visiting each
mnior club once each month; usually each junior club holds the same
amber of meetings with the agent. Most council meetings are held
larterly.
The district agent accompanies the agent to club meetings frequently
ad attends county council meetings once or twice a year, makes home
sits with the agents and frequently attends special events. In this way
formed a close acquaintance and friendly contact with the people of
le county.
Members of the state staff not only advise with the county agents on
Plans to follow in developing any special program of work, but they take
suggestions of strengthening the work from county to county and advise
Sto new material available for reference or assistance.

BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS
During the year material has been prepared for agents' use on the
objects of: The Family Food Supply, Citrus, and Canning Budgets. Bul-
tins in greatest demand have included those pertaining to food conser-
ttion, economical meals, renovation of house furnishings. In connection
ith subject-matter instruction, agents report they have distributed 43,213
illetins.
EXHIBITS
Regardless of the fact that there were very few awards other than
bbons this year, 31 counties report 304 events at which educational ex-
bits were shown. That these could be used to further improve the prod-
:ts, the articles were carefully scored and the exhibitors were given
benefit of the findings. The state home demonstration staff arranged a
Special exhibit of home demonstration work for the annual meeting of State
federation of Women's Clubs.

DEMONSTRATIONS
The demonstration method of teaching is the one used by home dem-
istration agents most advantageously. The basis of this service lies in
ie demonstration conducted in the home under ordinary living conditions,
id these demonstrations must be well thought out and means provided







Florida Cooperative Extension


for their being carried to completion. The women and girls with the agent's
advice decide on the demonstrations they are to conduct. To assist the
women and girls in establishment of demonstrations in their homes using
recommended methods, the agents held 8,345 method demonstration meetings
during the year with an attendance of 120,361.
The successful demonstration is convincing proof of the soundness of
the methods being demonstrated. Meetings held at the demonstration pro-
vide a means for pointing out and interpreting the principles taught by
the agent and give the agent available material for illustrating these
principles and showing them carried out in practice of the home. There
were 1,790 meetings held at result demonstrations with an attendance
of 20,999.
Team demonstrations by 4-H club girls are encouraged as a means
of determining the completeness with which the girls are really adopting
principles; to enable them to pass information along to others, and for their
own self-development. One hundred and one judging teams and 318 dem-
onstration teams were developed in the state during the year.

LOCAL LEADERS
Local women and girls through their councils realize they must take
an increased share of responsibility for extending the home demonstration
program and so allow more time for the agent to develop work with addi-
tional groups or individuals. The development of local leaders, both girls
and women, and the strengthening of county and state councils are factors
contributing greatly to efficient development of home demonstration work
throughout the state. In 1935 a total of 1,391 persons assisted home dem.
onstration agents as voluntary local leaders actively engaged in forwarding
the Extension program. Of this number, 269 were older 4-H club girls
helping with the 4-H club program. There were 205 training meetings
held for leaders for adult work, attendance being 2,417. There were 87
training meetings for leaders of 4-H club work with an attendance of 1,280.
In several counties older 4-H girls, known as 4-H alumnae groups, have
taken a direct responsibility, especially with camps and similar events
during the last two years.

SPECIAL EVENTS
Achievement Days.-Community and county achievement days are ob
served at the culmination of the year's work. The purpose in holding thes<
is to give recognition to the club members for worthy endeavor, to hell
them and the agent check on their own progress, and to give the public<
an opportunity to know more about the work in the county. During the
year there were 93 achievement days held, 41 for adults with an attendance
of 7,578 and 53 for 4-H club members with an attendance of 8,062.
Camps.-Camps continue to be popular with 4-H club members anc
adults. During the summer of 1935 there were 42 camps held; 16 of these,
were for women, six for boys and girls and 20 for girls. There were il
attendance at these camps 587 home demonstration club women; 1,294
girls, and 1,652 others including visitors, instructors, leaders, who enjoye<
the recreation, instruction, fellowship and leadership development of th<
camp. College 4-H club girls, older 4-H girls and local leaders gave ex
cellent assistance to the agents in conducting the camps.
The two-day farm and home institute for adults held at the West Florid;
4-H Club Camp was the most inspirational event of the year for adult farn
people of West Florida.
Out-of-State Trips.-Nellie Berry of Alachua County and Florence Hom'
broek of Escambia County were awarded trips to the National 4-H Clul







Annual Report, 1935


'amp in June. This camp, held annually in Washington, D. C., under the
.uspices of the Extension Service of the United States Department of
Agriculture, affords outstanding educational advantages and leadership
development. In addition to the program participated in by club members
n the camp grounds, educational tours were made to places of interest
n and near the city of Washington. Only the two girls and two boys
making the highest score within the states are permitted to attend.


Fig. 6.-Supervised recreational programs at 4-H camps train girls in
Roperr use of leisure time and help them to become leaders in their com-
nunities.

There is always keen interest among club members for trips to Chicago
or attendance at the National 4-H Club Congress. Only those scoring
highest in various phases of club work are awarded trips. Recipients of
he trips this year were Rebecca Partin of Palm Beach County; Margaret
)unford of Polk County; Edna Sims of Walton County; Frances Palmer
,f Gadsden County and Lorena Wetherbee of Orange County.
Short Course for 4-H Club Girls.-The State Short Course for 4-H Club
iirls, held at Florida State College for Women, was the outstanding event
f the 4-H club year. The morale, type of programs, results seen in counties
re improvements brought about to some extent by the fact that those
n attendance must be county winners, awarded scholarships, and 14 years
if age or over. There were 450 girls, 40 local leaders and 28 home dem-
instration agents in attendance at the 1935 Short Course.
Scholarships for club girls and leaders were provided by club members,
county commissioners, school boards, women's clubs, men's clubs, banks,
merchants and interested individuals as in previous years.
SGirls who attend the Short Course are charged with the responsibility
f making 4-H club work render a larger service by passing knowledge







Florida Cooperative Extension


gained on to others, assisting younger girls with their work, acquainting
eligible girls who are not members with what it is and does, and assisting
agents wherever possible. Agents use these girls effectively in camps and
in presenting special programs.
Dormitories, laboratories, and classrooms of the Florida State College
for Women are used. College nurses, dietitians, social directors and various
faculty members are generous with their time and assistance rendered.
Former 4-H club girls who are students at Florida State College for Women
serve as leaders for the other girls and have the responsibility for many
details.

PROVIDING AN ADEQUATE FOOD SUPPLY FOR THE FAMILY
Since home demonstration work is a part of a program intended to
develop agricultural resources of the State and to improve farm family
living, it emphasizes the need of securing an adequate food supply for the
family. The food supply should prevent disease, protect vigorous health,
and be obtained at minimum cost. Some of the results reported by home
demonstration menibers along this line are as follows:
Vegetable gardens-
4,554 vegetable gardens were grown by 4-H club girls.
4,080 vegetable gardens were grown by home demonstration women.
3,865 all-year vegetable gardens were grown by women and girls.
Calendar orchards-
714 calendar orchards were planted.
:; 28,387 fruit trees were planted in calendar orchards.
791 bush and small fruit trees were planted in calendar orchards.
4,858 grape vines were planted in calendar orchards.
Home dairying-
1,730 families reported using daily a quart of milk for each child and
a pint for each adult.
356 families bought cows this year to increase the supply of milk
and dairy products used in their homes.
Poultry flocks-
1,128 women and 1,223 4-H club girls followed recommended practices
in the management of the home poultry flocks, including 271,7321
standard bred chickens.
Conservation-
345,928 quarts fruit canned for home use by women.
72,446 quarts vegetables canned.
72,152 quarts pickles and relishes made.
179,957 quarts jams, marmalade and jellies made.
8,580 quarts vinegar made.
66,992 quarts fruit juice made.
139,091 quarts pork, beef and game canned.
8,524 quarts chicken canned.
29,730 quarts fish canned.
This gives a total of 923,400 quarts of good food saved by women; ir
addition, 109,417 quarts of foods were canned by 4-H girls; 736,857 pound&
of meat were cured by families, and 17,450 pounds soap were made.
If these 1,032,817 quarts of fruits and vegetables were valued at onlI
10 cents a quart, and the 76,922 quarts of meats at 50 cents a quart, this
means the farm women and girls have saved more than $177,089.20 through
home canning. The abundant supply of fresh products used in the bette
farm living from the home garden and orchard, poultry flock, home dairZ








Annual Report, 1935 73

nd farm meat animals butchered on the farm has meant a great deal to
'lorida families in health and economy.
Utilization-
Utilization of Florida foods has been increased, as evidenced in the great
iterest shown by' women and girls in the value of different foods needed
y the farm family to protect health and prevent disease.
A larger variety of farm-produced foods was used for variety and
economy.
More dairy products were produced and used at home.
More poultry products were produced and used at home.
Cheese has been made for home use where there was a surplus of milk.
A special study of good nutrition was made by 4,621 4-H club girls
nd 2,881 women in home demonstration clubs. These women and 'girls
ave gained an understanding of what an adequate diet is; why it is
essential; how to select and prepare adequate and economical meals ad-
intageously for the family; always-popular cookery; disease prevention
trough proper selection of foods; school lunch; community meals, and
)w to help others with information they have gained.

HOME MANAGEMENT
To secure greater convenience, comfort and orderly methods of home-
aking, home demonstration agents have attempted to develop better home
management practices with home demonstration women and girls, particu-
rly in the management of time and energy and the management of income
eluding farm home resources. A splendid system of account keeping,
tsiness centers, and family councils within the homes are developing.
As a result of the women becoming more business-like in use of their
ne, strength and family resources, 1,603 families followed recommenda-
ms in obtaining inexpensive and practical labor-saving equipment.
453 reported assistance in improving home laundry problems.
1,543 improved everyday housekeeping activities.
2,739 made adjustments in home making to gain a more satisfactory
standard of living.
355 kept home accounts according to recommended method and
reported wiser use of income.
385 budgeted their expenses in relation to family income to avoid
unwise buying, and served as demonstrators.
1,000 made a study of buying methods and followed recommenda-
tions of the home demonstration agents.
Reports from 20 counties show an estimated saving of $25,811.00
through participation in the home management program.

HOME IMPROVEMENT AND BEAUTIFICATION
General conditions have made it impossible to make large financial
'estments in home improvements, but the women and girls realized they
:st put forth special efforts to make their homes attractive to members
their families. Those who reported in 1935 show the following results:
662 homes were remodeled according to a plan.
111 sewage disposal plants were installed.
107 water systems were installed.
30 sunshine water heaters wefe installed.
98 lighting systems.
400 homes screened.
379 sanitary toilets built.

















































Fig. 7.-Careful preparation and uniformly good products bring repeat orders to Gadsden County home demonstra-
tion women who market cooperatively and supplement the family income.


- v







Annual Report, 1935


662 houses and outbuildings painted and
111 whitewashed.
682 kitchens, completely improved.
1,004 women and girls reported they refinished walls, woodwork and
floors.
2,261 women and girls repaired and remodeled furniture.
Yards were beautified and improved, using native shrubs and trees
at little or no cost.
1,745 women and 2,038 4-H club girls made and followed definite
plans for yard beautification.
3,043 homes planted their county flowers.
The attractive appearance of the home helped to keep all members of
e family better satisfied and thereby stimulated pride in their homes and
me surroundings.

CLOTHING FOR THE FAMILY
Clothes must be provided for each member of the family, with none too
ich money for buying, so renovation and remodeling were popular projects
home demonstration work.
9,165 women and girls enrolled for clothing instruction.
1,234 women and girls used a clothing budget.
5,889 women and girls followed demonstrations on remodeling clothing.
2,296 women and girls were assisted in'making children's clothing.
1,650 demonstrations on clothing subjects were given by agents.
Many garments were made for distribution to needy.

HOME MONEY-MAKING INCREASING THE FAMILY INCOME
Since the cash income of the farm often is too small to provide for
!ded purchases or to allow desired improvements in their homes, all home
nonstration programs of work include plans for developing the resources
the farm homes and farm community into high quality products and
ndardized articles which will find a market. Many money-making home
ustries have brought cash incomes to the women and girls of Florida
ich have been used to buy necessities for the home, to pay taxes, to
cate the children, to subscribe for newspapers and magazines, etc.
The sales reported by the women and girls were made from the follow-
commodities:
:ed products, using Florida marmalades, fruits, etc................. $ 2,608.65
ned products..... ....................... ......... ................ ........... 6,320.78
sh vegetables from home gardens...................................... 10,157.90
sh fruits from calendar orchards..... .................... .... 8,520.99
-s and poultry ........ ................................................................. .... 145,847.41
ter, milk, cottage cheese.................................. .............................. 37,622.64
er articles sold (plants, flowers, craft articles from native
products rugs, honey, etc.)........................................ ........... 19,260.29
Total amount of sales reported..................................... .. $230,338.66

CONSUMER BUYING
Long with the desire for an increased income was the imperative need
lake wise investments of the money that was available. Home dem-
ration women requested assistance in wise planning of expenditures
more information on true values. Consequently the home demonstra-
agents have assisted women and girls most effectively with their
umer buying problems.








76 Florida Cooperative Extension

When money was not available but surplus farm products were on hand,
barter and exchange were popular. Labor was traded for vegetables or
milk and a good spirit of neighborliness developed thereby.

COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Following are some of the results of home demonstration work that
helped to keep up the morale of the farm families in Florida through
maintenance of good health and through provision of good reading material
and through inexpensive forms of family and community recreation.
57 clubs began community libraries, subscribing to 786 magazines.
5,372 magazines and newspapers were subscribed to by club members.
23 flower shows were held featuring county flowers and native plants.
42 community achievement programs were held.
250 entertainments were held for social purposes only.
51 plans were presented as a part of community recreation.
205 communities had definite plans for general community recreation.
1,821 club members helped make improvements in church or school
grounds.
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Home demonstration clubs organized for women................................ 296
4-H clubs for girls under 21 years of age....................................... 615
Number of women enrolled as active demonstrators................. .... 7,12
Number of girls enrolled as members of 4-H clubs............................ 9,215
Home and farm visits made by home demonstration agents............ 14,205
Number meetings held by home demonstration agents.................... 14,01(
Total attendance at above meetings................................................. 248,61E
Number of news stories written for state newspapers..................... 2,32(
Exhibits of work shown............................... ............. ............. 304
Number calls made on agents for information by local people-
Office calls..... ... ....... .................. .. ..... ........... 31,19
Telephone calls ........................ .. .......................... 20,76






Annual Report, 1935


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation

Florida's "live-at-home" program having been worked out according to
the needs of rural Florida, the three specialists in the State Home Dem-
onstration organization closely cooperate in working toward that goal.
Gardens and orchards, dairy and poultry, are the main sources of the
family's food supply. An adequate garden advocated in the food preserva-
tion and food preparation program leads directly to better health and
nutrition. One phase of work reinforces the other, though all workers
may attack the problem from different standpoints.
The productive program for both women and girls is centered around
the idea that with the soil, climatic and seasonal conditions as they are
in Florida, there is no just reason why every rural Florida family cannot
feed itself, and no excuse, except in rare cases, where any rural Florida
family living on any but marginal land should be on relief. Hence all-
year gardens, permanent and varied fruit plantings, so-called calendar
orchards and the cultivation, preparation, utilization of the surplus prod-
ucts, compose a large part of the program of the economist in food con-
servation.
GOALS FOR THE YEAR
1. To aid in providing a balanced and a healthful food supply in the
home throughout the year through wise planning for and varied plantings
in the garden and orchard.
2. To prevent waste of valuable fruits and vegetables from gardens,
trucking fields and orchards through thoughtful planning of budget, canning
of budget, and by proper preparation for the table improve the meals
served in the home.
3. To increase the family income by lowering cash expenditures for
food, by careful, accurate conservation of the resources at hand through
the canning budget, and by the standardization of high grade canned prod-
ucts for sale.
4. To emphasize the importance of making a budget for home canning,
based on the adequate nutritional needs of the family and planned in con-
nection with growing the all-year garden and calendar orchard, and can-
ning the products by means of the latest and best practices.
5. To encourage canning for variety and highest possible quality; the
use of both glass and tin; better organization of the home pantry; to
provide more and better storage places.
6. To encourage the use of more honey in the home, a greater utiliza-
tion of fishery and other choice products typical of Florida.
7. To develop a greater appreciation of the esthetic, economic and
nutritional value of Florida fruits and vegetables, the part they play in
making a finer farm life and to make canning a fine art and a science.
8. To promote interest in the canning project by giving recognition
through worthy contests for accomplishments achieved by the home canner.
9. To help establish high ideals for better equipment and improved
home kitchens and for community canning centers that are up-to-date,
sanitary and efficient.
ULTIMATE GOAL
Florida farm products so conserved and so utilized that the family
will attain and maintain a standard of living equal to the best in American
life and "to learn how to live with each other in abundance" within the
communities.







78 Florida Cooperative Extension

GARDEN AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
Records submitted on gardening activities show 2,417 all-year gardens
made with a cash valuation of $11,149.85 for vegetables marketed from
the home gardens. These figures show an encouraging increase in the
number of gardens in 1935 over those of 1934. Records also show an
encouraging increase of fruit plantings made in the calendar orchard dem-
onstration over those planted in 1934, with a total valuation of $1,460.60
sold from the calendar orchard.
How the gardening program has grown and expanded in one of the
counties in North Central Florida-where the agent has planned a productive
program designed to feed the family well at home and also to have a
generous surplus for use in canning certain vegetable products for market,
is well shown in the table from records submitted over the period of 1925
to 1935 inclusive.
TABLE 11.-OVER A PERIOD OF 11 YEARS, GARDEN PRODUCTS HAVE COME TO
MEAN MONEY TO GADSDEN COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION WOMEN.
No. Gardens All-Year Total Average
Year Reported Gardens Value Sold Value Sold

1925....................... 41
1926..... ........... 57.....................
1929 ............... ...... 98 15 $123.50 $ 9.71
1930 ............. 139 20 650.20 8.32
1933................. 252 209 1,276.70 8.03
1934......... ........ 462 275 897.70 10.55
1935................ 531 322 2,124.75 13.12


GARDEN AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS FOR GIRLS
The planting program for girls is outlined very definitely for four years
of work in the garden record book for girls. For the current year there
is an enrollment of 4,654 in gardening with 3,263 completing. By com-
pletions is meant finishing the work required for that year in the vegetable
garden, growing flowers and having the perennials started as required in
the first year of work, submitting records and story and exhibiting on
achievement day. For 1934 there were 3,803 girls enrolled with 2,556 com-
pleting,
The report from Calhoun County is fairly typical of the garden work
being done by girls throughout the more northern section of Florida.
"Ninety-six 4-H club girls started gardens, 84 of these completed their
demonstrations. Forty-eight girls exhibited fresh vegetables at the
Achievement Day held in May, some exhibiting as many as 22 different
vegetables. An effort is being made to have the older girls grow the all-
year garden. I checked these girls during the past month and found that
75 had fall gardens growing. These gardens contain from one to six dif-
ferent vegetables. The girls have learned to cook vegetables in different
ways and they have also canned some of the products grown in the gardens."







Annual Report, 1935


FOOD CONSERVATION
In the canning program for 1935-as in 1934-canning by the women
has been done greatly in excess of the budgetary needs of the family, in
many instances. But as before, this excess has been well accounted for
in the reports received from the women who certainly are of the mind that
producing and canning as much of the food supply as possible is sound
economicss for any farm family to practice. In this way, time is turned
:nto money and a more adequate year-round diet is assured. A well-filled
pantry at home truly represents a savings bank for the family, and home
demonstration agents claim that the canning program has been the one
)f most interest to all-men and women alike.
The Canning Budget.-Reports for the current year also show that
'budgeting" has been a point of great progress in food conservation work.
'he canning budget was presented at club meetings at the beginning of
;he year and the women were thoughtfully guided in figuring their needs
n connection with a careful analysis of the yield from the all-year garden
md orchard.
Judging of canned goods serves well to get the ideal of quality products
Lnd the proper procedures in canning before the people-both club mem-
>ers and others.
From all over the State come such statements as the following, showing
low much home demonstration work in general and canning in particular
ias meant to club members. "We hope we may be able to can cooperatively
vith our neighbors, for we never lived so well and yet had so little cash
Ls this past summer, with our pantry well filled." "Our garden was a life-
aver, and then we learned to conserve the surplus." "The family has
helped with the canning and appreciate the product we have for table use."
Our girls are learning to can well."







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME IMPROVEMENT
Virginia P. Moore, Agent in Home Improvement

During the past few years there has been a noticeable influx of people
to farms in Florida. Depression conditions have caused thousands to move
from cities to farms, while other thousands have stayed on farms who
might have gone to cities in times of good prices for labor.
The maintenance of a fine type of citizenry in rural homes is an essen-
tial factor in good government. That there be satisfying home life in rural
homes is essential to state and national well-being.
Comfort is as essential to satisfying home life in rural districts as it is
elsewhere. Among the things which help to make comfortable places in
which to live are houses with tight, warm roofs and walls which protect
from sun, wind and storm; heat for cold weather and comfort for warm
weather; ample space in which to live, eat and sleep; good light, both
natural and artificial, by which to read, work and play; running water,
storage space, provision for privacy, convenient toilet facilities, and numer-
ous other things.
Good housing is invaluable from a social standpoint, as well as pro-
viding comfortable facilities for the family. Every house should offer the
background environment for most favorable development of its individual
family members. By so doing, it gives strength to the group. In the
farm home, group activities still remain a part of the home life. Group
activities demand adjustment, and it is from adjustments made in family
life that the foundations for adjustments in community and national life
are built.
Home improvement activities of home demonstration agents during the
past year have aided rural families not only to obtain more attractive and
comfortable homes but also to live fuller lives and be more useful citizens.

HOME MANAGEMENT

To obtain improvements in the home it is necessary to have some money
or materials, even though every effort is made to hold expenses to the
minimum. Consequently the home improvement work is correlated with
productive work, farm marketing, and the wise use of the family income.
With less money available for amusements during the past few years there
has developed a social consciousness, a realization of a bond between the
entire household as pertains to the earning of money and the wise spending
of it.
Home management programs have presented the philosophy of this
subject, to lead community and county groups in their thinking. Home
management proposes to develop the thinking of the entire group as per-
tains to income earning and spending for the family.
Families have been encouraged to set goals for certain improvements
to be made in the homes. These goals have included such things as re-
modeling the old home or building a new one; repairs to roof, steps or other
part of the house; installation of a bathroom fully equipped, with hot and
cold running water; painting the house.
Consideration is given to things which are most necessary, with the
family learning to make non-essentials take second place. Then all mem-
bers of the family are encouraged to work together to earn the money
necessary for the home improvements.
Reports from agents show that there were 13,151 Florida families fol-
lowing better home management practices in 1935.

































Fig. 8.-The community clubhouse, center of neighborhood activities, is the work of both men and women.







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME ENGINEERING
Dr. Seaman A. Knapp said, "It is impossible to impress upon anyone
that there is dignity in residing upon a farm with impoverished soil.
dilapidated buildings, and an environment of ignorance." Home demon-
stration agents have encouraged and aided rural families in remodeling
their present homes or in building new and more satisfactory ones.
Many requests have come in for plans for remodeling or building, and
available house plans are kept in constant circulation. Also, there is muct
interest in the installation of running water outfits and septic tanks, ir
better lighting and other rural home engineering problems.
Reports by home demonstration agents show that 52 new dwellings were
constructed according to plans furnished; 300 dwellings were remodeled;
107 water systems were installed; 100 sewage systems were put in; 22
heating and 98 lighting systems were installed during the year.

HOUSE FURNISHINGS
There is continued enthusiasm in the utilization of sacks, mill ends
and usually discarded materials in making attractive and serviceable fur-
nishings for the home. Women and girls love to create, and when the5
are guided along artistic lines, results are excellent.
The wise buying of only a few pieces of furniture at a time is being
practiced. Educational shopping tours have helped dealers to see ho'
essential it is that rural families buy useful and beautiful house furnishings
which harmonize. Members of rural families also learn to make usefu:
and artistic barrel or box chairs and other furniture to add to the perma.
nent equipment of their home, since their budget for purchasing house
furnishings usually is quite limited.
According to reports by home agents, there were 1,867 women and girl
who made better selection of household furnishings last year. Other fig.
ures follow: Number following improved methods in repairing, remodeling
or refinishing furniture, 3,242; improving arrangement of rooms and treat.
ment of walls, woodwork and floors, 2,259; families following recommend.
tions regarding handicraft, 2,294.
HOME SANITATION
Sanitation in rural districts, particularly around the home, is necessarT
for best health and welfare of members of the family. Formerly, rura
areas were considered to be the most healthful in the country, but in recent
years urban sanitation has changed this.. Now rural sanitation bids fail
to place the country once again in its favorable position.
There has been noticeable improvement in rural home sanitation during
1935 in Florida.. Cooperation to this' end has been rendered by home dem
onstration agents, State Board of Health, and other agencies.
Reports show that during the year 406 families installed sanitary closets
or outhouses, 1,809 screened homes, and,968 followed other recommended(
methods of controlling insects.

,-BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
In the past, too iany rural builders have given little attention to land
scaping their homes. During recent years increasing attentilonihas beet
given to rural landscaping, and as the work has progressed its values hav
become more evident. It has been estimated that proper planning an
planting often increase the value of farm' property from 20 to 35 percent
During the last few years many more farm people than "ever before
have turned willingly and eagerly to landscape work, since much can b







Annual Report, 1935 83

lone for little expenditure of money. In 1935 reports submitted by home
demonstration women and girls show that 918 gave special care to lawns,
)62 planted shrubbery and trees, and 1,065 improved the exterior appear-
ince of their homes.


S -"r Y"-; 5. A- -" : ~ z "'

Fig. 9.-This outdoor sitting room is the beginning of a long-time
demonstration in yard improvement following a definite plan worked out
rith the home demonstration agent.

Tours to homes that have been beautified and where the demonstrator
as kept a complete record, with pictures, proved valuable in stimulating
interest in home improvement during the year. Plenty of time was al-
twed for questions, and actual experiences were told about how certain
bsults were attained.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist
The general plan, purpose and ultimate goals of the food, nutrition and
health program in Florida may be summarized in the following statements:
To arouse and create interest in improving existing nutritional and health
conditions; family food supply; home production of food products; wise
buying; balanced diet at the lowest cost; to develop a health education
program prepared for mothers and school children, emphasizing a hot dish
supplement or school lunch in rural schools; and to enlist girls' and women's
clubs in carrying the food, nutrition and health project as a community
service program.
This program is closely related to other home demonstration projects
principally gardening, dairying, poultry, beekeeping, meat supply, food con-
servation, home sanitation, and home improvement.
The value, use and preparation of dairy products has been taught by
direct instruction and demonstrations. Likewise the value and use of poul,
try products and the farm meat supply were taught.
Printed and mimeographed material with illustrations giving subject
matter and suggestive outlines were supplied home demonstration agent.
to add information and interest in support of the program. Demonstrations
talks and exhibits also served to extend this program to many not in at
tendance at group meetings.
The family food supply as a part of the whole live-at-home plan wai
discussed in helping plan food budgets, to improve family health and pro
mote growth and development, as well as to determine the lowest cost a
which the family could be adequately fed.
Food budget guides were used in determining the yearly food needs <
farm families. This planning of a family food budget caused the fan
women to realize the value of home produced products-of the garden, oi
chard, dairy, poultry and meat supply, and a conservation program to ful
nish products for home canning and other storage products to supplemer
the diet, in quantities sufficient for periods when fresh products are nc
at hand.
Lectures, demonstrations, charts and posters to promote this phase c
the program were used to list the weekly food budgets for a farm family
of five at four different levels of income.
A few women demonstrators have kept a food consumption record ar
from these records were able to see the big contribution which is ma,
to the family income through home production, food conservation, wi
buying of foods, and the value of careful planning.

FOOD SELECTING, PREPARATION AND WISE BUYING
Food selection and preparation and wise buying proved to be very pop'
lar and it was gratifying to see the number of women who were keen
interested.
The scoring of meal plans and food products has helped to raise tl
quality standards of foods prepared for home use and those exhibited :
club contests and fairs. Improved practices in food preparation we'
adopted by 2,510 women in 28 counties in their baking, meat and vegetal
cooking and use of poultry and dairy products; 5,390 families report
having served better balanced meals as a result. Also, 2,413 families f(
lowed food buying recommendations and thus helped to conserve the fami
income.







Annual Report, 1935 85

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH FOR THE SCHOOL CHILD
This program for the school child encouraged health protection for
!very child, included physical examinations of the child, and a follow-up
program It also included preparation of different school lunches, and
showed the relation to the school lunch as it affects the child's daily diet.
Phis office cooperated with other agencies in providing the hot dish sup-
)lement or school lunch as a school or community project.
Home demonstration agents have cooperated with school boards, public
health and welfare workers, P.-T.A. organizations, civic clubs and women's
clubss in promoting a health education program for school children and the
federal Emergency Relief Administration in establishing lunch rooms.
Plans for operating the lunch rooms, and quantify recipes were furnished
or the food dishes to be served in many instances. Exhibits were made
)f different types of lunches and suitable containers for use in packing
unches. It is noted that 2,939 families improved the home-packed lunch
hat 65 schools followed recommendations for a hot supplement to 14,944
children .

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH FOR THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILD
Doctors and nurses, public health and welfare workers, Emergency Re-
ief agencies, P.-T.A. organizations, schools and other agencies have co-
,perated in the public welfare problem with home demonstration agents
n sponsoring baby clinics and conducting group meetings where child care
Lnd training was discussed; also meetings where physical examinations
vere given for the correction of defects. Assistance was given with child
feeding problems and pre-natal diets. The Extension Nutritionists dis-
;ussed "Normal Family Nutrition" at two district meetings of nurses.
The following statistics were reported from 17 counties; 237 homes
Adopted better adult habits with regard to development of children; 1,518
familiess followed recommended methods in child feeding; 864 families im-
)roved habits of children.

LEADERSHIP TRAINING AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Leaders have been trained through service rendered in their local club.
[he axiom "we learn by doing" proved true with both women and girls,
Lnd both groups furnished leaders as assistants at camp with food and food
demonstrations, food, nutrition and health project chairmen, club officers,
sponsorss for 4-H clubs who assisted with camp programs, by instructions
;iven at the State Short Course and by supplying leaders with subject
natter material on the food, nutrition and health program.
Home demonstration women have rendered an invaluable service in their
communitiess by creating interest in school lunchrooms and assisting with
heir establishment and operation if needed; assisting with recreation and
instruction at senior and 4-H camps and in many other ways; and served
ts real demonstrators of improved practices of better living in their com-
nunities and counties.

NUTRITION WORK WITH 4-H CLUB GIRLS
After a 4-H club girl decided to work on the nutrition project, she was
;iven a general physical examination by a nurse or doctor. The correction
;f all physical defects was urged and correct food and health habits were
aught to promote self-improvement. The girls were scored three times
luring the year on their food selection and health habits.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Demonstrations were then given in food selection, preparation, meal
planning, table service, and health education such as, correct posture, good
health habits, home hygiene and first aid with the sole purpose of develop-
ing a desire for normal health through proper food selection and correct
health habits.


Fig. 10.-Edna Sims, state champion in 4-H bread baking and judging,
gives a demonstration in judging bread. She represented Florida at the
National Club Congress in Chicago.

Contests in different phases as posture, bread making, bread judging,
and food preparation were held. The state winners of the bread judging
and food preparation contest in 1935 were awarded trips to the National
4-H Club Congress, held in Chicago, where they entered similar contests
there.
The girls have exhibited their products for educational purpose at
achievement and other rally days, fairs, and club meetings.
The food, nutrition and health project received special emphasis at the
State Short Course to benefit all girls attending Short Course and more
specific information in nutrition was given to a senior group who majored
in nutrition. The girls in this group served as leaders in their home coun-
ties for this phase of work.
Recreational camps held during the summer months afforded splendid
opportunities to develop this program with the 4-H girls, while they were
enjoying a nice vacation and outing.
There were 4,621 4-H club members enrolled in food and nutrition with
3,267 members completing, 50,321 food dishes were prepared and 7,339 meals
planned and served by 4-H members.







Annual Report, 1935


PART IV-NEGRO WORK

NEGRO MEN'S WORK
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent
During 1935, Negro Extension work was carried on in 12 counties:
.lachua, Columbia, Duval, Marion, Leon, Jackson, Jefferson, Madison, Ham-
ton, Hillsboro, Suwannee and Gadsden. There were eight men and six
omen employed in county work, together with one district agent super-
ising, and the necessary clerical help for the office. In Suwannee, Hamilton
nd Columbia counties, two agents served three counties as the Negro
arming area in these three counties is adjacent. In general farming
)unties the Negro.farmers participated in cotton, tobacco and corn-hog
Ijustment programs. Most contracts were with cotton, and there were
relatively few tobacco, peanut or corn-hog contracts. In this work the
egro agents assisted the white agents by contacts with the producers and
lucational meetings so that the colored farmers might have an opportunity
I taking full advantage of AAA programs. This work consumed a minor
irt of their time.
Triple A programs bettered the condition of the colored farmers. The
creased prices for farm crops has placed colored farmers in a better
)sition to finance their farming operations and make improvements. This
is stimulated Extension agents to introduce improved practices and obtain
operation of a larger number.
The specialists of the Extension Service outlined programs on dairying,
restock, agronomy and 4-H club work and organization, particularly in
Leir relationships with the white agents in handling AAA programs. In
irrying out their work the Negro agents have the assistance of the local
aders who serve as community club leaders in particular in handling the
H program, and help promote better farm and home practices as recom-
ended by the Agricultural Extension Service.
The Negro program has been forwarded by county-wide achievement
tys, local exhibits and demonstrations by 4-H club members and by ex-
bits at county fairs. An exceptionally fine display was provided for the
)uth Florida Fair under the supervision of the Negro district agent and
egro county agents.
In cooperation with the National Youth Administration, the Extension
)rvice held eight district meetings attended by 1,875 Negro leaders from
immunities in Florida. Some major projects considered were Negro com-
unity centers, playgrounds, training schools and the widening of the
fluence of the Extension Service for Negroes in the state.
The National Playground and Recreation Association, directed by the
'deral Extension Service, arranged for short courses in recreation. Special
aining was provided for the county Extension workers and the 4-H club
embers who had shown leadership ability. These schools were held at
egro institutions. The meetings lasted four days and were limited to
latively small groups of people.

DEMONSTRATIONS
Plans for demonstration programs were made at the beginning of the
ar. Programs given particular emphasis were a soil building program







Florida Cooperative Extension


that included the planting of legumes and rotation of crops and a program
that would provide for the production of food and forage needs and the
cash crops necessary to meet expenses.
Colored farmer D. A. Miles of Alachua County planted a corn crop and
interplanted with crotalaria and cowpeas and produced 18 bushels of corn
per acre, which was 8 bushels over other lands without the cover crop.
Growing legumes and cover crops suitable to the areas has been part of
the Negro agents' program. Cowpeas, velvet beans and soybeans were
used in rotation. Much of the crop was used for feeding livestock, and a
part turned under for soil improvement purposes.

MARKETING
The marketing of surplus perishable products on Negro farms is usually
limited to local needs. Consequently, their sales are limited in most areas.
Emphasis has been placed on the live-at-home program and salable prod-
ucts to supply local markets. In Alachua, Columbia and Hamilton counties,
tobacco is an important cash crop.
The Negro agents have given particular attention to poultry raising.
This is a minor part of the work, but an important part of the live-at-home
program. Year round gardening has been emphasized.

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK
The poultry and livestock phase of the work has interested the 4-H
club members in particular, and 122 boys enrolled in poultry clubs, 54 of
whom completed their projects. The number of birds involved in the dem-
onstrations was 6,266. This is a larger number than in former years.
On account of the live-at-home program, more dairying has been prac-
ticed for local consumption and for home use. This has required more feed
and better ways of handling it. Hogs also have been of great importance
and Negro farmers have cooperated in the Agricultural Adjustment Ad-
ministration corn-hog program, although a relatively small number of
Negro farmers have as yet produced sufficient meat for home use. A!
total of 68 4-H club members completed their projects with 169 pigs.
There was interest in the screw worm control demonstrations, particu-
larly with hogs.
Records of production were kept by 233 farmers and 104 farmers re-
duced their expenses by exchanging labor and machinery with their neigh-
bors.
SALES

Through local associations, cooperative sales amounted to $20,947.45
and-through organized sales a total of $15,297.64 worth of products were
sold. Agents in Marion County report sales of $12,392.53 for beans and
watermelons through the Negro Farmers' Cooperative Association of Mar-i
ion County. This association has been organized for some time and hasi
proven a valuable aid to farmers and in carrying out Extension programs.
Negro agents have cooperated with the organization of livestock sales,|
especially with hogs. This has been particularly true where hogs were
shipped in car-lots. They have also taken advantage of the marketing
facilities under the leadership of the county agents wherever these are
available, with the result that the colored farmers have benefited by the
better price paid and have been encouraged to produce hogs of good quality
and benefit from the prices received from the higher grades.







Annual Report, 1935


DEMONSTRATIONS FOR PRODUCING FEED AND
FATTENING CROPS
Demonstrations for producing feed and fattening crops have been set
3 in the farming areas for the purpose of having the hogs ready for
market during the early fall months, when the prices are usually highest.
his requires planning in advance for the production of the hogs as well
crops needed for fattening purposes.

4-H CLUB WORK
The number of 4-H club members completing their work was 2,556 as
*ported by the agents. The type of club work carried on by the Negro
,ents differs only in respect to its application to the colored farmers' edu-
.tional problems. These club members were organized to carry out edu-
tional work, principally with the commodities grown in the general farm-
g area, namely, cotton, hogs, corn, poultry.
The results of the 4-H club work among Negroes indicate that even
ith limited facilities, substantial interest can be developed leading to
gher production and more economical yields, and because of this having
eh in operation for several years, Negro farmers having representation
the 4-H club work are those that have not appeared on the relief payrolls.
The usual procedure for handling 4-H clubs has not been changed for
veral years. In each case, it is under the leadership of the Extension
rrvice and the specialists in charge have given this their attention to see
at the work is carried along in a systematic and constructive way.
As a result of the organized 4-H clubs in the county, there has been
bstantial increase in the number of 4-H club members who attend the
Inual short course held each year at the A. & M. College at Tallahassee.
ie College has offered facilities and a program and with the assistance
the county agents and the state organization, this annual 4-H club pro-
am in Tallahassee has been able to bring together 4-H club members
om each county. Expenses of these are usually paid from local sources
id results have been satisfactory and stimulating to the Extension and
:ricultural programs of the counties.
A Negro 4-H club camp was held for club members in the North Florida
unties and arranged by the Negro agents. The program provided for
'ing accommodations, as well as educational and recreational programs.
Negro Health Week.-Negro Extension agents have participated in the
nual Negro Health Week. This is carried out under local leadership
th the cooperation of interested citizens and in most counties, agents
ve taken a leading part. The purpose of this is to encourage sanitation
ound homes and a clean-up program, the control of mosquitoes and other
oblems that reflect on the general health and appearance of the com-
mities.







Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Reported by Miss Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement

The Negro home demonstration agents of Florida have gone forward
with their work in a fine way. For the past two and half years funds
have not permitted the employment of a Negro district home demonstration
agent. The State Home Demonstration Staff and county home demonstra-
tion agents have guided the Negro home demonstration agents in their
work. The Negro district agent for men's work has also worked with them.
The same general plan for the development of home demonstration work
among Negroes with emphasis on a live-at-home program is followed as
that which is used in conducting home demonstration work among the white
people. The Negro work is planned with a definite goal in mind. The
specialists furnish subject matter and help the Negro agents by special
visits, correspondence, and in conferences.
Methods used in developing the work in the various projects is through
meetings in the home, school or church, home visits, tours to well estab-
lished demonstrations, also to visit annual or quarterly exhibits.
National Negro Health Week has proven an excellent time to put em-
phasis on the home sanitation project which many home owners establish
that week and expand during the year.
The State Short Course for Negro girls and boys at Florida A. & M.
College, annual conference of local Extension agents, farm institutes, and
achievement days are of great benefit to the agents as well as to the indi-
vidual boys and girls. Some of the agents have developed very good county
councils.
Negro home demonstration agents have helped in all the emergency
work, and have assisted in nearby counties when they have been called
upon. They have been placed with a view to serving the greatest Negro
population. Practically every home demonstration club member and every
4-H club member has looked to having an adequate food supply by having
a garden with something growing in it during all the months, poultry,
better food preparation, a family cow, a few pigs, and sufficient canned
products to meet the family needs. In many cases these things have been
bartered in exchange for other food products needed.
Faculty members of the A. & M. College have been helpful in teaching
how to improve the soil, and have given demonstrations in building up the
soil, rotation of crops, etc.
Better seed were distributed to the needy by the A. & M. College. There
is marked improvement in sanitation of premises and the destroying of
mosquito breeding places, and more beautification of home grounds.
HOME IMPROVEMENT
New homes and remodeling of old ones are noted. Although in far toe
many cases crowded sleeping quarters for rural families still exist, one
of the goals in home engineering for several years has been that of pro-
viding sleeping porches. The lack of money delays better building.
One of the outstanding demonstrations in home improvement during
the past year was at the home of Caroline James in Miccosukee. Caroline
had cooked in one of the most aristocratic homes in the old settlement ol
Miccosukee for forty-five years, yet her house was dark, dreary and un-
sanitary.
She was elected president of the Women Home-Makers, and felt deeply
her responsibility as a leader for her people. She tried "to make the besi
better" in all things in which her home demonstration agent, Alice Poole
asked her to become a demonstrator.







Annual Report, 1935 91

Each year for the past five years the Leon County Commissioners have
iven $25 to encourage some Negro demonstrator to have a better home.
,aroline's home was selected for a demonstration and she gave over her
ome for the "working bee" where neighbors and friends would work to-
'ether and learn together. Caroline saved $10 from her pecans and eggs;
his was added to the $25, and the improvement was remarkable. New
windows were cut on each side of the chimney to give better light; new
window panes were added, floors mended, a new roof was put on, new
teps were made, porch floor was patched, the well was cleaned and cased
rith a top, the house was whitewashed inside and out, fences were mended
nd whitewashed, a new sanitary toilet was added, the kitchen was ceiled
nd a pantry door was added; a new closet was built in the new spare
edroom, and also in Caroline's room.
The work was all done by volunteer workmen who were not busy. The
house was fumigated and thoroughly cleaned from top to bottom. New
curtains of bright cretonne were given for the three new windows, and
whitee ruffled curtains for the "preacher's" room or spare bedroom. All
rho took part in the "working bee" learned valuable lessons which have
since been repeated. Thus by raising the standard of living in one home,
lany homes have been helped. Alice Poole had the interested cooperation
nd direction of Miss Virginia P. Moore, Home Improvement Specialist;
Iso Miss Ruby McDavid, District Agent.

COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
All community activities seem to be more wholesome than in many
decades. Fun making, feasting, and games for old and young have been
noted.
The men are listening to the women agents' instructions in feed and
)rage for the farm family and livestock. Althea Ayers, home demonstra-
on agent in Madison County, is doing splendid all-round work and had
)me excellent demonstrations with the men, as well as with the women
nd girls.
MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES
In Hillsborough County 105 year-round gardens were grown during the
ast year; 92 calendar orchards were owned by club members; 54 family
lilk cows were owned by club women; 52,542 containers were filled with
uit, vegetables, etc., and 893 articles were made for the home; 109 gar-
ents were remodeled for children; 89 kitchens were rearranged for con-
nience, and 179 4-H club girls received physical examination.
Emphasis has been given to the remodeling of clothing for children
well as grown-ups; 153 dresses for small girls, and 359 4-H club uni-
orms were remodeled. More thought is given to better beds by remodeling
d mattresses, also making new ones when money is available; 8 new
attresses were made in the county; 45 good ladder back chairs were made.
any are learning from their elders and the home demonstration agent
)w to bottom chairs with corn shucks, which many think is as pretty as
ie rush. Hickory and maple split basketry is another home industry that
being revived. The Negro people in Gadsden County are more conscious
' their need to follow a live-at-home program, and to have plenty of
unserved fruits and vegetables to meet the home needs.
Fifteen school gardens were valuable in stimulating interest in home
irdens. The vegetables were used in the food preparation classes. Agents
ive encouraged farmers to -plant winter pastures or cover crops for the
Mmily milk cow, which is usually neglected during the winter months on
:count of lack of food; the green pastures also help the farm poultry
ock. Six pastures have been started.







92 Florida Cooperative Extension

STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Statistical Data from County Workers Reports (Men and Women)
Total days service rendered ............................................. ........... 3,947
Members in Extension Associations or Committees ........................ 378
Communities in which Negro Extension program has been planned 198
Clubs or other groups organized to carry on adult home demon-
stration w ork ............................................................................ 97
Members in such clubs or groups ........................ .......... ..... 1,388
4-H Clubs .................................... ............. ..... ..... 456
4-H Club members enrolled .................................................................... 3,787
4-H Club members completing ................................................... 2,556
4-H Club teams trained .............................................. 62
Farm or hom e visits .............................................................................. 7,862
Different farms or homes visited ............................................. ...... 3,159
Calls relating to extension work ........................................................... 6,428
News articles or stories published and circular letters ................ 540
Letters written ...............................................--------------------- ..... ---- 4,537
Bulletins distributed .............................................................................. 3,440
R adio talks .............................................................................................. 2
Extension exhibits .................................................................................... 38
M meetings held ........................................................................................... 2,529
(Attendance................................ 47,712
Achievement days and encampments ............................................... 25
(Attendance................................ 1,151
Homes and farms influenced by program ........................................ 6,141
Homes with 4-H Club members enrolled ........................................... 2,413
CEREALS
Communities in which work was conducted ........................................ 140
Result demonstrations conducted ........................................................ 79
Meetings held ............................--......................-------. ------ 97
News stories 'published and circular letters issued .......................... 17
4-H Club members enrolled ................................... .. ..... 805
4-H Club members completing ............................................................. 511
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing........ 673
Bushels of crops grown by 4-H Club members completing ........... 8,083.5
LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS
Communities in which work was conducted ........................................ 298
Result demonstrations conducted ......................................................... 65
M meetings held ............................................................................................ 95
News stories published and circular letters issued ....................... 18
4-H Club m embers enrolled .................................................................... 276
4-H Club members completing ...................................... ......... 177
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing...... 182
Bushels of crops grown by 4-H Club members completing ............ 3,984
POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS
Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Others Cotton Tobaccc
Communities in which work was conducted.... 130 63 29
Result demonstrations conducted................... 41 20 10
M meetings held ...................................................... 27 41 32
News stories published and circular letters 5 7 6
4-H Club members enrolled.....................-........ 140 159 2
4-H Club members completing.......................... 92 99 2
Acres in project conducted by 4-H Members 90 124 4
Yields of crops grown by 4-H Members...... 3,155 Bu. 34,398 Lb. 4,000 L'








Annual Report, 1935 93

FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND BEAUTIFICATION OF
HOME GROUNDS
mmunities in which work was conducted ................................ 592
suit demonstrations conducted .................................................. 748
ietings held ............................................ ........ .. ................. 505
*ws stories published and circular letters issued .......................... 139
I Club members enrolled .............. ................................. 2,651
1 Club members completing ....................................... ........... .... 1,532
:res in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing..... 881
elds of crops grown by 4-H Club members completing.............. 2,064 Bu.

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

mmunities in which work was conducted ................................... 41
suit demonstrations conducted ...................... .. ......... 20
meetings held ...... .......................................... ....... .... ... ................ 16
*ws stories published and circular letters issued ..................... 3
I Club members enrolled ...................................... 100
I Club members completing .............................. ........... 40
nd-clearing practices ....................................... ................ 6
res .......... ......................... ......... ... ---- ....... ............... 125
tter building and equipment practices ...................... ............... 210
;ildings involved ............ ........................ ................. 220

POULTRY AND BEES
mmunities in which work was conducted ..................................... 147
sult demonstrations conducted ................ ....... ................ 202
hetings held ...........- .................. ...... ............... ... ---...... .. 168
'ws stories published and circular letters issued ......................... 12
I Club members enrolled ......................... .... ......................... 730
I Club members completing ................... .......................... 530
timber units in projects conducted by 4-H Club members
com pleting ................................... ............ ..... ................... ........ 10,469
miles following better practices for poultry .......................... 2,308

DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES
mmunities in which work was conducted ............................... 211
sult demonstrations conducted ................................... ......... 66
'etings held ..................................................... .. 164
*ws series published and circular letters issued ..................... 63
I Club members enrolled ...................................... 294
I Club members completing ............................................................ 215
limals in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing 351

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
suit demonstrations conducted .................................................. 2
'etings held ..................................... ... ....... .............. .......... 72
'ws stories published and circular letters issued ..................... 9
I Club members enrolled ........................................... 108
I Club members completing ............................................................ 108
rmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments ........... 322
miles assisted in getting established ...................................... 92
lividuals affected by marketing program .................................. 501
ganizations assisted with problems ........................................ 19
lividuals assisted with problems .............................. ......... 362
lue of products sold by associations...................... ............. $21,092.18
lue of supplies purchased by organizations.......................... ........$ 3,029.35







94 Florida Cooperative Extension

FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted .................................... 167
Result demonstrations conducted ...................................... ........... 276
M meetings held ................................................................................. ........ 280
News stories published and circular letters issued ....................... 65
4-H Club members enrolled .................................. .............. 2,405
4-H Club members completing .................................. ....... 1,862
Families adopting improved food practices ..........-..................... 3,282
Schools following recommendations for a hot dish or school lunch 45
Children involved .. ... ..... ................................................ 3,578
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H Clubs ............. 83,447
Value of all products canned or otherwise preserved ....................$ 9,138.3
CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
Communities in which work was conducted ..................................... 35
Result demonstrations conducted .................................................. 9
M meetings held ........................ .................................................. ............ 27
News stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 3
4-H Club members enrolled ............ ................................... ........... 40
4-H Club members completing .................................................... 25
Other 4-H Club members who participated ................................... 16
Families adopting better child-development practices .................. 230
Individuals participating in child-development program ............... 133
Children involved ............... ......................... 313
CLOTHING
Communities in which work was conducted .................................. 155
Result demonstrations conducted ..................................... 331
M meetings held .................... .......... ................................... ............. 197
News stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 5
4-H Club m embers enrolled .................................................................. 2,017
4-H Club members conipleting .............................................................. 1,286
Articles made by 4-H Club members ........................................ 6,588
Individuals following better clothing practices ...... .................... 5,741
Savings due to clothing program ......................................................$ 3,853.2

HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted ........................................ 274
Result demonstrations conducted ..................................... 345
M meetings held .................................................................................... 142
News stories published and circular letters issued ............................ 75
4-H Club members enrolled .................................................................. 1,907
4-H Club members completing ............................................................ 1,231
Units in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing...... 3,089
Families adopting improved home-management practices .......... 3,253
Saving due to home-management program ......................................$ 2,353.0
Families making improvements in house furnishings .................. 1,406
Saving due to home-furnishings program .......................... .......$ 1,106.0
Families following recommendations regarding handicraft .......... 219
HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work was conducted .................................. 222
Result demonstrations conducted ..................................................... 487
Meetings held ............................................ 145
News stories published and circular letters issued ....................... 70
4-H Club members enrolled .................................................................. 1,940
4-H Club members completing .............................................................. 1,523
Other 4-H Club members who participated ...................................... 400
Individuals having health examination ............................................ 455
Individuals adopting better health habits ............ ..................... 4,381
Families adopting better health habits ............................................ 1,019







Annual Report, 1935 95

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
aetings held ...................-......................................................... ............ 108
,ws stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 35
immunities assisted with community problems ............................ 396
aining meetings conducted for community leaders ........................ 19
Lmilies following recommendations as to home recreation .......... 107
H Clubs engaging in community activities .................................... 143
Lmilies aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or other
relief agency ............................................................ ........................... 343







Florida Cooperative Extension


INDEX


A
Accounts, citrus, 60
poultry, 61
Achievement days, club, 70
Adjustment work, 7, 8, 11, 18, 20,
28, 30, 34, 62, 87
Agents, list of, 5
Agreements, marketing, 7
Agricultural economics, 10, 15, 60, 64
engineering, statistics, 14
loans, 27
planning, 63
statistics, 15, 93
Animal husbandry, 9, 38, 44
Assistance to Rural Resettlement, 8
Assistance to Screw Worm control, 9
Associations, poultry, 56
B
Baby chick management, 53
Bang's disease, 9, 25
Beale, Clyde, work, 18
Beautification, home grounds, 14, 73,
82, 83
Beef cattle, 15, 24, 44, 93
clubs, 38
Bees, statistics, 15, 93
Blacklock, R. W., work, 35
Blue mold decay, 50
Boys' club work, 35
Bronzing, citrus, 49
Brooders, hdme-made, 58
Brown, H. L., work, 40
Brumley, F. W., work, 60
Bulletins, 18, 69
Bureau Animal Industry, 9
Buying, consumer, 75

C
Calendar flock records, 53
Camps, 4-H, 8, 35, 36, 70
Canning, 79
Cattle, purchases of government, 26
dairy and beef, statistics, 15
beef, 24, 93
Cereals, 13, 22, 92
Changes in staff, 10
Chickenpox, 58
Child development and parent
education, 16, 94
Circular letters, 68
Citrus accounts, 60
work, 10, 26, 48
Clayton, H. G., work, 21, 28
Clothing, 16, 75, 94


Clubs, 4-H, dairy, 43
work, 8, 35, 56, 65, 68-76, 89
Community activities, 17, 76, 85, 9
95
Conservation, food, 72, 77
Cooperation with other institution
11
by states and counties, 27
Cooper, J. F., work, 18
"Copper leaf" of citrus, 49
Corn-hog adjustment work, 33
Corn clubs, 37
Cotton adjustment, 28
Florida income from, 32
value of lint and seed, 31
work, 14, 23, 92
Cotton clubs, 37
Council, poultry, 57
County Agricultural Planning
Council, 63
Cover Crops, 22, 48
Cows, market for dairy, 42
Credit, farm, 8
Crops, field, 23
feed and pasture, 23
silage, 24
Culling demonstrations, 53

D
Dairy clubs, 38
work, 9
Dairying, 15, 24, 40
farm, 42
feeding demonstrations, 40
pasture and grazing crops, 41
raising dairy heifers, 41
DeBusk, E. F., work, 48
Director, report of, 7
Disease control, citrus, 49

E
Economics, agricultural, 10
Educational meetings, 21, 51, 58
Egg-Laying Contest, 58, 59
Egg quality program, 57
Engineering, home, 82, 93
Exhibits, 27, 69
Extension organizations and
community activities, 17
F
Farm credit, 8
Farm management, 60
Fat Stock Show, 45
Feed and egg prices, 63







Annual Report, 1935


Feed and pasture crops, 23, 40
Feeder cattle, 44
Field crops, 23
Finances, state, 12
Financial statement, 12
Florida Poultry Council, 57
Food conservation, 72, 77, 84
Food selection, 84
Foods and nutrition, 15, 72, 84, 94
Forestry, 14, 93
"Frenching", citrus, 49
Fruits, 14, 26, 93

G
Gardening, 77, 91
General activities, 13, 76
Gleason, Flavia, work, 65
Grass, work, 23
Grazing crops, 41
Green feed for poultry, 53
Growers' Institute, 50
Grove management, 48

H
Health and sanitation, 16, 94
Heifers, raising, 41
Hogs, adjustment work, 25
demonstrations, 25
Home beautification, 14, 73
management and house
furnishings, 16, 73, 80, 94
demonstration work, 9, 65
improvement, 80, 90
sanitation, 82
Horses, statistics, 15
Horticulture clubs, 38
Howard, R. H., work, 60

I
Improvement, home, 73
Income, family, 75
Insect control, citrus, 50
Institutions, cooperation with other,
11
Irrigation, citrus, 49

L
Leaders, local, 70, 85
Legumes and forage crops, 13, 22, 92
List of agents, 5
Live-at-home programs, 7
Livestock, 24, 88
program, 9
Loans, agricultural, 27


M
Management, baby chicks and
pullets, 53
farm, 60
grove, 48
home, 73, 80, 81
soil, 48
Marketing, 45, 58, 88
McDavid, Ruby, work, 65
Meat curing,. 25
Mehrhof, N. R., work, 52
Melanose, 50
Meetings, educational, 21, 51, 58
Men's work, 21
Miscellaneous publications, 20
citrus, 51
Mold, blue, 50
Moore, V. P., work, 80, 90

N
Negro work, 11, 87
statistical report, 92
Nettles, W. T., work, 21
News, 18, 19, 68
Noble, C. V., work, 60
Nutrition work, 15, 72, 84
0
Orchards, 72
Organizations, dairy, 43
Outlook information, 27
P
Pasture work, 23, 41, 44
Payments, rental and benefit by
counties, 29
summary of benefits, all
commodities, 30
Peanut clubs, 38
Perennial plantings, 78
Planning, agricultural, 63
Pork, home curing, 25
Potatoes, 34
adjustment work, 28, 34
special crops, 14, 92
Poultry, 52
associations, 56
clubs, 38
statistics, 15, 93
work, 10, 53, 88
Programs, animal husbandry, 9
dairy work, 9
home demonstration, 67
livestock, 9
Publications, 18
miscellaneous, 20
Publicity, 68







Florida Cooperative Extension


R
Radio, 18, 19, 68
Regional problems, 21
Records, AAA, 34, 62
dairy, 43
poultry, 53, 61
Recreation training, 36
Reports, statistical, men and
women, 13
Revenue, sources, 11
Report of director, 7
Resettlement, assistance to, 8
Rust mite control, 50

S
Sales, cooperative, 88
Sanitation, home, 82
Scab, citrus, 50
Scale control, citrus, 50
Scholarships, club, 39
Screw worm control, 9, 47
situation, 21
Settle, Lucy B., work, 65
Sheep statistics, 15, 93
Sheely, W. J., work, 28, 44
Short courses, club, 39, 71
Sikes, A. M., work, 65, 84
Silage crops, 24
Sires, dairy, 43
Smith, J. Lee, work, 21, 28
Soil improvement, 22
management, citrus, 48, 49
Sources of revenue, 11
Sowell, D. F., work, 52
Spencer, A. P., work, 21


Special activities, 39
Staff changes, 10
State finances, 11
Statement, financial, 12
Statistical report, 13
Surveys, farm management, 61
Sweet potato clubs, 38
Swine clubs, 38
statistics, 15
work, 46
T
Thomas, Jefferson, work, 18
Thursby, I. S., work, 77
Timmons, D. E., work, 28, 32, 60
Tobacco, estimates of sales, receipts
and benefits to producers, 14, 31,
32, 92
Tours, farm, 51
home, 69
Trench silos, 41, 44
Trips for club members, 39, 70
Tuberculosis in cattle, 25
Turner, A. A., report, 87
U
University of Florida week, 20
V
Vegetable, work, 14, 26, 93
W
Whitefly control, 50
Women's work, 65
Work, home demonstration, 9, 65