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Table of Contents
Letter of transmittal
Report of the director
Publications and news
County agent work
Boys' 4-H club work
Home demonstration work
Gardening and food conservation
Food, nutrition and health
Negro home demonstration work
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK
IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
WILMON NEWELL, Director
REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1934
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1934.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK
IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
WILMON NEWELL, Director
REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1934
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1934.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR...........-.....---....----.......---------.... 7
Financial Statement ..................--.. ---. ------................ 12
Agricultural Adjustment Work................---........ -- ----------............ 13
PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS................-........----... .... ..... ..- -- 21
COUNTY AGENT WORK.....................---....----- -----------------. 24
BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK .................. -----.......------------------- 31
DAIRYING .....................-----....--...... --------------------.--- 37
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY--..................-.........--- --- ........---.---- 43
POULTRY......-....................-------------------------------.............. .-- 46
CITRUS CULTURE............................----- ----- ----. -- ........... 51
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS.......................- ......... -.......----..-. 57
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK.......................... ... --... ......---..-. 63
GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION-..............-........--......-....----..- 77
FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH.................-.......--- -...--.......-------- 83
HOME IMPROVEMENT.........--....-- .............--- --------------------------- 87
NEGRO MEN'S WORK........................-----..------------------ ------------- 91
NEGRO WOMEN'S WORK.................................... ---..----- 97
Hon. Dave Sholtz,
Governor of Florida,
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report, of the Agricul-
tural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for
the calendar year 1934, including a fiscal report for the year ending June
GEO. H. BALDWIN,
Chairman, Board of Control.
Hon. Geo. H. Baldwin,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accord-
ance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida.
BOARD OF CONTROL
GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach
OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola
HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee
STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Assistant
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in An'mal Husbandryl
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Controll
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., District Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. -THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
EVA R. CULLEY, B.S., Acting Nutritionist
NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
1In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua...............Fred L. Craft............Gainesville.........Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Brevard............N. A. Lockett............Cocoa....................Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Calhoun.................J. G. Kelley................Blountstown .......Miss Josephine Nimmot
Citrus ............... .... ....rne... ......... Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Clay....................................... ...Green Cove Springs......Miss Beulah Felts
Columbia .............Guy Cox .................Lake City............. .............. ...........
Dade...................C. H. Steffani............Miami....................Miss Pansy Norton
DeSoto...................C. P. Heuck..............Arcadia ..............:............ ..
Dixie.......................D. M. Treadwell ........Cross City.............................. ..............
Duval........... A. S. Lawton............Jacksonville............. Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.)........E. G. Pattishall........ Jacksonville ......... ....................................
Escambia...............E. P. Scott..................Pensacola....................Miss Ethel Atkinson
Gadsden................Paul Calvin................Quincy ............ Miss Elise Laffitte
Gulf .................................... Wewahitchka..........Miss Pearl Jordan
Hamilton............J-J. J. Sechrest............Jasper .................................. ......
Hardee...................C. E. Baggott**.......Wauchula ................................ ....
Hernando...............B. E. Lawton...........Brooksville ...................................
Highlands............L. H. Alsmeyer..........Sebring .....................................
Hillsboro................C. P. Wright..............Tampa............... ................... ......
Hillsboro (West)-....-................. Tampa ..................Miss Allie Lee Rush
Hillsboro (East)...............................Plant City................Miss Clarine Belcher
Holmes...................Wm. A. Sessoms......Bonifay-.................Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Jackson..................Gus York..................Marianna.............. Miss Alice W. Lewis
Jackson (Asst.)....Aubrey Hudson........Marianna.................................. ..................
Jefferson................E. H. Finlayson........Monticello.................Miss Ruby Brown
Lafayette ..............P. R. McMullen......... Mayo .............................. ...............
Lake...... .............C. R. Hiatt................Tavares ................ .................. .....
Leon..................G. C. Hodge..............Tallahassee..........Miss Ethyl Holloway
Levy.......................N. J. Allbritton........Bronson...............Miss Wilma Richardson
Liberty..........Dewey H. Ward......Bristol..................Miss Josephine Nimmot
Madison.................R. A. Stratford..........Madison...............................
Manatee ................John H. Logan..........Bradenton................Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion..................Clyde H. Norton......Ocala.........................Miss Tillie Roesel
Okaloosa................Joseph W. Malone....Orestview ......................................... ...
Okeechobee............C. A. Fulford............Okeechobee.............................. ..................
Orange.................K. C. Moore..............Orlando...............Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola..................J. R. Gunn................Kissimmee.................Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach...........M. U. Mounts............West Palm Beach....Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
Pinellas..................Wm. Gomme.............Clearwater..................Mrs. Joy Belle Hess
Polk.......................W. P. Hayman..........Bartow...................-- Miss Lois Godbey
St. Johns................Loonis Blitch ............St. Augustine............Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie............................... ..Ft. Pierce................Miss Bertha Hausman
Santa Rosa............John G. Hudson........Milton................... Miss Eleanor Barton
Sarasota...............W E. Evans..............Sarasota .........................................................
Seminole................C. R. Dawson............Sanford..............Miss Josephine Boydston
Suwannee.............. S. C. Kierce..............Live Oak.---....................Miss Eunice Grady
Taylor.............R. S. Dennis.............Perry............... ........ Miss Floy Moses
Union..............L. T. Dyer................Lake Butler............................................
Volusia...............................................DeLand..........Mrs. Marguerite Norton
Wakulla................. Aubrey Dunscombe..Crawfofrdville...........................................
Walton...................Mitchell Wilkins ......DeFuniak Springs....Miss Eloise McGriff
Washington...........Henry Hudson..........Chipley ..................................................
*This list correct to December 31, 1934.
**Resigned effective December 31, 1934.
t Works in two counties.
Fig. 1.-Through 4-H Club recreational activities, rural boys and
REPORT FOR 1934
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR
Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the
Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of
Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1934, and a summary of the activities of the Service for
the calendar year 1934.
Emergency work has received the attention of Extension Service em-
ployees this year in large amount, but the regular programs of demonstra-
tion work have been continued with little diminution. The year 1934 may
be considered as having been a successful one for the Extension Service
from all standpoints. Reports by specialists and supervisors, found else-
where, give a general view of the activities in the various lines during the
The adjustment program was most important in the counties of northern
and western Florida, and here it was necessary to modify the regular
schedule of work to a certain extent. Commodities affected by the program
in Florida have been principally cotton, tobacco and corn-hogs.
In the area affected, it is estimated 75% of the County Agents' time
has been given over to the adjustment program. The farmers responded
readily and the cooperation has been excellent from the beginning.
In Central and South Florida the Extension Service has not materially
changed its program from that of former years. The program there for
horticulture, dairying and poultry has occupied the County Agents' time
with the addition of work that fits into the rehabilitation program, and in
this the Home Demonstration Agents have had the most important part.
There has been a decided interest in a live-at-home program in this area,
and encouragement has been given to the proposal to produce the things
needed by the family on the farm'as far as practical.
Under the direction of the Organization Specialist, in cooperation with
the State Marketing Bureau, marketing agreements have been presented
for consideration dealing with Irish potatoes, strawberries, watermelons
and citrus fruits. The County Agents have served their communities in
the distribution of information leading to the organization of such groups,
and their offices have been made headquarters for local organizations
interested in the welfare of such marketing agreements.
On account of the large production of horticultural products in South
Florida, marketing and financing problems stand out as among the most
important from the farmers' standpoint. The County Agents' offices have
served the farmers by way of securing loans for production purposes and
have cooperated with the Farm Credit Administration in the setting up of
committees and selection of officers to handle the loan organizations. They
have also cooperated with the Federal Seed Loan Office of Memphis, Ten-
Florida Cooperative Extension
nessee, and their offices have been made clearinghouses for applications
from farmers for emergency and seed loans.
The County Agents of this area have also been active in assisting the
Emergency Relief Administration. They have offered their services to
appointees of the Relief Administration in drafting programs, and in many
cases their offices have been made headquarters for such efforts. The
Administrative Office in GainesVille has given every assistance requested
that suitable persons might be employed and their operations directed to
the best advantage.
In the case of rehabilitation with rural women, Assistant Home Demon-
stration Agents have been appointed to work in rural homes as assistants
to the County Home Demonstration Agents, and look to the Home Agents
for direction of their programs. This arrangement was decided on by a
joint agreement between the Director of Extension and the Director of
Rural Rehabilitation. An account of their operations is given in the report
of the State Home Demonstration Agent.
EMERGENCY CATTLE PURCHASES
Due to excessive rainfall in June, a large area of the most important
cattle section of Florida became flooded. At the request of the cattle
owners of that area the Commodity Division of the F.E.R.A. consented to
purchase 10% of the cattle in the flooded area. This undertaking was
submitted to the Agricultural Extension Service, and W. J. Sheely was
appointed as director of the cattle purchases. From seven Central Florida
counties over 16,000 cattle were purchased according to. regulations and
prices fixed by the Commodity Division, F.E.R.A.
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
The work of the Home Demonstration Agents has been largely modified
because of rehabilitation work. It was recognized at the beginning that a
large number of rural people living on farms were in immediate need of
relief. The problem, therefore, was to rehabilitate them that they might
make their living from the farm and homestead as far as possible. This
rehabilitation work extended into practically every county in Florida and
the Emergency 'Relief Program was set up and directed by the Supervisory
Staff from the State Home Demonstration Office. While this rehabilitation
work has been done largely by assistants, it has necessarily occupied a large
portion of the Home Demonstration Agents' time and energies. This work
is described in the report of the State Home Demonstration Agent.
4-H CLUB WORK
The 4-H club work, particularly with boys, has been handicapped because
of other pressing duties and emergency programs. Never-the-less, enroll-
ment has increased. The State Club Agent was able to secure the assistance
of interested club members who, under the direction of the County Agents,
endeavored to keep the organization of 4-H club work intact. These special
workers were employed and paid by the F.E.R.A., and were extremely
helpful in securing reports on projects undertaken. In counties where AAA
and other emergency programs did not seriously interfere, 4-H club work
4-H CLUB CAMPS
Progress for the improvement of 4-H club work has been made by way
of providing regional summer camps. Two camps are now available. One
is on Choctawhatchee Bay on property owned by the U. S. Forest Service.
Annual Report, 1934
This camp has facilities to accommodate 250 persons with central cottages
for the supervisors. The camp is equipped with electric lights, an adequate
water supply and toilet facilities. An expenditure of approximately $5,000
has been made and improvements will be added as fast as finances permit.
A second camp was established in the Ocala National Forest property
to serve Central Florida counties. This camp was originally constructed
to serve a Civilian Conservation Corps camp and was turned over to the
Extension Service as a 4-H camp with several buildings and other im-
The County Agent of the county in which this camp is located was able
to secure an F.E.R.A. project supplying approximately $800 worth of labor.
The Extension Service expended approximately $500 on purchases. The
camp is favorably located on a small lake, has facilities to accommodate
approximately 100 persons, and is equipped with an excellent kitchen for
which equipment was donated from the dining rooms of the University
of Florida and the Florida State College for Women.
The improvements and equipment have an approximate value of $5,000.
Both camps are used for holding farmers' meetings conducted by the
As the Negro work in Florida is confined largely to the counties growing
basic commodities, their programs, too, have been modified because of
changing agricultural conditions. The Negro Agents have served in a
limited way to assist the Negro farmers in their plans as governed by the
adjustment program. However, emphasis has been placed on the necessity
of a well balanced agricultural program especially needed during times of
uncertain markets. Particular emphasis has been placed on the live-at-
home program, and the necessity for home canning and the production of
supplies needed to maintain the farm family.
The citrus industry represents the largest horticultural interest in this
state. The acreage of citrus trees has been gradually increased to such
an extent that with a normal crop the marketing of it is a very .important
undertaking and economy must be exercised in production methods. The
Economics Section of the Extension Service has conducted a series of cost
studies in cooperation with the Florida Experiment Station, and has pro-
vided cost accounting record books to be kept under the direction of the
County Agents. These records have been summarized and returned to the
producers after they have been analyzed in order that the growers might
have a comparative conception of their year's business.
The County Agents in the citrus area have given more than usual
attention to the problems of culture and fertilization, these being the
operations that can be modified to reduce or increase cost of production
more than any other items in grove culture. The Citriculturist, in coopera-
tion with the County Agents of the more important citrus areas, has made
this a most important undertaking, and the response from the growers
has been generous.
The supervisory staff consists of the following: Director, Vice-Director
and County Agent Leader, three district agents for men's work and three
for women's work; the State Home Demonstration Agent, Boys' Club Agent
and specialists in citriculture, dairying, animal husbandry, poultry, market-
ing, farm management, and rodent control. Two district agents serve as
part-time specialists, one in agronomy and another in organization and
Florida Cooperative Extension
outlook work. On the home demonstration staff there is one nutritionist,
one economist in marketing and one agent in home improvement.
In home demonstration work, the special projects are directed by the
nutritionist, economist in marketing, and specialist in home improvement.
In addition, projects having to do with rehabilitation work are carried on
in practically every county.
The Extension Service is cooperating with the Bureau of Animal Indus-
try in animal husbandry work, and with the Bureau of Biological Survey
in rodent control.
There are 47 counties with white Extension agents, all of these counties
financially supporting Extension work. Projects represent all phases of
horticulture, agriculture, livestock and poultry typical of this state, and
agricultural economics confined to specialized phases of our agriculture in
In the Negro work, 14 counties are being served, eight of these by
Home Demonstration Agents and six by Farm Demonstration Agents.
Three of the counties contribute to the support of Negro Home Demonstra-
tion Work; the other counties are supported by state and federal funds.
The Negro work is supervised by one District Agent who has his head-
quarters at the A. & M. College for Negroes, Tallahassee.
CHANGES IN STAFF
The following changes have taken place during the past year: Dr.
J. E. Turlington resigned as Economist on January 1, 1934, on account of
ill health. His work was taken over by Dr. C. V. Noble, who also heads
the agricultural economics departments in the College of Agriculture and
Frank W. Brumley, Economist in Farm Management, was granted leave
of absence effective October 1, 1934, for a year's study at Cornell University
pursuing his doctor's degree. To continue his work R. Holt Howard was
appointed Assistant in Farm Management.
W. E. Evans, former County Agent, was appointed for a short period
during 1934 as Assistant District Agent in North Florida to assist with
the administrative duties in adjustment work.
Miss Mary E. Keown, District Agent, was granted leave of absence,
effective July 1, 1934, to organize home demonstration work in Porto Rico,
at the request of the Director of Extension, Washington, D. C. Her place
is temporarily filled by Miss Anna Mae Sikes, formerly Extension Nutri-
tionist. Mrs. Eva Culley was appointed to fill the place vacated by Miss
Sikes with the title, Acting Nutritionist.
There have been relatively few changes in the personnel of the County
and Home Agents. County Agents have been appointed in the following
additional counties: Brevard, Columbia, Gadsden, Sarasota and Seminole.
Home Demonstration Agents have been appointed in the following counties:
Brevard, Clay, Levy, St. Lucie, Seminole, Suwannee and Volusia. These
additional counties represent the largest increase of any year since 1927.
Other counties in addition to these have made provision for and requested
Extension work, but due to lack of funds it has not been possible to co-
operate with all counties making application for Agents.
COOPERATION WITH OTHER INSTITUTIONS
Other departments of the College of Agriculture and the Home Eco-
nomics Department of the State College for Women have extended generous
cooperation along many lines to make Extension work more effective during
the year. Practically every department in the Teaching Division and Ex-
periment Station has rendered generous assistance.
Annual Report, 1934 11
The Florida State Marketing Bureau, the Commissioner of Agriculture
and the Live Stock Sanitary Board have problems in common with the
Extension Service dealing with the distribution of marketable crops, plants
and livestock and in the control of diseases of livestock and poultry.
The Commissioner of Agriculture's office cooperates in the distribution
of state funds used in payment of County Agents' salaries.
The Forest Service of Florida cooperates in conservation work, princi-
pally with 4-H clubs, the purpose of which is to protect the timber growth.
The State Board of Health works with the home demonstration projects
in nutrition and health educational work.
The State Plant Board cooperates to facilitate the distribution of plant
materials used in projects supervised by County and Home Demonstration
The Agricultural Extension Service has cooperated with the Federal
Land Bank and its agents in Columbia, S. C., with the Intermediate Credit
Bank, the Farm Credit Administration, and the Agricultural Finance Cor-
poration in every way possible that these agencies may provide the best
assistance possible to the farmers of this state.
The Extension Service has cooperated with the State Poultry Associa-
tion, the various marketing agencies handling fruits and vegetables, the
State Horticultural Society, the State Fern Growers Association, in pro-
moting the interest involved in the welfare of the farmers affected.
There has been a closer relationship between the County Agents and
the vocational agriculture teachers this year. The county employees have
arranged their programs in conference with each other, have carried out
their rally and contest days in a cooperative way, and have worked to
harmonize the educational features of their work. Vocational teachers
have assisted with the agricultural adjustment work as far as their time
The Extension Service has supplied assistance to vocational teachers
in handling their instructional and educational programs in the counties.
METHODS USED FOR INCREASING EFFICIENCY
Frequent conferences with the Extension Staff to provide uniformity
in subject matter are held with the subject matter specialists of the Teach-
ing Division and the Experiment Station. Valuable assistance has been
received also from the various bureaus of the Department of Agriculture.
SThe Home Demonstration Staff is in frequent conferences with depart-
ment heads of the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida and
Experiment Station and with the specialists in Extension work. They also
receive cooperation from the Home Economics Department of the Florida
State College for Women.
The Negro Agents are given assistance from various specialists in the
Extension Service, particularly in agronomy, poultry, home economics and
SOURCES OF REVENUE
The Extension Service has three main sources of revenue as follows:
A. Funds appropriated by the United States Department of Agriculture.
B. State offset from Extension Funds appropriated by the Florida
C. County appropriations.
The offset funds required for State Smith-Lever funds have been appro-
priated by the Legislature. Other offset funds needed have been made
available through county appropriations.
12 Florida Cooperative Extension
The attached financial statement shows that finances from federal
sources total $149,479.98, and from state sources, $163.841.98; of these
state sources, $86,715.98 are supplied by county boards.
The Legislature of 1933 reduced its annual appropriation in support of
The Negro work is financed almost entirely from State and Federal
On the approval of the State Director, F.E.R.A., county offices have
received clerical assistance. On the whole, it has served a good purpose.
With increased demands on county offices due to adjustment and other
programs, more dependable clerical assistance is needed in 75% of the
For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1934
Smith-Lever and Supplemental.............................. $ 84,684.24
Capper-Ketcham ....................................................... 26,555.74
Additional Cooperative.............................................. 20,500.00
U S. D A .................................................................. 15,700.00
Bureau of Animal Industry................................... 2,040.00
Smith-Lever Offset......................................... ......... $ 53,968.80
Direct Appropriation................................................ 18,157.20
Continuing Appropriation........................................ 5,000.00
County Appropriations ............................................ 86,715.98
Administration....................................... ......... $ 7,510.62
County Agent Work-..-....... -------. 127,111.66
Boys' Clubs ........................................... 6,391.55
Home Demonstration Work.................................... 94,107.43
Food Conservation...................................................... 3,497.45
N nutrition ........................ ........................................ 3,580.00
Home Improvement ............................... .... 3,759.28
Dairy Husbandry ...................................... .. 5,255.13
Animal Husbandry.................................................... 4,202.25
Farm and Home Makers (Negro Work).............. 22,329.53
Citriculture........................................................ .... 4,569.07
Poultry Husbandry................................................... 3,928.60
Extension Schools................................................ 1,025.41
Agricultural Economics............................................ 11,506.10
Florida National Egg Laying Contest.................. 5,952.84
Unexpended Balance.................................................. 1,624.30
Annual Report, 1934
AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT WORK
The Agricultural Adjustment Program, as carried out in Florida, was
authorized under the Agricultural Adjustment Act of Congress approved
May 12, 1933.
,The Act declares that "it is the policy of Congress to raise the pur-
chasing power of American farmers to the level which it occupied in the
base period," the five years from 1909 to 1914, when agricultural and
industrial production and prices were well balanced, and the national income
was equitably distributed.
The.Agricultural Adjustment Act empowers the President, through the
Secretary of Agriculture, to assist farmers in adjusting the production
of certain basic commodities to meet effectively the demand without sac-
rificing income, and to put into effect marketing agreements on agricultural
commodities designed to insure fair prices to producers, efficient and equit-
able distribution of the production, and protection for the consumers of the
In order to effectuate the declared policy, the Secretary of Agricul-
ture will have the power
(1) To provide for reduction in the acreage or in the produc-
tion for market, or both, of any basic agricultural commodity,
through agreement with the producer, or by other voluntary meth-
ods, and to provide for rental or benefit payments in connection
therewith, or upon that part of any basic agricultural commodity
required for domestic consumption in such amount as the Secretary
deems fair and reasonable, to be paid out of any moneys available
for such payments."
The program was entirely voluntary. The reduction program of the
Act contains no power to order such reductions.
The basic commodities most affecting Florida's agriculture are: cotton,
corn, hogs, tobacco, milk and its products, and peanuts. The reduction
programs as carried out in Florida in 1934 were with cotton, corn-hogs,
An adjustment program for peanuts was put into effect at the close
of the growing season. It provides for a reduction program in 1935, and
those who participate in 1935 will receive benefit payments on their 1934
In carrying out the provisions of the Act in Florida, the Agricultural
Extension Service was assigned the responsibility of handling the program.
The program called for supervision by the Director of Extension and to
carry it out, the County Agents were assigned the responsibility of direct-
ing the work in the counties. This program required the appointment of
State Allotment Boards, Boards of Review, and County and Community
Associations, thereby establishing contact between the Agricultural Ad-
justment Administration of the Federal Government and the producers of
basic commodities in the state of Florida. This extensive program has
therefore required an intensive effort and has placed additional duties on
the Extension Service, which also has its regular program of Extension
work formerly assigned by the state and federal governments. This reduc-
tion program was applicable to 50 percent of the counties of Florida.
The remaining counties of Florida were affected by the Agricultural
Adjustment Act on account of marketing agreements, which apply to the
sale and distribution of dairy products, celery, strawberries, Irish potatoes,
and citrus fruits. Marketing agreements affecting these commodities have
Florida Cooperative Extension
been supervised in Florida by the Agricultural Extension Service, the State
Marketing Bureau, and the Commodity Section of the Agricultural Adjust-
STATE REVIEW BOARD
District Agent H. G. Clayton was designated as Chairman of the State
Board of Review. He makes the following brief report of the work in
connection with the voluntary contracts of 1934-35 for cotton production
(1) Contracts called for a reduction of 35 to 45% of the 5-year average
(2) Producers eligible to sign contracts were:
(a) Producers growing cotton 4 or 5 years of the base period.
(b) Producers growing cotton 3 years of base period, one of which
was 1931 or 1932 .
(c) Producers growing cotton in both 1931 and 1932.
(d) Producers who cooperated in the 1933 plow-up program.
(3) (a) Producers received rental benefits per acre at the rate of 3%c
per pound for the average adjusted per acre yield with a maxi-
mum of $18.00.
(b) And in addition a parity payment of 1%c per pound for 40%
of the permitted production.
(4) Contracts applied to the land and were executed by owners, cash
renters and managing share tenants.
In each cotton county the County Agent was the representative of the
Secretary of Agriculture and the State Extension Service. A County Cotton
Control Committee and community committeemen composed of local cotton
producers supervised the filling out of contracts, measuring acreage, ap-
praising yields, and adjusting individual contracts. Assistant County
Agents were appointed to handle much detailed work in connection with
the contracts. Assistants and committeemen were paid by the AAA.
In several cases County Agents handled adjoining counties where there
were no Agents employed.
After the contracts were executed in the counties, a tabulation sheet
showing the essential data from each contract was submitted to the State
Board of Review. This Board represented the State and the Agricultural
Adjustment Administration and checked the county figures of individual
contractors and secured adjustments so the totals for the county would be
in line.with the percentage of production under contract when compared
to the official figures for the county's production during the base period.
This work involved a large amount of detailed calculations to secure
the required adjustment, which was submitted to the County Committee,
and it in turn made adjustments in the individual contracts to get the
totals within the required amounts. Each producer whose contract was
adjusted was contacted to secure his approval.
The following table contains a summary by counties of the contracts.
Annual Report, 1934 15
COTTON RENTAL AND BENEFIT CONTRACTS ACCEPTED,
County Contracts Average Base Rented Acres
Production Acres IAcres Allowed
Alachua............ 79 100,951 729.8 299 430.8
Baker................ 6 7,983 56.0 21 35.0
Calhoun ............ 81 182,356 1,200.0 486 714.0
Columbia.......... 256 579,861 4,655.5 1,799 2,856.5
Escambia.......... 344 857,439 5,516.7 2,203 3,313.7
Gadsden............ 64 65,186 438.2 182 256.2
Gilchrist........... 5 6,857 51.0 23 28.0
Hamilton.......... 393 959,962 7,573.5 2,997 4,576.5
Holmes.............. 523 1,647,044 10,738.5 4,198 6,540.5
Jackson............. 1,160 3,076,895 20,514.9 8,049 12,465.9
Jefferson........... 337 503,308 4,134.1 1,625 2,509.1
Lafayette......... 87 146,810 1,123.7 441 682.7
Leon............ 316 684,212 5,128.0 2,022 3,106.0
Levy.............. 47 63,169 404.0 160 244.0
Madison......... 527 1,076,398 8,606.8 3,270 5,336.8
Okaloosa........... 390 1,199,786 7,532.9 3,012 4,520.9
Santa Rosa....... 521 2,225,943+ 12,260.7+ 4,895+ 7,365.7
Suwannee......... 578 953,114 7,706.4 3,085 4,621.4
Taylor............ 13 30,329 220.0 87 133.0
Union............. 3 13,840 108.0 43 65.0
Wakulla........... 7 10,531 81.0 37 44.0
Walton................ 444 992,993 6,791.5 2,687 4,104.5
Washington..... 227 382,990 2,417.2 987 1,430.2
Totals............. 6,408 157,679.57 108,112.40 72,264 65,449.4
BANKHEAD COTTON TAX EXEMPTION WORK
The Bankhead Cotton Control Act was passed by Congress to supple-
ment the voluntary adjustment program with cotton. Essential provisions
of the act were to establish national, state and county quotas of cotton
which could be marketed tax-free, these quotas to be set each year by the
Secretary of Agriculture. Production in excess of allotments covered by
tax exemption certificates is subject to a ginning tax (of 50% of the
average central market price). Provision was made for transfer of surplus
certificates between growers.
Mr. Clayton also served as chairman of the State Allotment Board
which handled applications for and issued the tax-exemption certificates
to individual growers. The same county committees and community com-
mitteemen who served in the voluntary program assisted with this work.
Each producer of cotton signed a sworn application with the county
committee setting forth the cotton history (acreage and production for each
year of the base period) for the land he was farming in 1934. Owners,
cash renters and standing rent tenants were eligible to file applications.
Where growers had signed voluntary reduction contracts, data for their
exemption applications were taken directly from their contracts. Non-
contractors filed applications and the county committees adjusted these
to be in line with contractors.
The Bankhead Act provided that 10,000,000 bales could be ginned tax-
free. This amount of tax-exempt cotton was allotted to various states
and counties in proportion to their cotton production during the base period,
Florida Cooperative Extension
1928-32. Florida's allotment was 24,683 bales of 478 pounds each. Nihety
percent of this amount was allotted to individual counties. Ten percent
was placed in the state reserve and was allotted to individual producers
(irrespective of county lines) who qualified under one or more of the
(a) Producers who had less than Y/ of their cultivated land in cotton.
(b) New producers who began production since 1932.
(c) Producers who had already reduced acreage over 40%.
(d) Producers who, during one or more years of the base period, had
yields '/ below their 5 year average production, such reduction
being the result of uncontrollable natural causes.
Producers who qualified under a, c, or d received cotton tax-exemption
certificates from the state reserve in addition to the amount received from
the county quota. New producers (b) could receive no tax-exemption cer-
tificates from the county quota since they had no production during the
base period and received all certificates issued to them from the state
Wages for committeemen and clerical help employed in the operation
of the Bankhead Act were paid from funds of the Agricultural Adjustment
Two issues of tax-exemption certificates were made in Florida and no
interim certificates were used.
The following table summarizes the operations of the Bankhead Cotton
Act: Bales Pounds of Lint
State Reserve ....................................... 2,469 1,179,840
County Quotas................................. .. 22,214 10,618,560
Total State Allotment.............................. 24,683 11,798,400
TOBACCO PRODUCTION ADJUSTMENT
The adjustment program for flue-cured tobacco in Florida was handled
through the State Agricultural Extension Service, with Economist D. E.
Timmons in charge. (The work with shade tobacco was not delegated to
this office.) This program met with excellent response, and it is estimated
that 90 percent of the eligible growers of flue-cured tobacco signed
There were 1,025 contracts signed and accepted, with two rejected and
12 still awaiting final acceptance. The 1,025 contractors had a base acreage
of 5,985.4 acres, with an allotted acreage of 4,185.4 acres.
Contracting growers agreed to reduce their acreage at least 30 percent
of their bases. They could choose as their base acreage the average
acreage grown during the three years 1931, 1932 and 1933, or 85 percent
of the average for any two of those years, or 70 percent of the 1931
acreage, or 80 percent of the 1933 acreage. Rental payments were to be
$17.50 an acre. In addition, growers were to receive an adjustment pay-
ment of 12 percent of the net sale price of the tobacco, up to 21 cents
a pound. Each grower was paid 2 cents a pound for all that he lacked
of producing his allotment. For 1934 Florida farmers planted 64 percent
of their base, when their allotment was 70 percent of base.
Statistics on the flue-cured tobacco adjustment work in Florida for
1934 are shown in the following table.
Annual Report, 1934
TABLE 1.-RESULTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO ADJUSTMENT WORK IN
n .................. 4
I Base Allotted
I Production IAcreage
By December 31, 1934, Florida farmers had received $126,789.37 in
rental and equalization payments. It is estimated that they will receive
$70,000 in adjustment payments. In addition to these amounts, they have
received $2,730.95 from excess allotments sold to North Carolina contract
Rental and equalization payments received by Florida farmers on 1,025
of the 1,039 contracts signed are shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2.-RENTAL AND EQUALIZATION PAYMENTS RECEIVED BY 1,025
FLORIDA TOBACCO CONTRACTORS.
Gadsden ......... 18
Florida Cooperative Extension
The average price of Florida flue-cured tobacco was 11.8 cents per
pound for the 1933 crop. The average price for the total sales at the Live
Oak warehouses for the 1934 crop was 20.8 cents per pound, or an increase
of 76 percent over the 1933 average.
The Extension Economist in Marketing had the responsibility of check-
ing tobacco contracts and assisting county allotment committees with
making individual contract allotments. He acted as agent for the repre-
sentative of the Secretary of Agriculture in the final approval of tobacco
contracts. After approval by the State Office, these contracts were trans-
mitted to the Contract Records Section of the Agricultural Adjustment
Administration in Washington for final acceptance and payments.
The State Office, under the supervision of the Marketing Specialist,
issued all allotment and marketing cards distributed in Florida. When
the season closed, it was necessary to have these allotment cards returned
to the State Office where they were checked against the duplicate copies
of tax-payment warrants.
Florida's tobacco yield for 1934 was 118 pounds per acre less than the
three year average of 1931-33. This resulted in excess allotments to
farmers. The Marketing Specialist arranged with the Extension represent-
ative of North Carolina to handle some of these excess allotments. To
date, one-half million pounds of excess allotments have been sold to North
Carolina producers, for which $2,730.95 has been paid to the farmers of
The Kerr-Smith Act, the immediate object of which was to bring tobacco
production in line with consumption by limiting production in 1934 to not
more than 500,000,000 pounds of flue-cured tobacco, was signed by the
President on June 28. It was designed to place the tobacco growing indus-
try on a sound financial and economic basis, to prevent unfair competition
and practices in the production and marketing of tobacco entering into the
channels of interstate and foreign commerce, and for other purposes.
The act placed a tax on all types of tobacco sold, except that covered
by exemption allotments. The rate of this tax was to be set by the
Secretary of Agriculture, but could not exceed 33% percent nor be less
than 25 percent of the average selling price of the tobacco.
All tobacco growers who signed contracts with the Secretary of Agri-
culture under the terms of the Agricultural Adjustment Act were to be
issued tax-exemption certificates to equal the amount of their production
allotted under the AAA.
Provision was made in the act for continuance another year by favorable
vote of 75 percent of tobacco farmers.
Administering this tobacco control and tax exemption required a great
deal of time on the part of workers in the Extension Service. They issued
(AAA) allotment cards to growers. Certificates for tax exemption were
issued to farmers by a representative of the Internal 'Revenue Bureau at
the warehouse. These allotment cards and copies of exemption warrants
were later returned to the Agricultural Extension Service for checking
THE CORN-HOG REDUCTION PROGRAM
The corn-hog adjustment program called for reductions of 20% in corn
acreage and 25% in number of market hogs raised in 1934. The contracts
required that farmers could not increase the acreage of any other basic
commodity over that of 1932 or 1933, whichever was the greater. Sales
receipts for hogs sold were required as supporting evidence of claims.
Annual Report, 1934
[f hogs had been butchered and then sold, 150 pounds of meat was taken
;o equal one hog.
Fig. 2.-Farmer, son and County Agent make out a corn-hog adjustment
contract with the aid of the son's 4-H club business record kept on his
For this cooperation the producer was to receive 30c per bushel for the
corn not produced, and $5.00 per head on the 75% of his base production
of market hogs, less the cost of administering this work in the counties.
This program was supervised by District Agent J. Lee Smith.
There were 1,493 contracts accepted, renting to the Secretary 19,262
acres of corn land, with an allotment of 56,939 acres to farmers. For
these rented acres, the farmers received $74,851.80. They had an allotted
production of market hogs of 48,566 head and received in benefit payments
for hogs a total of $242,830. Total benefit and rental payments amounted
A summary of counties having contracts for 1934-35 is shown in Table 3.
All papers, including the supporting evidence, were sent to the State
Office for consideration by the State Board of Review. The board rejected
some contracts, scaled down others, and sent them back to the County
Agents and Corn-Hog Control Associations for acceptance or rejection.
Measuring of land and counting of hogs were done by committeemen
as in compliance on other contracts. The forms were so many and com-
plicated that it was quite expensive to do the committee and clerical work
connected with compliance. The papers were taken into the office of the
State Compliance Officer and all items, including measurement and calcu-
lations, were checked and transmitted to Washington.
TABLE 3.-SUMMARY OF COUNTIES HAVING CORN-HOG REDUCTION CONTRACTS WITH THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE,
I CORN II HOGS
II Base Allotted Benefit Total
No. Base Rented Rental Produced Production Payments Corn-Hog
Counties Contracts Acres Acres Payments For For For Benefit
Market Market Hogs Payments
1 Alachu I q 941 ni70.2 1.7812 i A6.214.50 1 7432 5.74 I $ 2R7fn7000 $ 34.n84
8. Escambia ..................
9. Gadsden............ ......
17. Leon........ ...........
18. Levy........ ..........
25. Santa Rosa...........
26. St. Johns...................
$74.851.80 I 59,982
..,, i ,,,,.,
Annual Report, 1934
PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS
J. Francis Cooper, Editor
R. M. Fulghum, Assistant Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
With the addition of a second Assistant Editor to the Department on
January 8, 1934, largely as a result of agricultural adjustment activities,
the work of the Extension Editorial Department during the year has been
considerably enlarged and improved. Additional service has been rendered
in supplying both radio talks and news and farm paper stories, while the
publication of bulletins and other material has not increased materially.
In addition to the three lines of work mentioned above, the distribution
of bulletins and supplies is handled in this Department. Vast quantities
of supplies for County and Home Demonstration Agents and large numbers
of Extension bulletins were mailed during the year. In addition, the Mailing
clerks ran thousands of copies of mimeograph material for all Extension
workers. The number of stencils used each month averages around 75 or
Continued cooperation was rendered the Agricultural Adjustment Ad-
ministration and the United States Department of Agriculture in the
distribution of news and information relating to the adjustment program
from the standpoints of both the state and the Nation.
The three Editors and two Mailing Clerks devoted about half of their
time to work for the Experiment Station, as in the past.
While no new bulletins were published during the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1934, the number of record books and similar material printed
increased materially. One old bulletin was reprinted during the year.
The Extension calendar was printed as usual, and continued to be one of
the most useful and popular publications of the Extension Service. Follow-
ing is a list of the material printed during the year.
Bul. 69-Buy Health With Your Food Dollar (reprint).............. 48 15,000
Circ. 35-Grapes and Grape Products........................................ 4 10,000
Circ. 22-The Succulent Peach (reprint)......................... 4 10,000
Circ. 24-The Fig (reprint)..............--- -. ..... --- -. 4 10,000
Circ. 25-Pear Products (reprint) ...................... ............ 4 10,000
Circ. 33-The Canning Budget (reprint) ................................... 6 10,000
M. P. 1-Citrus Grove Record Book (revised)..... ..................... 500
M. P. 4-Florida Poultry Record Book for Small Flocks
(revised) .... ............. .. ..................................................... 500
1934 Calendar.................................... ................. ............ 12 10,000
4-H Club Girls' Canning Guide and Record Book........................ 20 15,000
Record Book for 4-H Club Sewing................................... 16 20,000
Record Book for Women in Home Demonstration Work............ 16 15,000
Poultry Club Record Book....................................................... 12 10,000
Record Book for All-Year Home Garden and Orchard Work.... 20 10,000
Record Book for Food, Nutrition and Health................................ 20 15,000
Food Consumption Record ........................ 1,000
4-H Crop Club Record Book (reprint). ........................ 7,000
Rules, Ninth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest................ 2,000
Chick Mortality Card......................... ............................... 1 1,000
Agents' Monthly Report Form........................................ 1 5,000
Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 weeks) *........................ 1 31,500
Monthly Report, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest.............. 2 750
Annual Report, 1933............................ .............................. 92 2,000
*Ten issues, of 750 copies each, were paid for by the State Plant Board.
Florida Cooperative Extension
,NEWS TO DAILY, WEEKLY AND FARM PAPERS
News and informational material in wide variety and large quantities
was supplied to daily, weekly and farm papers during 1934, and was used
extensively by these papers. Reports of adjustment and other activities
of the workers, together with information about improved practices with
crops and livestock, the existing situation and outlook, economical and
informative home suggestions, and other worth while information for
farmers, growers and farm women were furnished the papers.
The clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, was printed and distributed
to weekly newspapers and farm papers each week. It carried from nine
to 12 separate articles each week, and the papers reprinted these articles
generously. Surveys during the year indicate that from 85 to 90 percent
of the weekly newspapers in Florida reprint from this clipsheet from time
to time, many of them each week. The farm papers also use some of the
material it contains.
Special stories were sent to the daily newspapers regularly throughout
about nine months of 1934, and irregularly the other three months. These
were widely used.
For three months special stories to the dailies were supplied through
the state mail service of the Associated Press, and throughout' the year
the most important news stories were handled by the wire service of this
news disseminating organization. Nation-wide publicity was given two
Florida stories by the AP. A farm department, consisting of material
supplied from this office, was carried each Sunday by one large daily paper.
County and home agents furnished articles regularly to their local papers.
Special articles in large number were supplied to farm papers in Florida
by members of the staff, and in still larger number by the three Editors.
These latter also supplied a number of stories to Southern and national
The material from this office used by Florida, Southern and national
farm journals just about doubled during the year. A check shows that
58 separate stories, amounting to 1,858 column inches, supplied by the
Editors were used by four Florida papers, while three Southern farm papers
printed 10 articles totaling 100 column inches. Five journals of national
circulation printed six stories for 122 column inches. Cuts and other
features were furnished to still other special publications with restricted
FARM RADIO PROGRAMS
The Florida Farm Hour each week day over WRUF and daily farm
flashes to five other radio stations in the state were continued throughout
1934, giving good coverage of the entire state with farm radio programs
supplied by the Agricultural Extension Service. Workers in the Experi-
ment Station and others cooperated in supplying material for the talks,
but the programs were supervised and distributed by the Extension Editors.
On the Florida Farm Hour, from 12 to 1 p.m. each week day over
WRUF, livestock market reports were given daily throughout 1934. Citrus
shipment and auction and sales reports were included daily during Novem-
ber and December.
In all, 734 talks, a number of them supplied by the U. S. D. A., were
put on the air during this period in 1934. Thirty-two of these were pre-
pared and given by the Editors themselves. They also prepared and pre-
sented daily farm news highlights, weekly farm news and the weekly farm
Stations receiving and using farm flashes, each about 7 minutes in
length, included WCOA, Pensacola; WMBR, Jacksonville; WDBO, Orlando;
Annual Report, 1934 23
WQAM, Miami; and WSUN, St. Petersburg. During the year 409 separate
flashes were mailed to these stations, 223 of them prepared in this office
and 186 supplied by the United States Department of Agriculture and
approved here. County and Home Demonstration agents in counties where
radio stations are located make frequent use of them, and cooperate in
furnishing the farm flashes.
A special period for farm women, the Florida Home .Period, was pre-
sented by this office over WRUF each week day until the end of June, 1934.
It occupied 15 minutes and used material supplied by state and county
home demonstration workers and the U. S. D. A.
The Agricultural Extension Service cooperated in staging the national
4-H club achievement day program over NBC stations on November 3. This
program consisted of one hour, with the first and last 15 minutes coming
from Washington over the chain and the middle 30 minutes going over each
station locally. There are three Florida stations on the NBC network, and
the local program for each one was arranged by the Extension Service.
Florida Cooperative Extension
PART II-MEN'S WORK
COUNTY AGENT WORK
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
H. G. Clayton, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
Forty-six counties cooperated in the employment of County Agents
during this fiscal year. The state was divided into three districts each
supervised by a District Agent. In the northern and western part of
Florida the agricultural adjustment program consumed the greater part
of the agents' time. This program with cotton, corn-hogs, and tobacco
required very active supervision on the part of the District Agents, and
enlisted the cooperation of some 300 farmers who acted as Committeemen.
The part played by the Extension Service was to carry out the plans laid
down by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration.
In this program, approximately 15,000 different contracts were signed
by farmers, and in this way they participated in the national program as
carried out in all states.
County Agents were drafted for additional duties in connection with
other phases of federal adjustment and relief programs. The Rehabilita-
tion Section of the F.E.R.A. requested that the County Extension Agents
act in an advisory capacity in selecting rehabilitation clients and making
recommendations for their agriculture. They were also drafted to assist
the Farm Credit Administration to facilitate the machinery needed for
making loans to farmers. They were further drafted to assist in collecting
statistical matter required by the Department.of Agriculture through its
various branches. These additional activities consumed more than 60 per-
cent of their time, with the result that many of the usual projects carried
on in the counties were secondary to the emergency programs.
In each county having adjustment programs there were necessarily
county and community committees. These committees approved applica-
tions for contracts and assumed much of the responsibility for the accuracy
of information governing these contracts. The County Agent's office was
headquarters for all such activities, and he assumed the responsibility for
calling meetings and transmitting necessary information to the State Of-
fice, where in turn it was transmitted to the commodity divisions of the
Agricultural Adjustment Administration in Washington. This staff of
County Agents, together with the Committeemen, comprised a larger num-
ber of people engaged in an agricultural program than at any former
period in the history of Florida's agriculture.
This adjustment program has been carried on without any additional
expense from state funds. The extra burdens were borne entirely by the
Agricultural Adjustment Administration.
The personnel of the Supervisory Staff has remained unchanged, but
the District Agents have assumed responsibility for supervision of the
adjustment program. District Agent H. G. Clayton was appointed chair-
man of the Board of Review for Cotton, which duties required more than
50% of his time. District Agent J. Lee Smith was appointed Supervisor
of Compliance, and in charge of the peanut adjustment program. W. T.
Nettles assumed a large responsibility for supervision of Extension work
in additional counties. D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing, was
appointed chairman of the tobacco adjustment work, and he did a good
part of the state work with corn and hogs. W. J. Sheely was appointed
Annual Report, 1934 25
chairman of the corn-hog adjustment program. F. W. Brumley, Economist,
was appointed a member of the State Cotton Board of Review. H. L.
Brown, in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, conducted an
educational campaign in the control of the screw worm fly. N. R. Mehrhof
was appointed leader in the formation of the Florida Poultry Council. It
has, however, been the policy of the Extension Service to keep, as far as
possible, the work undertaken in the various agricultural projects disturbed
just as little as possible, as far as supervision is concerned.
The County Agents in the southern and horticultural counties have
been permitted to carry on their usual programs with less disturbance
than in the northern area. There have, however, been many additional
duties assigned to them due to marketing agreements and county rehabili-
tation and relief programs.
A review of the County Agents' records for the past year indicates
a great diversion of energies, yet in spite of this, none of the projects
formerly making up the Extension program were abandoned or seriously
neglected. The readjustments for the purpose of placing agriculture on
a better basis must necessarily continue.
In carrying out the Extension program in 1934 there was active co-
operation in 346 different communities; 652 men and 56 women gave volun-
tary assistance at the request of the Extension Agents. About one-half
of these assisted with the adjustment program. There were 18,532 farms
participating in agricultural programs, and this, according to the Federal
Census, represents approximately 35% of the total farms in Florida. There
were 23,800 families that were influenced and affected by the Extension
program. The number of actual contacts cannot be correctly stated be-
cause of the numerous programs such as tours, achievement days, short
courses, and a variety of meetings. In all it is estimated that more than
100,000 people made contacts with the Extension Service and participated
in the programs undertaken by the County Extension Agents.
Reports from the County agents show the following.
Soil Improvement.-The crops grown for soil improvement were Aus-
trian peas, vetch, cowpeas, velvet beans, and crotalaria. There were 636
demonstrations. These demonstrations were conducted for the purpose of
determining the adaptability and use according to types of soil and crops;
also to follow out the recommendations governed by the research work
of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and the U. S. Department of
Agriculture. They were conducted on the different types of soil found in
Throughout the citrus area, crotalaria was used more successfully than
other crops, since this crop adapts itself well to citrus soils and cultural
practices. A variety of crops were grown in the general farming area
and of these crotalaria produced the largest tonnage. Its use being re-
stricted to soil improvement, it was not adopted as generally as legumes
that can be fed to livestock, due to their economic importance in the
production of livestock. In many instances increase in yields ran to 10
and 20 percent, and in a few instances the yields were 100 percent over
that produced in adjoining areas where cover crops had not been used.
Cereals.-Cereals consist principally of corn, with limited acreages of
oats and rye. Demonstrations with them were confined almost entirely
to the West Florida area. There were 359 cereal demonstrations with adult
farmers. The farmers conducted these demonstrations following recom-
mendations in reference to fertilizer, seed selection, disease and insect
control, spacing, and cultivation.
26 Florida Cooperative Extension
The demonstrations conducted with oats and rye and other cereals were
mainly for the purpose of providing winter pasture and feed for livestock.
The recommendations were largely as to varieties of oats and rye and
the use of nitrogenous fertilizer to stimulate growth during the spring
months. For the most part oats and rye were used only as forage crops
and not as grain.
Cotton-There were relatively few demonstrations carried on with
cotton, and those few were in reference to culture and fertilizer practices
principally, the main emphasis being placed on fertilizer practices and the
selection of areas that should be taken out of production so that farmers
might get the greatest returns from their efforts. Since the average yield
of cotton is relatively low in Florida, there is continued effort to increase
the yield based on experimental data and practical experience.
Tobacco.-The principal work with tobacco was in connection with the
adjustment program. The most important tobacco area is comprised of six
counties. There was a limited number of the usual demonstrations for the
purpose of securing healthy plants aind selection of suitable soils, fertilizer,
cultivation, and curing.
Irish Potatoes.-The important Irish potato growing areas in Florida
are located in Escambia, St. Johns, Flagler and Dade counties, although
there are limited acreages throughout several of the Central Florida coun-
ties. In the main producing areas, Extension work was largely with the
problems of disease-free seed, insect and disease control, and marketing.
In order to assist in the marketing of potatoes in Florida, the Extension
Service cooperates with the Early Potato' Growers' Association, which
association has membership in all the .Eastern early producing area, also
with the Federal Bureau of Agricultural Economics and the Extension
Service. Effort was directed toward better distribution of Florida potatoes.
This was handled through shippers' organizations, particularly in the
Hastings and Flagler area.
Citrus Fruits.-Extension work in citrus groves extends into every
citrus growing county. A unified citrus growing program was planned
and approved by the Extension Service, County Agents, and research
workers of the Experiment Station. The main program was centered
around economy of production, improved quality of fruit, and irrigation.
Since the acreage of bearing trees continues to increase throughout
the State of Florida without a correspondingly expanding market, the most
severe problem confronting the growers is to maintain a low cost of
production. This low cost of production has been centered around studies
of commercial fertilizer requirements, proper use and conservation of cover
crops, and economy in cultural practices. During the months of September
and October, on account of the lack of rainfall, drouth conditions presented
a serious problem for the growers in the ridge area. To meet this situation
the Citriculturist and the County Agents gave special attention to irrigation
County Agents have carried out the usual programs for the control of
insects and disease.
Vegetables.-The work with vegetables may be divided into two main
divisions: first, commercial crops, and second, home gardens.
In the important commercial vegetable growing areas, special attention
was given to fertilization, mainly substituting in part inorganic material
for organic, and studying fertilizer costs in respect to nitrogen. Cover
crops consisted principally of crotalaria and native grasses. Seed treat-
ment was mainly to procure a better stand and more thrifty plants.
Emphasis was placed on more timely applications for insect control and
Annual Report, 1934
protection against disease spores, rather than control after the plants
were infected. Also, there:were demonstrations in the use of the newer
insecticides and fungicides,'as directed by the departments of the Florida
Due to economic conditions, the efforts of Extension and relief workers
with gardens have been greatly increased. The County Agents have
assisted relief workers in determining varieties, planting dates, fertilizer
practices and use of crops. This has added considerably to the food supply
in large areas throughout the state. Since there are many problems
involved in this in which the Home Demonstration Agents also,took an
active part, this has required a very large part of the agents' time.
Feed Crops and Pastures.-Demonstrations with feed crops and contacts
with livestock men are a part of practically every County Agent's work.
Special emphasis has been placed on the use of pastures. With the large
areas of unimproved lands it is recognized that much time can be given
to this problem with a view to improving the livestock of this state.
The dairymen have been particularly active in improving their pastures,
especially in the localities of the larger dairy producing sections. Increasing
acreages of cut-over lands have been purchased by dairymen, particularly
in the Jacksonville and Tampa areas. These pastures have been improved
by seeding with carpet grass, by mowing the weeds, by avoiding over-
pasturing, and in a few cases with fertilizer applications. .With the rise
in price of grains and greater competition in the production of dairy
products, economy of production has been considered the most important
phase of this type of Extension work.
While this applies to a lesser extent to beef cattle and hogs it is part
of practically every County Agent's program.
Forage and Silage.-Special emphasis has been given to suitable silage
crops and types of silage. Dairymen of Duval County have materially
increased the number of silos in- use-some of these at considerable cost,
but for the most part surface or underground silos. This has attracted
considerable attention since it has been found that much can be done
with a limited outlay of 'cash and by the main expense being in the farm
labor. Forty silos of this type are now being used in one county. These
vary in capacity from 50 to 200 tons. For the most part the crop stored
is corn. The quality of the feed compares favorably with that produced
in the more expensive types of silos, and has served as an excellent dem-
onstration of a means of reducing the cost of production.
Special attention also was given to the use of varieties of sugarcane
as a soiling crop for dairy cattle. This gives promise of greater develop-
ment since the production per acre is larger than with most other crops,
and the results so far show that it produces a satisfactory forage crop for
cattle. The use of other improved grasses suitable to the type of soil has
been part of the 1934 Extension program.
Livestock.-The livestock program is primarily with dairy cattle, beef
cattle and hogs. Due to the low prices received by farmers for beef and
pork, many farmers of limited areas have practically discontinued their
operations. The adjustment program received the greatest attention
through 1934. There continues to be, however, a definite interest in the
improvement of livestock in our general farming area. And this was
intensified during the latter part of the year due to the increased prices
Demonstrations with hogs during the past year have been largely in
feed production, consisting principally of growing forage crops during
"the summer months together with fattening crops, principally peanuts.
And in this the 4-H clubs have played an important part. While the number
#$~- -~ I
Fig. 3.-Proper equipment enables Florida farmers to produce and cure a g
had meat for home use and for sale.
Annual Report, 1934
of breeders has not increased, the County Agents have stimulated a demand
for improvement in quality, and their demonstrations have been built
around the problem of better quality together with cheaper feeds.
In addition the home curing of pork has received special attention,
principally under the direction of the Animal Husbandman, as shown in
his report. Also proper butchering, cutting and curing methods have been
explained. And since cold storage has been made available to most farming
areas, County Agents have encouraged proper storage and curing methods.
In this help has been given by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Schools
have been carried out demonstrating better practices in curing and handling
of meat. This has resulted in a much larger supply of home cured meat
of a decidedly superior quality.
County Agents have continued their efforts in the control of hog
cholera, and in most important hog growing counties this has occupied
approximately 50 percent of the County Agents' time. They have cooper-
ated with the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, thereby enabling farmers
to have their hogs treated at a minimum cost.
During the early part of the year prices of dairy products were rela-
tively low, with the result that there has been little encouragement for
increasing farm dairying. Emphasis therefore has been placed on dairying
to supply the family needs with the home dairy cow. This has been further
emphasized by relief organizations, and the general emphasis on the need
of dairy products for the better nourishment of the family. County Agents
have endeavored to get distribution of dairy cows on farms where they
can be properly cared for, and have emphasized the importance of home-
grown feeds to make the undertaking a success.
In the commercial dairies emphasis has been placed on production and
economical use of feeds; home-grown feeds have been the principal part
of the program, the selection of purchased feeds and maintenance rations,
the culling out of unprofitable animals, and the raising of heifers from
the best cows in order to replenish the herd. Special attention has been
given to parasite control, since this is all-important in the production of
Assistance in Control of Screw Worm Fly.-The screw worm affects all
kinds of livestock, and livestock producers of Florida are deeply interested
in methods of combatting this pest. This menace was first found in Florida
in 1933 and through 1934 was located in most of the areas where cattle
and hogs are kept. Since this pest was relatively new in Florida, the
various agencies of the State and Federal Governments undertook to control
its spread and to promote an educational program that would assist in its
control. Through cooperation with the FERA, programs were put into
effect for the purpose of destroying carcasses and otherwise controlling
the screw worm invasion of the various counties. These organizations
were headed up in the County Agent's office.
These programs were effective in 24 Florida counites in 1934. The Live
Stock Sanitary Board, the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Florida
Experiment Station issued timely information on proper methods of pro-
cedure, and much voluntary assistance was given by the farmers of the
state to prevent the spread of the screw worm fly. This work was directed
by the Bureau of Entomology under the supervision of Dr. W. V. King.
Purchase for Commodity Division, F.E.R.A.-At the request of the
Director of Commodity Division, F.E.R.A., 25,000 gallons of Florida sirup
was purchased from farmers. This sirup was assembled in carlots under
the supervision of the County Agents. District Agent J. Lee Smith was
placed in charge of the purchase, inspection, loading and distribution of
Florida Cooperative Extension
In addition to this, other purchases of hay and corn were made at the
request of the Commodity Division, F.E.R.A., which products were used
for relief clients and for feeding government-owned cattle that were shipped
to Florida from the Western drouth areas.
Agricultural Loans.-The County Agents have assisted farmers in se-
curing credit from the Farm Credit Administration by helping them execute
necessary papers and forms, supplying information to producers, furnishing
the Farm Credit Administration with data on conditions and need for
credit, and assisted in the organization and operation of local production
credit associations. The types of credit available are: (1) Long-term
credit with mortgage security, through the Land Bank and Land Bank
Commissioners' Loans; (2) production credit through the Production Credit
Corporation, secured by crop and chattel mortgages; (3) emergency loans
for seed and fertilizer through the Emergency Loan Office, secured by crop
mortgages; (4) loans to cooperatives from the Bank for Cooperatives for
facilities secured by proper collateral. In this the County Agents have
taken a leading part and have endeavored to give the best service possible
so that the farmers may benefit to the greatest extent from this government
Outlook Information.-The Extension Service has established -a division
under the direction of H. G. Clayton to supply outlook information to the
producers of this state. From the national standpoint, outlook work is
under the supervision of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. The infor-
mation for the outlook report is based on statistics on production, distribu-
tion and credit and is made available to all producers in this state for the
purpose of governing them in their operations. An Outlook Report is
published annually and is placed in the hands of the County Agents as a
part of their program. In order to get the outlook information to the
farmers of the state, the District Agents and Specialists have conducted
a series of outlook meetings in all counties with representative attendance
in each county.
Agricultural Economics.-This relatively new phase of Extension work
affects practically every section of our state. It has to do with public
problems and economic planning on a county and community basis, farm
records and inventories, individual farm planning, farm and home finances,
marketing, buying and selling. In these various phases of economics, there
were 832 demonstrations; in support of these there were 246 meetings held
and 129 circular letters with instructions, and 21,721 office calls. There
were 1,146 farmers keeping cost accounts, 1,402 farmers were given assist-
ance in making inventories and credit statements; 1,072 were assisted in
making mortgage and other debt adjustments; 868 farmers adopted com-
plete farming account systems, according to recommendations; and 209
urban families received assistance in becoming established on farms.
Value of products sold through clubs and individuals cooperating in
these activities amount to $4,479,204, and the value of purchases by these
associations and individuals amount to $620,728.
Additional Activities.-Additional activities carried on by County Agents
in the respective counties have to do with practically all farm problems,
including contracts and leases, diseases of livestock, purchase of breeding
stock, selling of farm produce, marketing of poultry and eggs, and during
last year they assisted various federal agencies in carrying out their pro-
grams as they affected agriculture in Florida.
Annual Report, 1934
BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
While the year 1934 has been one in which the old extension program
has had to give way to agricultural adjustment activities, boys' 4-H club
work in Florida was able not only to hold its own in enrollment but to
regain part of the loss suffered in 1933. This increase is gratifying and
goes far toward proving that 4-H club work does develop efficient leader-
ship in farm boys. There were 2,356 boys enrolled in club work during
the year. They had 3,080 projects. Of these, 1,101 members completed
The following figures show. the gains and losses in the different projects.
SI I I l
U c U E-4 r U E-4
Total, 1933...... 583 1921 111 338 93 277 376 203 248 2415
1934...... 719 2371 222 443 55 337 466 247 354 3080
Gain or loss.... +1361 +451+1111+105 -38 +60 +90 +44 -106 +665
The local club has been the salvation of our work this year. In the
counties where the boys had been organized and the older ones served
as key boys the enrollment was increased. The job of securing members
was turned over to the older boys in most of the counties of North and
West Florida. Even in some of the counties where the time of the County
Agent was taken up completely with the adjustment work, more boys
enrolled than in 1933. After securing enrollment these boy leaders carried
on and kept the club meetings going and in some counties visited the
younger members and helped with their record books. One hundred and
thirty-eight meetings were held by clubs without assistance from a county
The effectiveness of our present organization in time of stress proves
the necessity of giving more emphasis to this part of the 4-H program.
Local 4-H Clubs.-The number of organized clubs increased in 1934.
Of the 33 agents reporting club work, 32 had a total of 154 organized
clubs, an increase of 30 over last year. This increase is explained by the
fact that more counties employed agents than in 1933. A new agent is
urged to organize his local clubs as one of the first steps in developing a
club program for his county. Escambia County leads in effective organiza-
tion among the larger counties and Union for the smaller. The local clubs
in Escambia County are the oldest in the state, some of them having been
in continuous operation for 14 years. Most of these clubs are under the
leadership of old 4-H club boys. In Union County all club members have
been in organized clubs for eight years. Our experience in club organization
has been that the local clubs fail or succeed according to the ability of the
older club members.
Florida Cooperative Extension
Outstanding Local Clubs.-Perhaps the most outstanding local club in
Florida fort 1934 was the Macedonia Club in Suwannee County. This club
has been in existence but four years and has had the benefit of the leader-
ship of Miss Nettie Bass during this time. For the last two years, every
member has reported and exhibited at the county contest and every member
attended the contest. It is a thoroughly wide-awake club and one which
holds its membership interested through regular meetings and interesting
The Lake Worth Club in Palm Beach County holds the honor of being
the first chartered club in the state, the first one to win a gold seal and
now has won the purple seal which is the highest ranking a club can reach.
This club has functioned eight years and claims to have in its membership
every boy of club age in the area set aside by the County Agent for the Club.
It will be awarded the first purple seal given to a Florida Boys' 4-H Club.
The Walnut Hill Club of Escambia County won the cup for the best
club in the county with a membership of 25 boys completing 56 projects.
The Newberry Club in Alachua County continues to supply over half the
record books for the county. The Gaskins Club in Walton County leads
that county in the greatest revival of club work ever staged in the state.
The success of a local 4-H club depends upon its leadership. The leader-
ship can be supplied either by an older person as in case of the Lake
Worth Club or by the older boys in the club as in case of the clubs in
Escambia, Okaloosa, Walton and Alachua counties. The older club mem-
bers function on the average more efficiently than do men and women
The success in increasing club enrollment for 1934 is to the credit of
the older club members. Realizing that the agricultural adjustment work
would take practically all of the agents' time in several of the counties,
a plan was worked out to enlist the aid of older club boys for 1934. Each
County Agent was asked to have one or two boys from each local club
meet at the courthouse on a set date. The State Club Leader attended
and after giving a resume of conditions due to the adjustment work, he
placed the responsibility for securing the enrollment and carrying on club
work in the county on the boys present. Each boy was given the title of
"Key Boy". The duties of the key boy were to secure enrollment in his
community, help in the organization of the local club, to visit every club
member as often as possible and to check reports. A letter was sent to
each key boy once a month from the state office with instructions for
project work and ideas for social programs. The plan was successful.
Of course not all the key boys did the job assigned to them, but most did
a fair piece of work and some did wonderfully well. Vertice Truett in
Walton County visited every member in his club several times and that
club turned in the best set of record books ever received from that county.
With the return of better prices for farm products, the interest in club
work as a means of making money will be increased. The past three
years have been ones of low financial returns to club boys, but 1934 shows
some improvement. The better prices for tobacco, corn, hogs and cotton
increased the percent profit to the boys. Yields are below pre-depression
years because heavy fertilization has been discouraged. Soil building and
economical production have been stressed as primary considerations in
carrying out a project demonstration. We have stressed the social side
Annual Report, 1934
of club work during the depression. The project has been held as the first
requirement for membership but less emphasis than formerly has been
placed on the securing of big yields.
Corn.-Three hundred seventy-two boys grew 414 acres of corn and
produced 12,532 bushels, an average yield of 30.2 bushels. The increased
price of corn at gathering time gave good profit even with the decreased
yield. Where the corn followed a demonstration in soil building the yield
was very satisfactory. Herbert Joyner of Hillsborough County led with
a yield of 91 bushels. This boy used a liberal amount of commercial
Cotton.-The number of 4-H club cotton acres was kept down by the re-
quirements of the cotton reduction program. But 113 boys produced 87,633
pounds of seed cotton at a very nice profit to the boys. The average pro-
duction was 775 pounds of seed cotton, although very little fertilizer was
Peanuts.-Boys carrying this crop as a project averaged 38 bushels per
acre. This is a very satisfactory yield and was secured by closer spacing
of the peanuts.
Home Gardens and Truck Crops.-Home gardens and truck crops as club
projects came back in number. The club garden has been the salvation of
many small families particularly in the edges of the small towns. Many
families have been living on the club poultry flock backed up by the club
garden and sometimes the cow which started out as a club calf. One
family in Palm Beach County has been forced to depend entirely upon the
club projects of the boy for the past two years. The father could not get
work and the family had to live on the products grown by the club boy.
The sweet potato project continues to hold its own as a money making
This project continues to offer a wonderful opportunity for constructive
work during the depression. It seems rather difficult to induce man or
boy to plant an acre of land with the knowledge that no returns can be
secured until the end of the second year. Whenever land is planted to
crotalaria and corn follows, the increase in yield justifies the labor spent.
Union County boys are doing more of this work than those in any other
county. The average increase in yield due to crotalaria is about 17 bushels
per acre. This is double the yield on the check plots.
There was little inducement for club members to raise pigs during the
past two years. Never-the-less, there was a slight increase in number of
boys raising pigs and with the increased price of live market hogs a small
profit was possible.
Some attempt to encourage the raising of beef cattle is being made.
The success of this project is doubtful but experience only can prove its
place in the Florida club program.
This project had an 18% increase in enrollment over 1933. The dairy
club work in Duval County has reached the point where the animals once
club calves are now cows producing milk. The majority of them are
Florida Cooperative Extension
making a profit for their owners. There has been a gradual spread of
this project into new counties where the raising of good family cows is the
Fig. 4.-This club boy is learning the fine points
about hog raising by growing a pig.
The poultry work has increased slightly in amount. The boys having
a flock of around 100 laying hens appear quite likely to make some money.
The socialization of rural people is one of the big projects in rural life
today. Better types of living and a more intelligent farm citizenry is the
need of the day. 4-H club work has a big job ahead if it does its part in
building this new type of agricultural life in Florida.
Recreation.-The utilization of leisure time is one of the big problems
facing the world today. Folks without jobs must spend their time at some-
thing. Satisfying wholesome recreation at low expense is needed in rural
sections. 4-H club work is trying to help meet this need. Recreation is
Annual Report, 1934
a vital part of the program of every local club. That obtained in club
activities is all the recreation some farm boys get.
To assist in developing leadership with at least some definite training
in recreation, six recreation leadership training schools were held in co-
operation with the National Recreation Association. Schools were held
at Miami, Palm Beach, Orlando, Plant City and Monticello for the first
time. At the West Florida 4-H Club Camp a six day school was held
which was the best one of this type ever held in Florida. Four boys and
four girls from each of the 10 counties in West Florida were brought there
for a week. They were selected for their leadership ability.
Club Camps.-The 4-H club camp stands out as the most vital special
activity in our program. The club camp is a big event in the life of the
club boy who attends. In 1934 24 counties held camps. The boys' camps
were all held at three camping places.
The West Florida Club Camp is serving as a central camping point
for club boys and girls from Pensacola to as far east as Jefferson County.
The fine equipment at this camp makes it an ideal camping place for club
work. A power victrola and an outdoor stage were added this year.
The biggest event of the club year was the securing of an abandoned
CCC camp in the Ocala National Forest as a central camp for Central
Florida. This camp is designed for 100 boys or girls at a time. Cabins
and bunks for 70 are built with dining room and kitchen facilities for the
completed camp. The control cottage is built, but two docks and a recrea-
tion hall and three more cabins are yet to be built. Sanitary sewerage
and electric lights are the big need at present. Boys from nine counties
and girls from one county used the camp in 1934.
The camp was named for C. K. McQuarrie, who was the first County
Agent Leader for Florida under the Smith-Lever Act.
D. R. Matthews and Wilmer Bassett, Jr., two old club boys, were
employed to assist at the camp during the summer months.
Annual Short Course.-The 17th annual Boys' Club Short Course was
held at the University of Florida in June, with 235 boys attending. This
is a great source of inspiration for club boys. Many boys enter the
University solely because they attended one or more club short courses
and determined to return as regular students.
At an examination given during the short course three boys were
awarded scholarships to the College of Agriculture given by the Florida
STATE WINNERS FOR 1934
Bankers' Scholarships.-G. T. Huggins, Jr., of Alachua County, Marcus
Williams of Lake County and Herman Youngblood of Okaloosa County
were the winners of the $100 scholarships to the College of Agriculture.
National 4-H Camp.-Thomas Lamb of Orange County and William
Clegg of Alachua County were the Florida 4-H club boys selected to
attend this camp. Clegg entered the University this fall and Lamb will
enter in 1935.
FRIENDS OF CLUB WORK
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad.-This company pays the expenses of one
of the delegates to the National 4-H Camp each year. Thomas Lamb of
Orange County won the trip in 1934.
Florida Bankers' Association.-For 16 years the bankers of Florida have
given three 4-H club boys a $100 scholarship to the College of Agriculture
each year. The boys who entered the University on bankers' scholarships
have made good.
36 Florida Cooperative Extension
National Recreation Association.-This association has been very liberal
with Florida. For the past five years we have had the services of one of
its best men in helping train leaders for rural recreation. The results have
Nelson Knitting Mills.-This company paid the expenses of a boy to the
International Live Stock Show and Club Congress held in Chicago the
first week in December. The trip was awarded the state corn club cham-
pion.: Herbert Joyner of Hillsborough County won this trip for 1934.
Medals were given to county winners in corn work.
Thomas E. Wilson.-Eugene Boyles of Suwannee County won the gold
watch given by Mr. Wilson, President of Wilson and Company, as a prize
to the outstanding 4-H boy in meat production work. Medals were given
Annual Report, 1934
Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
Dairy work has been carried on in the following counties during 1934
in cooperation with the county agents: Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa,
Walton, Washington, Jackson, Liberty, Calhoun, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson,
Madison, Suwannee, Lafayette, Dixie, Columbia, Alachua, Marion, Duval,
St. Johns, Union, Bradford, Baker, Lake, Seminole, Orange, Polk, Hills-
borough, Pinellas, Hernando, Manatee, Highlands, DeSoto, Okeechobee,
Palm Beach, and Dade. Some dairy work was carried on with farmers
in the following counties not having county agents: Bay, Gulf, Volusia,
Putnam, Clay, Citrus and Broward.
DAIRY FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS
The production of forage crops has continued to be the important factor
emphasized by the Extension Dairyman in 1934. Pasture or grazing crops
and silage crops are of greatest importance, with soiling crops and hay
crops next in order.
Dairymen this year have continued to locate their dairies on soils best
adapted to growing forage crops, many of them moving to better locations.
Government loans offered on lands and livestock have increased the oppor-
tunities for dairymen to secure land better suited to growing forage.
Within the last three years 189 dairymen have purchased 18,715 acres of
farm lands for growing pasture and forage crops.
BUILDING SILOS AND REMODELING DAIRY BUILDINGS
County Agents report they had 27 demonstrations in repairing dairy
barns and helped in the construction of 32 silos for dairy purposes in 1934.
Twenty-seven of these were trench, semi-trench and pit silos and five
above ground. Demonstrations conducted in all sections of the state have
proven that silage will keep in Florida in any well-constructed silo. Prac-
tically all kinds of forage grown in the state may be preserved in a silo.
The underground silo has been popular during these depression times.
The very low cost of construction and the reduced cost of machinery for
filling the underground silo makes it possible for more farmers to have
silos.. The farmers living in the flatwoods are building the semi-trench
silo by digging about 2 feet down for the trench and extending the wall
above ground with poles, logs or board timber banked with dirt removed
from the trench. These walls extend from a foot to 6 feet above the
ground. The surface is covered with dirt.
Silage demonstrations conducted in various sections of the state have
established silage as a most valuable cattle feed in Florida. Proper
methods of handling silage have been stressed and are of the greatest
importance. Duval County dairymen have made the most progress with
silage and forage demonstrations. Sixty-three percent of all the dairymen
in Duval County are feeding silage in the winter of 1934. It was found
necessary to introduce crops other than corn that would produce large
yields of silage. Twenty-nine farmers in Duval County planted sugarcane
as a silage crop and to supply silage where the corn or sorghum fails to
fill the silos.
Silage crop adaptation demonstrations in growing sorghum, Napier
grass and cane in comparison with corn silage have been continued in 1934.
Florida Cooperative Extension
These crops have helped greatly in stabilizing the dairy industry by pro-
ducing an abundance of cheap roughage on soils in the citrus area of the
state that are not adapted to growing corn.
The increased price on all grains and concentrated dairy feeds in recent
months has served to stimulate greatly the interest in silage and forage
crops for the coming season.
PASTURES AND GRAZING CROPS
The financial depression has encouraged Florida dairy farmers to
increase the number of acres of pasture. Additional profits from milk
sales resulting from better stabilized markets afforded more capital to
improve conditions. County Agents reported 1,127 acres seeded by dairy-
men in 1934.
Demonstrations in mowing pastures for the past four or five years
have proven effective. The increased grass yields are so noticeable on
the better grass lands that there has been a larger number of farmers
mowing pastures each year. There were 7,440 acres of permanent pasture
mowed by dairymen in 1934.
Demonstrations in fertilizing pasture and grazing crops with commer-
cial fertilizers have proven profitable. Dairy farmers fertilized 1,470 acres
of grazing crops this year.
RAISING DAIRY HEIFERS
The low price for meat animals has greatly retarded the culling of
dairy cows. Low prices on grain feed and a surplus of market milk per-
mitted the dairymen milking low producing cows to remain in business.
The recent advance in grain prices has changed the situation and low
producing cows on farms where required forage is not being grown are
a losing proposition. Dairymen are being helped to dispose of their poor
cows and to grow out some of their best heifers for replacement. They
are urged to select the best heifers from only the best cows in the herd,
feed a liberal ration first six months, then feed nutritionous roughages.
The average Florida dairy cow is 20% under size. Demonstrations in
growing heifers are helping to correct this condition.
Sixty percent of the dairy heifers in the state are infested with intestinal
parasites. Calves are pastured on infested fields before they are old
enough to resist parasites. In calf feeding demonstrations calves are kept
on cultivated fields and not allowed to range on sod pastures and parasite
infestation is largely avoided. The system of breeding cows for fall fresh-
ening is ideal for growing dairy heifers free from intestinal parasites.
The keeping of dairy cows on general farms of Florida has been
encouraged. The milk and other dairy products obtained from the family
cow have supplied the farm family with splendid food when it was sorely
needed. Better grade heifers from the farm herds have been supplied
to commercial dairymen for replacements in their herds.
Demonstrations in feed growing and herd improvement have been con-
ducted by many of the County Agents as a part of the farm dairy program.
Agents have assisted the Federal Emergency Relief Administration in
its rural rehabilitation program as it related to the family milk cow.
In some counties the agents have assisted farmers in procuring high
grade and purebred milk cows from other areas. Fifty-one good heifer
calves were placed on farms in Hernando County during 1934, and will
grow into excellent family milk cows.
'. .' -o a *. 4.
Fig. 5.-Some excellent family milk cows were brought to Florida farms fror
agents and Extension Dairyman helping to select and procure the animals for t
placed on farms of Liberty County.
Florida Cooperative Extension
Dairy work among 4-H club boys continued to center interest on im-
proved animals and proper care. Through it, the farm dairy program was
DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS
The very important reason for dairy records as understood by the
average dairyman is that he wants information for culling. About 20%
of the dairy farmers in the state have kept some kind of individual milk
records of the weights of the milk and feed as a guide in proportioning
the amount of feed for each animal. These records have furnished
information for culling the herd, also.
Feed records have directed the attention of Florida dairymen to the
importance of the forage program in a very substantial way. Around
95% of the dairymen of North Marion County were keeping dairy records
and about this percentage are producing all of their forage feed now.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES
There were 76 registered dairy bulls placed on farms in Florida during
1934 by Extension Agents. The interest in proven sires is increasing.
County Agents report 43 exchanges among neighbor farmers of dairy
bulls. Good bulls that have to be moved to avoid inbreeding and that
have sired heifers showing type and promise to make valuable animals
are exchanged with neighbors.
4-H DAIRY CLUBS
Twenty county agents enrolled 123 4-H club members with 184 dairy
animals in 1934. Of these, 35 were registered females and 88 were high
grade females. The 4-H club has for its purpose a general training for
farm boys and girls in methods of growing dairy heifers and feeding
and managing them as dairy cows. It requires at least three years to
complete a project of raising a dairy heifer from calf to cow.
At the 4-H Boys' Short Course in June, one squad of about 30 boys
received special training in dairying.
COUNTY AND STATE DAIRY ORGANIZATIONS
There are 18 county dairy associations and one state dairy association.
The state association with over 500 members has been functioning continu-
ously now for nine years. These dairy organizations take an active part
in helping build the county and state dairy programs.
The State Dairy Association has active charge of matters affecting
RADIO AND NEWS STORIES
Twenty-seven radio talks of '7 minutes each were prepared and delivered
during 1934, dealing with timely subjects on dairying.
Thirty-two news articles dealing with timely subjects on dairying were
prepared for the agricultural press during 1934. Also, during the year
an address-o-graph list of all dairymen in the state was prepared for use
in connection with circular letters.
SCREW WORM FLY CONTROL
The screw worm fly first became a menace to Florida livestock during
the summer of 1933. Although it has given much trouble with hogs and
beef cattle, the screw worm fly never has been a serious menace to dairy
Annual Report, 1934
.animals in market milk dairies in this state. Through circular letters
mailed to all dairymen, this office advised dairymen of changed herd prac-
tices and emphasized the importance of applying pine tar preparations to
all fresh wounds as a prevention. On account of the emergency caused
by severe infestation of screw worm, the Extension Dairyman was assigned
the duty of assisting in organization work and conducting educational
meetings on screw worm control, cooperating with the Bureau of Entomol-
ogy, U. S. D. A. Approximately two months of intensive work was given
to education features of the program.
A statewide conference wa's called at Tallahassee by Governor Sholtz,
September 5, to plan for screw worm fly control. It was attended by
members of the 1935 Legislature, livestock owners and others interested
in livestock development, officials from the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service, State FERA, State Live Stock Sanitary Board, U. S. Bureau of
Entomology. The FERA appropriated a fund from the Surplus Commodity
Purchasing Department to carry on a Statewide Educational program, and
for employment of 28 agents to work six weeks in representative counties
to assist with the program. Dr. W. V. King, Field Agent, Bureau of
Entomology, stationed at Orlando, V. L. Bruns of the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board, and the Extension Dairyman were appointed to carry
on the educational program. A total of 28 county assistants were appointed
and placed in representative counties infested with screw worms to assist
in the training of farmers in methods of treating animals, building stock
chutes and holding pens for handling infested animals. The educational
program mapped out by the committee was practically a continuation of
the educational work started in July. Thirty-four farmers meetings were
held with a total attendance of 1,967. County Agents report 788 animals
treated for screw worm.
A representative of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration,
Washington, requested a conference with representatives of the Agricul-
tural Extension Service regarding a proposed plan for distributing surplus
dairy cows in rural communities of Florida. The Dairy Agent made a
survey of the state. Forty-one counties reported 6,245 cows could be
placed with reasonable assurance that they would be given feed and care.
This was to be in connection with a proposed program by the AAA for
reducing milk cows on farms.
There was but little interest in a dairy adjustment program in Florida
because this is regarded as a milk deficiency area.
The matter of eradicating Bang's disease through indemnity payments
to dairymen for animals slaughtered was presented to the Florida Dairymen
by Dr. T. W. Cole, B.A.I., Inspector in Charge, at the annual meeting of
State Dairymen's Association in Ocala, September 26, 1934.
One hundred and twenty-two herds of 4,313 animals in 12 counties have
been tested to date. There were 668 reactors, or about 15.5%. It is likely
that many more dairymen will have their herds tested, if funds are made
available through the spring months.
The Extension Dairyman has held conferences with state, district and
county supervisors of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration in
outlining plans for feed and management for family cows as a part of the
42 Florida Cooperative Extension
Rural Rehabilitation program in various counties. Proposed plans for
farm dairying and the establishment of creameries have been thoroughly
discussed and it is agreed that feed and cows are the essentials, and that
a successful feed growing program must precede creamery development.
FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION
Valuable aid has been given dairymen of Florida through feed and
seed loans and loans on farm lands. Dairymen have been able to move
onto soil more suitable for feed growing.
The Extension Dairyman cooperated in the training school given in
November for land appraisers in Florida.
M meetings held............................................................................ 272
Total attendance..................................................................... 675
M iles traveled........................................................................ 32,198
Letters written........................................................................ 2,316
Annual Report, 1934
Walter J. Sheely, Agent in Animal Husbandry
Work with beef cattle and hogs was continued along lines similar to
those followed in preceding years. Emergency work, however, occupied
considerable time of the Agent in Animal Husbandry and the County
Agents this year. This work included corn-hog adjustment, the purchase
of surplus cattle from flooded areas, and control of the screw worm fly.
Phases of livestock work were carried on in most counties of the state
through personal visits, meetings, field day programs, correspondence and
circular letters, radio talks and press articles.
PURCHASING DISTRESS CATTLE
Considerable portions of the cattle grazing areas in Brevard, Seminole,
Orange, Osceola, Polk, Highlands and Okeechobee counties became flooded
as a result of excessive rainfall in June. At the request of cattlemen in
those counties, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration agreed to
purchase about 10 percent of the cattle in the areas. They requested the
cooperation of the Agricultural Extension Service in making the purchases,
and the Agent in Animal Husbandry was appointed director of purchases.
The Livestock Marketing Agent of the State Marketing Bureau and
inspectors of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry cooperated in the
An organization was perfected in each county and worked under the
direction of the County Agent. The county committeemen assisted in
assembling and grading the cattle. Agents of the Bureau of Animal In-
dustry inspected them. Those accepted were turned over to the FERA
for slaughter and finally were canned for distribution to families on relief.
A total of 16,335 cattle were purchased, the owners receiving $224,161.
Congested conditions on ranges and pastures were relieved and feed was
left for the remaining cattle.
Fig. 6.-Grade cattle are becoming more widespread in Florida, and the
quality of the state's beef production is improving as a result.
Florida Cooperative Extension
BEEF CATTLE PROJECTS
Despite the fact that cattle production is an industry more than 350
years old in Florida, there is still a great deal of room for improvement
in herds of beef cattle in this state. It is generally agreed that the way
to go about building up Florida beef herds is to breed purebred bulls to
native range cows and secure better offspring. Considerable progress in
that direction has been made.
Florida is situated long distances from most of the purebred breeding
herds of beef cattle, and consequently the procuring of purebred bulls is
a problem. Assistance has been rendered to men interested in the beef
cattle breeding business in Florida. All breeders have been able to sell
all their bulls by the time they reach serviceable age.
Assistance has been rendered in the handling of sales of purebred bulls
at various points in Florida. Purchasers have been assisted in obtaining
bulls desired. In all, 364 bulls have been placed this year.
Winter feeding of bulls has been emphasized. It has been pointed out
that bulls turned on the range in the pink of condition will sire more early
calves than thin bulls, and it is the early calf which makes the profit.
County Agents report 321 bulls on winter feed.
FEED AND PASTURAGE
It has been demonstrated that good feed and pasturage for bred beef
cows results in better and larger calves which make excellent growth their
first year. Consequently, attention has been given to the production of
more feeds and better pastures and the winter feeding of cows.
Demonstrations have shown that pastures kept clear of weeds through
mowing produce much more forage than pastures in which weeds are
allowed to grow undisturbed. The practice of mowing has been encour-
aged, and County Agents report that 53 pastures have been kept clear
of weeds this year as a result of their demonstrations.
With the introduction of improved beef cattle into the herds, it is
realized that closer attention and better feeding must be given to the
cattle if highest profits and best results are to be attained. With the
screw worm fly making it imperative that the herds receive close super-
vision, it is also realized that only the better grades of animals will be
The shade tobacco growers of Gadsden County, who feed out large
numbers of cattle to obtain the manure, have been using Florida cattle in
greater percentages of their herds in recent years.
SHOWS AND SALES
The annual livestock show held by Alachua County cattlemen proved
of interest as usual this year, and enabled the cattlemen to sell and
exchange breeding stock. Plans are now under way for a state fat stock
show and sale to be held in Jacksonville next spring.
The work with hogs has consisted of recommendations for economical
production, with all-year grazing crops for the hogs to gather, and the
use of purebred boars of meat type hogs. Emphasis has been placed on
keeping the hogs free of parasites.
Annual Report, 1934
MEAT CUTTING AND CURING
Special stress has been placed on producing and curing a sufficient
supply of good meat for home consumption. The interest in proper curing
of meats for home consumption has advanced rapidly in recent years.
Demonstrations in proper cutting and curing of meat have been held
this year in a number of counties, and have attracted widespread attention.
Assistance in this work has been generously rendered by K. F. Warner
of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry. As a result of these demonstra-
tions, there is noticeable a wonderful improvement in appearance and
methods of handling home-cured meats.
The first conferences of cold storage and commercial meat curing men
were held in September of this year. Better methods of curing meat for
farmers were discussed, and these men are now rendering a greater service
Eighteen wax models of both beef and pork, showing the attractive
cuts, cooked and uncooked, and the cheaper cuts well prepared were
secured from the Bureau of Animal Industry and exhibited at the annual
conference of County and Home Demonstration Agents. Charts showing
market grades of feeder cattle, finished cattle, and carcasses were dis-
THE SCREW WORM FLY
Early in the year a project in screw worm fly control was worked out,
and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration cooperated closely with
the County Agents in this work in Levy, Marion, Alachua, Columbia,
Suwannee, Hamilton and other counties.
A survey was made in June, and it disclosed that 70 percent of the late
calves were infested with screw worms. Late pigs suffer a like fate.
However, all animals are subject to infestation if their skin is bruised or
broken in any way. The Agent in Animal Husbandry worked on this
project only until the latter part of June.
Florida Cooperative Extension
Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
Fundamental phases of poultry production continued to receive emphasis
by the Extension Poultryman and County and Home Demonstration Agents
during 1934. Perhaps the most important projects were growing healthy
chicks and pullets and calendar flock records and management. The Ex-
tension Poultryman visited 25 counties during the year in the interest
of the work.
Helpful cooperation has been received from a number of associations
and individuals. The poultry service veterinarian in charge of accredita-
tion work with the State Live Stock Sanitary Board has assisted in poultry
meetings and with testing work at the Florida National Egg-Laying Con-
test. The State Marketing Bureau has worked in close cooperation with
County and Home Demonstration Agents and with the Gainesville office.
The Extension Agents have assisted the Inspection Division of the
State Department of Agriculture in arranging meetings for discussion
of the Florida egg law. Egg inspectors in various localities have been
of much help to producers in presenting data pertaining to the law and
methods of placing quality products on the market.
FEED AND POULTRY PRODUCTS PRICES
Since prices which they must pay for feed and which they receive for
their products influence the success of the poultrymen, and to a considerable
degree affect Extension work with poultrymen, it is interesting to note
some of the high points in the situation.
Poultry ration prices were low in 1931-32, averaging $1.55 per 100
pounds. Since then the price has been on the increase, being $2.25 per
100 pounds in 1934. The wholesale price of eggs was 24.4 cents per dozen
in 1931-32, increasing to 27.7 in 1934. On the other hand, the wholesale
price of fryers decreased from 40 cents a pound in 1931 t0 25.2 cents in
1934. Consequently during 1934 eggs were in a more favorable position
as regards feed prices than were other poultry products.
The Grow Healthy Chick program still is considered one of the most
important Extension poultry projects. Quality chicks, sanitation, and bal-
anced rations have been emphasized.
During the past year the trend of brooding has been to put a small
number of chicks in colony brooder houses on clean range. The more
successful producers are adopting a 3 or 4 year rotation plan for the
growing pullet. These methods have been used in brooding chicks: (1)
colony brooder houses, (2) brooder houses with wire floors and sunparlors,
and (3) battery brooders.
In the production of pullets for high egg production a sanitation program
was developed and stressed by the various agents during the year. The
sanitation program included clean chicks, clean brooder houses, clean land,
and clean feed. Records over a period of years show the value of adopting
this program. This program was made effective by means of meetings,
circular letters, bulletins and farm visits.
The use of succulent green feed for poultry of all ages was emphasized
by the agents during the year. Information pertaining to types of green
feeds, planting dates, etc., have been furnished the producer. In some
cases the green feed program was developed along with the sanitation
program in that a double yarding system was used in growing green feed
Annual Report, 1934
and in rotating the birds. Other producers found it more economical and
practical to grow the green feed outside the yards, cut it and feed the birds.
Rising feed prices made it necessary for the poultry producer to secure
high egg production. Considerable time was spent in advising producers
about early maturity, intensity, and persistency as indicated by changes
in pigmentation, and molt. This program helped materially in selecting
the birds out of production. Culling demonstrations were given by prac-
tically all county and home demonstration agents this past year.
CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
Since 1925 a number of poultry producers have cooperated in a project
known as "Calendar Flock Records". Each succeeding year, record keeping
has become more interesting and widespread. Producers in the state know
the value of keeping a record of their expenses and receipts and then at
the end of the year analyzing their entire business.
There are two different books in use for poultry raisers, one for the
producer who has a flock under 250 and one for commercial producers.
To create interest and to illustrate the value of this type of project,
monthly reports were issued summarizing the results for the month and
to date, together with timely poultry information. During the 1933-34
year poultry feed and poultry product prices and indices were given.
The records are started October 1 and are completed September 30.
This year 43 poultry raisers from 21 counties kept records. They had
total of 15,248 birds, or an average of 354 per farm. Production averaged
181.32 eggs for the year. Birds culled amounted to 35.76 percent of the
total, and mortality was 12.26 percent.
The average egg production per bird for the year increased approxi-
mately 12 eggs per bird over the preceding year. Another very important
improvement was shown in a reduction of culling (10.2%) and mortality
Table 4 gives the number of flocks, average size of flock and average
number of eggs per bird for the past year by groups.
TABLE 4.-FLOCKS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE.
10-50 51-250 251-500 Over 500
Birds Birds Birds Birds
Total number of flocks................ 5 14 11 13
Average size of flock.................. 34 115 335 753
Average No. eggs per bird.......... 186.70 167.38 179.58 184.19
JUNIOR POULTRY WORK
A large percentage of 4-H club members are enrolled in poultry, and
this is one of the popular phases of 4-H club work.
There are two types of 4-H poultry work: (1) poultry production-
the boy or girl owns and manages his or her own flock; (2) poultry im-
provement-the boy or girl manages the flock on the farm. The improve-
ment program is by far the more popular.
Instructions in poultry culture were given to girls and to boys at their
two short courses in June. Birds exhibited by 4-H club members were
'judged at three county fairs.
Florida Cooperative Extension
'Meetings and farm visits gave opportunity for poultry subjects to be
discussed. The more important phases were records, sanitation, feeding
for egg production, and growing healthy chicks.
The Florida State Poultry Producers Association, organized a year ago,
has been very active during the past year. Monthly news bulletins have
been issued which have been of help in the development of the association
and the poultry industry of Florida. About 25 county poultry associations
are affiliated with the state organization.
Local and county poultry associations have assisted in the development
of constructive poultry programs. Monthly meetings are usually held by
these county associations at which time educational material is presented.
The Florida Baby Chick Association has been very active this past year.
This organization has assisted materially in forwarding the Grow Healthy
Chick program. It is working in close contact with the Agricultural
Adjustment Administration in enforcing the hatchery code.
The Code of Fair Competition for the Commercial and Breeder Hatchery
Industry was approved by the President of the United States December 27,
A state-wide meeting was held at Orlando the latter part of January
and the hatchery code was explained in detail. Additional meetings were
held in various sections of the state to discuss the code. The entire program
for the hatchery code was turned over to the industry for enforcement.
The.state set-up consisted of a state chairman, three district chairmen and
21 local committeemen.
The baby chick industry in Florida has complied with the requirements
of the code and the consensus of opinion is that it has helped the Florida
producer of baby chicks materially.
Detailed records were kept by the hatcherymen on cost of production
which will be of great value in increasing their efficiency.
According to the code authorities there is a little more than a million
egg hatching capacity in the state.
The practice of vaccinating pullets has become more widespread. Com-
mercial egg producers have found that it is an economical practice. Pullets
were vaccinated generally when 12 to 16 months of age.
HOME-MADE BRICK BROODERS
The brick brooders which were built at the suggestions of the agents
in West Florida during recent years have given excellent results. The
farmers are finding these brooders very practical and economical. During
the past year several brick brooders were built in the southern part of
NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST
Records obtained at the Eighth Florida National Egg Laying Contest,
Chipley, gave indications of improvement in poultry breeding and man-
agement. The Eighth Contest started October 1, 1933 and was concluded
'S&ptembet 22,;1934. There were 82 pens of pullets entered from 21 differ-
ent'statesand the Hawaiian Islands. There were 20 pens of heavy breeds
and 62 pens of light breeds.
Annual Report, 1934
A pen of White Leghorns entered in the Florida Contest was the high
pen in all standard contests in America. These 10 pullets produced 2,887
eggs for a value of 3,020.80 points for the 51 weeks' period.
The average egg production for the 51 weeks' period was 208.7 eggs
per bird for a value of 208.5 points. There were 36 birds that made a 300
point average for the year.
Records of the contest show these facts:
The average feed cost per bird was $2.29.
The average feed cost per dozen eggs was 13.2 cents.
The average amount of feed to produce 1 dozen eggs was 5.95 pounds.
The average mortality was 24.34 percent.
The average egg price was 21.5 cents per dozen.
FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS
At the Florida National Egg Laying Contest, in addition to the regular
official contest, feeding and management demonstrations were inaugurated
during the fall of 1933.
The following practical tests and demonstrations were conducted:
(1) A comparative study of white corn and liquid milk versus a grain
and mash ration in feeding for egg production.
(2) A comparative study of the value, of meatscraps, fish meal, and
milk solids as sources of protein for egg production.
(3) Lights versus no lights for egg production.
(4) A study of shell texture and egg quality.
In these demonstrations 40 Single Comb White Leghorn pullets of same
breeding and age were placed in six uniform houses. The first year's
results indicate the value of whole white corn and liquid skimmilk as a
ration for egg production. In the other feeding trial, high egg production
was obtained in all four pens, the highest production being with the group
receiving meatscraps plus milk as the source of protein.
In the management demonstration comparing morning lights versus
no lights as it may affect egg production, the first year's results show very
little difference in egg production between the two pens. These three
demonstrations are being continued for the second year.
Very complete records are kept on egg production, egg size, value of
eggs, and fedd consumption.
COOPERATIVE POULTRY EXPERIMENTAL WORK
At the request of the Director of Extension, the following projects have
been conducted in cooperation with W. F. Ward, Superintendent, Chinsegut
Hill Sanctuary, Bureau of Animal Industry; M. W. Emmel, Assistant Vet-
erinarian, Experiment Station, and N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman,
Agricultural Extension Service:
(1) A study of the value of different sources of protein for the pro-
duction of broilers.
(2) A study of the value of all-night lights versus no lights on Single
Comb White Leghorn pullets and hens for egg production.
(3) Confinement versus non-confinement in rearing pullets.
(4) Value of rotation in rearing pullets.
(5) Growth studies of cockerels and pullets.
(6) The development of a high quality strain of Single Comb White
Leghorns and Rhode Island Reds.
(7) The use of peanuts and peanut products in rearing turkeys.
Progress report of these trials will be found in the Annual Report of
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
50 Florida Cooperative Extension
The following data were compiled from the reports submitted by county
and home demonstration agents:
Days agents devoted to poultry.......................... ......................... ........ 1,036
Number of communities in which work was conducted.......................... 508
Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting.......... 155
Days of assistance rendered by local leaders or committeemen
assisting ......................................- .....-..-.... ...... ............................... 199
Number of adult result demonstrations conducted............................... 1,225
Number of meetings at result demonstrations........ ......................... 174
Number of method demonstration meetings held.................................... 354'
Number of other meetings held............... ............................................ 337
Number of news stories published.............................................................. 288
Number of different circular letters issued-...................................... 270
Number of farm or home visits made......... .................................... 2,165
Number of office calls received ........................................................... 7,026
Number of 4-H poultry club members enrolled...................................... 1,230
Number of 4-H poultry club members completing.................................. 744
Number of chickens in projects conducted by 4-H poultry club
m em bers .................... ........................................................................ 41,729
Number of families following an organized improved breeding plan 370
Number of families following recommendations in purchasing baby
chicks........ ............................................................................................. 557
Number of families following recommendations in chick rearing ...... 1,203
Number of families following production-feeding recommendations.. 1,031
Number of families following sanitation recommendations in disease
and parasite control................................... ................... 1,352
Number of families improving poultry house equipment...................... 318
Number of families following marketing recommendations.................. 912
Value of products sold by all associations or groups organized or
assisted .......................................... .... ...................... $257,845
Value of products sold by individuals not in organizations.................$ 94,274
Annual Report, 1934
E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist
This report covers work that has been carried on during the year in
practically all of the citrus producing counties by county agents and the
citriculturist in cooperation with citrus growers and assisted by district
agents, the professor of soils in the College of Agriculture, members of the
Experiment Station, and specialists of the United States Department of
Continued low prices, due to increased production, and low purchasing
power of consumers necessitate reducing the unit cost of production and
improving quality where it can be done economically. The conditions are
forcing growers to make changes in their practices in almost every phase
of citrus culture. It presents to the Extension Service unusual opportunities
to direct growers into the adoption of new and improved practices.
The most effective work in citrus culture is being conducted in demon-
stration groves. Each demonstration grove is treated as a grove manage-
ment project, in which the best known methods of citrus culture for the
particular grove are put into practice. Each operation is a demonstration
in that particular phase of citrus culture. Results of these demonstrations
are measured by comparing them with the results in other similar groves.
Results of the grove management projects are measured by comparing
the production costs, item by item, and yields, of the demonstration groves
with those of other comparable groves of the community, county and state.
This comparison is made possible by the fact that more than five hundred
growers of the state are keeping grove records, distributed so as to rep-
resent a cross-section of the citrus industry.
A number of representative demonstration groves are being selected
in each county. They are distributed so as to make the results of the
various demonstrations available to as many growers as possible and to
represent (a) the principal soil types, (b) standard varieties, (c) the
principal rootstocks and (d) the different ages of trees. The cooperating
growers are selected with great care. They must be growers who desire
to learn, have receptive minds and are willing and able to cooperate. They
must keep complete records of all grove operations and yields.
New practices in citrus culture are being tested in the form of fact-
finding demonstrations in the individual demonstration groves. These con-
sist of small plots, and the results are carefully determined by comparing
plots in the various demonstration groves.
The demonstration grove plan further provides for the organization
and maintenance of citrus schools in the various communities of the differ-
ent counties doing this type of work. In these schools up-to-date courses
are being given, covering all phases of practical citrus culture. Thirteen
such schools are now being conducted, with an enrollment of more than
500, representing about 20,000 acres of citrus groves.
The number of demonstration groves has increased 70% in the last year,
now containing approximately 2,000 acres. The saving to the owners of
these demonstration groves, due to the adoption of improved practices, was
$17.00 per acre on the operations of the past year. At the same time the
average yields have been materially increased, and in almost every grove
the quality of the fruit has been improved. These facts, together with
the improved conditions that the demonstration groves present, have a very
Florida Cooperative Extension
strong influence in converting growers to better practices. For example,
the influence of these demonstrations in one county is affecting the prac-
tices of more than 400 growers.
A number of demonstrations are being conducted in other groves with
fertilizer, cultivation, cover crops and irrigation.
Fertilizing.-More than 50 demonstrations have served further to con-
vince growers that the fertilizer cost of producing fruit can be kept down
to the minimum by supplying to the grove large amounts of bulky organic
matter by the full use of cover crops and by hauling in manures and other
vegetable matter. This practice enables the grower to use with safety
the cheaper inorganic fertilizers of the higher analyses.
In the demonstration with raw phosphate further definite results are
manifested in the stimulation of cover crops and in improving soil conditions.
About 25 fact-finding demonstrations are being continued in eight
counties, to bring out the best practice in the use of lime and magnesium
lime in citrus groves. Under certain conditions both the crotalaria cover
crop and the trees responded definitely to magnesium lime again this year.
Cover Crops.-In 100 demonstrations a dollar's worth of cheap nitrogen
applied in the rainy season has, on the average, continued to increase the
yield of the grass cover crop approximately 1,000 pounds per acre (dry
weight). This grass has a value in many of the groves of about $5.00
per ton. More than 1,300 growers have been induced to adopt improved
In more than 200 demonstrations the yield of fruit is being increased
5 to 20 percent and the quality of both fruit and tree greatly improved
by mowing the cover crop and placing it around the trees as a mulch.
In addition, the cost of hoeing the trees is eliminated.
The economy of the practice of mowing grass and weed crops on old
fields and city lots and hauling the material into the grove is being widely
established by demonstrations. The value of muck is also being demon-
Cultivation.-Work on this project has aimed at reducing production
cost by eliminating not only unnecessary, but wasteful and injurious cul-
tivation. Aside from incorporating the cover crop material with the top
soil at the end of the growing season, as a means of fire protection, it is
very doubtful if any further cultivation is justified under ordinary grove
conditions. Demonstrations have established the fact that root pruning
by deep cultivation weakens the tree and renders it more susceptible to
disease attack. Poor texture of fruit is traceable in a large measure to
More than 100 demonstrations in grove cultivation have been conducted,
involving more than 4,000 acres. The direct saving on this operation has
averaged $4.00 per acre. Ten counties have taken part in this project.
In addition, more than 400 consultations have been held with citrus growers
relative to improving grove cultivation practices and reducing the cost
of this item in production.
Irrigation.-The rainfall throughout the citrus belt during the last three
months of this year was the lightest for that period since 1906. Conse-
quently groves generally have suffered from a deficiency of soil moisture.
Heavy dropping has resulted, materially reducing the largest crop in the
history of the industry. This condition has greatly stimulated interest
in grove irrigation and has multiplied the demands on the Extension Service
for assistance in the installation and operation of irrigation plants. Seventy
Annual Report, 1934
growers have been assisted in purchasing the proper kind of material and
installing efficient plants for a total acreage of more than 3,000.
A preliminary survey has shown that many growers have an ample
supply of accessible water for grove irrigation, and could use it to a great
advantage in production, but are unable financially to pay for an adequate
irrigation plant. To meet this condition the citriculturist has developed
a very practicable type of portable irrigation plant. It is designed for the
use of (a) cooperative associations that do grove work for their members,
(b) grove caretakers, (c) the grower who has several groves each with a
supply of water for irrigation, (d) and of those interested in doing custom
A trial plant was built with a working capacity of 900 to 1,200 g.p.m.
The original cost of this plant, designed for a 20-acre unit, was $900.00.
But it is being used on five different properties, making the installation
cost per acre very low. It can be dismounted, moved and set up again
ready for operation by three men and a 11-ton truck, in four hours.
Enough main is being added to cover an 80-acre unit at an additional cost
After 135 growers witnessed the operation of this plant in two dem-
onstrations, seven other plants like it have been built. It seems that we
have opened a new field in grove irrigation by developing a practicable
portable plant and by working out this new method of applying water.
By these developments both the cost per acre of installation and the labor
cost of applying water have been greatly reduced.
The most effective work during the last six years in the control of citrus
diseases has been along the line of indirect control or prevention. Reports
show that disease control recommendations of the Extension Service were
followed in more than 1,500 groves this year.
Melanose.-Melanose has been greatly reduced in our demonstration
groves and in many other groves by reducing the amount of dead wood
produced from year to year by adopting a program of more adequate
fertilization, less cultivation and, in many instances, irrigation. We find
that the resistance to most of the common citrus tree diseases is greatly
increased by building up the tree and maintaining it in a more vigorous
In spite of the very unfavorable weather conditions last spring, in a
few instances outstanding results were obtained by spraying for melanose
Scab-The economic factors that affect melanose control operate also
in scab control. Interest in controlling this disease has been weakened by
low prices received during the last two years. In a few cases the dormant
spray of lime-sulphur 1-25 gave satisfactory results. Bordeaux applied
at the same time gave better control.
Blue Mold Decay.-It has been found that approximately 70 percent
of the abrasions of the fruit, caused by rough and improper handling,
result in decay before the fruit is consumed. Ten years ago we demon-
strated that-the number of long stems and clipper cuts were almost elimi-
nated by the use of the nipper type or blunt nose picking clipper. Contin-
uous efforts for fewer blemishes in picking have been rewarded by the
almost universal adoption of these better clippers and consequently the
elimination of clipper cuts and long stems.
Foot Rot-Where only an occasional light infection of foot rot is present
in a grove prevention is being demonstrated by giving all trees a "foot
Florida Cooperative Extension
bath" with a 6-9-50 bordeaux mixture applied with a power sprayer with
nozzles adjusted so as to throw the most penetrating stream of the material
in among the crown roots. In advanced stages of the disease, where trees
were almost girdled, the effect of banking or mounding the trees is being
extensively demonstrated. A mound of dirt or clay 14 to 18 inches high
and 10 to 15 feet in diameter around the trunk of the tree enables the tree
to establish a new root system above the disease infected parts and pro-
longs the life of the tree. Thousands of old trees are being rejuvenated
by these treatments.
Fig. 7.-Citrus trees suffering from foot rot are saved by being banked,
so they can start a new root system.
Gummosis and Psorosis.-Twenty method demonstrations were given,
teaching the proper technique in applying the remedy as recommended
in Experiment Station Bulletin 229. These diseases have been less preva-
lent this year.
Rust Mite.-A special campaign in rust mite control was put on this
year, with outstanding results.
Annual Report, 1934
The campaign began with a two-day central training school in Orlando,
for the primary purpose of teaching packinghouse managers, grove care-
takers and supervisors, and managers of cooperative associations the very
latest things in rust mite control. The assistance of a leading packing-
house manager was found helpful in bringing the key men to this school.
The meeting room and laboratory facilities of the United States Department
of Agriculture station in Orlando were made available and contributed
largely to the success of the school. State entomologists also were used.
Courses were given covering every phase of rust mite control. In addition,
the proper use of the most modern spraying and dusting field equipment
was demonstrated. A novel feature of the demonstrations was an airplane
dusting demonstration in which a ton of dusting sulphur was applied to
40 acres or 2,400 trees in 30 minutes. Upon a follow-up inspection it was
found that the airplane dusting was equally as efficient as that done by
the land equipment.
The regular enrollment in the school was limited to 50, the capacity
of the meeting room. A total of more than 400 were in attendance, in-
cluding those at the demonstrations. Eleven counties and 21 organizations
were represented in the regular enrollment, representing directly more than
3,000,000 boxes of fruit.
This control school was followed by 22 similar schools for growers
including all of the citrus-producing counties. The enrollment at these
schools exceeded 1,000 growers, representing about 50,000 acres ,with a
capacity of approximately 9,000,000 boxes. All of the schools touched
directly about one-third of the state's crop. Of course the influence of
the campaign reached many others, as the schools were followed up by
circular letters, exhibits of charts and materials, radio talks, and timely
One of the definite results of this campaign noted is the increased use
of spraying and dusting materials. Many leaders in the citrus industry
testify that the percentage of rust mite injured fruit in the state this year
is the lowest that they have ever seen.
Scale and Whitefly.-Natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is
being rapidly developed, and is saving growers many thousands of dollars
annually. This year red aschersonia gave splendid control of whitefly.
Considerable time is being devoted to a study of individual grove con-
ditions where natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is most effective,
to determine the minimum amount of spraying required for satisfactory
control under the given conditions. Many of the demonstration groves
have not been sprayed for scale and whitefly in a year, and are just as
free of scale injury as the check groves, some of which are sprayed twice
a year. Besides the trees are in a more vigorous condition and are pro-
ducing larger crops of fruit. We find that 3 cents invested in. nitrogen
and applied to the tree often will accomplish more in the long run in ridding
the tree of scale than 15 cents invested in oil spraying. If a tree is properly
fertilized it will be able to withstand a light scale attack until the scale
fungi have time to develop and put the pest under control. A hungry
tree is a feeble fighter.
In many demonstration groves by reducing cultivation to about one-
fourth, growing a heavy cover-crop, and not pruning out the center of the
trees to "let the sunshine in", a condition has been brought about which
favors the development of the scale fungi to the extent that it has not
been necessary to spray the groves for scale control for the last two to
four years. These demonstrations affect directly more than 10,000 acres
Florida Cooperative Extension
Grove Visits.-There is an increasing demand made upon Extension
workers for what is called special service. Requests come from growers
for personal visits to their properties and consultations on various grove
problems. This service consumes a large part of the County Agent's time,
and unquestionably constitutes a very important part of his year's work,
perhaps the most important from the grower's standpoint. It is through
these grove visits that lasting contacts are made between growers and
the Extension Service. It is through these visits that the County Agent's
supply of first hand information about current grove conditions is obtained,
and that the needs and viewpoint of the grower along various lines is fully
appreciated. During the year more than 4,000 grove visits were made,
going into citrus-producing problems in 14 counties of the state.
Meetings and Grove Tours.-During the year 326 meetings and schools
of instruction with a total attendance of more than 5,000 growers, were
conducted. Different phases of citrus culture were discussed in these meet-
ings, and demonstrations were given in pruning, thinning fruit, bracing
tangerines, treating gummosis and psorosis, and methods of applying irri-
gation water. In Lake and Orange counties, the organized citrus clubs
meet regularly and follow definite courses of study in citrus culture. Seven
grove tours were conducted in four counties, with more than 300 growers
taking part. These tours were made to various demonstrations and co-
operative experiments in the different counties.
Press Articles and Radio Talks.-More than 200 articles on various
phases of citrus culture were prepared by the specialist and County Agents
of 13 counties and published in local and state papers.
Fifty-six radio talks were delivered over six stations on various citrus
Annual Report, 1934
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist
Frank W. Brumley, Economist, Farm Management
R. H. Howard, Asst. Economist, Farm Management
D. E. Timmons, Economist, Marketing
H. G. Clayton, Organization and Outlook Specialist
FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
There has been an increased demand for economic information relative
to Florida agriculture. This demand came from County Agents, farmers
and fruit growers who were in need of data on methods of lowering cost
of production, and how to put their farms on a more profitable basis. The
information requested has been furnished as far as possible from previous
studies made by different divisions of the College of Agriculture. Addition-
al information was collected by the survey and cost account method during
the year. In addition to the regular farm management activities, consid-
erable time was spent assisting the A.A.A. and the Farm Credit Adminis-
tration in carrying out their programs in Florida.
The Citrus Account project is now in its fifth year. The primary pur-
poses of this project, as previously outlined, are:
1. To provide growers with books in which they may keep records of
grove receipts and expenses.
2. To assist growers in summarizing their records and determining
cost of production.
3. To provide the grower with a summary of a large number of similar
groves with which to compare his yield, cost of production, price
and net returns.
4. To provide data that may be studied to determine factors affecting
cost of production and profits.
The number of growers cooperating has steadily increased, being 118
the first year, 200 the second, 268 the third, 301 the fourth, and 325 now
cooperating for the fifth year. A proportionate increase will probably
continue if time and facilities will permit the handling of the records.
1932-33 Accounts.-The "Third Annual Summary of Costs and Returns
for 268 Florida Citrus Groves" was released during the year. Individual
grove summaries were furnished each cooperator that he might compare
his returns, costs and other factors affecting profits. Table 5 will show
the costs and returns by counties for the 195 groves over 10 years old.
Of the 118 original growers who cooperated in 1930-31, 62 have con-
tinued to furnish records on their groves for three years. While these
groves are slightly above the average of all the groves from which records
were obtained for each year, they too have felt the effect of low prices.
However, these growers have reduced their costs from $81.97 per acre in
1930-31 to $61.85 per acre in 1932-33, as shown in Table 6.
Florida Cooperative Extension
TABLE 5.-COSTS AND RETURNS BY COUNTIES, 195 GROVES OVER 10 YEARS
OLD, SEASON 1932-33.
Number of Groves......................
Total Acres of Groves.............
Average Acres per Grove............
Number Trees per Acre..............
Percent of Trees Grapefruit......
Boxes Produced per Acre...........
Boxes Harvested per Acre..........
Costs per Acre:
Labor, Power & Equipment....
Spray & Dust Material............
Total Costs per Acre Excluding
Interest & Depreciation............
Total Returns per Acre..............
Net Returns per Acre for Inter-
est & Owner's Supervision......
Total Cost per Box Excluding
Interest & Depreciation............
Total Income per Box.................
Net Returns per Box for Inter-I
est & Owner's Supervision...... I
Polk ran High-la
Polk Orange lands
TABLE 6.-SUMMARY OF COSTS AND RETURNS PER ACRE FOR 3 YEARS ON 62
GROVES, SEASONS 1930-33.
1930-31 1 1931-32 I 1932-33
Yield per Acre.................................................. 177
Cost per Acre:
Labor, Power & Equipment............................. $ 31.36
Fertilizer........................... ............................. 34.80
Spray & Dust..................................................... 2.74
Taxes ........................................... .... 8.51
M miscellaneous ......................... ........... ........... 4.56
Total Cost per Acre Excluding Interest &
Depreciation............ .............................. .... $ 81.97
Total Returns per Acre................................... 127.37
Net Returns for Interest & Owner's
Total Cost per Box Excluding Interest &
'Depreciation ........................................... $ .46
Total Income per Box...................... ... .72
Net Returns per Box for Interest & Owner's
Supervision ..............................-----.......... ........... .26
Fertilizer being one of the major items of cost, grower cooperators were
also informed of the amount of available plant food applied for each of the
three principal elements per 100 trees to compare with the average used,
by ages, for all groves. A study of the relationship of total pounds of
available plant food applied to yield and returns per 100 trees revealed
that the greater the amount applied the greater the yield and returns.
$ .39 $ .30
Annual Report, 1934
However, the law of diminishing returns applies to the use of fertilizer
as well'as to any other production factor and there is a point beyond which
additional fertilizer applications will not pay.
1933-34 Accounts.-A new method is being inaugurated this year in
handling and summarizing these accounts. This change in method was
requested by County Agents and growers so that the summaries will be
more beneficial and useful to them. The former accounts have been handled
for a year's business, as most farm accounts are handled, which includes
all expenses and receipts incurred during the 12 month period. However,
the new method being inaugurated this year, will include the expenses for
the 12 month period and the fruit receipts resulting primarily from those
expenses, rather than the receipts for the same period. In short, this change
in method of handling the accounts is from a fiscal year basis to a crop
FARM MANAGEMENT SURVEYS
Farm management surveys provide a very economical means of obtain-
ing records for studying the types of farming, organization of the farm
business, as well as other factors affecting profits. During 1934 a survey
was made in Escambia County of the cost of producing white potatoes,
which consisted of 27 farm records. Among the factors affecting the
profits as revealed by these records, the yield per acre seemed to have
been the most important single item.
In the fall of 1932, 112 survey records were taken of truck farming
in the vicinity of Plant City, Hillsborough County. A summary of this
study was published in the "Agricultural Extension Economist" of June,
1933. However, during this year additional statistical and Extension work
was carried on at the request of the County Agent in Hillsborough County
based upon the 1932 survey records.
This project is in cooperation with the Extension Poultryman. Its pri-
mary-purposes are to encourage record keeping and better poultry man-
agement. Poultrymen have been furnished record books prepared especially
for them. At the present time two poultry books are being distributed,
one for commercial flocks and one for small flocks. From 1926 to 1932
a number of the books were summarized and returned to those cooperating
in the study. None were summarized for 1933 or 1934 due to heavy de-
mands for other Extension work. However, books have been distributed
to those requesting them.
The six years' records reveal many valuable facts relative to commercial
poultry farming in Florida. While the rate of egg production, feed con-
sumption and other management data have remained fairly constant, some
factors have not. Others are relatively more important now than ever
before. The mortality rates have increased each year of the study. A
larger percentage of the poultrymen are now using lights than was the
case in the first years of the study.
4-H CLUB WORK
During the annual Boys' Short Course, a group of the older 4-H club
boys were instructed in farm management. This instruction consisted of a
study of how to take a farm inventory, types of farming in Florida, factors
influencing success in farming and other related farm management sub-
jects. A group of the junior 4-H club boys were also taught how to keep
project records, which consisted of a study of methods used in keeping
records in their respective crop, livestock and livestock products record
Florida Cooperative Extension
Assistance was given the Boys' 4-H Club Agent in organizing record
keeping clubs in three counties. The County Agents arranged for the
meetings and secured the interest of the club boys in the work.
AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION WORK
Due to the pressing work of the A.A.A. program, both the Farm Man-
agement Specialist and the Assistant Farm Management Specialist spent
a large portion of the year assisting in carrying out the program.
Forty-three educational meetings were held in the 16 principal adjust-
ment counties in cooperation with the County Agents. These meetings were
held for the purpose of explaining to each cooperator the necessity of
keeping an accurate record of his farm business. There were 2,406 adjust-
ment cooperators who attended these meetings.
In addition to the above adjustment work, the Farm Management
Specialist served as a member of the State Board of Review on Cotton and
the Assistant Farm Management Specialist assisted in tabulating the cotton
adjustment contracts and computing farm allotments.
The time of the Marketing Economist has been largely occupied in
agricultural adjustment activities and farm credit work during 1934. In
addition to being in charge of the tobacco reduction program, the Extension
Economist in Marketing had the responsibility of checking tobacco con-
tracts and assisting county allotment committees in making individual
allotments, and of assisting in formulating marketing agreements for
various special crops.
Under the provisions of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, agricultural
commodities such as fruits and vegetables, which are not classed as basic
commodities, can be covered by marketing agreements and licenses. This
is the only means at present for securing the benefits of the act for non-
basic commodities. The aim of marketing agreements is to enable growers
and shippers under the act to establish and maintain such balance between
the production and consumption of agricultural commodities and such mar-
keting conditions therefore, as will reestablish prices to farmers at a level
that will give agricultural commodities a purchasing power with respect
to articles farmers buy, equivalent to the purchasing power of agricultural
commodities in the base period, such base period being the post-war period,
August 1919 to July 1929, such equality of purchasing power to be
approached by gradual correction of present inequalities and to safeguard
the consumers' interest by not increasing the percentage of consumer retail
expenditures for agricultural products which is returned to the farmer,
above the percentage returned in the prewar period.
As set up the operation of a marketing agreement is under the authority
of a control committee composed of growers and shippers. Shippers are
under license, and in the early agreements it was necessary for shippers
controlling a majority of the tonnage to become signatories to the agree-
ment before it could be put into effect.
Four marketing agreements affecting Florida products were approved
by the Secretary -of Agriculture. They include the following:
Florida citrus marketing agreement, approved November 15, 1933 (sub-
stitute agreement put into effect in 1934).
Florida strawberry marketing agreement, approved August 5, 1934.
Annual Report, 1934
Florida celery marketing agreement, approved April 28, 1934.
Southeastern watermelon marketing agreement, approved August 10,
The citrus marketing agreement operated under unfavorable conditions
due to opposition which developed that prevented this agreement from
receiving the full cooperation of the growers and shippers concerned.
The strawberry marketing agreement was not put into operation for
the 1934-1935 crop due to opposition of some growers and shippers which
apparently was associated with some of the opposition to the citrus agree-
The celery agreement was not put into operation until the 1934-35
shipping season and has been operated successfully. Amendments have
been made to the agreement to improve its practical operation.
The watermelon agreement is expected to be in operation for the 1935
crop. The four states included in this agreement are Florida, Georgia,
South Carolina and North Carolina.
The Marketing Economist was loaned to the Farm Credit Administration
from November 1, 1933, to January 15, 1934. This period was used for
holding educational meetings explaining the proposed production credit
plan of the administration. Groups of farmers were assisted in making
applications for Production Credit Associations and in organizing tem-
The Marketing Economist assisted in holding 22 meetings, attended
by 1,142 farmers. A number of conferences were held with County Agents,
association secretaries and production credit officials of Columbia and
Washington in an endeavor to work out a credit system that would meet
the needs of Florida farmers.
Since January 15, the Economist has cooperated with Production Credit
Associations in Florida and the Production Credit Corporation of Columbia,
S. C. He has appeared on three farm programs, as well as at several
conferences with officials and farmers relative to production credit.
TAMPA PRODUCE MARKET SURVEY
At the request of the Bank for Cooperatives, Columbia, S. C., and of
the president of the recently organized farmers' cooperative association
in Hillsborough County, the Marketing Economist made a survey of exist-
ing produce markets in Tampa to determine the advisability of the pur-
chase by the newly organized group of one of the existing markets. This
survey indicated that only 25 percent of the business done on these markets
was with produce grown locally. The market which the farmers' group
proposed buying is more accessible to nearby farmers but less convenient
to buyers. It was recommended that the group lease a market rather
Assistance has been rendered to other marketing agencies, also. The
manager of the Jacksonville Produce Market requested and received assist-
ance with certain problems peculiar to that market.
Small packing organizations have been aided in setting up appropriate
accounting systems for their business. Assistance on a small scale has
been rendered in connection with cooperative sales of hogs and turkeys
and in obtaining markets for roasting ear corn.
Florida Cooperative Extension
The 1934 Outlook Report was issued in December, 1933, in mimeograph
form. A total of 1,250 copies were distributed to County and Home
Agents, Smith-Hughes teachers, bankers, newspapers, agricultural papers
and farmers and other persons.
A summary of the report was published in the Extension Economist
with a mailing list of nearly 1,000. Summaries were carried by the Ag-
ricultural News Service,, the Extension weekly clipsheet. Summaries of the
outlook by commodities were put out over 'Radio Station WRUF at Gaines-
ville. County Agents used data from the report in news articles and in
During 1934, the program of the Agricultural Adjustment Administra-
tion made it possible for individual producers of basic commodities to make
adjustments in keeping with the general economic situation. In presenting
the adjustment program to farmers the economic background was used
by County Agents and others to show the need for the program and fore-
cast the results of adjustments when carried out on a national scale.
Three potato outlook meetings were held this fall, one at LaCrosse, one
at Hastings, and one for the Miami area. These outlook meetings are
annual events at LaCrosse and Hastings and although this was the first
time such a meeting has been held in the Miami area the response from
growers was good. A. E. Mercker of the U. S. D. A. presented the outlook
situation and outlined the recommendations of the Interstate Early Potato
In a series of educational meetings of farmers on the cotton situation,
the outlook and foreign situation was presented at 21 such meetings with
an attendance of 2,500 cotton farmers.
In November, this Agent was the State representative at the National
Outlook conference held in Washington. Following this conference, the
State Outlook Report for 1935 has been prepared by the Experiment Station
Staff, the Specialists and District Agents of the Extension Service and by
the Home Demonstration Specialists and District Agents.
County Agents have assisted farmers in using outlook and other timely
economic information as a basis for readjusting farm operations. Some
farmers made adjustments for more than one commodity. Agents received
523 office calls regarding outlook information.
County Agents assisted in the organization of six marketing groups
during the year and assisted 23 organizations previously formed. Member-
ship in these associations and organizations totaled 2,903. Also 388 indi-
viduals not in organizations were assisted with marketing problems.
Assistance rendered to the above organizations consisted of help in stan-
dardizing grades and packages for 12 organizations, locating markets
for eight, use of current market information for 23, assistance in securing
financing by nine, in organization problems seven and in keeping member-
ship informed with regard to their commodity, 14.
Annual Report, 1934
III-WOMEN'S AND 4-H WORK
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Miss Flavia Gleason, State Home Demonstration Agent
Miss Ruby McDavid, District Agent
Miss Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent
Miss Anna Mae Sikes, Acting District Agent
Home demonstration work in Florida has grown during 1934. The
year closed with 32 Home Demonstration Agents working in 31 counties,
an increase of eight counties cooperating in financing and conducting the
work since the beginning of the year. The 32 agents have work under-
way in 483 communities. There are 271 home demonstration clubs for
women's work with a membership of 7,125 women. There are 462 4-H
clubs for girls with a membership of 9,116 girls 10 to 21 years of age.
Interest in home demonstration work is growing as evidenced by (1)
increase in number of counties appropriating; and (2) increased enroll-
ments and attendance at meetings. The reasons are probably three: First,
need is apparent for the type of assistance home demonstration work
renders in teaching rural people to be thrifty and self-supporting. Second,
work of the Home Agents demonstrated the outstanding and unique
services they are prepared to render. Third, a larger number of people
benefited by Extension teaching through cooperation with FERA.
The National Recovery Program brought about some definite changes
in conducting home demonstration work. There was increasing demand
for varied services from the agents because of training, experience, knowl-
edge of conditions, acquaintance with the people of county and type of
work they were doing. In every county the agents have worked closely
with social service and other relief workers. They have performed advisory
and supervisory duties in producing, purchasing wisely and conserving food
and clothing materials. They have given help in women's work rooms and
served as leaders in the establishing and operating of canning centers.
Recognizing the need for extending such service as home demonstration
work to families on relief and especially those selected for rehabilitation,
FERA and Florida Agricultural Extension Service entered into an agree-
ment in July whereby necessary emergency assistant agents and project
leaders could be employed by FERA to work under direction and super-
vision of the Agricultural Extension Service to extend home demonstration
work to families on relief rolls and borderline cases to assist them in
becoming self-sustaining in part or in whole.
Home Demonstration Agents have had no part in conducting the crop
reduction campaigns. However, in the field of agricultural adjustments
they have a most important place as pertains to the farm family living.
Studies made of production in the cotton producing counties show that
there is a shortage of such things as vegetables, fruits, poultry, and dairy
products for home use. We have a budget of food supplies for Florida
farm families which we are using effectively. This gives the foods needed,
and the yearly amount for a family of five. It is a splendid guide showing
the actual needs so far as foods are concerned, and a definite plan for
growing and conserving those foods at home. Women are enthusiastically
Florida Cooperative Extension
working under guidance of Home Demonstration Agents in devising ways
and means of providing these needs.
The consumption of cotton was increased to some extent through efforts
of the agents in stressing the use of cotton fabrics in clothing and household
furnishings made under their direction and in the rebuilding of cotton
mattresses, making of rugs and such.
Some good results are being accomplished in consumer purchasing.
Home Demonstration Agents are trying to stimulate interest among con-
sumers in wise buying. They are encouraging homemakers to become
familiar with general economic conditions affecting them as consumers
and to learn standards and qualities of products purchased.
The home demonstration workers have assisted in setting up and train-
ing the personnel of the home rehabilitation workers.
A large part of the District Agents' time has been spent in interviewing
prospective rehabilitation workers and establishing them in the various
counties. It has been the policy to appoint only home economics trained
persons who graduate with Bachelor of Science degrees and have practical
In the beginning of the rural rehabilitation program, an agricultural
survey was made. After studying the data obtained and the case histories,
the home rehabilitation workers contacted the relief families and have
studied their problems prior to the selection of the families for rehabilita-
tion. In many instances group meetings have been held for relief families,
helping to solve some of their immediate problems.
By an arrangement with the Rural Rehabilitation Department, it is
possible for communities willing to supply land, building material, lights
and water to secure modern canning plants with adequate equipment. The
Rural Rehabilitation Department will supply equipment for the canning
center which must be paid for either in cash or toll of canned products
or surplus produce.
The agents are taking the lead in making necessary arrangements with
local communities. During the past six months they have been studying
the logical places for establishing these centers and presenting the plans
to the citizens, making them realize that the canning center must be
requested by the people as the result of a need of the community.
An architect has been furnished by Rural Rehabilitation Department
to the Home Demonstration Department to draw up satisfactory plans and
supervise building and equipping the plants. The agents in a majority of
the counties have submitted projects from a number of their communities
for these centers.
OTHER RELIEF WORK
In addition to the rural rehabilitation families there are relief clients
in each county who need the services of the County Home Demonstration
Agents. Group meetings have been held to aid these women in their home
problems. Demonstrations have been given in food, shelter and clothing.
Home Agents have cooperated with social service directors since the in-
ception of the relief program, advising as to food and clothing requirements,
working out budgets, conferring with and instructing case aides as to how
to determine food needs and such.
Plans were worked out in connection with food conservation so the
agents directed the canning for relief families in some counties.
Annual Report, 1934
Home Demonstration Agents in Dade, Palm Beach, and St. Lucie
counties have supervised tremendous work projects for women, using and
training 25 to 50 women on relief rolls each month.
The Home Agent in Leon has trained and successfully directed two
visiting housekeepers of the social service department over a period of six
or seven months. These women have become expert in canning and are
now of considerable help to the Home Demonstration Agent in this phase
of the work.
The agent in Jackson County, with assistance from the state office,
conducted a camp, in cooperation with the county social service director,
for women of families on relief rolls. This was a tremendous undertaking
but seemed to be very much appreciated.
SUPERVISORY METHODS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Supervision has been carried on by the regular state home demonstration
supervisory staff consisting of a State and three District Home Demon-
stration Agents. Working in subject matter fields are one specialist each
in nutrition, food conservation and home improvement. Through FERA
funds one specialist is now employed to develop handicraft, using mainly
native materials of Florida. Each district agent, in addition to her regular
supervisory duties, has responsibility for development of some phase of
home demonstration work for which no specialist is employed.
Miss Mary E. Keown, District Agent for East Florida, was granted a
year's leave of absence to establish home demonstration work in Puerto
Rico beginning July 1, 1934. Miss Anna Mae Sikes was transferred from
the position of Extension Nutritionist to that of Acting District Agent.
Mrs. Eva R. Culley, who had previously served as Extension Nutritionist,
was appointed Acting Extension Nutritionist. Mrs. Culley works under
Miss Sikes' direction in carrying out the nutrition program.
RELATIONS WITH COUNTIES
County appropriations are made by boards of county commissioners,
with assistance from school boards in eight counties. The school board
appropriates the entire sum in one county.
Only one county reduced the appropriation this year. Six counties
increased the appropriations, one made provisions for two agents and
seven counties made new appropriations.
Among the most important changes affecting work in all counties has
continued to be that of adjusting the agent's time and home demonstration
program to include work with relief agencies. This has meant in some
instances that local leaders have assumed added duties in the communities
and in other cases the leaders under direction of the Home Demonstration
Agent have assumed duties in connection with the relief work. The most
valuable assistance the agent has received from this source has come from
older 4-H club girls, some of whom are married women of the communities,
some are teachers, while many are still actively engaged in 4-H club work.
The development of practical programs, fitting home demonstration
work into the economic situation, establishment of result demonstrations,
increasing the family income through home earning activities, distribution
of concise, tabulated reports of accomplishments in the county, presenting
work to civic organizations, Florida products dinners, thrift meals, exhibits,
tours to established demonstrations in the home, such as pantries, poultry
flocks, home improvement, gardens and orchards, shopping tours, achieve-
ment days, use of the press and radio, assistance with emergency relief
activities, are methods which have resulted in a greater appreciation of
home demonstration work this year.
Florida Cooperative Extension
Agents who have at least the bachelor degree in home economics and
experiences which provide a good background for home demonstration work
are employed as far as possible. New positions this year have been filled
with especially well trained people.
Demands have been so constant and services so needed on the job that
Extension workers have not had opportunity to leave their posts of duty
this year for study. However, one is writing thesis for master's degree,
as is also one of the district agents.
The Annual Extension Workers' Conference served well in advancing
timely information to the group as a whole on such subjects as farm ad-
ministration and legislation, relief work from a national and state view-
point, and recent findings in home economics.
The specialists in the State Home Demonstration Office have furnished
the agents with latest authoritative information in their respective subjects,
and the agents have made excellent use of this material.
Most agents have access to county-owned mimeograph machines, tele-
phones, and typewriters, although their offices may not be equipped with
them. The demand for canning has caused the purchase of canners and
sealers by the counties in some instances. The Rural Rehabilitation De-
partment is sending excellent canning equipment into some of the counties.
DETERMINING EXTENSION PROGRAMS
During the annual state conference for Extension workers, specialists
and supervisors present program recommendations. These are discussed
in joint conferences by state and county workers. When it has been decided
in which counties the specialists will do concentrated work, the specialist,
County Home Agent and District Agent make plans so far as is possible
for coordinating the agent's and specialists' programs and for definite
development of the particular projects.
Local clubs discuss conditions, individual and community needs with
the agent. Representatives of the local clubs who form the county councils
meet with the agent and when possible the District Agent, State Agent
or specialist, in discussion of data, situations and available assistance.
Conclusions and goals set are worked into county and community programs.
Usually in September or October the agents and county councils hold
their meetings for program planning for the year. At this meeting the
women present the needs of their communities as they see them and hear
recommendations for state-wide emphasis as recommended by the state
council. The County Home Demonstration Agent presents county situations
as she sees them. Out of these discussions evolve recommendations to be
considered in making the program. Final programs are adopted by county
councils usually the first meeting after agents' annual conference.
The State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work held a most
satisfactory meeting during the S'ate Short Course for 4-H Club Girls.
The State Home Demonstration Council endeavors to place the right
interpretation upon home demonstration activities, to understand methods
of procedure, to select for emphasis those things which seem most timely
from the standpoint of the homemaker and in strengthening home demon-
stration work among those participating and the public at large.
During the first part of each year a definite program of work is required
of each agent in which she lists goals set and methods to be used in ob-
taining them. This program is studied together carefully by district and
state agents. They approve or make suggestions for strengthening as the
Annual Report, 1934
case may be. This program is checked by the District Agent with the
agent from time to time during the year. After reports have been sub-
mitted at the close of the year a comparison is made of the goals set with
the results accomplished and this is referred to the agent with comments
and suggestions for the next year.
It was realized that one reason why young women do not attend club
meetings has been that they had no one to care for the small children,
so the clubs have provided persons and facilities for taking care of them
at the club meetings but in a place removed from the women's group.
Older 4-H club girls have assisted in this program and received recognition
in club leadership for their efforts. Guidance has been given the club girls
in caring for the young children, for it has been recognized that such
guidance is excellent training to the girls in developing wholesome attitudes
toward family relationships and resourcefulness.
MEASURING PROGRESS AND RESULTS
Record books prepared by the state staff are furnished each club member
in which she can keep accurate records. It has been interesting to observe
the increase in number of older girls remaining in 4-H club work and the
increase in number of women establishing definite demonstrations in their
The State Home Demonstration Council for senior work offers each year
an award for the best County Council book which is judged on the appear-
ance, arrangement and effective development of the council program. This
has created interest in keeping record books in the clubs and caused indi-
vidual members to keep better records not only for themselves but for their
clubs and councils.
The State Council loving cup was this year awarded to Palm Beach
STRENGTHENING HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Circular Letters.-Reports show that during 1934 the agents prepared
2,331 different circular letters for distribution to their club members. At-
tractive drawings that catch the eye and tell a story in themselves are used
advantageously by some of the more original agents and specialists in
preparing circular letters that command immediate attention.
Publicity.-Twenty-two County Home Demonstration Agents report 77
radio talks during the year. We participated in the National 4-H Achieve-
ment Day program over four radio stations in Florida.
Excellent cooperation is received continuously from newspapers of the
state. Twenty-six counties report 2,425 news articles or stories published.
News reporters elected or appointed in the girls' 4-H clubs and women's
clubs have as their duties the reporting of individual and club activities.
A special course given during Short Course for 4-H Girls and occasional
courses in the counties have proven of much help to these reporters. As
an outgrowth of this instruction, several councils edit and publish their
own news sheets. Several women's councils have similar publications.
Home Visits.-Reports show that the agents made 12,176 home visits
to 6,692 homes, an average of about 430 visits per agent. It is felt that
much has been accomplished by these personal contacts this year, as in
many instances'there are those who have been kept closer at home because
of the expense of travel.
Tours.-There is noticeably increased interest among the people them-
selves in tours or visits to successful result demonstrations in the home.
Farm women and girls are proving that certain home activities are extreme-
ly worthwhile and profitable from an economic standpoint. These successful
68 Florida Cooperative Extension
women and girls and their accomplishments are set up as object lessons.
This year 19 agents report 48 tours with an attendance of 965 persons.
Club and Council Meetings.-All agents follow a regular schedule of
club meetings, meeting each senior and each junior club once each month.
Most council meetings are held quarterly. The days in the fifth week of
the month usually are set aside for special activities and public meetings.
The District Agent accompanies the agent to club meetings frequently
and plans to attend county council meetings once or twice a year, makes
home visits with the agents and frequently attends special events. The
State Agent endeavors to keep in touch and informed regarding the work
in the county through reports and one or more visits into each county
Bulletins and Circulars.-Material has been prepared for agents' use on
the family food supply, citrus and canning budgets. Bulletins in greatest
demand have included those pertaining to food conservation, economical
meals, and renovation of house furnishings. Agents report that they have
distributed 54,534 bulletins.
Exhibits.-Regardless of the fact that there were very few awards
other than ribbons this year, 23 counties report 208 events at which edu-
cational exhibits were shown. The articles displayed were carefully scored
and the exhibitors were given benefit of the findings. The State Home
Demonstration staff arranged a special exhibit of home demonstration
work for the annual meeting of State Federation of Women's Clubs held
in Tallahassee this year.
Demonstrations.-The demonstration method of teaching is the one used
by Home Demonstration Agents most advantageously. The women and
girls with the agent's advice decide on the demonstrations they are to
conduct. To assist the women and girls in establishing demonstrations in
their homes using recommended methods, the agents held 6,250 method
demonstration meetings during the year. There was an attendance at
these meetings of 242,110, an increase of 139,145 persons over the attend-
ance at 6,028 meetings last year.
There were 1,726 meetings held at result demonstrations with an at-
tendance of 30,734. This is almost double the number of meetings at
result demonstrations with more than double attendance recorded last year.
Team demonstrations by 4-H club girls are encouraged as a means of
determining the completeness with which the girls are really adopting
principles; to enable them to pass information along to others and for their
own self-development. Seventy-two judging teams and 194 demonstration
teams were developed. Those scoring highest in the counties entered state-
wide contests conducted during the Girls' 4-H Club Short Course.
Local Leaders.-The local women and girls through their councils have
assumed an increased share of responsibility for extending the home dem-
onstration program and so allow more time for the agent to develop work
along new or emergency lines. The development of local leaders, both
girls and women, and the strengthening of county and state councils are
factors contributing greatly to efficient development of home demonstration
work throughout the state. In 1934 a total of 1,260 older 4-H club girls
assisted Home Demonstration Agents as voluntary local leaders. There
were 149 training meetings held for leaders attended by 2,259 people.
Achievement Days.-Community and county achievement days are ob-
served at the culmination of the year's work. They give recognition to
club members for worthy endeavor, help them and the agent observe the
Annual Report, 1934
progress and give the public an opportunity to know more about the work
in the county. Features of the program include exhibits, reports, talks,
council meetings, recreation, awarding of certificates and pins in recognition
for work accomplished as clubs and individuals.
During the year there were 72 achievement days held, 22 for adults
with an attendance of 7,465 and 53 for 4-H club members with an attend-
ance of 9,212.
Camps.-Camps are popular with 4-H club members and with adults.
There were 33 camps held during the summer of 1934, 12 for women, five
for boys and girls and 12 entirely for girls. There were in attendance
for the duration of the camps 471 women of home demonstration clubs;
1,247 girls, and 1,057 others including visitors, instructors, and leaders
who enjoyed the recreation, instruction, fellowship and leadership develop-
ment of the camps conducted by the Home Demonstration Agents. College
4-H club girls, older 4-H girls and local leaders gave excellent assistance
to agents in conducting the camps. A well trained woman recreation leader
was employed throughout the two months' period of camps to assist with
the work at the West Florida 4-H Camp. Through the courtesy of the
State Board of Health a nurse was provided for the duration of the camps.
These two workers contributed greatly to the program.
The two-day farm and home institute for adults held at the West
Florida 4-H club camp was again this year the most inspirational event
of the year for farm people of West Florida. Regardless of inconveniences
in accommodating large crowds at the camp, attendance and enthusiasm
far exceeded that anticipated.
Out-of-State Trips.-National 4-H Club Camp: Margaret Alford of
Manatee County and Edna Sims of Walton County were awarded trips to
the National 4-H Club Camp. This camp, held annually in Washington,
D. C., under the auspices of the Cooperative Extension Service, U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture, affords outstanding educational advantages and
leadership development. Only the two girls and two boys making the
highest score within the states are permitted to attend. The girls' trips
this year were financed by 4-H club members and the Atlantic Coast Line
National 4-H Club Congress: There is always keen interest among club
members for trips to Chicago for attendance at the National 4-H Club
Congress. Only those scoring highest in club work are awarded trips.
Recipients of the trips this year were Annabelle Jameson of Polk County,
winner in health; Margaret Alford of Manatee, winner in clothing; Marjorie
Morrison of Alachua County, winner in State Bread Contest; and Betty
Reed of Jefferson County, champion in canning. These trips were financed
by Montgomery Ward and Company, Chicago Mail Order Company, North-
western Yeast Company and Kerr Glass Manufacturing Company.
Short Course for 4-H Club Girls.-The State Short Course for 4-H Club
Girls, held at Florida State College for Women, is the outstanding event
of the 4-H club year. The morale, type of programs, results seen in
counties are improvements brought about to some extent by the fact that
those in attendance must be county winners, awarded scholarships, and
14 years of age or over. There were 343 girls, 54 local leaders and 21
Home Demonstration Agents in attendance this year.
Scholarships for club girls and leaders were provided by club members,
county commissioners, school boards, women's clubs, men's clubs, banks,
merchants and interested individuals.
The course consisted of instruction and demonstrations by Extension
workers and club members in various phases of home demonstration work.
Outstanding features were assistance given by college 4-H girls, project
Florida Cooperative Extension
Fig. 8.-Betty Reed, state champion canning girl,
has an outstanding record for 1934.
demonstrations, contests, afternoon program for recognition of accom-
plishments, State Council meetings, recreation and entertainment.
Girls who attend the Short Course are charged with the responsibility
of making 4-H club work render a larger service by passing knowledge
on to others, assisting younger girls with their work, acquainting eligible
girls who are not members with what it is and does, and to assist agents
wherever possible. Agents use these girls effectively, particularly in camps
and in presenting special programs.
Of extreme importance to the success of the Short Course is the fact
that one week is set aside annually in the college year between the spring
and summer terms for the Home Demonstration Department to hold the
Short Course without interruption. This year, as in the past, dormitories,
laboratories, and classrooms were available. The college nurses rendered
valuable assistance by keeping the infirmary open and giving the girls
necessary medical care during the week. The dieticians rendered a service
that is outstanding in the minds of the girls, leaders and agents, because
Annual Report, 1934
of the good food so efficiently served. Social directors and various faculty
members were generous with their time and assistance.
Specialists have dealt in detail with the projects to which most attention
has been given. Only a short summary of developments and comments
on outstanding projects will be given here. Objectives in project activities
centered around a live-at-home program based upon needs.
GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
Calendar gardens and orchards are essential in every well balanced
home demonstration program. Through gardening and perennial plantings
more families have an all-year supply of fresh fruits and vegetables and
are beautifying their home grounds by decorative plantings.
Great progress has been made in meeting economic needs through the
home gardening program. It is the home garden that is first turned to
for producing foodstuffs when funds are low. The Economist in Food
Conservation has secured splendid cooperation in promoting better gardens
and more perennial plantings. Cooperative purchasing and donations of
seeds have enabled many families to plant gardens this year. Interest
has been stimulated through actually working out food budgets for indi-
vidual families with the mothers; utilizing score card; garden scores;
demonstrations; and all-year garden contests.
Fig. 9.-Home gardens have played an important part in the live-at-
home program in Florida.
Agents held 1,116 meetings; published 432 news stories; made 2,495
visits and had 3,482 office calls in connection with this project. Women
report 3,521 demonstrations carried in home gardening; 370 with market
Florida Cooperative Extension
gardening; and 2,111 with the home orchard. The home gardens and
orchards have not only supplied fruits and vegetables but other things
for the family resulting from sales amounting to $26,350. There were
3,482 4-H club girls who carried demonstrations in home gardening and
740 who followed definite plans in planting perennials as part of the home
Development of the home poultry flock as a part of the home demon-
stration program is improving family nutrition and increasing the family
income. There were 1,167 women in 21 counties who cooperated in the
poultry program. However, this is less than half as many as cooperated
in this phase of the work in 1933.
Fig. 10.-Home demonstration agents aided farm women with their
culling and other poultry problems.
Tours to flocks and hatcheries were made.
worth of poultry marketed during the year.
Reports show $75,542.00
Improvement in quality of milk for home consumption and increase in
the use of milk products in the diet with the view to better nutrition and
using the surplus to increase the family income have been goals. Reports
from 11 counties show that 287 families cooperated during the year in the
home dairying program.
The general plan and purpose for the nutrition work has been to put
into operation a simple understandable food program that would result
in better food selection, food preparation and meal planning for family,
school lunch, group or community meals. This program has been closely
related to the productive program of poultry raising, home dairying and
gardening. It has been necessary to give particular attention to economical
Annual Report, 1934
meals that were adequate. Results have been determined by the improve-
ment shown in food selection and health scores, by increased use of milk,
eggs, fruits and vegetables in the family diet; by improvement of school
lunches; by increased enrollment of girls in food and nutrition and by better
records from them in health improvement. There were 4,090 girls and
1,855 women who reported adopting improved practices in nutrition work.
This year interest has been high in saving the surplus for home use.
Food conservation scientifically done assures a more varied diet in the
home, and eliminates waste of fruits and vegetables. Through promoting
it the agents are constantly using Florida products and furnishing another
means for increasing the family income. Florida Products Dinners are
very popular and attract public interest in home demonstration work as
well as to the products themselves. A total of 1,586 families followed the
agents' advice in producing and canning according to a family food supply
budget this year. There were 5,928 families assisted in the canning and
preserving. 4-H club members canned 130,722 containers of products.
Reports from 23 counties show an estimated valuation of products
canned to be 8227,719.00.
In developing the clothing work with women and girls we have empha-
sized selection of materials from standpoint of wise buying, color, design
and suitability; proper construction, renovation, thrift, cleaning methods
and storage. Much of the clothing work this year has been done along
thrift lines. Girls have been impressed with what they could do to help
with clothing problems of the family, in exchanging patterns, dyeing and
renovating garments, cutting and fitting and making hats. The exhibit
lent to us by the Textiles Division of the Bureau of Home Economics was
Fig. 11.-These 4-H club girls of St. Johns County are reviving the
all-but-lost art of old Spanish needlework, which flourished there many
Florida Cooperative Extension
appreciatively and beneficially received. There were 2,383 women and 6,920
girls who made garments under the agents' instruction. Eighteen counties
estimate savings due to this clothing program at $27,206.00.
Clothing clinics served well in many communities. Clothes in need of
renovation were brought to some central place where instruction was given
that showed the person bringing the garment how to make a nice looking
dress from one or more unattractive ones, a suit from a discarded top coat,
or children's garments from unworn parts of adult clothes.
Feed sacks were transformed into wearing apparel for women and
children, and into other household articles.
The proper care of the feet, the selection of shoes, and simple corrective
measures for foot defects have been demonstrated as a part of the clothing
In spite of low funds there is more abundant living in many farm
homes today because during 1934 they were made more comfortable. Some
of the many home improvements were as follows: Buildings were improved
on 235 farms in seven counties. Three of the seven counties estimate the
saving because of this service at $1,500; 30 new dwellings were constructed
and 70 dwellings were remodeled; 33 sewage disposal systems, 43 water
systems and 17 lighting systems were installed according to recommenda-
HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
The agents' part in the health program is preventive and educational,
guiding demonstrators in the adoption of improved health habits. Work
which was started with such activities as clean-up days, fly control, exterior
and interior sanitation, and safeguarding the water supply has developed
a general consciousness of the importance of health and its relation to
efficiency. The agents have cooperated with public health workers with
During 1934 1,362 homes report having improved home health and
sanitation to get rid of the malarial mosquito and'hookworm and other
The State Home Demonstration Office gave assistance in the plans and
organizations of sanitary programs directed by CWA, for which CWA
was highly appreciative. The agents urged people to take advantage of
opportunities afforded for installation of sanitary toilets. Through this
cooperation 532 sanitary toilets were installed in 18 counties.
There were 1,751 families who reported repairing, remodeling and
refinishing furniture. Most popular has been the reclaiming of chairs.
Reports from 19 counties show an estimated saving of $24,602 as result
of this program.
There were 940 families who followed recommendations in obtaining
inexpensive and practical labor-saving equipment, 400 homes were given
help in improving the family laundry problems and 1,146 homes were
helped to improve their everyday housekeeping duties. There were 1,901
families who made adjustments to gain a more satisfactory standard of
There were 409 women who kept home accounts and reported a wiser
use of the income, while 93 women budgeted their expenses to avoid unwise
buying. Also 910 made a study of their buying methods.
Annual Report, 1934
Reports from 11 counties show an estimated saving of $37,737 through
participation in the home management work undertaken.
BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Attention has been given to open lawns, the use of native shrubbery,
foundation plantings, planting yards according to a plan and the physical
appearance of dwellings and the entire premises.
Some of the clubs and many individual demonstrators have made def-
initely planned trips into the woods for native shrubbery. There have
been numerous exchanges of plants and shrubs. Seedsmen and nurseries
have given splendid cooperation. Clubs are learning the importance of
pooling their orders. Through cooperative purchases and distribution by
county councils, club members secured a variety of good seed and excellent
assortments of plants and shrubbery at small cost. As a part of the
program all club members are expected to grow the adopted county flower.
A total of 1,326 women and 1,904 girls have carried definite demonstrations
in improving the home grounds during the year.
CHILD TRAINING AND CARE
With more young mothers as members of home demonstration clubs,
child training and care is receiving more and more attention.
The Extension program emphasizes the kind of diet that promotes
growth and health, considers clothing which helps instead of hinders
development, and other adjustments necessary for the child's welfare, and
the importance of putting into practice information along these lines.
There were 2,071 families -following advice as to home packed school
lunches; 358 families report improved habits of children; 107 reported
substituting positive methods of discipline for negative ones; 60 provided
recommended playground equipment and 71 followed recommendations*
regarding furnishings adapted to children's needs. Reports from 10 coun-
ties show that 945 women and 231 men were participating in this program.
MARKETING OF HOME PRODUCTS
Efforts have been made to develop a market for salable products to
bring in needed cash. Most of these products have been taken from farm
surplus or were articles made -from native products. The value of. such
products amounts to $128,681.
Farm women have been able to add to the family income by the sale
of fresh and canned fruits and vegetables, poultry products, and handicraft
articles. In one county the women have established a local demand for
their canned products and are now supplying three stores in the county
with three varieties of home canned products. A total of $4,507.28 in fresh
and canned fruits and vegetables were sold cooperatively and individually
by club members of that county this year.
Cooperative sales have been the cause of 131 individuals in that county
becoming interested in standardizing, grading, and processing products
for the market. On the whole the women have been very careful to keep
up the standard set.
Home Demonstration Agents assisted 400 communities in planning com-
munity activities to meet the most outstanding needs. Home demonstration
and 4-H club members help to keep up the morale of the farm family,
maintain good health, provide good reading material, inexpensive forms
of family and community recreation and participate in other activities which
develop community enrichment.
Florida Cooperative Extension
Recreation.-Recreation has been one of the outstanding community
activities in Florida this year. Five recreational short courses were held
under the direction of John Bradford and Jack Knapp of the National
Recreation Association. Volunteer leaders from communities attended the
short courses, which covered a four nights' period. Following the recreation
short course, Extension recreational councils were formed. These have
for the most part met regularly each month. In two counties the councils
assumed responsibility for taking charge of recreational community night
Libraries.-Libraries have been started by women's clubs and are a
real asset in the counties. Funds have been raised by the women to operate
the libraries. There were 40 communities assisted in establishing libraries
Other Community Work.-Home demonstration clubs have assisted in
improving church and schools grounds, arranging for community club
houses for meeting place, making surveys, establishing school lunchrooms,
conducting local fairs and arranging exhibits.
Through cooperation with FERA, plans are underway for establishment
of excellent canning kitchens. The home demonstration club houses and
rooms are used as regular meeting places and many have equipped kitchens.
The club members assist with the upkeep of the building and provide the
Annual Report, 1934
GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation
Gardens and orchards, dairy and poultry products are the main sources
of food supply for the farm family. Naturally, the Economist in Food
Conservation has stressed the production and conservation of home vege-
tables and fruits to provide the farm family with adequate food of varied
ingredients and to enable the family to have more money available for
The entire program has been centered around the idea that with soil,
climatic and seasonal conditions as they are in Florida there is no valid
reason why every rural family cannot largely feed itself. Fruits and
vegetables can be grown in every section of the state the year round.
A standard has been set calling for fresh Florida fruits and vegetables
on the table every day in the year, a well filled pantry with canned fruits
and vegetables for use out of season and in rush times, and home poultry
products as a part of the daily diet. This standard is striking a responsive
chord among farm families in every county where Home Demonstration
Agents are working.
GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
HOME GARDEN WORK
Renewed and increased interest in home gardens was evidenced this
year, and demands for assistance consequently multiplied. Women enrolled
in home demonstration clubs made every effort to have fresh garden
products for their tables every month in the year. Compilations show that
the home demonstration women grew 3,521 "calendar" gardens in 1934.
Fresh fruits and vegetables sold had a valuation of $26,350.21, while those
canned, preserved and made into jellies reached a total value of $227,718.81.
In addition to the provision of some kind of fresh garden product for
each month, the women have grown larger numbers and different varieties
of vegetables to add zest to the menu. They have planned to produce
enough for canning and in many cases to sell.
Records of their work have drawn increased attention this year also.
The women are learning through figures on cost of production and value
of products that the home garden is quite worth while from the financial
standpoint as well as providing good health for the members of the family.
PERENNIAL PLANTINGS OR CALENDAR ORCHARDS
The calendar orchard is another very important objective. Florida people
have at their finger tips a largess of fruits if they only take the trouble
to grow them. In the northern section of the state such fruits as pears,
peaches, persimmons, figs, quinces, muscadines and other grapes grow with
little encouragement, yet there are hundreds of rural homes without a fig
tree, without a pear or plum, without a scuppernong or persimmon.
The need for more fruit, in greater variety, is easily recognized when
working out the canning budget and the budget is proving to be a very
direct and convincing argument for the calendar orchard. Many agents
have reported of its stimulating influence for more and better plantings.
A calendar orchard plan for Florida was worked out by H. H. Hume,
assistant director of the Agricultural Experiment Station at Gainesville,
and supplied in mimeographed form to interested families throughout the
state. It is a guide as to number of trees to plant, varieties, distance, and
Florida Cooperative Extension
In many counties large numbers of families were contacted in reference
to the all-year orchard, their interest aroused, and orders for trees and
vines were pooled. In this way the nurseries of the state made it possible
for many more people to obtain plants than could have obtained them
individually and at regular prices.
The total number of calendar orchards planted in 1934 by home dem-
onstration women was 2,111. These included fruit trees, berry and grape
GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS BY 4-H GIRLS
The planting program for girls is outlined very definitely, with set
requirements for four years of work. The suggested perennials for plant-
ing in the various sections of the state are listed in the Girls' Garden
Record Book. Each girl selects the type and variety adapted to her needs
and to the soil and climatic conditions of her locality.
The planting of a definite number of fruit trees or berries is a part of
the first year's requirements.
For the current year there were 3,803 club girls enrolled in gardening.
Out of this number there were 2,556 completions.
Club members eager to work in the present emergency, have more than
ever before taken avidly to food conservation and to the idea of planning
their pantries to take care of the "lean" months. The stories of the club
members themselves indicate that they feel well repaid for their efforts
in this direction.
Fig. 12.-These Orange County 4-H club girls become proficient at canning.
One outstanding feature in food conservation work this year is that
in so many instances canning has been done greatly in excess of the
budgetary needs of the family. The surplus above the family's own needs
has been sold to bring in much needed cash, exchanged or bartered for
necessities the family lacked.
Many club girls and women were able to pay their way to camp by
means of their canned products.
Annual Report, 1934 79
Reports indicate that never before has meat canning been so generally
practiced throughout the state and over all the year. This year the canning
of beef has gained in favor, and has resulted in a greatly improved meat
supply., The agents report that impetus has been given by the canning
budget, which calls "attention to the meats needed by the family during
the year. --
One agent alone gave 140 demonstrations in canning beef, 125 with
pork, 15 with poultry and four with lamb.
THE CANNING BUDGET
The goal for better gardens, for calendar orchards, better budgeted
and filled pantries, and more and better storage places for the canned food
supply, has been uppermost in importance in the program of work for the
year. Canning budget making in all counties begins with the individual
demonstrator whose family needs and tastes are not exactly like her neigh-
bor's. Time is taken at regular club meetings for thoughtful, careful,
computation of the budgetary needs of the various families at the beginning
of the season for' canning activities.
The progress made with the canning budget plan is perhaps best told
by Miss Elise Laffitte of Gadsden County, who has given consistent,
thoughtful attention to the plan ever since its introduction to the canning
program. Miss Laffitte states:
"Two years ago a few farm women in Gadsden County became interested
in doing their home canning by a carefully computed budget, budgeting
for the: purpose of supplying the variety of canned foods necessary to
supplement the fresh fruits and vegetables available from the home garden
and orchard in order to provide well-balanced meals 365 days during the
"While the amounts canned by the individual families vary because
of the difference in the amounts and varieties of these fresh products grown
on the different farms, the approximate estimate of canned products for
a family of five in Gadsden County has been placed at 600 quarts for a
year. The 600 quarts are divided into the following groups and amounts:
canned fruits, 170 quarts; fruit juices, 80 quarts; vegetables, 216 quarts;
meats, 52 quarts; sweets, 52 quarts; pickles, 36 quarts. The women who
did their 1933 canning according to this plan were so well pleased with
the results inl providing a balanced and healthful food supply in their
homes throughout the year, that they talked a great deal about their
pantries. Twenty-one of these women showed their pantries on a pantry
tour held in September, 1933. From this, interest in doing home canning
by budgets increased, and plans for the 1934 canning were started.
"Early in the year one meeting of each woman's home demonstration
club in the county was devoted to a discussion on canning for home by a
carefully computed budget. At this time the budget sheets were explained
and the names of those women who expressed interest in canning by a
budget were listed. In all 187 women expressed a desire to plan a canning
budget and to can towards completing the budget by November 1934. The
Home Demonstration Agent then assisted each woman to plan her budget.
Of the 187 women who planned to do their home canning according to a
budget, 57 completed their budgets as computed, 80 lacked a very small
quantity of canning the amounts and only 50 lacked more than 25 quarts
of completing'their budgets. These failures were due largely to a shortage
of bearing fruit treas on their farms. Since these failures to can the full
allotments of fruftfhave stimulated- n interest in orchard plantingA for
this winter, perhaps the failures haven't been so bad after all. The 187
FU rAMI!LY OF Fid
CrAha)Ocr. COiUNTY Ft.
CARifD MUTitr 1700k
F RUI JU ES s
W E 1r 5 2
iE 1 omi 36D l wh
'L'TOAL A L 061,
Fig. 13.-Home Demonstration Club women, with the aid of their agents, ma
Annual Report, 1934
women who canned by budgets have families ranging in size from two to 12.
These families total 896 individuals. The amount canned by the 187 women
during 1934 for home use in Gadsden County is 93,632 quarts."
CANNING CONTESTS AND PANTRY TOURS
Canning contests are introduced and formulated with the idea of getting
greater enthusiasm and interest in the food conservation program. They
are outlined in the way that is considered the best and almost direct route
for bringing about the desired practices with the least waste of time and
effort. The rules and regulations as set up for 1933 were not changed
In counties where the canning budget contest has been conducted, pantry
tours have been featured. Visits were made to most of the outstanding
pantries in each county, stimulating the women who had canned and those
who had not. Their influence spread to neighboring communities and
counties and gave impetus to the work.
Another result of these pantry tours and budget canning contests has
been an increase in number of suitable pantries built for storing the
canned goods. Desirable storage capacity is lacking on entirely too many
SINGLE-JAR CONTEST FOR WOMEN
This contest features quality packs of both fruit and vegetables from
a large number of women.
The county participating in this contest holds a canning achievement
day at which a club member may bring in her choicest jar of plain canned
fruit or vegetables to compete against the best from other pantries in the
county. These are judged for county winners and the best jar of fruit
and the best of vegetables is'sent to the state home demonstration office
to be scored county against county.
The three highest scoring jars in both classes as well as high scoring
pantries, are awarded splendid cash and other prizes, by several manufac-
GIRLS' CANNING CONTEST
A contest similar to the one for women is held for girls. The girls are
divided into groups of those 10 to 14 years of age and those 15 and over.
Elimination contests are held in the local clubs to select the best two
containers for the county contest. In turn, the two containers judged best
in the county are sent to the State Home Demonstration Department where
the girls at Short Course are given an opportunity to participate in further
judging and scoring of all the canned products entered. These contests
serve to bring greater color and interest in canning activities and encourage
club members to grade more closely and to can food materials when in
their prime condition, as well as to train to be more discriminating and
more generally careful.
A club girl, to enter the junior part of the contest, must have canned
the requirements of the first or second year's work, and have submitted
her record and story to her agent as called for on the achievement day
for her club.
To enter the senior or advanced girls' canning contest, the club member
must have canned the requirements for the third year canning program
or more. In addition, she must exhibit at annual State Short Course a
balanced meal, selected from the year's work, consisting of five quart jars
which may be used in the preparation of (1) an emergency dinner to
include a meat, vegetables, a fruit and a pickle or relish; (2) the jars must
Florida Cooperative Extension
be accompanied by the complete menu for this meal. This may be supple-
mented by bread and butter, a raw fruit or vegetable for salad and a drink.
The three girls scoring highest in the Emergency XMeal Contest were
given an opportunity to work further on their canning records through the
summer and resubmit them in October to be judged for the state-wide
canning contest. The winner was awarded a trip to the National Boys'
and Girls' Club Congress in Chicago, given by another glass manufacturer.
Home Demonstration Agents in all counties where they were working
rendered valuable assistance to the Federal Emergency Relief Administra-
tion in canning for families on relief rolls. In many cases the agencies in
the county established canning centers and furnished cans, taking toll to
pay the costs. The agents, with their experience in canning work, were
called on frequently to assist in getting the work organized. Many of them
loaned their own equipment, where necessary equipment was not available.
Through this work the program for conservation has reached many
who had not been touched before, and they have been taught to use what
they had and to depend on their own efforts for relief.
The FERA recently assigned an architect with wide experience to
assist with the planning of community canning kitchens and centers, that
these might be made more up-to-date and sanitary. Considerable up-to-
date canning equipment is now available, and improvement in the canning
set-up is anticipated.
As usual, a large and varied exhibit of citrus by-products, canned
"hearts", preserves, spiced marmalades, candied and baked citrus goods
was set up at the Florida Orange Festival the last week in January in
Winter Haven. This year marked the beginning of a competitive exhibit
between the counties and individuals within the counties.
UTILIZATION OF HONEY IN THE HOME
Reports do not altogether show the increasing interest in beekeeping
among women nor in the greater use of honey in general cookery. The
Economist is keenly interested in honey and honey-made products and has
encouraged the use of part honey in the place of part sugar in jelly making
as well as its more frequent use in cookery.
The 55 page bulletin, Florida Honey and Its Hundred Uses, written in
cooperation with Dr. Waldo Horton, then president of the Florida Bee-
keepers' Association, and printed by the State Department of Agriculture
for the benefit of the honey industry, has received wide and favorable com-
mendation within the state and without. In fact, it was said by the
National Honey Institute to be the finest publication on the subject yet
published by any state in the Union.
Annual Report, 1934,
FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist
Mrs. Eva R. Culley, Acting Extension Nutritionist
The food, nutrition and health program for 1934 was a continuation of
the "long-time" program planned the previous year, to bring about ap-
preciable changes in food production, food selection and food consumption
practices. This project has been very closely allied with the home dairy,
family meat supply, year-round garden, calendar orchard, home canned
food budget, and home sanitation during the year.
The problem of providing an adequate diet with limited resources con-
fronted many Florida families, and budgets for the family income demanded
special attention, while stress was laid on providing a happy, healthful
living for every member of the families. With a reduction in the money
available for family meals, a problem of meal planning and food prepara-
tion arose which made it necessary to teach careful preparation of low-
cost foods so that they would be palatable, satisfying and appetizing to the
individuals and at the same time provide for their body needs.
In general, _the aims of the food, nutrition and health program have been:
To give instructions as to the importance of providing the family food
supply, emphasizing production, selection and preparation in order to secure
the best possible balanced nourishment at the lowest cost.
To aid in establishing and directing a program for the feeding of under-
nourished children through the school lunchroom.. To have trained leaders
for this project and an adequate lunch provided for every school child.
To encourage the home canned food budget by stressing its value in the
daily diet, school lunch, baby's diet and emergency meals.
To encourage and aid in seeing that every pre-school and school child
has a physical examination and that all defects be corrected if possible.
To increase the use of home-produced and Florida products to provide
a balanced food supply at the lowest cost.
To enlist girls' and women's clubs in a food, nutrition and health
THE FAMILY FOOD SUPPLY
The Nutritionists and Home Demonstration Agents endeavored to de-
velop a realization among the members of a large number of families of
the necessity for careful planning, production and wise buying of the family
food supply; to bring about better selection, preparation and use of home
Farm women were assisted in planning the food budget to meet' the
needs of adequate nutrition for the family at the lowest cost. Food con-
sumption records were kept to show how home production of foods pays.
A plan for the farm home food supply was worked out and presented to
Foods work was conducted in practically all counties having Home Dem-
onstration Agents, and 6,235 families were assisted in using timely economic
information as a basis for readjusting the food supply. Also 856 homes
planned yearly food budgets.
Food consumption records were kept in detail by 35 women in four
counties, and they showed a saving of $892.87 in four months through the
consumption of home-grown products.
84 Florida Cooperative Extension
The objectives of the work in food preparation have been to help rural
women to learn to get the full value of foods by having them properly
prepared and served, to choose and file good recipes, to prepare and serve
products of high quality at all times, and to prepare foods into palatable
but inexpensive dishes.
Fig. 14.-Gulf County 4-H club girls make cheese for home use and for
sale, utilizing surplus milk produced on the farm.
Improved practices in food preparation were followed in 23 counties.
In some counties food dietaries were worked out for home demonstration
club and relief families, the women using them as a basis for buying or
growing food products and planning meals.
This is the one phase of home demonstration work in which every
member of the family is interested. This year more than ever before it
has been necessary to make food adjustments. To do this intelligently,
women had to have a more thorough working knowledge of the nutritive
value of foods and their relation to health. Consequently many demon-
strations were given in food selection and preparation.
Home demonstration club women realize that time, labor and money
are saved by careful meal planning. At the close of the year there were
1,814 families following food buying recommendations of the agents, and
4,193 families were serving better balanced meals.
Work along this line was intended to teach the women to save time
and labor by careful meal planning, to plan, prepare and serve well balanced
meals, to plan and prepare low-cost emergency meals, to buy foods wisely,
.g~~ \ C~
Annual Report, 1934
and to relate food canning budgets to balanced diets, meal planning and
the family income.
FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH FOR THE SCHOOL CHILD
It was noted that 2,071 homes have improved home-packed school
lunches according to recommendations of Extension workers. Also, 48
schools involving 11,742 children were following recommendations for the
hot dish supplement or school lunch this year.
Health protection, good posture and optimum health standards were
encouraged, physical examinations were emphasized, and school lunchroom
projects were encouraged and plans were given. Mothers were urged to
relate the school lunch to the child's daily diet, and to prepare and pack
or serve different types of school lunches.
THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILD
Work with mothers which related to the younger, or pre-school child,
was conducted in 20 counties, and reports show that 1,283 homes are using
improved methods in child feeding. A number of families report improved
health habits of children.
Physical examinations have been given and suggestions made for cor-
recting defects. In this, the home demonstration workers have assisted
representatives of the State Board of Health.
Through this program, mothers have been assisted in learning the value
of pre-natal care, studying the mother's diet and diets for pre-school chil-
dren, becoming informed on improved methods and practices of child feed-
ing. They have been encouraged to give correct training to the pre-school
child, and to provide health protection and physical examinations for every
pre-school child, with defects being corrected before the child enters school.
Much emphasis this year has been placed on the wise selection of foods
to give adequate, well balanced meals with whatever money was available
for food purchases. With decreases in family incomes, this was an im-
portant project throughout the state. The women were taught to obtain
the most for their food dollar and at the same time secure the right kind
of diet for the family.
A number of radio talks were made and news articles written outlining
the different kinds and combinations of low-cost foods for adequate meals.
Demonstrations and talks on the subject were given at club meetings.
NUTRITION WORK WITH 4-H CLUB GIRLS
The goal for the girls was to develop in every club girl an understanding
of and a desire for positive health, through the recognition and formation
of good health habits and proper food selection, and through physical
examinations and correction of defects. Twenty-three counties reported
that 2,555 girls completed the food, nutrition and health program as outlined.
All 4-H club girls choosing the food, nutrition and health project were
required to have a physical examination at the beginning of the year and
a scoring of their food selection and health habits at least three times
during the year.
Demonstrations were given in food selection and preparation, meal
planning, table service, and various phases of health education, such as
correct posture, good health habits, home hygiene and first aid.
Florida Cooperative Extension
Fig. 15.-Jefferson County 4-H girls, with a former club girl as local
leader, are excellent home bread bakers.
STATE AND NATIONAL CONTESTS
For further development of the girls' program, contests were held in
various phases, such as health, posture, bread making and bread judging.
Girls winning first places in health and bread judging in the state
contests attended the National Club Congress in Chicago and entered
similar contests there. The Florida health girl placed in the red ribbon
class, while the bread judging winner finished second in the national contest.
SHORT COURSE AND CAMPS
At the annual short course, every girl received instruction in health
education and nutrition, while one group of the girls took major training
in these subjects. They were given daily lessons in food selection, prepara-
tion and scoring.
County camps for both girls and women provided excellent opportunities
for presenting this phase of the home demonstration program. In some
counties the girls were allowed to pay their expenses at camp by bringing
food products, either fresh or canned. This gave impetus to the food pro-
Annual Report, 1934 87
Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement
The home improvement program of work consists of projects in home
management, rural engineering, house furnishings, thrift, home sanitation,
beautification of home grounds, electrification, 4-H club work, and planning
the entire home site. Thus it provides something of interest for nearly
every rural home.
In the home management project the entire planning is around the
demonstration of the kitchen. Good management of the entire home may
emanate from this demonstration of kitchen improvement; by making a
floor plan of the kitchen and its present routing and then improving this
routing so as to save steps and time; by raising or lowering working
surfaces to save energy or loss of energy and provide comfortable working
conditions. Apparently small items cause a great loss of energy, also
often cause loss of money because of doctors' bills.
Another home management problem,, also a home engineering one, is
to do away with the lifting of tons of water each year by having the water
piped into the house by the use of electrical power or hydraulic ram. It
has been proven that water in the house decreases doctors' bills, thus saving
money for other improvements.
One county started three years ago to keep home records in five differ-
ent homes; this year they report 25 home demonstration club members are
The following statistics show the progress of home management this
1. Number of homes keeping accounts ......................... .................. ..... 143
2. Homes budgeting expenditures in relation to income.................... 93
3. Number of homes following recommended methods in buying......... 910
4. Number of women following a recommended schedule for home
activities -----................................................ 230
5. Kitchens rearranged for convenience.................................................. 360
6. Number of homes following recommendations in obtaining labor-
saving equipment ...........................................................----.--..- 941
7. Number of homes adopting recommended laundering methods...... 400
8. Number of homes practicing every-day good housekeeping............ 1,146
9. Homes assisted in an analysis of their home conditions with
reference to a standard of living......................................................... 882
10. Homes assisted in making adjustments in homemaking to gain
a more satisfactory standard of living-.................. ...................... 1,901
11. Families assisted in home soap making...................:......- ........... 297
12. Number of 4-H club members keeping personal accounts ........ ...:. 409
13. Number of families assisted in developing home industries as a
means of supplementing income............................--.........----- .. 604
14. Families having increased time for rest and leisure as a result
of the home management program................................ .................... 428
15. Number of families following other specific practice recommen-
dations............................... .. ...... .. .......... ........... .. ..:.... 18
In Western Florida the women have more leisure time due to the crop
reduction programs, the women being freed from many field duties that
heretofore had demanded much of their time. Consequently, they have
more time for reading, more knowledge of public affairs that affect the
home, more time for food conservation and gardening.
88 Florida Cooperative Extension
Many of the home engineering projects, particularly the building of new
homes and remodeling of old ones, have been at a standstill this year, due
to urgency of other demands for available money. However, as shown by
the following statistics, progress has been made.
1. Number of dwellings constructed according to plans furnished........ 30
2. Dwellings remodeled according to plans furnished............................ 23
-3. Water systems installed according to recommendations.................... 43
4. 'Number of sewage systems installed.................................................... 33
5. Heating systems installed................................................. .................... 3
6. Lighting systems installed .............................................................. 18
7. Number of home appliances and machines....................................... 719
8. Number of home dairy buildings constructed........................................ 4
HOME FURNISHINGS AND THRIFT
Women and girls have been busy creating something beautiful out of
things near at hand and that cost nothing in most instances. Boxes and
barrels have been converted into usable furniture such as comfortable
overstuffed chairs and seats, where discarded automobile springs have been
used. The Florida moss was used for the padding, with a layer of cotton
on top. While there has been but little furniture bought, many families
are learning to create household articles at little or no cost.
Slip covers of tied and died mill-end materials and remnants of cretonne
have been made for these articles of furnishings. Drawings of such fur-
niture as bookcases, shaving stands, and buffets for the dining room have
been sent out to work rooms and others. Other articles have been made
to cheer many a drab home.
One man proudly showed me a chifferobe he had copied from a catalog.
He had used old road signs and odd pieces of plank. He proudly showed
his boys' neatly folded underwear, the socks and shoes on the shelf side,
and the hung up "Sunday clothes" on the other side. His interest was
aroused because of the improved family bedroom where the floors, walls,
ceilings, window curtains, braided rugs, pictures, and also better reading
lamps had been repaired or provided.
A house furnishing project is usually started around one demonstration,
selecting one room to be improved, and continuing the work until all rooms
are improved. "Working bees" are still popular for teaching large groups
of workers and people on relief have been particularly appreciative of help
along these simple lines of procedure.
Statistics on house furnishings work follow:
1. Number of individuals improving the selection of household fur-
nishings .............................................................................................. 937
.2, Individuals improving methods of repairing, remodeling, or re-
S finishing of furniture............................................................................ 1,636
3. Individuals following recommendations in improved treatment of
windows (shades, curtains, draperies)....--......................... 1,751
4. Individuals improving arrangement of rooms (other than kitchen) 818
5. Individuals improving treatment of walls, woodwork and floors.... 631
6. Number of articles of box furniture made.............. ........ ... 578
.7. Number of families applying principles of color and design in
improving appearance of rooms......................................................... 769
The achievements in home sanitation have been many and outstanding
because of the campaign waged for sanitary privies by the State Board of
Annual Report, 1934
Health in cooperation with the FERA. People generally are more conscious
of the hazards of hookworm and malaria. These organizations would put
in a pit privy where the individuals would furnish the materials.
The following projects in home sanitation were completed during the
1. Number of families installing sanitary closets........ .......... 532
2. Number of homes screened............................................................. 463
3. Number of families following other recommended methods of
controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects..............................
4. Number of individuals enjoying improved health as a result of
health and sanitation program........... ......... ............ .....
BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Home beautification is receiving more attention in rural homes. The
home demonstration club members are encouraged to draw plans for the
improvement of the home. They are encouraged to plant green grass and
shrubbery for foundation plantings. There has been splendid cooperation
between the nurserymen and the Home Agents. Tours have been conducted
to encourage these improvements.
Fig. 16.-This Alachua County farm home, improved by a home dem-
onstration club woman, took first prize in a home improvement contest
covering three states.
Home beautification throughout the state was done to the extent of:
1. Number of homes improved by establishment and care of lawn.... 526
2. Number of homes improved by planting shrubbery and trees...-...- 1,111
3. Number of homes improved by repair of walks, drives, or fences 272
4. Number of homes benefited by improving appearance of house
and outbuildings ............. .............................. 535
5. Number of rock gardens built............ ........................- 2
6. Number of grass plots........... ............... .......... 25
7. Number planting county flower .................... ............... 250
90 Florida Cooperative Extension
FARM HOUSING SURVEY
On December 14, 1933, the Home Improvement Specialist was loaned
to the Civil Works Administration by the Agricultural Extension Service
to conduct the Farm Housing Survey in Florida. This was directed by
Dr. Louise Stanley, Chief of the U. S. Bureau of Home Economics, cooper-
ating with the Agricultural Extension Service. Seven areas were selected
by a state committee, the following counties being chosen: .Escambia,
Alachua, Orange, Polk, Hillsborough, Dade, and Leon-Gadsden. The com-
mittee decided that this group of counties would show a cross-section of the
various farm, fruit, dairy and poultry enterprises.
The County Home Demonstration Agents were asked to suggest efficient
county supervisors to have charge of the work in each area. A personnel
of not over 14 enumerators to a county, a chief clerk, two stenographers,
and an engineer or an architect, was quickly set up.
By January 1, every area was set up for operation. A training school
with all personnel present in each county was held to show them how to
Following the initial survey, the engineers, contractors or carpenters
in each county (except Alachua) used a method which was outlined by a
group of agricultural engineers and plans furnished by the Washington
office. Each day the man helper checked over the enumerators' blanks and
selected the poor, fair, and better homes of three or more rooms. He then
visited the houses to be repaired or remodeled, taking another blank in
order to check the needed repairs and estimate the cost of making the
repairs in each county.
Annual Report, 1934
PART IV-NEGRO WORK
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent
Negro Extension work in Florida.was carried on in 1934 with a force
of 14 local agents, six men and eight women. The men worked in the
following counties: Alachua, Columbia, Hamilton, Jackson, Jefferson,
Marion, and Suwannee.
Negro farm agents in Hamilton and Columbia counties have been con-
ducting the work in Suwannee County this year, since that county has no
Negro farm agent.
Demonstrations were conducted during the year with corn, cotton, legume
crops for feed and soil improvement, white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pea-
nuts, fruits, garden crops, poultry and livestock. The program resulted
in outstanding achievements in better farming and homemaking in 87
communities. Voluntary local leaders rendered valuable assistance in the
While the signing of contracts and other details connected with the
Agricultural Adjustment program were carried out by the white agents,
Negro agents advised with their farmers concerning the programs with
cotton, tobacco, corn and hogs.
The program of work for the year was based on the needs of Negro
farmers and their families in the various communities, as determined by
observations made at the beginning of the year. That it was effective is
shown by a check-up on progress and results accomplished. It was found
that marked improvement had been made along the following lines:
Better quality products brought about by careful selection of improved
seed and varieties.
Decreases in cost of production through the use of better varieties,
improved methods of cultivation and economical fertilization.
Prevention of erosion and improvement of soil by growing legumes
and winter cover crops.
The improvement of livestock on the farm through better breeding, care
Twelve county-wide meetings were held near the end of the year for
discussing problems confronting Negro farmers and homemakers. They
had a total attendance of 2,240.
The problems of the Negro farmers are similar to those of white
farmers, and the Negro agents have had assistance throughout the year
from the white agents in their counties and in the state offices. The work
for the year has centered around a "live-at-home" program which was
deemed advisable for Negro families. Such a program not only helps them
to assure themselves of a living, but it enables them to improve their
economic status with the income derived from cash crops. The local agents
this year have endeavored to stimulate the idea of self-help.
PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS
Local agents devoted 249 days to corn demonstrations, there being 85
adult result demonstrations with this crop. They held 49 meetings at
result demonstrations and 67 at method demonstrations.
92 Florida Cooperative Extension
Four-H club members grew 426 acres of corn, which yielded 8,837
bushels or an average of 21 bushels to the acre. This is well above the
average yield of most farms.
OATS AND RYE
Nine method demonstrations were conducted with oats and two with
rye. Three meetings were held at result demonstrations with oats of which
there were seven.
Six club members enrolled for oats demonstrations and two completed.
Ten acres were involved in the completed projects and they yielded 150
bushels of oats.
There were eight adult result demonstrations with pastures, and two
meetings were held at these demonstrations. Method demonstrations ac-
counted for 13 meetings, and two other meetings concerned pastures.
Eight 4-H club members were enrolled and four completed pasture
demonstrations involving 12 acres.
COWPEAS AND FIELD PEAS
Cowpeas are grown for soil improvement and for hay, while field peas
are used for feeding poultry by a number of Negro farmers. Agents urged
the planting of these and other legumes for building more fertile lands,
and devoted 45 days to demonstrations with these crops. They enrolled
25 boys in 4-H club projects with peas, and 14 of the boys completed their
Velvet beans are becoming more widely used for soil building and for
feed, furnishing good grazing during the early winter months when cows
are turned onto fields from which corn has been harvested. Negro agents
conducted nine demonstrations and held two meetings. They enrolled 20
4-H club boys, of whom 12 completed their projects involving 60 acres.
Field or snap beans are grown as a side-line crop, Negro farmers
occasionally making good money with them in spring and again in early
fall. Local agents devoted 24 days to work with field beans in 20 com-
munities and held 17 meetings at demonstrations. Three boys enrolled in
4-H club projects with this crop, and produced 130 bushels on their six acres.
Peanuts are a chief forage and legume crop among Negro farmers in
practically all counties in which local agents work. They are grown on
a large scale for hog feed as well as for cash sale. Special demonstrations
conducted this year showed that closer spacing almost doubled the yield.
Recommendations of agents with regard to fertilizers and marketing
were followed by seven and 43 farmers, respectively. A total of 149 farm-
ers were assisted in using timely economic information on the subject.
Sixty-nine demonstrations were conducted by men and 24 meetings were
There were 130 4-H club boys enrolled, 74 completing. The 163 acres
in the completed club projects yielded 3,690 bushels.
Annual Report, 1934
Sweet potatoes are grown on practically every Negro farm for home
consumption. Many farmers also grow some for sale. Local agents con-
ducted 18 adult demonstrations with sweet potatoes this year, and held
26 meetings on the subject. Thirty farmers followed fertilizer recommenda-
tions. They enrolled 34 club members, all of whom completed their projects,
producing 1,100 bushels of potatoes on 12 acres.
Cotton demonstrations were aimed primarily at improving the yield,
and consequently the profits, through the use of improved seed and proper
fertilizing and spacing. The agents devoted 109 days to 41 cotton demon-
strations and 36 meetings for adults. They enrolled 98 boys in cotton clubs,
and 54 finished the project for the year.
Recommendations by agents and number of farmers following them
included the following subjects: Fertilizers, 157; insect control, 13; market-
ing, 97; other information, 864. Practically all Negro farmers growing
cotton signed adjustment contracts.
Only a few Negro farmers in counties having agents grow tobacco.
One farmer in Alachua County reported 1,496 pounds of flue-cured tobacco
sold at 27% cents a pound. The agents devoted 36 days to tobacco dem-
onstrations and held six meetings.
With better prices for their products this year, farmers have had more
available cash and have been able to make needed repairs and additions to
the physical equipment of their farms. New fences have been erected and
old ones repaired, new outhouses and buildings have been constructed,
electric lights have been installed and better water supplies provided. Ten
demonstrations were conducted along this line.
Assistance was reiidered in the maintenance and repair of farm ma-
chinery on 21 farms.
A summary of work with buildings and equipment shows that 10 light
systems were installed, six dwellings constructed and eight remodeled, two
silos, two hog houses, one poultry house, two storage structures and eight
other buildings were constructed.
Five farmers adopted improved practices in the production of naval
stores and 19 cooperated in the prevention of forest fires. There were 10
who assisted in timber estimation and appraisal, one who followed wood-
preservation recommendations, and seven who carried out suggestions in
marketing forest products.
The men agents devoted 68 days to poultry work in 35 communities.
One family did improved poultry breeding work. Thirty-one families were
assisted in the purchase of baby chicks, while 312 followed recommenda-
tions in chick rearing. Marketing recommendations were followed by 12
families, parasite and disease control by 287, and better feeding practices
Florida Cooperative Extension
LIVESTOCK AND SWINE
Better dairy cows with improved pastures and more feed have been
recommended, and considerable improvement is noted. Recommendations
of the agents for control of parasites and diseases were followed by 108
farmers, and marketing assistance was rendered to 10. There were 123
farmers assisted in obtaining purebred sires, and 76 in obtaining high
grade or purebred females.
Fourteen boys were enrolled in dairy club work, and eight completed
the project with 12 animals.
Three farmers were helped to secure high grade or purebred beef sires
and eight boys were registered in the beef clubs.
In the work with swine the agents aided farmers in obtaining 36 pure-
bred sires and 20 high grade females. They conducted 18 demonstrations
and held 28 meetings. Hundreds of hogs were inoculated against cholera
in two counties. In 4-H swine work 63 boys enrolled and 28 completed.
The screw worm fly continued to give trouble to farm animals of all
kinds in 1934, but was most severe on hogs and cattle. Local agents
assisted in screw worm control, and a vigorous campaign was kept up
throughout the entire season when the pest was doing its greatest damage.
Home gardens on every farm were promoted to improve the health of
the family by giving its members a diversified diet and to help the Negro
families to produce more of their living at home. A campaign for year-
round gardens was put on early in the year with the agents urging the
planting of at least three leaf, three pod and three root vegetables.
Fig. 17.-Calendar orchard near a Negro home in Marion County. Seven
different varieties of fruit trees furnish fresh fruits over most of the year.
Annual Report, 1934 95
The agents counseled about fertilizer on 36 farms, insect control on 74,
and marketing on 22. They conducted 47 demonstrations and held 38
Fifteen enrolled in 4-H garden clubs and 11 completed.
A number of Negro farmers grew truck crops as their cash product,
and 21 of them cooperated in demonstrations. Enrollment in the 4-H club
Surplus truck crops which could not be marketed to advantage were
canned under the direction of the FERA.
Despite the scarcity of funds for purchasing nursery stock, efforts of
the. agents in promoting home -orchards met with hearty response. They
recommended the planting and care of pears, scuppernongs, bunch grapes,
Japanese persimmons, blueberries, pecans and satsuma oranges for rounding
out the:family diet.
RECREATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOLS
Two recreational training schools-the first of their kind for Negroes
in Florida-were held this year. They were directed by Mr. and Mrs. John
Bradford of the National Playground and Recreation Association. They
were held at Fessenden Academy, near Ocala, and at the A. & M. College
for Negroes in Tallahassee. They were attended by Negro farm and home
agents, vocational agriculture and Jeans teachers, and social and welfare
LIST OF LOCAL FARM AND HOME AGENTS
County Farm Agent Address
Alachua -.....................:..........-F. E. Pinder......... ..........................Gainesville
Columbia ..............E. S. Belvin.... ..................................Lake City
Southern Suwannee J
Hamilton 1................N. H. Bennett.................................White Springs
North Suwannee J
Jackson......................-....-.... J E. Granberry ..... ...... ..............Marianna
Jefferson...................................M. E. Groover.......................................Monticello
M arion............................ .......--W B. Young.................................. ....... Ocala
Alachua...................................Mary Todd McKenzie.........................Waldo
Duval ...........................................Ethel M. Powell.... .....................Jacksonville
Gadsden -............................ Diana H. Bouie.. .............................Quincy
Hillsborough ......................... loy Britt.....................................................Tampa
Jefferson ..................... ...... Lorena Shaw ................... ............Monticello
Leon................. .. ......Alice W Poole............................ .....Tallahassee
Marion.....................................Idella R. Kelley ..... ........................Reddick
Florida Cooperative Extension
NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Report by Miss Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement
Home demonstration work for Negro women and girls is conducted in
the following counties: Alachua, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, Duval, Marion,
Hillsborough, Madison, St. Johns, and Sumter.
The work was discontinued in St. Johns June 30th and begun in Jeffer-
son County. The agent in Sumter was moved to Gadsden County July 31st.
These new counties have a large Negro farm population.
There has been no district Negro home demonstration supervisor since
1933, due to lack of funds. The State Home Demonstration Agent and
three District Home Demonstration Agents have outlined and supervised
the Negro work, with the assistance of other members of the staff. Subject
matter material and record books are supplied the Negro agents.
The goal of the Negro work has been to keep the Negro population off
of the relief rolls and in spite of hard times to help them to help themselves.
There has been an increase in home dairy cows for the family needs.
It is becoming a goal in hundreds of families to get a young heifer calf
of good breed and keep it for a future milk cow.
The women agents plan with the entire family their feed needs for the
livestock. Better breeds of turkeys, ducks, chickens and guineas are be-
coming more noticeable. Many families are raising the sow and pigs each
year for their meat supply, as well as lard, and all scraps of odds and ends
in meat are used for making soap. One demonstration club member
reports more than 200 lbs. of soap made. Many have honey, and each one
has a cane patch. If they do not have cane for syrup they are taught to
barter hog meat, chickens and canned products for what they do not have.
The home agents advise the mothers and home demonstration members
about their food habits, and how to buy to the best advantage when buying
is necessary. Most Negro families have a collard patch, onions, turnip
greens, pumpkins and cushaws in the winter, and this mixed with hog
meat, grits or hominy, syrup or honey, and milk, is "fine living".
The canning of pork in various ways has been a great thing for Negro
families. Canned sausage, backbone, spareribs, head cheese, and roasts,
provide meat for the entire year. This plan also reduces illness because
too much "fresh pork" is not eaten now to "save it"; canned meat is as fine
as fresh meat.
The following canned products were conserved by home demonstration
Quarts of fruits, vegetables and meat canned......................24,895
Containers of jam, jelly, or other products.............................. 9,955
Pounds of fruits and vegetables stored or dried.................. 2,174
Many homes have been improved throughout the state under the direc-
tion of the Negro Home Demonstration Agents. In Hillsborough County
alone 126 Negro homes have been improved. The sanitation and beautifi-
cation of yards also has made marked improvement. Seventy-four sanitary
toilets have been built during the past year, and 30 houses screened.
House furnishings have gone forward in a fine way by utilizing every-
thing at hand such as sacks, moss, shucks, curtains, and bedspreads made
of sacks of all kinds; better mattresses made or remodeled, old chairs
bottomed with shucks.
Annual Report, 1934
There were five new houses built after a plan furnished; 11 old homes
remodeled; one family installed running water; five installed sewage sys-
tems, and four installed lighting systems.
"Working bees" where the home demonstration club members and
neighbors lend a hand and work under the direction of the home demon-
stration agents is providing a valuable lesson to many communities. All
who help go home and make improvements of some kind.
Poultry raising has been one of the major projects among home demon-
stration club members during the past year. In Madison County the agent
states that "my reason for selecting poultry as a major project was because
farm families did not have enough chickens and eggs to supply the family.
Some had few or no chicks on the yard. This year 39 families obtained
purebred cockerels to improve the flock. There are now 18 demonstrations
in poultry in 14 communities."
The Leon County agent reports that "poultry raising is receiving much
attention by the club members. Sixteen poultry projects were conducted
by families purchasing standard eggs for setting. Twelve demonstrations
were given as to the care of nests and location of poultry houses, also
feeding and dressing poultry for marketing. There were 80 women and
14 girls enrolled in poultry projects, and of this number 16 women are
following improved breeding plans as recommended by the agent. Chickens
raised this year were 1,756, sold $79.80; 500 dozen eggs were sold for $135.
Poultry houses have also been improved according to recommendations."
Much stress has been put on community gardens throughout the state,
and these have been a means of keeping many people off the relief rolls.
Also relief families have been benefited from these gardens.
In Sumter County the agent states as a result of the help gained from
community gardens, that one can readily see a decided change in the gardens
and vegetables upon entering the county. Continuous interval planting
was done, and it was found that in nearly every instance where the people
had gardens they were canning their own surplus, raised in their own
gardens, and not sitting around waiting on the vegetable growers to abandon
their gardens for vegetables to can.
Gardening has also proven of great value in other counties. Okra, corn,
squash, beans, tomatoes, peas, greens, potatoes, beets, carrots, and onions
and other products have been grown.
HEALTH AND HOME SANITATION
Health and sanitation have been stressed throughout the year in all
clubs, particularly during National Negro Health Week, when lectures were
given on the teeth, the preparation of foods, screening against flies, mos-
quitoes, etc. One agent states that she has found the great amount of
sickness among the rural Negroes is due largely to unsanitary conditions,
and lack of proper food and clothing. The State Board of Health also gave
instructions during this week in preventive and curative methods with
diseases such as smallpox, diphtheria, typhoid fever, hookworms, and others
prevalent among children, as well as the proper care of mothers and babies.
Sanitary toilets and better water supplies have been provided for Negro
Florida Cooperative Extension
The annual State 4-H Short Course for the Negro boys and girls and
the Farmers' and Homemakers' Institute both held at Florida A. & M.
College, have been of value. Excellent help was given by President Lee
and his faculty of instructors.
The state staff of Farm and Home Demonstration Agents from the
University of Florida and the State College for Women gave lecture demon-
strations. This year 344 boys and girls came to the short course in cars
and buses. The Florida A. & M. College gave free board and lodging to
these boys and girls. The county commissioners of Duval County paid the
expenses of 42 Negro 4-H boys and girls to the state short course this year.
RECREATIONAL SCHOOLS AND CAMPS
The past year trained leaders in recreation gave short courses for
leaders in recreation in several counties and at the Florida A. & M. College
at Tallahassee. Mr. and Mrs. John Bradford of the National Playground
and Recreation Association conducted these training schools.
Picnics where games, stunts, yells, singing, and swimming have been
a feature in all counties where there is a home demonstration agent. These
are usually sponsored by the Junior and Senior County Councils. Camps
for 4-H club girls, and senior home demonstration club members were held
in Hillsborough County.
Community, county and state exhibits usually are held in the fall and
winter. An improvement in the canning, sewing, rug work, shuck work,
and thrift work is noted. Special exhibits have been shown at the agents'
offices, at demonstration kitchens, at churches or schoolhouses. At the
Florida State Fair a Negro exhibit building was filled.
Annual Report, 1934
Accounts, citrus, 57
Achievement days, club, 68
Adjustment work, 7, 13, 24, 41, 57,
Agents, list of, 5
Agricultural engineering, 93
Animal husbandry, 33, 43
Associations, poultry, 48
Bankers scholarships, 355
Bankhead cotton tax exemption
Bean demonstrations, 92
Beautification, home grounds, 75, 89
Beef cattle work, 44
Blue mold decay, 53
Boys' 4-H work, 8, 31
Bread contest, 86
Brooders, home-made, 48
Brown, H. L., report, 37
Brumley, F. W., work of, 57
Buildings, dairy, 37
Bulletins, 21, 68
Buying, wise, 85
Calendar flock records, 47
Camps, 4-H, 8, 35, 69, 86, 98
Canning centers, 64
work, 73, 78
Cattle purchases, emergency, 8, 43
Changes in staff, 10
Child care and training, 75
Citrus work, 9, 26, 51, 57
Clayton, H. G., work, 14, 24, 57
Club camps, 8, 35, 69
Club work, boys, 8, 31, 40, 47, 59
girls, 47, 68, 78, 85
Code, hatchery, 48
Community activities, 75
Cooper, J. F., work of, 21
Corn adjustment work, 18
demonstrations, 25, 33, 91
Cotton adjustment, 14
demonstrations, 26, 33, 93
County agents, list, 5
County agent work, 24
Cover crops, 52
Cowpea demonstrations, 92
Credit 30, 61
Culley, E. R., work, 83
Culling demonstrations, 47
Cultivating citrus, 52
Cutting and curing meat, 45
Dairy husbandry, 33, 37
Dairying, home, 72
DeBusk, E. F., work of, 51
Director's report, 7
Disease control, citrus, 53
Egg law, 46
Egg-Laying Contest, 48
Engineering, agricultural, 93
home, 74, 88
Exhibits, 68, 82, 98
Experiments, poultry, 49
Family food supply, 83
Farm Credit Adm., 7, 11, 30, 42, 57,
Farm dairying, 38
Farm Housing Survey, 90
Farm management, 57
Fattening beef cattle, 44
Feed and forage, 27, 37, 44
FERA cooperation, 8, 12, 29, 41, 43,
Fertilizing citrus, 52
Financial statement, 12
Fly, screw worm, 25, 29, 40, 45
Food conservation, 73, 77, 78, 96
Foods work, 83
Foot rot, citrus, 23
Fulghum, R. M., work of, 21
Furnishings, house, 74, 88
Gardens, home, 33, 71, 77, 94, 97
Girls' club work, 68, 85
short course, 69
Grazing crops, 38
Grove management, 51
Gummosis control, 54