Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Report of the director
 Publication and news
 County agent work
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Animal husbandry
 Poultry husbandry
 Citrus culture
 Agricultural economics
 Home demonstration work
 Food, nutrition and health
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Home improvement
 Negro men's work
 Negro home demonstration work

Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00017
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1933
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00017
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of the director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Publication and news
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    County agent work
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Animal husbandry
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Poultry husbandry
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Citrus culture
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Agricultural economics
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Home demonstration work
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Food, nutrition and health
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Home improvement
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Negro men's work
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
Full Text



JUNE 30, 1933.




JUNE 30, 1933.


REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR ............ ........ ......... ............ 7

Financial Statement ................................. ......... 13

PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS................ .. ..... ............... 14

COUNTY AGENT W ORK ........................ .................... 18

BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK .......................... ......... ..... 30

DAIRYING ....... ....... .................................... 37

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY .............................. ......... 40

POULTRY HUSBANDRY ................. ....................... 43

CITRUS CULTURE ..................... ......................... 49

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS .......... ............... ............ 52

AGRONOMY ......................... .... ..................... 55

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ....................................... 61

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH ..................................... 70

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION ................. ............... 73

HOME IMPROVEMENT ............................................. 76

NEGRO MEN'S WORK ................................ ............ 80

NEGRO WOMEN'S WORK ......... .............. .................... 82

Hon. Dave Sholtz,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, Univer-
sity of Florida, for the calendar year 1933, including a fiscal
report for the year ending June 30, 1933.

Chairman, Board of Control.

Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report
of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of
Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you trans-
mit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the
Governor of Florida.
President, University of Florida.

GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville
A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
E; F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Assistant


W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandryl
J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist2
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control1


LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist


A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent

1In cooperation with U. S. D. A.

County County Agents Address Home Demonstration Agents
Alachua ..........F. L. Craft ........Gainesville .........Mrs. Grace Warren
Bradford and Union L. T. Dyer ........Lake Butler .................. ....
Calhoun ........... J. G. Kelly ........ Blountstown .......................
Calhoun and Liberty ...................Blountstown..... Miss Josephine Nimmo
Citrus ............................. Inverness......Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Dade .............C. H. Steffani...... Miami .............. Miss Pansy Norton
Dixie .............D. M. Treadwell.... Cross City ...................... .....
Duval............. A. S. Lawton..... .Jacksonville.........Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.)...... E. G. Pattishall....Jacksonville ........................
Escambia .........E. P. Scott........ Pensacola ......... Miss Ethel Atkinson
Gadsden ............................Quincy..............Miss Elise Laffitte
Hardee ........... C. E. Baggott ..... Wauchula ............................
Hamilton .........J. J. Sechrest......Jasper ...............................
Hernando ......... B. E. Lawton...... Brooksville ..........................
Highlands ......... L. H. Alsmeyer ... Sebring ............................
Hillsborough ......C. P. Wright.......Tampa .............. Miss Allie Rush
Holmes ...........W. A. Sessoms.....Bonifay ..........Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Jackson .......... Gus York .........Marianna..... Miss Mabel Clyde Wilson
Jefferson ..........E. H. Finlayson..... Monticello............Miss Ruby Brown
Lafayette ......... P. R. McMullen..... Mayo ..............................
Lake .............C. R. Hiatt........Tavares ..............................
Leon .............G. C. Hodge.......Tallahassee .......Miss Ethyl Holloway
Levy ........... N. J. Albritton.... Bronson ..........................
Liberty ..........Dewey H. Ward.... Bristol ............................
Manatee ..........J. H. Logan........ Bradenton.........Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion ............ Clyde H. Norton....Ocala ...............Miss Tillie Roesel
Okaloosa ......... Joseph W. Malone.. Crestview ...........................
Okeechobee ...... C. A. Fulford...... Okeechobee ..........................
Orange ...........K. C. Moore....... Orlando...........Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola ........... J. R. Gunn......... Kissimmee...........Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach .......M. U. Mounts...... W. Palm Beach....Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
Pinellas .......... Wm. Gomme ..... Clearwater..........Mrs. Joy Belle Hess
Polk .............. W. P. Hayman.....Bartow ............... Miss Lois Godbey
St. Johns ........ Loonis Blitch ..... St. Augustine.......Miss Anna E. Heist
Santa Rosa........J. G. Hudson...... Milton.............Miss Eleanor Barton
Suwannee ........N. G. Thomas'......Live Oak ...........................
Taylor ...........R. S. Dennis........Perry ................Miss Floy Moses
Wakulla ..........A. H. Spurlock ... Crawfordville .......................
Walton ...... ....Mitchell Wilkins... DeFuniak Springs...Miss Eloise McGriff
Washington ....... H. E. Hudson...... Chipley ..............................

*This list correct to December 31. 1933.


4-37 500,000


PROFITON OPTIONS.4-_40,000,000

,CROP INCOME_-- 589.500.000


Fig. 1.-Crop adjustment activities conducted in Florida during 1933 by the Agricultural Extension Service for the Fed-
eral Agricultural Adjustment Administration helped to prevent a huge surplus of cotton and increased returns to farmers.




Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report
of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1933, and a summary of
the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1933.


During 1933 the Florida Agricultural Extension Service suf-
fered a reduction of 17 percent in its income from State funds,
but, fortunately, a threatened reduction of 25 percent in Federal
funds was not put into effect by President Roosevelt.
Despite reductions in its income, the Extension Service has
rendered service that was scarcely diminished. In fact, the
number of counties cooperating and employing county agents has
increased as a result of the adjustment programs with cotton,
tobacco, corn and hogs. The County and Home Demonstration
Agents have been acting as representatives of the Secretary of
the United States Department of Agriculture in organizing and
conducting all of the adjustment programs in Florida.
It is apparent that the Extension Service holds a more impor-
tant place in the minds of the public than at any time during
previous years. The indications are that its duties will be ex-
tended, particularly in adjustment programs, marketing service,
cooperative organizations, and relief.
During 1933 the farmers of Florida have confronted many
serious problems, chief of which are the very low prices paid for
all farm products. The results of this condition are far-reaching
and a large percent of the farmers have mortgages and obliga-

Florida Cooperative Extension

tions that they are unable to satisfy. To overcome this in part,
farmers planted more heavily of some crops in 1933 than in
former years, realizing the necessity of raising cash and there-
fore the need for larger production at lower prices. While this
has affected practically every farm crop it has been most serious
with the following: Hogs, beef cattle, fruits, vegetables and
poultry, with the result that the buying power of the farmer has
been lower than in recent past years.
This situation has not reflected seriously on living standards
for most of our farmers, due largely to the home supply program
that farmers have gradually adopted, giving them a supply of
meats, vegetables, feeds, livestock and poultry. The better
methods of agriculture they have practiced have been responsible
for larger yields in some sections, with the result that for the
most part the supplies have been liberal. But without a ready
sale for the products, the farmers' purchasing power remains low.
The labor supply on the farms has been liberal although to
some extent demoralized due to the uncertainty of income.
Farmers were unable to supply their labor with the usual needs
so that many of them have been transferred to state and Federal
relief projects.
The adjustment programs with cotton, hogs and tobacco have
met with favorable response, indicating that farmers are willing
to accept adjustment whenever there is a promise of greater
returns. Approximately 20 percent of the area planted to cotton
was plowed up. Practically all the farmers growing flue-cured
tobacco signed up to reduce their tobacco acreage for 1934. The
government's request to slaughter hogs was promptly complied
with and a larger number would have been slaughtered had there
been an opportunity to do so.
These adjustment programs have occupied a large part of the
County Agents' time since July 1 and many other regular pro-
grams have been modified as a result. In handling these adjust-
ment programs in the counties there was a good response from
business interests and County Agents received liberal cooperation
in their efforts. These programs applied largely to North and
West Florida.
In the area where citrus fruits and vegetables constitute the
main farming interests, the farmers have also been confronted
with a serious financial situation. The low prices paid for citrus
fruit in 1932 left a large percent of the growers without funds
for operations and for living expenses. A large part of the spring

Annual Report, 1933

marketed vegetable crop of 1933 was sold at a loss to the farmers,
leaving them without funds for supplies and labor and placing
many of these farmers in a position where it was advisable to
apply for labor paid for from relief agencies. This gave rise to
large demands on the County Agents for relief looking to the
financing of the production of citrus and vegetable crops which
was left uncertain until government agencies placed their repre-
sentatives in the counties, permitting farmers to finance them-
selves from these federal sources.
Both citrus and vegetable crops require relatively heavy expen-
ditures for fertilizer and other production costs so that the need
for funds has been urgent in practically every section, inasmuch
as local banks and other lending agencies have been unable to
finance farmers to the same extent as in the past.
The dairy and poultry industries in this area have suffered
the same reduced income as in other sections. There has been a
surplus of whole milk and a surplus of locally produced eggs and
with the rise of feed prices which occurred in midsummer, both
dairymen and poultrymen were confronted with an increased
production cost without a corresponding increase in sales. The
result is that every section of the State has been seriously handi-
capped as a result of low prices for farm products.
Much time has been given to relief problems in practically
every county. Relief agencies have had the assistance of County
and Home Agents and unusually large amounts of farm products
have been preserved or canned and stored for future use. Far-
mers have hesitated to sell their poultry and hogs for prevailing
prices and with the help of County and Home Agents large quan-
tities of meats have been canned for home use. Community
canneries have been in operation and largely under the direction
of the Extension Agents.
Home Demonstration Agents have given more than the usual
attention to home gardens on account of needed relief, so that
the program as proposed January 1, 1933, has been adjusted in
many respects, due to the great number of emergencies that have
been presented to the Extension Service since March 4, 1933.
The Agricultural Extension Service has 17 projects in its pro-
gram representing all phases of horticulture, livestock, poultry
and home economics. The supervisory staff consists of the fol-
lowing: Director, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader, three
district agents for men's work and three for women's work, the

Florida Cooperative Extension

State Home Demonstration Agent, Boys' Club Agent and special-
ists in citriculture, dairying, animal husbandry, poultry, market-
ing economics, farm management economics, one part-time spe-
cialist in agronomy and one part-time specialist in organization
and outlook work. Specialists in home demonstration work con-
sist of one nutritionist, one economist in marketing and one
agent in home improvement.
The Extension Service is cooperating with the Bureau of
Animal Industry in the employment of one animal husbandman
and with the Bureau of Biological Survey in the services of a
specialist in rodent control.
There were 45 counties with white Extension Agents, all of
them cooperating financially in the support of the work.
In the Negro work, there was one district agent for women's
work up to June 30 and one district agent for men's work
throughout the year. There were 14 counties having Negro
agents; eight of these have home demonstration agents and seven
of them are served by farm demonstration agents. Four of these
counties contribute to the support of Negro home demonstration
work; the others are supported by state and Federal funds.
Due to reduced appropriations from both state and Federal
funds, Mr. W. R. Briggs, Assistant Economist, was discontinued
June 30, 1933.
On account of the death by drowning of Rosa Ballard, Local
District Home Demonstration Agent during June, no one was
appointed to succeed in that position July 1. The supervision of
the Negro home demonstration work was taken over largely by
the district supervisor of white agents together with the assis-
tance of the district supervisor of the Negro men's work.
There have been relatively few changes in the personnel of
the counties. Two counties, namely Polk and Hillsborough, did
not make provision in their budgets for the continuance of Assis-
tant Home Demonstration Agents.

There has been cooperation with other departments of the
College of Agriculture and the home economics department of
the State College for Women in the following: The department
of soils has cooperated in studies of fertilization, soil acidity,
fertilizer residues and other soil problems. The animal hus-
bandry department of the College and Station has worked co-

Annual Report, 1933

operatively with the Extension Service in the management of
livestock, pastures and distributing breeding stock.
The horticultural department has cooperated with district
agents and specialists in problems affecting the Extension pro-
gram dealing with citrus and other fruits, vegetables and flori-
culture. The landscape specialists have worked cooperatively
with the Extension Service in recommendations for the planting
of school grounds and other public properties.
The head of the agricultural economics department has assumed
the duties of project leader in farm management and in marketing
and has cooperated in surveys dealing with areas growing citrus,
vegetables and general farm crops. There has also been a coor-
dination of projects between the economics section of the Experi-
ment Station and the Extension Economist.
The veterinary department has cooperated closely with the
poultry specialist in rendering service to farmers through the
County Agents in the management of poultry on the farms and
in particular in the management of the Florida National Egg-
Laying Contest conducted from state funds and under the direc-
tion of the Extension Service. Other less definite projects have
had the cooperation of other departments of the University, espe-
cially those assisting in the 4-H club programs at the annual
meeting on the campus of the University of Florida and the State
College for Women for 4-H club boys and girls.
The Florida State Marketing Bureau, the Commissioner of
Agriculture and the Live Stock Sanitary Board have problems
in common with the Extension Service dealing with the distri-
bution of marketable crops, plants and livestock and in the control
of diseases of livestock and poultry.
The Commissioner of Agriculture's office cooperates in the dis-
tribution of state funds used in the payment of County Agents'
The Forest Service of Florida assists the Extension Service in
conservation work, principally with 4-H clubs, the purpose of
which is to protect the timber growth.
The State Board of Health cooperates with the home demon-
stration projects in nutrition and health educational work.
The State Plant Board facilitates the distribution of plant
materials used in projects supervised by county and home dem-
onstration agents.
The Agricultural Extension Service has cooperated with the

Florida Cooperative Extension

Federal Land Bank and its agents in Columbia, S. C., with the
Intermediate Credit Bank, the Farm Credit Administration and
the agricultural finance corporation in every possible way that
these agencies may provide the best assistance possible to the
farmers of this state.
The Extension Service has cooperated with the State Poultry
Association, the various marketing agencies handling fruits and
vegetables, the State Horticultural Society, and the State Fern
Growers' Association in promoting the interest involved in the
welfare of farmers affected.
The Smith-Hughes Vocational teachers located in counties
where club work is in progress have problems in common that
require their mutual agreement. This office and the director of
vocational education have urged the close cooperation between
the county Extension workers and the vocational teachers. Dur-
ing the adjustment campaign, vocational teachers were' assigned
to special duties and gave every possible assistance.
The Extension Service has also supplied assistance from the
specialist and supervisory force to assist vocational teachers in
handling instructional and educational programs in the counties.
Frequent conferences with the Extension staff to provide uni-
formity in subject matter are held with the subject matter
specialists of the college and Experiment Station. The County
Agents look to the specialists for guidance and direction in their
more important and difficult problems.
Valuable assistance has been received from the various bureaus
of the Department of Agriculture.
The home demonstration staff is in frequent conference with
department heads of the College of Agriculture of the University
of Florida and Experiment Station and with the specialists in the
Extension work. They also receive cooperation and assistance
from the home economics department of the Florida State Col-
lege for Women.
The Negro agents are given assistance from various specialists
in the Extension Service, particularly in agronomy, poultry, home
economics and horticulture.
County and home agents are called together frequently for
conferences on problems of state-wide nature. Neither the State
University nor the State College for Women has made special

Annual Report, 1933 13

provision for increasing efficiency of Extension workers beyond
their regular department projects.
The Extension Service has three main sources of revenue as
(1) Funds appropriated by the United States Department of
Agriculture; (2) State offset from Extension funds appropriated
by the Florida legislature; and (3) County appropriations.
. The offset funds required for state Smith-Lever funds have
been appropriated by the legislature. Other offset funds needed
have been made available through county appropriations.
These county appropriations have shown some reductions since
1932, although the percentage reduction has not been as great
here in the past year as during 1931. While these county appro-
priations have been reduced in amount, they are still sufficient
to pay salaries that compare favorably with other educational
employees, although in a few cases the home agents have suffered
greater reductions.
The expenditures and resources for the Extension Service are
submitted in separate form.
Smith-Lever, Federal and Supplementary.....................$ 84,684.24
Smith-Lever, State ......................... ...... ... 53,968.80
Capper-Ketcham, Federal ................................... 26,555.74
Bureau Animal Industry, U. S. D. A .......................... 2,208.00
Additional Cooperative Federal .............................. 20,500.00
U. S. D. A. Appropriations ........................... ...... 18,500.00
State Appropriations ........ .......... .............. ... 30,063.20
County Appropriations .................................. 79,733.23
Administration ....................................... $ 7,821.06
Publications ......................... .. ................... 6,348.26
County Agent Work ...................................... 124,795.00
Home Demonstration Work .................................. 78,286.18
Food Conservation ...................... ................... 3,638.36
Home Improvement ...................................... 3,982.48
Extension Nutrition ................. ..... ............. 4,000.00
Negro work-men ............ ......................... 13,820.99
Negro work-women ...................................... 13,445.21
Boys' Club Work .......................... ............ 6,855.01
Dairy Husbandry ............ ............ .... ... ........ 5,775.98
Animal Husbandry ......................... ...... ..... 4,479.39
Citriculture .................................. ....4,838.60
Agricultural Economics ................................... 16,060.19
Poultry 'Husbandry ................................... ...... 4,551.80
National Egg Laying contest ................................ 6,832.60
Extension Schools, Farmers Week ........................... 2,338.90
Unexpended balance ........................................ 8,343.20

Florida Cooperative Extension

R. M. FULGHUM, Assistant Editor
During 1933 the informational office of the Florida Agricultural
Extension Service functioned along lines similar to those followed
in preceding years, but on a more extensive scale. In addition
to bulletins and circulars, newspapers, farm papers, and radio,
were utilized in carrying the message of better farming and home-
making to the rural population of Florida. All of these agencies
proved most willing to cooperate with the Extension Service in
forwarding the state's agriculture and improving its rural homes.
The Florida Agricultural Extension Service cooperated with
the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and other branches
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in presenting the crop
adjustment program during the latter half of 1933. This adjust-
ment work has been a principal activity of many county agents
in that time, and the educational work conducted through the
press and over the radio assisted in making the program a com-
plete success.
Distribution of both bulletins and supplies is handled in the
Mailing Room. Vast quantities of mimeographing for Extension
workers were turned out by the Mailing Clerks. As usual, the
two Editors and two Mailing Clerks devoted approximately half
time to work for the Agricultural Extension Service, the re-
mainder being occupied by duties for the Agricultural Experi-
ment Station.
Nine new bulletins were printed during the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1933, this being an increase of about 33 percent over the
number printed in former years. The bulletins printed this year
were of unusually high quality and interest value. Several of
the bulletins were of immediate practical value to rural and urban
families in planning more economical meals and otherwise meet-
ing the exigencies of reduced financial income.
Three new circulars were printed during the year. In addition
to the bulletins and circulars, the year's printing included a cal-
endar, which, in many ways, has proven to be the most popular
publication each year. Also a weekly news clipsheet, 12 monthly
reports and a final report of the National Egg-Laying Contest at
Chipley, the monthly Agricultural Extension Economist, and
various record books and supplies. These latter were: Poultry
Record Book for Small Flocks, Poultry Record Book for Com-

Annual Report, 1933 15

mercial Flocks, Citrus Grove Enterprise Account, Home Improve-
ment Record Book for 4-H Club Girls (reprint), and Livestock
Club Record Book (reprint).
Publications issued during the year are listed below:
Pages Edition
Bul. 68 Solar Water Heaters .......................... 12 10,000
Bul. 69 Buy Health With Your Food Dollar............. 48 15,000
Bul. 70 The Goodly Guava ......................... 36 10,000
Bul. 71 Butchering and Curing Pork................... 16 8,000
Bul. 72 Foundation Plantings for Florida Homes........ 44 15,000
Bul. 73 Annual Flowering Plants for Florida........... 36 15,000
Bul. 74 Clothing ......... .......................... 36 20,000
Bul. 75 Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits............... 28 12,000
Bul. 76 Herbaceous Perennials ....................... 36 12,500
Final Report, Sixth Florida National Egg-Laying
Contest ................................. 28 1,500
1933 Calendar .............................. 12 10,400
Circ. 31 Suggestions for the Planning of Economical
Meals (Printed Preceding Year)............. 24 10,000
Circ. 32 Food Supply Plan for Florida Farm Families.... 4 10,000
Circ. 33 The Canning Budget ........................ 6 5,000
Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 weeks)* .......... 1 31,500
Monthly Agricultural Extension Economist............... 7 1,000
Monthly Report, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest..... 4 750
Monthly Report, Calendar Flock Records.................. 5 800
Annual Report, 1932 .................................. 116 2,000
*Ten issues, of 750 copies each, were paid for by the State Plant Board.

As in preceding years, from three to six stories each week were
supplied to the state mail service of the Associated Press for
distribution to its member papers. However, this did not prove
entirely satisfactory, and a special service from this office was
supplied to several daily papers in Florida. This service found
a most hearty response on the part of the dailies, and the amount
of Extension news published in the daily papers this year was
increased greatly as a result.
One daily paper carried a farm department each Sunday during
the year, and copy for this was supplied by this office. Another
daily carried a weekly farm page during the latter part of the
year, using Extension copy exclusively. Still another ran a farm
page three times weekly for the last two months of 1933, and
used some copy from this office.
The weekly papers and farm papers were again supplied with
the weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, which carried
from 10 to 12 separate informational and news stories each week.
These were copiously reprinted by the weekly newspapers, and,
to a certain extent, by the farm papers.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Agents in counties used their local papers to advantage.
A farm and grove section circulated by about 30 papers was
issued monthly for 10 months during the year, and each issue of
this section contained from one to six stories by the Extension
Editors. Twenty-four of these stories, amounting to 252 column
inches, were printed.
Farm papers continued to use Extension news and informa-
tional stories freely. Practically every issue of all Florida farm
papers contains material supplied by the Extension Editors and
other College of Agriculture workers. Two Florida farm papers
used 25 stories by the Extension Editors, and these amounted to
895 column inches. In addition, Florida farm papers carried
much material clipped from the Agricultural News Service.
Southern and national farm papers also use material of the
Florida work occasionally. During the year two Southern papers
printed six stories amounting to 150 column inches, and two
national journals carried two stories for a total of 12 inches.
The radio broadcasting activities of the Extension Service
were considerably increased on March 1, 1933, when a series of
regular farm flashes to four Florida stations was initiated. Prior
to that time, occasional flashes had been furnished. For the
remainder of 1933 these four stations were furnished with copy
for a 7-minute program five days a week. Stations WCOA at
Pensacola, WDBO at Orlando, WJAX at Jacksonville, and WQAM
at Miami broadcast these programs daily, and expressed appre-
ciation for them. Station WSUN at St. Petersburg put them on
the air occasionally.
This service was inaugurated with the cooperation of the Radio
Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. From
March 1 to the end of 1933, 285 flashes were sent to these stations.
Most of them were sent to all stations, but occasionally it was
necessary to send separate flashes to stations in the northern and
western parts of the state. 'The flashes were about equally divided
between those prepared locally and those from Washington, 140
being worked up by the Extension Editors and 145 sent by the
Radio Service.
The Florida farm hour and home period were continued over
WRUF at Gainesville, each being a feature every week day during
the year. The Farm Hour covered 45 minutes during most of
the year and a full hour for the last four or five months and
opened at 12 o'clock noon each day. The home period consisted
of 15 minutes daily.

Annual Report, 1933

On the Farm Hour were presented 608 local talks and 148 USDA
flashes, most of them around 7 minutes in length. Most of the
local talks were prepared by various workers in the three divisions
of the College of Agriculture. The Extension Editors wrote 33
of them, and conducted a weekly question box period, weekly
news review and weekly resume of editorial comments by news-
papers and farm magazines over the Nation. All of the Farm
Hour programs were directed and many of the talks were read
by the Extension Editors from a microphone in the Editorial
The Farm Hour of December 30, 1933, was the 1588th regular
program since the establishment of WRUF.
The Florida Home Period, from 9:45 to 10:00 o'clock each week
day morning, presented chats to Florida homemakers. About
half of the time was devoted to talks and reports by county and
state home demonstration workers and the remainder to house-
keepers chats from the Radio Service of the USDA, and to
material supplied by various other agencies. During the year
292 talks were given by or prepared by and read for state and
county home demonstration workers.
One of the most interesting series of radio programs put on
the air during the year was the garden club and ornamental series
broadcast weekly by WCOA, WDAE at Tampa, WJAX, WQAM,
and WRUF. This series carried 40 talks of 15 minutes each,
which proved to be of widespread interest to listeners. It was
arranged in cooperation with Harold Hume of the Florida Experi-
ment Station and the Florida Federation of Garden Clubs.
As usual, the Florida Extension Service joined with the United
States Department of Agriculture in celebrating National 4-H
Club Achievement Day the first Saturday in November (Nov. 4).
This program occupied an hour, the first and last 15 minutes
coming from Washington over the National Broadcasting Com-
pany chain, and the middle 30 minutes being supplied by each
local station. The local programs were arranged by the Exten-
sion Editors and club leaders and presented local club boys and
girls and interested civic leaders.
Station WRUF carried a similar program for 1 hour and 15
minutes, the last 30 minutes of which coincided with the time of
the local program over WJAX, and came from the Jacksonville
studios of that station.
Four other special 4-H club programs were broadcast over
WRUF during the year, each one presenting four or five talks
by club members and officials.

Florida Cooperative Extension


A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
W. T. NETTLES, District Agent
In normal times the principal objective of Agricultural Exten-
sion activities is profitable farming. They seek to build up an
agriculture giving returns enabling the farmers and their families
to enjoy both the necessities and the comforts of life. With this
end in view, Extension Service workers give wide distribution
to the findings of agricultural research, and extend assistance in
respect to farm practices based thereon.. :
When extraordinary economic depression prevails,, conserva-
tion measures and emergency relief factors are introduced into
the agricultural situation. Under conditions of widespread
financial stress, government aid frequently is required by agri-
culture, just as it is called for in other and less basic industries.
Extension Service programs need to be adjusted and modified
accordingly, and this fact particularly applies to the work of
County Agents.
During 1933, Florida County Agents were drafted for extra,
duties in connection with numerous phases of the federal agris
cultural adjustment campaign. In counties growing crops classi-
fled as basic farm commodities, acreage reduction effortilargely
occupied their time for a considerable period. Where special
crops chiefly are produced, credit facilities provided by the
national government received much attention from them.
Throughout the state, their cooperation was enlisted by sundry
agencies for extending emergency relief.
Review of the county agricultural agents' records for -the year
therefore discloses the diversion of energies in a substantial
degree from the channels in which previously they had flowed.
Yet few indeed were the instances in which projects of merit
already under way entirely were abandoned or even seriously;
neglected. Worthy of note also is the small proportion of the
farm demonstration work planned or inaugurated in preceding
periods that failed to justify itself as economically wise when
subjected to the grilling tests of the 1933 situation.

Annual Report, 1933

Extent of the operations in crop reduction and farm credit
fields, on which County Agents were engaged during 1933, in
service for the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, finds
a striking illustration in a compilation for the 14 counties com-
posing the northwest Florida district of the Extension Service.
In the cotton campaign, 5,016 growers were seen, and 4,343
acreage reduction contracts were accepted. Under these, 22,568
acres of cotton were destroyed, with an estimated yield of 4,196,-
250 pounds of lint. Bales optioned were 3,640. Rental payments
amounted to $263,013.58; advances on the staple under option,
$72,800; total of benefits, $335,813.58.
Five of the 14 counties in this district also carried out programs
for control of tobacco production. Growers of the flue-cured
type signed 761 agreements, covering 4,882.5 acres and affecting
3,936,982 pounds. Adjustment payments of $98,037 and rentals
of $25,633 were to be made in the following spring, or an aggre-
gate of $123,670. In the subsequent fall, additional parity pay-
ments will be forthcoming.
Preliminary work also was done on the 1934 cotton program
and on the corn-hog reduction program. While the bulk of the
"basic commodities" are produced. in the foregoing district,
farmers in the other corresponding divisions also were concerned
with one or another of the campaigns, in a lesser degree. County
Agents in the central and southern areas were called on for much
work on applications for loans from the Federal Land Bank and
other farm credit agencies.
In several instances, assistance was rendered by the farm
agents in the organization of production credit associations. In-
formation on loan matters was furnished by practically all of
them. Hundreds of requests therefore were handled in each of
several counties. Emergency Relief Councils also received a
great deal of assistance, and County Agents frequently super-
vised the community and individual gardens they were sponsoring.
Emergency Adjustment Campaign (Holmes County):-In this
county the cotton reduction program was directed by an emer-
gency farm agent. Eleven meetings in the first six days were
attended by 800 farmers. While arranging for these, and in
supervising the subsequent activities, the agent held 65 con-
ferences, made 78 farm visits, contacted 177 farmers, wrote 55
letters, furnished six news articles, checked 306 contracts, issued
306 emergency permits, spent 213 hours in the office and 542

Florida Cooperative Extension

on field duties, traveling 1,246 miles. Cotton was destroyed on
1,680 acres, at a per acre cost of 78.8 cents. Cash and option
plan accepted by 128 growers for 755 acres gave them $7,178 in
money while cash plan preferred by 178, on 925 acres, paid them
$12,663. Some 200 farmers failed to sign.
Diversity and practicability are major features in the under-
takings sponsored by the Agricultural Extension Service and
developed by means of the county farm agents' system. While
for 1933 the economic elements in agricultural conditions were
emphasized, the need for this treatment having been in large
measure anticipated, the greatest variety was found in the
projects employed for application of the principle.
Indication as to the wide range of the activities is given in
the selection which follows of one item from the annual report
of each County Agent. Duplications of the endeavor were made
in most of the other counties where agents had relatively similar
problems presented to them by farmers and growers. Choice of
the achievements reproduced herein has been from the viewpoint
of the degree in which they are representative and does not imply
that in any instance the accomplishment is regarded as the most
valuable one to the credit of the particular County Agent.

Sugarcane Variety Demonstration (Alachua County):-Sirup
yields having declined for several years, principally because of
diseases attacking the common varieties of cane, the County
Agent arranged for 15,000 stalks of Cayana 10 to be available
at $1.50 per 100 stalks. Twenty farmers were induced to make
small plantings of the improved variety, eight of whom kept
records comparing the sirup output from it with that of the
canes generally grown. Average yield of the eight was 205
gallons per acre from Cayana 10, 176 gallons from the others,
an increase of 29 gallons, or more than 16 percent.
(Sugarcane variety demonstrations were conducted during
1933 by farm agents in more than a dozen counties.)
Peanut Planting Demonstration (Calhoun County):-Repeated
for the fifth year was the planting of a one-acre test plot in pea-
nuts, with rows 24 inches apart and seed spaced six inches in
drills, without fertilizer. Check plot was planted in three-foot
rows, ten inches apart in drills, and had 200 pounds of commercial
fertilizer applied. Yield was 932 pounds per acre on the closer
spaced plot against 868 on the other, a gain of 64 pounds or better

Annual Report, 1933

than 7 percent. Saving on fertilizer was $1.40 per acre and in-
creased cost of seed 50 cents. In consequence of this demonstra-
tion and previous ones, 50 percent of the county's farmers now
practice the closer spacing of peanuts.
(Peanut plantings and related work were carried on in at least
15 counties.)
Avocado Disease Experiments (Dade County):-Begun two
years before, these had produced results justifying a field meet-
ing during 1933, at which the groves where the tests have been
carried on, by the County Agent in cooperation with the United
States Department of Agriculture and two growers, were visited
by 55 other avocado producers. Scab and black spot control with
fewer sprayings than commonly practiced was shown to be feas-
ible. Trees of the Waldin variety, about to be top-worked to a
species less subject to scab when this work commenced, are pro-
ducing superior fruit, demanded in the markets. Now 90 per-
cent of commercial grove owners are spraying for disease control.
(Avocado disease and culture demonstrations also were con-
ducted in several other counties.)
Corn Production Costs (Dixie County):-Soils of light sand,
often in run-down condition, and improper handling of the crop
have combined to raise the cost of producing corn until it averages
70 cents a bushel. In 16 demonstrations with corn following
crotalaria, one to two years sowings, on 220 acres in four com-
munities, the output per acre was increased by seven bushels and
the average cost per bushel reduced to 36 cents.
(Corn production cost and variety demonstrations also were
made in over two dozen additional counties.)
Silo Building Campaign (Duval County):- A campaign
launched in the spring of 1933 to interest dairy farmers in the
building of silos resulted in the construction of 14 of the trench
and wood-hoop types, with a capacity of 1,220 tons. Valued at
$10 a ton, the feed stored in these silos will save dairymen $12,000
annually. One trench silo built at a cost of $8 holds 40 tons of
silage. Total expense of growing corn and filling silo was $82
additional, affording feed for $2.25 a ton.
(Silo building campaigns were directed by farm agents in eight
to 10 counties.)
Cattle Conditioning Tests (Escambia County):-A demonstra-
tion started the year before in feeding bone meal to cure lameness
and correct other mineral deficiency conditions in cattle, was
completed in 1933. Steamed bone meal was fed to the animals

Florida Cooperative Extension

on the range for a 12 months period and at the end all lameness
had disappeared and blood tests showed return to normal mineral
content. As a result of the showing 1,000 head of other range
cattle in the county were introduced to a bone meal addition in
their diet, and lameness rapidly is disappearing.
(Cattle conditioning work also was instituted or completed in
a number of other counties.)
Tobacco Crop Endeavor (Hamilton County):-Since tobacco is
a principal cash crop, the County Agent spent fully half his time
between March and August with the 158 farmers who raised
1,138,707 pounds on 1,413 acres. Although sold for about two-
thirds the real value, the output was more profitable than any in
five years, owing to lowered production costs and favorable
weather for curing and marketing. Reduction of 560 acres has
been signed up for the next year, with benefit payments of
$34,350.78 on a total valuation of $157,194.70.
(Tobacco effort was also expended by agents in six other
Sweet Potatoes in Summer (Hernando County) :-Five farmers
planted 75 acres of early sweet potatoes, using 200 bushels of
certified seed secured for them by the County Agent. When the
crop was harvested in July and early August, the yield proved
20 bushels an acre above that previously produced when inferior
seed was used. Cash received for the output came at a time
when greatly needed and the growers expect to repeat the plant-
ings the next season.
(Sweet potatoes were the subject of County Agents' attention
in at least a dozen counties.)
Pine Ashes.for Sweetening Soils (Highlands County):-Pine
ashes, usually obtainable for the cost of loading and hauling from
sawmill plants, have given 70 percent as good results in sweet-
ening soils as hardwood ashes costing from $16 to $22 a ton,
since the County Agent began advocating their use, four years
ago. A demonstration arranged on the Rex Beach property at
Avon Park, with several Florida materials as substitutes for the
hardwood ashes, in 1933, gave 15 percent increase in truck crop
yields at 40 percent reduction in cost.
(Soil sweetening methods were demonstrated in six or more
Cover Crops With Citrus and Truck (Hillsborough County):-
In consequence of demonstrations and related activities on the
part of the County Agent, 272 truck farmers and citrus growers

Annual Report, 1933

planted 2,667 acres to cover crops for the first time in 1933, 1,760
acres of it. in crotalaria. Seed in the quantity of 6,270 pounds
was bought cooperatively by 42 of the citrus men at a saving
of $501.60.
(Cover crops demonstrations took place in about 30 counties.)
tMeat Cutting and Curing (Jefferson County):-Five commu-
nities were given neighborhood demonstrations in cutting and
curing meat, attended by 114 persons. Talks made told of the
type of hogs affording the greatest percentage of desirable cuts,
the best methods of handling before slaughtering and of the
proper ways of killing, scalding, cleaning and dressing. Much
improvement has resulted in the practice of many farmers who
produce part of the county's-:annual output of nearly 1,000,000
pounds of pork.
(Meat cutting and curing was demonstrated in three counties,
all told.)
-: Citrus Grove Demonstrations (Lake County):-In the fourth
year, the plan of citrus demonstration groves had attained such
a, success that 1,350 acres were under supervision. Growers
owning the properties have cut down their producing costs by
from 40 to 50 percent. Over 200 additional ones have changed
their cultural and fertilizer practices, on approximately 9,000
acres. Citrus schools were attended by some 300 growers, rep-
resenting about 15,000 acres. Three tours of the demonstration
groves were taken part in by 175 growers. Request calls on the
County Agent are 90 percent from citrus producers seeking advice
on grove management, insect and disease control and like topics.
(Citrus demonstrations took place in an aggregate of 15
Bulls Bought With Bankers' Aid (Leon County) :-Beef cattle
were profitable in this county during 1933, despite the depression.
Herds are numerous, and improvement in the breeding practices
has steadily continued, under the aggressive work of the County
Agent, who has enlisted cooperation from local bankers. Loans
for the purchase of purebred bulls have been made in numerous
instances by the Tallahassee banks. Since the fall of 1927, 84
purebred or grade bulls have been bought in Leon, 12 of the
number in 1933. Bigger and better calves have been the result
and home raised half-breed steers slaughtered for consumption
in:the-county have afforded meat of good quality.
(Buying of bulls has been carried on through the farm agents'
offices in.twenty-odd counties.)

Florida Cooperative Extension

Typical Diversity of Work (Levy County):-In 1933, the farm
agent for this county, who has no office assistant, wrote 73 letters,
distributed 106 bulletins, held 133 conferences with business men,
handled 313 telegraph and telephone messages and attended to
574 callers. Traveling 34,700 miles, he made 1,745 farm visits.
Treatments were given to 206 horses and mules, 112 cows and
18 dogs, for various ills and injuries, while seven horses and
mules, 12 cows, 75 dogs and 17,117 hogs'were vaccinated. In
addition, a number of crop demonstrations were conducted.
(Variety in the activities is found in every county having a
farm demonstration agent.)
Farm Forestry Projects (Liberty County):-Owners of a tract
containing about 5,000 acres were interested by the farm agent in
a three-year forestry project, cooperating with the State Forest
Service. Boys' 4-H club forestry members assisted in creating
public sentiment favorable to the Apalachicola National Forest,
partly located within the county. The boys also did considerable
tree planting on the farms where they live.
(Forestry projects were promoted in more than a dozen other
Fair Exhibits and Prizes (Manatee County):-Exhibits in
charge of the farm agent and home demonstration agent won
more premiums at the South Florida Fair than were taken by
any competing county. Prizes of $50 each were awarded to the
exhibits for accumulating the most points in the three major
groups-citrus, vegetables and home canned projects. The county
had displays in six other divisions. An exhibit also was made
at the Chicago World's Fair.
(Farm agents in fully 15 counties prepared fair exhibits, for
events ranging from the Century of Progress Exposition in
Chicago to neighborhood shows.)
Fern Insect Control Demonstrations (Marion County):-Con-
trol of the blister beetle and the worms eating the young fronds
was demonstrated on five acres of Asparagus plumosus ferns.
Dusting once a week with sulphur kept them practically free
from worms. Spraying with three-fourths of a pound of paris
green, one gallon of molasses and the juice from six citrus fruits,
added to 50 gallons of water, effectively controlled the blister
beetle. Arsenate of lead proved a repellant for this insect.
(Fern growing received the attention of farm agents in three
or four counties.)
Oats for Hay Demonstration (Okaloosa County) :-Three result

Annual Report, 1933

demonstrations were put on, featuring improved varieties and
proper fertilization of oats grown for hay. The Fulghum variety
was sown and sulphate of ammonia was applied as a top-dressing,
using 100 pounds an acre. Two of the farmers reported yields
doubling those of previous years and the third harvested two tons
of hay per acre. Many calls for information followed.
(Hay crops were included in the 1933 program of 15 County
Fertilizing White Potatoes (Okeechobee County):-Red Bliss
white potatoes have proved a satisfactory cash crop for several
years. Thirteen acres were included in a demonstration in use
of fertilizers. On two acres, none was applied; on another acre,
600 pounds of 5-8-6 at time of planting and on the remainder, 800
pounds of 3-8-8. Yields were respectively 81, 98 and 120 bushels.
Profits on the fertilized acreage were better than $1,000.
(White potato crop practices were demonstrated in 10 counties
during 1933.)
Institute for Farmers (Orange County):-When farmers week
at the College of Agriculture in Gainesville had to be suspended
for financial reasons, the Orange County Agent conceived the
idea of a two days' institute in Orlando. Cooperation was ob-
tained from the Home Demonstration Agent and the Orange
County Chamber of Commerce. Central Florida farmers ex-
hibited great interest and 254 registered as in attendance, a
number neglecting to record their names. Requests have been
freely made that the event be repeated annually.
(General meetings for farmers of the entire area were held in
over half the counties, under direction of farm agents.)
Insects and Diseases, Citrus and Truck (Osceola County):-In
consequence of 46 demonstrations on control of rustmites, the
volume of russet fruit for 1933 dropped to less than 2 percent
from between 50 and 75 percent the year before. Kissimmee
branch of the Florida Citrus Exchange then undertook to develop
plans for dusting or spraying the groves of all members in the
future. For other citrus diseases or pests, 18 demonstrations
were conducted, and 16 on infections or infestations in truck
(Insect and disease control was an essential element of farm
agents' activities in practically every county.)
Restoring Fruit Industries (Palm Beach County) :-Pineapples,
once highly profitable on the East Coast, latterly have been almost
wholly abandoned. In an effort to re-establish the industry,

Florida Cooperative Extension

plants have been secured from Puerto Rico, which were healthy
and vigorous after more than a year in the field. Lands formerly
devoted to the fruit have been sown in crotalaria, for turning
under before slips are set. Figs also had been given up in large
measure, because of the damage from root-knot nematodes, caus-
ing failure of fruit to mature. Grafting of figs on roots of wild
rubber plants seems to be overcoming the difficulty.
(Pineapples and figs were accorded consideration by the agents
in three counties.)
Dairy Industry Upbuilding (Pinellas County):-County Dairy-
men's Cooperative Association, organized two years ago, in 1933,
did over $500,000 of business for the 75 members, comprising
more than 90 percent of the industry in Pinellas. Without the
body, several dairymen would have been forced to suspend opera-
tions, in view of the depressed conditions prevailing. Regular
meetings were held, and much effort was devoted to stabilization.
of prices. Aided by the County Agent, about 20 dairy farmers
secured loans aggregating some $20,000 from the Regional Agri-
cultural Credit Corporation. Twenty herd records were started,
at the instance of the farm agent, as a means toward weeding out
"boarder" cows. The Association has an ice cream plant.
(Dairy industry affairs entered into the working programs of
26 farm agents in 1933.)
Development of Special Crops (Polk County):-While this
county leads the state in citrus fruit production and is not well
adapted to numerous special crops, the farm agent assisted in the
formation of a strawberry growers' cooperative and devoted con-
siderable of his time to vegetables. Four meetings of truck
raisers were held, and 140 inspections were made of sundry crops.
Cabbage ranks next to strawberries in value, and assistance was
rendered in disease and insect control. Sweet corn is of increas-
ing importance in one section and aid was extended to growers
in selection of varieties and advice given as to getting rid of the
ear worm. Watermelons suffered from severe attacks of an-
thracnose, for which spraying with 4-4-50 bordeaux, under 300
pounds pressure, was recommended.
(Special crops are constructively handled by farm agents in
10 counties.)
. Poultry Husbandry Endeavor (St. Johns County):-Farm
flocks in several instances were brought back into production by
adoption of the feeding practice advised by the farm agent. Moist
mash, composed of laying mash and skimmed milk, is fed about

Annual Report, 1933

10 A. M.-four pounds to 100 birds-followed.with yellow cracked
corn and wheat in the afternoon. One poultry raiser with 9,000
fowls and another having 2,000, carried on demonstrations. Egg
output was most economical and satisfactory when small flocks
of about 150 each are given light from around 4 o'clock A. M.
Units of 80 birds, on quarter acre plots and with a 10x12 house,
were found to be a good thing.
(Poultry husbandry engaged more or less of the time in the
office and field work of agents in 30 counties.)
Sheep Raising Improvement (Santa Rosa County):-Income
from wool is a worthwhile item to farmers, who have about 30,000
sheep, mostly on open range. The animals usually are penned
only once a year, at shearing time. Lambs in large numbers are
lost each year from stomach worms and in 1933 the farm agent
assisted in drenching the young animals during the shearing
period. Sheepmen were urged to drench all lambs and several
have adopted the practice. Three flock owners bought purebred
rams and ewes, aided by the County Agent. Keeping of sheep
in pastures next will be advocated and demonstrated.
(Sheep raising is carried on in 10 of the counties having farm
demonstration agents who seek improvements in breeding and
"Salt Sick" in Cattle (Suwannee County):-Depletion in the
system of certain minerals, due to grazing on land deficient
therein, causing a condition commonly known as salt sick, led
to the farmers in certain portions of the county giving up the
raising of cattle as a hopeless task. When the Florida Experi-
ment Station, after 40 years of research, found that a corrective
is available in a mixture of common salt, copper sulphate and
iron oxide, demonstrations were conducted by the farm agents
in several of the affected areas. Results proved so satisfactory
that already farmers have begun to replace milk cows for home
(Remedy for salt sick in cattle was demonstrated during 1933
in six or eight counties.)
Hog Cholera and Animal Diseases (Taylor County) :-Control
of hog cholera takes almost half the time of the farm agent in
this county. Losses of thousands of dollars annually are sus-
tained by the farmers and preventive measures are of great
importance in the area. During 1933, 9,186 head of hogs were
vaccinated against cholera and 288 head treated for internal
parasites and screw worm. Outbreak of the screw worm fly

Florida Cooperative Extension

worked havoc in the late summer and became so serious that a
campaign of trapping flies and burning of dead animals had to
be inaugurated. Over 600 carcasses were destroyed. The spread
was effectively checked.
(Hog cholera vaccination was looked after by agents in 20
Cash Value of Agents' Work (Union and Bradford Counties):-
Farm demonstration agent working through 1933 in the two
counties rendered service having concrete and immediate cash
values conservatively estimated as worth $4,059, divided as fol-
lows: corn increase from crotalaria, 2,500 bushels at 50 cents,
$1,250; hogs vaccinated for cholera, 8,090 at 10 cents each, $809;
sirup increase from improved varieties, 2,000 gallons at 30 cents,
$600; fertilizer bought cooperatively, 110 tons at a saving of $5
each, $550; corn increase from better seed, 600 bushels at 50
cents, $300; saved for 50 farmers on treating hogs for worms,
lice, etc., at $4 each, $200; premiums won by 4-H club boys, $175;
crotalaria seed sold, 2,000 pounds, net earning 5 cents each, $100;
savings on dusting and spraying, and for poultrymen, $75.
(Direct benefits from County Agents' performances are greater
in proportion when areas have agriculture of larger economic
values. In almost every case they far exceed the cost of the
Grapes and Other Small Fruits (Wakulla County):-Range
hogs and cattle are the chief reliance of farmers, and veterinary
and immunization work takes 95 percent of the farm agent's
time. Effort is made, nevertheless, for greater diversification
and in 1933 he distributed 500 cuttings of Florida Beacon grapes.
Several farmers also secured cuttings of sand pears. Satsuma
trees likewise were ordered for farmers and distributed to them.
(Grapes were listed among farm agents' crop projects in 10
Terracing Rolling Farm Lands (Walton County):-Farmers
who have rolling lands accepted assistance and guidance from the
farm agent during 1933 in 45 cases, for terracing projects involv-
ing 1,200 acres. Fields properly terraced have promptly given
better yields of crops, through stoppage of erosion. Owners of
land have taken much greater interest in preserving soil fertility,
since the depression grew acute. This agent also aided in plan-
ning many new farm buildings, more having been erected than
during the previous five years.
(Terracing of hilly farms was advocated by farm agents in six

Annual Report, 1933

counties; practically without exception the agents gave service
on building plans.)
Permanent Pasture Demonstrations (Washington County):-
Four were placed in as many communities, on land too wet for
profitable crop production or too rolling for economical cultivation.
On two, planted previous to 1933, in carpet grass and lespedeza,
bushes were cut out and weeds destroyed by mowing. On the
other two, after clearing and plowing up of wiregrass sod, a mix-
ture was sown in early spring, consisting of 10 parts carpet grass,
two parts lespedeza and one part Dallis grass. All plots were
grazed to capacity after the grass became established, the 95
acres'supporting 75 cattle units until frost came.
(Pasture grasses were pushed in 25 counties, as a necessary
factor in profitable animal industry.)
Additional Counties Covered:-On account of illness, the De-
Soto County farm agent was forced to take an indefinite leave of
absence and could prepare no annual report. Resignation late in
the year of the agent for Lafayette County was accepted before
his report had been prepared. In both cases, arrangements have
been made for resuming activities. Plans also have been com-
pleted for placing agents in Gadsden, Hardee, Jackson and Mad-
ison counties during 1934.

Florida Cooperative Extension

R. W. BLACKLOCK, State Boys' Club Agent
Boys' 4-H club work shows a decreased enrollment for 1933.
The reason was lack of time on the part of County Agents. With
crop loans, relief gardens, cotton reduction campaign, etc., the
County Agents were forced to give less time to their usual lines
of work. Club work suffered with the rest.
The growing efficiency of 4-H organizations and the leadership
of the older boys saved the day. Without these there would have
been a very small percent of reports. In three counties the
enrollment was made by older boys.
The following table shows gains and losses in the different
Pota- Poul-
Corn Cotton toes Truck Citrus try Pig Calf Misc. Total
1933.. 583 111 192 338 93 277 370 203 248 2415
1932.. 654 123 195 425 100 346 507 235 538 3123
Loss -91 -12 -3 -87 -7 -69 -137 -32 -290 -708

Local 4-H Clubs:-The local club organization has been dem-
onstrated as a necessity if 4-H club work is to continue under
present hectic conditions. The need of such local organization
has become so well recognized that of the 29 agents reporting
club work, 25 had 124 organized clubs, an increase of 13 over
1932. Wherever the County Agent had the organization per-
fected with a good leader the work was continued although the
agent was unable to meet with the clubs. One hundred and fifty-
five club meetings were held without the County Agent being
present. The 4-H boys are learning how to work in organizations.
Outstanding Local Clubs:-With the gradual improvement in
organization, the number of efficient local clubs increases. The
Lake Worth Club of Palm Beach County continues to function
after seven years. This is due to the fact that the same leader
has stayed with the club. The Bratt Club in Escambia County
won first place in the county in competition with 10 other clubs.
This is an achievement, as Escambia County is the best organized
county in the state in club work. The Little Spring Club of Union
County won the cup for the best club for the second year. The
Newberry Club of Alachua County continues to supply the greater
part of the reports and exhibits at the county contest.

Annual Report, 1933

The value of rivalry between local clubs is shown in Suwannee
County. The Macedonia Club has been going for three years and
has been able to get 100% reports from its membership. This
year the Pleasant Hill Club was organized and a spirited rivalry
started between these two clubs. Both were able to get 100%
reports and 100% exhibits at the county contest except in one
case when the member's pig had died. These clubs are fortunate
in having wide awake local leaders.
Among the adult leaders the school teachers are supplying the
majority of efficient leaders. Fathers and mothers of club mem-
bers are sometimes exceptionally good as evidenced in case of the
Lake Worth Club in Palm Beach County and the Shady Club in
Marion County. The older club boys and girls are acting in large
part as local leaders each year. These young people have in
addition to the enthusiasm which g6es with youth, the knowledge
which comes from experience. They have been club members
and can direct the new members intelligently. Of the 226 local
leaders of boys 4-H clubs in 1933, 162 were older club boys and
The social side of club work is being handled almost exclusively
by the local clubs. Each organized club is expected to hold four
social meetings a year. These meetings are to acquaint the
parents and the public generally with the value of 4-H club work
as well as to supply the community with some wholesome recre-
ation. The five clubs in Washington County carried this out in
1933. Definite programs of recreation and publicity were put
over by each club. In recreation work the older boys and girls
received their training in the schools conducted for four years in
connection with the Playground and Recreation Association of
For the past three years the possibility of making a profit from
even a well-conducted club project has been slight. With the grad-
ual disappearance of cash from rural communities together with
the surety of low prices for products club boys have been forced to
alter the type of their demonstrations. The projects had to be
planned so that little cash would be required and the product
produced as cheaply as possible.
Corn:-Two hundred and seventy-six boys grew 300 acres of
corn,,and produced 9,339 bushels. The average yield was 31.1

Florida Cooperative Extension

bushels. This is 6 bushels less than the five-year average, the
decrease being due to less fertilizer being used. Without the
demonstrations following cover crops the average yield would
have been less.
Cotton:-In an attempt to get hold of some cash, more boys
finished their cotton project. These were the lucky boys as they
produced an average of over half a bale of cotton per acre. With
the increase in price for cotton, the 80 cotton club boys made
some money. They used less fertilizer than is advisable under
normal conditions but due to favorable weather and a slight infes-
tation of boll weevil they harvested a fair crop.
Peanuts:-This is a minor project but one in which the boys
making good yields were able to show a little profit.
Home Gardens and Truck Crops:-The home garden project
showed a decrease in 1933. The relief community gardens cut
down the market outlet for the surplus. More boys raised sweet
potatoes and regular market truck crops than in 1932. Profits
were dependent upon conditions beyond the power of the boy to
control. If the crop happened to be ready when the supply of
that crop was scarce he made a profit, otherwise he lost money.
The sweet potato project made a smaller but more certain profit
than did the market truck projects.
Citrus:-In Manatee County three clubs have combined the
study project with the production of nursery stock in a club plot
located at the school grounds. One club has been going long
enough to have raised trees from seed. This seems to be the
most satisfactory project yet worked out with citrus. In Manatee
County two other clubs have their seedlings ready to bud and one
new club is ready to start planting seed.
In Suwannee County, W. A. Robinson planted corn and peanuts
after a crop of crotalaria and produced 16.8 bushels of corn and
45.5 bushels of peanuts while the check acre produced but 10
bushels of corn and 26.6 bushels of peanuts. In Union County
6 boys raising corn after crotalaria produced an average of 35
bushels of corn per acre without fertilizer, while adjoining acres
used as checks produced an average of 10 bushels.
Out of all projects the livestock ones were hit the worst by the
low prices. It has been impossible for a boy to make a profit or
even to pay for a pig at last year's prices. The enrollment in

Annual Report, 1933

the pig club dropped from 507 to 370 and but 170 of these
reported. While the 170 raised 416 pigs it is doubtful if they
averaged 50c per head profit. The only hope for a pig club boy
is to get hold of some good stock while prices are low and be
ready to take advantage of the improvement which must come
Some few boys are attempting to do something with beef cattle.
This is also a discouraging proposition as prices of beef are so
low. One girl in the lower end of Highlands County has started
a herd of range cattle which she runs under the 4-H brand.

Fig. 2.-Club pigs grazing rye at 4 weeks of age. Club boys grow grazing
for their pigs.
This club is holding its own fairly well. The gradual eradica-
tion of the fever tick is giving an opportunity for the introduction
of some better dairy stock at very low prices. Suwannee and
Union counties are starting calf club work. Duval County con-
tinues to lead. The calves placed with club members three years
ago are now producing milk and many of them have grown into
profitable cows. POULTRY HUSBANDRY
Low prices of eggs and the general failure to make a profit
caused a decrease in this club. The more efficient boys continue
to make a little profit. The boy's flock has helped keep the family
in many cases. One agent reports that the sole income of one
family for two years has been the boy's flock. It has enabled
the family to live.

Florida Cooperative Extension

This project is coming slowly. In Liberty County of the 53
acres planted in 1932, 35 escaped fire and other destructive
agencies and are coming in good shape. In two more years these
acres should prove whether or not forestry club work will go in
Florida. In Palm Beach the community 4-H reforestration
project is coming nicely. Fire burned over part of the plot which
will give a demonstration of fire control as well as of the growth
of trees.
Recreation:-To assist in building a recreation program, four
recreation leadership training schools were held again in coopera-
tion with the Playground and Recreation Association of America.
These schools were held at DeFuniak Springs, Marianna, Gaines-
ville and Plant City. These schools have been most successful
in that the leaders attending have gone back to their communities
and have taken the lead in improving community recreational
Club Camps:-Of all the special activities of the club program,
the county club camp holds first place in the hearts of the boys.
Nineteen camps were held with an attendance of 1,300. Donald
Matthews was employed again to assist with the summer camps.
Annual Short Course:-A trip to the annual 4-H short course
is the highest award a boy can win on his club work in any county.
The county champions gather at the University of Florida for a
week of fun, inspiration and instruction.
In June, 1933, 254 boys were enrolled. Courses were given in
livestock, dairying, horticulture, poultry, farm mechanics, farm
accounting, swimming, and organized recreation. The evenings
were used for entertainment. Of the boys attending the 1933
short course nine entered the University of Florida as freshmen.
The short course is doing much in making the University known
and understood in' the rural sections of our state.
At an examination given during the short course three boys
were awarded $100 scholarships to the College of Agriculture
given by the Florida Bankers' Association.
State Corn Show:-A state corn club show was held at the
South Florida Fair in February, 1933. A space of 90 feet by 12
feet was filled with corn raised by the club boys. Signs and
legends were used to help the visitors get the story of 4-H Club

Annual Report, 1933

Bankers' Scholarship:-Frank Buck of Orange County, John
Leynes of Alachua County and Harvey Cook of Escambia County
won the Florida Bankers' Association scholarship.
National 4-H Camp:-The delegates to the National 4-H Camp
are selected as the two outstanding 4-H boys in the state. The
Florida delegates were W. W. Bassett, Jr., of Jefferson County
and Arthur McNeely of Marion County. Both Bassett and
McNeely entered the College of Agriculture this fall.
Governor's Wife Donates Pigs:-Mrs. Sholtz, wife of the Gov-
ernor of Florida, became interested in the work of the 4-H clubs
and gave several boys and girls a purebred pig-each from her
farm in the Carolinas. The pig club members getting these pigs
were thrilled and promised to take good care of them.
Atlantic Coast Line Railway Company:-Each year this rail-
road pays the expenses of one boy and one girl from Florida to
the National 4-H Camp in Washington. The Club Department
appreciates the fact that even during the hard times this com-
pany has never failed to contribute these trips.
Florida Bankers' Association:-For 15 years the bankers of
Florida have contributed three $100 scholarships annually to
boys' 4-H club work. The inspiration furnished by these scholar-
ships is greater perhaps than that generated by any other one
thing in club work. If the boy is not prepared for college the
money is placed in the bank against the time when he is. In the
class from the College of Agriculture which will graduate in
June, 1934, there are three men who will receive diplomas because
club work brought them to the short course and the Bankers'
Scholarship enabled them to enter the University. In the fresh-
man class which entered the University in September, 1933, there
were three boys who were entering because they had won Bank-
ers' Scholarships. The bankers of Florida are helping to educate
worthwhile men.
Playground and Recreation Association of America:-This as-
sociation has paid the expenses of trained leaders to put on the
recreation leadership training schools held in the state for the
past four years. It is hard to tell just how much benefit has been
derived from these schools. Community recreation has improved
wonderfully in the counties where the schools were held.

Florida Cooperative Extension


124 Organized community 4-H clubs
8 County club organizations or councils

2,177 Members enrolled
2,415 Different projects carried by club members
1,033 Members completed
1,495 Projects completed

276 Members completed
38 Members completed
5 Members completed
103 Members completed
80 Members completed
3 Members completed
16 Members completed
143 Members completed
74 Members completed
76 Members completed
6 Members completed
54 Members completed

172 Members completed
120 Members completed
16 Members completed
173 Members completed

Project A
Irish potatoes
sweet potatoes
home gardens
truck crops
home beautification
beef cattle

cres Grown
4,598 trees

9,339 bushels
2,146 bushels
1,560 bushels
7,312 bushels
59,976 lbs.
2,840 lbs.
603 gals.

6 homes
79 acres planted

Animals Involved
6,870 birds
168 animals
30 animals
416 animals

4 Demonstration teams trained
6 Judging teams trained
41 Leadership meetings with 210 leaders attending
18 Achievement days held with 2,377 attending
19 Club camps held with 1,300' attending
1 State short course held with 254 attending

Annual Report, 1933

HAMLIN L. BROWN, Extension Dairyman

Dairying was the objective of work done with the cooperation
of farm demonstration agents in 30 counties during 1933. In 11
more, not having County Agents, the Extension Dairyman was
active with farmers, in a lesser degree.
Forage crop production was the major undertaking of the
program. Pasture grazing and silage are regarded as of first
importance, with soiling and hay crops next in order. Interest
among dairymen was found to be greatly increased in the direc-
tion of larger forage output.
Government loans were taken advantage of in acquiring land
better suited to forage crops. In the past two years, 147 diarymen
have purchased 17,340 acres for the purpose. Duval County led
in the acreage of farm lands bought by dairymen. County Agents
reported 1,726 acres seeded to grass during 1933 against 1,545
in the preceding year, a gain of 181 or about 11 percent.
Field meetings conducted by the County Agents again proved
valuable in demonstrating the practicability of mowing pastures
and thus enlarging the grass yields. In most of these events,
part was taken by the Agent in Animal Husbandry and by the
Extension Dairymen. Combining the effort of the beef cattle
and dairying departments has helped in enlarging the scope and
influence of the endeavor.
Demonstrations also were held in supplying commercial ferti-
lizers to pastures and grazing crops. An increased tonnage of
grass almost invariably has resulted. Experiments conducted in
other states have shown that the practice gives grazing with
higher vitamin and mineral contents, and greater feeding value.
Dairy farmers in Florida fertilized 1,470 acres of grazing prod-
ucts in 1933. Owing to the high price of seed oats and rye in
the fall, demonstration acreage of both was reduced, however.
Anti-silo agitation developed during the World War period by
improper construction and filling has been mostly overcome by
demonstrations in the correct methods. In one county, Duval,
where farmers had been disappointed by bad results from poor
silage, in 1933 every old silo was filled and 14 new ones were
erected. If present high prices for feed are continued, the pros-
pects are good for twice as many additional silos to be built dur-
ing 1934.
Relation between soil types and the forage crops grown have
been stressed in the Extension dairy program for several years.
Corn in the Lowell neighborhood, Marion County, gave an aver-

Florida Cooperative Extension

age yield of three tons of silage to the acre. When 12 farmers
were induced to plant sorghum as a substitute in 1933, they aver-
aged nine tons. Corn silage probably has 25 percent more feed-
ing value but this is offset several times over by the 300 percent
output of the sorghum. In Duval county 20 farmers have been
assisted in securing seed of Cayana sugarcane for planting.
Napier grass, cat-tail millet and other crops have been used in
the demonstrations carried on in over a dozen counties.
Milk as a part of the family living rather than as a source of
direct cash income more and more has been stressed, under the
low prices prevailing for butter and related products. Dairying
in connection with a diversified type of farming, providing for
home supplies of food and feed, was demonstrated in about 15
counties, and received encouragement from farmers who had lost
their ready markets for milk.
Where herds had been built through breeding and culling, over
a considerable period, and forage was grown for all requirements,
in some instances they refused to sell the cows even when buyers
had been found. The feeling was that other kinds of farming
offered no more assurance of profit, and that ways could be found
for utilizing the milk that previously had been sold in fluid form.
Low prices on grain feed ruling in the past few years and the
resulting surplus of milk caused retention in herds of too many
low-production cows, with the advance in feed prices, farms fail-
ing to grow forage crops found these cows a source of actual loss.
In Extension dairy work the present treatment of the problem
is to get fewer heifers, from the best cows in the herd exclusively.
They need to be fed liberal rations of milk during the first six
months, and provided with plenty of high quality roughage from
that age until they are fully grown.
Average weight of dairy cows in the state is approximately
800 pounds, which is 25 percent undersize. Demonstrations in
growing heifers in accordance with the better practice are helping
to correct that condition. Farm surveys in different sections
made by the department of agricultural economics have assisted.
Stomach and intestinal parasites have infested some 60 percent
of the dairy heifers in Florida. An under-nourished condition
and placing of calves in infested fields are principal causes. Calves
need lots of milk until five or six months old, and before that can
get little nourishment from grass. In calf feeding demonstra-
tions, the animals are kept in cultivated fields and not allowed
to range on sod pastures.
Dairy production records continue to be employed in the Exten-

Annual Report, 1933

sion activities. Up to 20 percent of the dairymen have begun to
keep them. They are the source of information on which culling
may be practiced. Feed records direct attention to the impor-
tance of raising forage. In a community where 95 percent of the
dairy farmers are keeping records, feed is produced by about the
same proportion. Distinct progress was reported in 1933 from
numerous areas.
Scrub and grade bulls rapidly are disappearing from the dairy
herds of Florida. During 1933, 69 registered dairy bulls were
placed on farms in the state. Educational material as to eval-
uating pedigrees and selecting breeding animals is more and
more welcomed by farmers. Bulls have been freely interchanged
when it became advisable to remove them from one locality to
another. County Agents reported 34 exchanges in the 12 months.
Barn repairing and silo building demonstrations reported in
1933 number 36, and County Agents helped in the construction
of 34 silos for dairy purposes. Of these, 26 were trench, semi-
trench and pit, and only eight above ground.
Underground silos have been advocated in the Extension dairy
program during the depression, because of the low cost. Dem-
onstrations in every section of the state have proved that prac-
tically all kinds of forage may be preserved in silos. The lower
the cost the more of them that can be erected.
No factor is more potent in building up dairying than the 4-H
dairy clubs. In 1933, 17 county agents enrolled 219 members
with 241 dairy animals. Thirty percent were heifers producing
milk, 89 registered females and 152 high grade females. Banks
financing the purchases of several thousand animals in the past
11 years have had no case of loss.
In addition to the State Dairy Association, Florida has 19
county organizations. The state body has 576 members and has
been in operation for eight years. Counsel and advice from the
leaders of these several groups has been helpful in carrying out
the Extension program. County Agents have assisted the local
associations with their affairs in repeated instances.
During 1933, the Extension Dairyman held 118 meetings, with
a total attendance of 4,916. His travel mileage was 27,427 and
he wrote 1,420 letters. Activities planned for 1934 largely are
along similar lines. Dairymen generally want to go ahead and
carry on, feeling that a brighter outlook is not apparent in other
forms of specialized farming.

Florida Cooperative Extension

W. J. SHEELY, Agent in Animal Husbandry

From 1925 to 1930 the number of cattle in Florida decreased
by 224,000 head or 34 percent. Many cattlemen sold out com-
pletely before tick eradication, expecting to restock when it had
been completed. Other owners had it pointed out to them that
the practice would prove unprofitable, and saved their good
breeding animals.
Between 1930 and 1933 the cattle population of the State
showed a gain of 48,000, or 11 percent. Use of improved bulls
has caused a marked change for the better in the quality of the
stock; feeding more intelligently also has helped.
Average annual calf crop on ranges has been 30 percent. One
breeder reported 100 percent for 1933. Several cattlemen have
obtained 60 to 70 percent by following the advice of the Extension
In 1933 a total of 76 beef cattle method demonstrations were
conducted and 113 adult result demonstrations were completed.
Animals involved in completed demonstrations numbered 13,630.
Assistance was rendered farmers in obtaining 70 purebred bulls
and 329 purebred sires were placed.
Developing sources of supply for purebred bulls within the
state made considerable progress. Four years ago Florida had
only five breeders of purebred cattle. Now 10 or more are active,
with herds totaling 350 females. All bulls raised so far have
been sold by the time they were a year old.
Demand for purebred bulls continued to exceed the supply.
Lykes Brothers of Tampa consented to bring them into the state,
and during 1933 imported 100 beef bulls, 115 Brahmans and 200
Brahman cows. A grand total of 690 bulls now are shoving out
the scrubs-413 purebred beef animals, 180 Brahmans and 97
grade bulls.
Herd betterment effort has featured winter feeding and con-
trolled breeding. While the success has been varying, noteworthy
progress was recorded in numerous areas. Feeder calves and
yearlings are sought that will be uniform in color, conformation,
quality and size. Another objective is fat, well-grown calves
for veal, giving local butchers meat of higher quality than now
is generally available within the state.
Putting cut-over lands into pasture is another objective. The

Annual Report, 1933

agent in animal husbandry and other Extension Service workers
have helped with the plans under which the Putnam Lumber
Company has fenced 113,000 acres, in six divisions, sowing 200
acres to carpet grass. The Florida Industrial Corporation has
fenced 44,000 acres, and is winter feeding weak cows and calves.
In Dixie County alone 200,000 acres are under fence, stocked
with 10,000 head, including 107 purebred bulls placed this year.
Two carloads of calves were shipped to the Richmond Market.
Growing and storage of feed has been consistently urged in
the Extension livestock program. Drouth in North and West
Florida hindered production this season but nevertheless 17 new
trench silos for beef cattle feeding were put in. Pasture work
has been stressed and County Agents report 12,188 pounds of
grass seed bought, 2,342 acres sown to grasses and 7,000 acres
mowed to eliminate weeds. Special machines for weed-cutting
have been developed and field day demonstrations made new
friends for the practices.
Despite the check placed on finishing cattle for market by the
financial situation, special attention has been given to improving
the methods employed. A Polk county feeder, who has eight
metal silos with 2,200 tons capacity, fed 487 steers and in addi-
tion winter fed 220 steers, 123 calves and 28 bulls.
A Kissimmee butcher erected a silo and is feeding out his own
cattle for local trade. Oxford butchers are finishing 300 steers
to furnish beef for customers. Another firm following this prac-
tice is located at Lakeland. Information on methods of feeding

Fig. 3.-Florida cattlemen are finishing out better quality steers and obtain-
ing better prices for them.

Florida Cooperative Extension

has been furnished on several occasions. Many of the feeders
report considerable savings in consequence.
In normal times, North Florida tobacco growers ship in steers
to feed for manure. Effort has been made by the Extension
workers for this feeding stock to be produced in Florida. During
1931, $50,000 was sent out of the state for the animals. This
year Liberty County furnished Gadsden tobacco farmers nearly
100, and they also obtained a number from Leon, Wakulla and
neighboring counties.
Beef cutting and canning demonstrations were held at five
points in three counties. In hog producing counties these events
were devoted to pork. A miniature meat curing box has been
made from blueprints supplied by the United States Department
of Agriculture and was exhibited at the County Agents' annual
meeting and on the occasion of gatherings attended by farmers.
Duplicate prints have been furnished on request.
A cold storage curing plant at Branford cured more than
1,000,000 pounds of meat for farmers last season. Another at
Live Oak, a new one, has a capacity of 400,000 pounds. Mayo
also built one, capacity 175,000 pounds, and another recently
erected at Chiefland cured 75,000 pounds. Established curing
warehouses reported more meat in process at the end of the year
than 12 months preceding, in several cases. Many of them now
are using only the sugar cure.
The Agent in Animal Husbandry has attended 33 meetings and
talked on some phase of livestock raising, before 2,250 people.
Two field days were held, demonstrating the methods and advan-
tages of mowing weeds in pastures. Whenever opportunity has
offered, the beef cattle industry and its possibilities have been
presented at service club luncheons and to other groups of busi-
ness men. Agricultural Adjustment Administration corn-hog
reduction campaigns were taken part in on a somewhat extensive
scale, during the summer and again toward the end of the year.

Annual Report, 1933

NORMAN R. MEHROF, Extension Poultryman

Extension poultry work was conducted in 1933 in the following
counties: Alachua, Bay, Dade, Duval, Hernando, Hillsborough,
Holmes, Highlands, Lafayette, Lake, Lee, Leon, Manatee, Marion,
Nassau, Okaloosa, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Polk,
Putnam, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Sumter, Suwannee, St. Johns,
Volusia, Walton, and Washington.
The Extension poultry program was developed around those
phases of management which affected costs of production. Such
factors as cost records, feeding, pullet production, chickenpox
vaccination, and sanitation were emphasized.
The situation during the past year was, on the whole, unfavor-
able, with prices for both eggs and meat lower and costs of feed
being higher. With the average monthly prices prevailing dur-
ing the three years October 1, 1926, and ending September 30,
1929, used as a base of 100, it is found that the index prices for
November, 1933, are: No. 1 white eggs 56, heavy hens 57, heavy
fryers 45, and poultry feed 70.
Records have been kept over a period of years on the wholesale
prices of poultry meat and eggs as quoted by the State Marketing
Bureau for the Jacksonville area. To illustrate the situation that
has existed, the average price of white eggs for the five-year
period 1921-26 was 44.8 cents, while the five-year average 1926-31
was 38.2 cents. The average price of white eggs for the year
October 1 to September 30 was 29.6 cents per dozen in 1930-31,
24.4 cents in 1931-32, and 23.7 cents in 1932-33.
Prices for colored fryers also have declined. The five-year
average price 1926-30 in April was 43 cents per pound, since 1930
prices have averaged 40 cents in 1931, 26.5 cents in 1932, and
24.3 cents a pound in 1933.
Feed prices also have declined during the past few years.
Based on a ration (including grain and mash in equal proportions)
similar to the one used at the Florida National Egg-Laying Con-
test, the average price was $2.62 per 100 pounds (five years
1926-31), $2.04 (1930-31), $1.55 (1931-32) and $1.60 per 100
pounds (1932-33).
During 1933 three methods generally were used by commercial

Florida Cooperative Extension

egg producers in the production of quality pullets. In one group,
the colony system was used, namely, small colony brooders, range
houses and clean ranges (3 and 4 year rotation). This method
is used when the producer has large acreage. The second group
develop their pullets using wire floors and sun parlors. Acreage
is small and land contaminated. The third group raise pullets
in batteries to maturity. A small number of large producers are
using this method.
The importance of sanitation (clean chicks, clean brooder
houses, and clean range) was stressed by the Agents during the
year. This was accomplished by means of meetings, circular
letters, bulletins and farm visits.
Data on types of green feeds, planting dates, length of time to
harvest, etc., have been furnished to the poultry raisers to assist
them in working out this important phase of poultry production.
Maintaining high production during the past year was most
important because higher feed and lower egg prices prevailed.
Culling demonstrations were given by agents in the various
counties of the state, so as to make the flock more profitable.
County and Home Demonstration Agents reported 974' culling
With hen prices low a large quantity of poultry meat was
canned on the farm.
Record keeping is still a popular part of the Extension program,
for both small and large producer. The calendar Flock Records
project was started in 1925. Two different books are used in
the project, one for the small producer and one for the commercial
The flocks are divided into four groups according to the number
of birds involved-Group I, 10-50 birds; Group II, 51-250 birds;
Group III, 251-500 birds; and Group IV, over 500 birds. Monthly
reports are issued summarizing the results for the month and to
date, together with timely poultry information.
The records start October 1 and are completed September 30.
Results for the past year indicate greater efficiency in handling
the poultry flock. The average egg production per bird for the
year was 169.19 eggs. This production is the greatest since the
project was begun.
Poultry raisers from 22 counties kept records in 1933. Table I

Annual Report, 1933

gives the number of flocks, average size of flock and average
number of eggs per bird for the past year by groups.

10-50 51-250 251-500 500
birds birds birds birds
Total number of flocks............. 12 17 9 8.
Average size of flock............... 32 134 269 858
Average number of eggs per bird.... 154.45 156.81 166.40 175.10

Poultry raising is one of the popular phases of 4-If club work.
The program for juniors is developed around two projects: (1)
Poultry production-the boy or girl owns and manages his or
her own flock. (2) Poultry improvement-the boy or girl man-
ages the flock on the farm, if it is purebred. The poultry im-
provement program is the more popular.
Meetings were held with 4-H poultry clubs at which time the
more important phases of poultry production were discussed,
principally records, sanitation, feeding, culling, and growing
healthy chicks.
At the Girls' Short Course a poultry course was given.
Poultry tours were held during the year at which time improve-
"ment of the flocks was discussed. In Hillsborough County poul-
try records have been studied and analyzed. Poultry questions
relative to the records have resulted in better books at the end
of the year.
Birds exhibited by 4-H club members were judged at two county
The Florida State Poultry Producers Association was organized
during the year at Orlando. The purpose of this association is
to promote, foster, and encourage the intelligent, orderly and
lawful production and marketing of poultry and eggs. Member-
ship in this association is composed of all members of any county
poultry organization. Twenty-five county poultry associations
are affiliated with the state organization. The State Association
has worked out plans for advertising Florida fresh eggs. Uniform
labels and placards are used by many of the local organizations.
The members are active in seeing that the Florida Egg Law is
This association is working very closely with the Agricultural
Adjustment Administration.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Local and county poultry associations have been more active
during the year. They have assisted agents in developing con-
structive poultry programs. Educational meetings were held
with the various associations at times during the year.
The American Poultry Association of Florida continues to
foster quality birds for poultry club members. The association
promotes educational poultry shows.
The Florida Baby Chick Association assists the Extension or-
ganization in promoting the Grow Healthy Chick Program. The
association is working in close contact with the International
Baby Chick Association and the Agricultural Adjustment Admin-
istration in developing a fair code for hatcherymen.
The accreditation of poultry breeding flocks is under the super-
vision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. The revised plan
just issued specifies that all flocks must be tested twice for pul-
lorum disease. The three classes are, accredited, certified, and
pullorum disease free flocks.
Dr. D. C. Gilles, Poultry Service Veterinarian of the Live Stock
Sanitary Board, has assisted in Extension poultry meetings and
with regulating work at the National Egg-Laying Contest.
The State Marketing Bureau has worked in close cooperation
with the'County and Home Demonstration Agents. F. W. Risher,
Poultry Marketing Specialist, has worked very closely with the
Extension organization in finding markets for eggs and poultry
meat, and has assisted the various poultry associations at meet-
ings, discussing grading and marketing of eggs and poultry.
Extension workers have assisted the Inspection Division of the
Department of Agriculture in arranging meetings pertaining to
the Florida Egg Law.
Four years ago agents in West Florida promoted the use of
home-made brick brooders. This type of brooder appears to be
cheap in construction and efficient. One agent reports over 100
in his county. Those brooders are used rather extensively in
many West Florida counties and reports from farmers indicate
better results.
Demonstrations in vaccination were given during the year, the
result being that more pullets were vaccinated than last year.

Annual Report, 1933

The practice of vaccinating pullets at about 12 to 16 weeks of
age is very common among the commercial egg producers.
The two most common methods used during the year were the
"stick" and "feather follicle" methods.
During the year a large number of educational poultry meet-
ings were held. These meetings were held in cooperation with
County and Home Agents. Various agencies assisted in present-
ing poultry information, namely, commercial feed manufacturers,
various state departments, and the local poultry associations.
The Seventh Florida National Egg-Laying Contest located at
Chipley was conducted from October 1, 1932, to September 22,
1933. There were 52 pens entered. There were 30 pens entered
by Florida poultry breeders from 15 different counties.
The average egg production for the 51 weeks' period was 209
eggs per bird with a value of 205 points. The highest pen (10
birds) produced a total of 2,767 eggs for a value of 2,846 points.
The highest individual was a White Leghorn entered by a Florida
breeder. This bird produced 311 eggs for a value of 336.75 points.
Birds entered by Florida breeders compared very favorably
with birds outside the state. The Florida birds of the dual pur-
pose type averaged 185 eggs while the average for the entire
contest was 117 eggs. In the case of White Leghorns the Florida
birds averaged 216 eggs while the average in the contest was
221 eggs.
The only heavy breed bird producing 300 or more eggs was a
Florida bird.
The Eighth Contest started October 1, 1933, and there were
83 pens entered.
In cooperation with the Animal Husbandry Department of the
Experiment Station, feeding trials were started at the West
Central Florida Experiment Station, Brooksville, Florida. The
tests pertain to the efficiency of several sources of protein for
producing broilers and also in rearing turkeys.
At the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest feeding trials have
been started to determine the relative efficiency of different
sources of protein.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Additional data are being collected at the West Central Experi-
ment Station and the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest on
different phases of poultry management. Projects that are being
studied are "use of lights to increase winter egg production,"
"confinement vs. non-confinement in rearing pullets," "value of
rotation in developing pullets" and "growth studies of cockerels
and pullets."
Judging was done in three poultry shows last year.
Twenty-five conferences were held with feed men and fair
managers relative to poultry problems in their localities.

The following data have been compiled from the County and
Home Demonstration Agents' reports:
Number of communities participating............................ 542
Number of leaders assisting .................................... 219
Days agents devoted to poultry................................. 1,185
Number of meetings held...................................... 772
Number of news stories published............................. 315
Number of different circular letters issued ....................... 247
Number of farm or home visits............................ ..... 3,314
Number of office calls................................................... 6,537
Number of method demonstration meetings held................... 721
Number of adult result demonstrations completed or carried into the
next year ............................................... 1,923
Number of animals involved in these completed adult result demon-
strations ................................... .............. 244,082
Total profit or saving on adult result demonstrations completed. $52,122

Annual Report, 1933

E. F. DEBUSK, Citriculturist

Reduction in the costs of producing citrus fruits, in so far as
it can be accomplished without sacrificing quality or injuring the
trees, has continued uppermost in the activities of the Extension
citrus culture specialist. Grove and soil management were
accorded preferred attention, and almost equal consideration was
given to insect and disease control.
Fact finding demonstrations in selected groves throughout the
citrus area are utilized as a principal means of carrying on the
work. Choice of groves is based on soil, varieties, rootstock, age
of tree and tendency to cooperate shown by the grower. Projects
started during 1933 included some 600 acres of grove, and in a
single county the practices of over 200 producers were affected.
Citrus schools in sundry communities have been adopted as
an efficient method of giving courses in all phases of practical
culture. In 1933, 10 were conducted, with an enrollment of more
than 400, representing about 16,000 acres of groves.

More than 40 demonstrations were devoted to showing that
production costs can be kept down to the minimum only by supply-
ing to the grove large amounts of bulky organic matter through
the full use of cover crops or with manure that is hauled in.
Others dealt with raw phosphate for stimulating cover crops and
improving soil conditions while about 20 brought out the best
practices in using lime and magnesium lime.
In over 100 demonstrations the yield of fruit has been increased
5 to 20 percent through mowing of the cover crops and placing it
around the trees as a mulch, with improvement in trees and
quality of fruit also evident. Output of cover crops was enlarged
by 1,000 pounds an acre, dry weight, through application of a
dollar's worth of cheap nitrogen per acre, the grass having a
value in many groves of $5 per ton.
Cultivation of the wasteful or injurious type was eliminated in
the methods followed in 80 or more demonstrations. In one
county alone the influence of the work is estimated to have saved
the growers at least $10,000 in cultivation outlay.
Irrigation problems are closely related to grove costs. Assist-
ance was rendered to 95 growers in improving the system of

Florida Cooperative Extension

applying water and 14 were aided in installing grove plants, cov-
ering more than 1,600 acres.
Indirect control or prevention again proved to be most effective
in the effort against melanose and stem-end rot, die-back and
ammoniation, gummosis and psorosis. Other endeavors under the
head of diseases dealt with citrus scab, blue mold and foot rot.
Rust mite control was rendered a great deal more efficient when
undertaken at the right time and in the proper stages of devel-
opment, and Extension workers devoted much labor to the dissem-
ination of information on the subject. Spraying and dusting
demonstrations were conducted in numerous communities.
Control of scale and whitefly by natural means was developed
on a broader scale than ever before. In many of the demonstra-
tion groves it was unnecessary to spray for scale this year. In
demonstrations applying to over 4,000 acres of grove, spraying
for scale has been discarded for the past four years. Scale fungi
developed to an extent affording control, when cultivation was
reduced 75 percent, heavy cover crops were grown and pruning
of the center of the trees was abandoned. The best results in
insect work of course have been attained with trees that had been
properly fertilized-a hungry tree is a feeble fighter..
Demonstrations in thinning tangerines were conducted, affect-
ing over 300 acres. Bracing of tangerine trees was recommended
and illustrated in a large number of instances.
Splitting of fruit in Valencia groves was closely studied in the
field. Less was found in plantings that had abundant moisture
from June to November. Irrigation at a cost of less than $1.00
per acre-inch pays for itself in lessened splitting, even when fruit
prices are low.
Farm built implement demonstrations were welcomed by grow-
ers. Written instructions and photographs have been made avail-
able to a great many. Assistance was rendered to exceeding of
25 of them, for utilization of second-hand automobile engines in
irrigation pumping plants.
Cost record facts were eagerly accepted by many grove owners.
More than 300 consultations were held with growers in 10 counties
and in nine of these production accounting was taken up in some
300 instances. Every operation becomes the object of study look-

Annual Report, 1933 51

ing to lowered outlay when a grower has accurate cost sheets
before him.
In 1933, an aggregate of 132 meetings and schools of instruc-
tion were held in 14 counties. Seventeen grove tours were con-
ducted, in eight counties, with above 400 growers taking part.
Over 7,000 citrus bulletins were distributed from the offices of
11 county agents, and more than 5,000 letters on the subject also
went out. Sixty radio talks were made over six stations by the
citriculturist and eight county agents. Articles on phases of
citrus culture printed in 13 counties numbered 343.

Florida Cooperative Extension

C. V. NOBLE, Agricultural Economist
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, Extension Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, Extension Economist, Marketing

Demand continued to increase for dependable facts concerning
economic phases of Florida agriculture. Farmers, fruit growers
and vegetable producers made more inquiries for information of
this kind during 1933 than in any preceding period of like length.
Meanwhile, the Economics division of the Agricultural Extension
Service in the College of Agriculture was engaged in assembling
additional data through surveys dealing with phases of farm
management and crop marketing that have been given greater
importance by the prevalence of depression conditions.
Citrus accounts constitute a project now entering its fourth
year. The number of growers taking part has steadily increased,
having been only 118 the first season, rising to 200 for the second
year and currently reaching a total of 175.
Surveys in farm management were another continuing activity.
In 1932, farms were studied in Suwannee and Santa Rosa counties.
For 1933, the work was concentrated in Okaloosa and Walton
counties. The Farm Management Specialist also assisted in tab-
ulating and summarizing records for 112 truck farms in the
Plant City section.
A poultry farm management study, including factors related to
the major items of expense and income, has been carried on since
1926. Records from cooperating poultrymen were compiled and
distributed during 1933, and new books furnished to them in
which a few minor changes had been made from previous issues.
Feed and egg prices have been tabulated for the period 1926
to date. The three-year period from October 1, 1926, to Septem-

3 Year Avg.
Oct. 1, 1926, Oct. 1, 1930, Oct. 1, 1931, Oct. 1, 1932,
Sept. 30, Sept. 30, Sept. 30, Sept. 30, Nov., Nov.,
1929 1931 1932 1933 1932 1933
Average Prices at Jacksonville
Poultry ration
(Dollars per cwt.)..$2.80 $2.04 $1.55 $1.60 $1.43 $1.91
No. 1 White Eggs
(Cents per Dozen)..41.1c 29.6c 24.4c 23.7c 32.7c 32.0c
Index of Feed and Egg Prices
Oct. 1, 1926, to Sept. 30, 1929 = 100
Poultry ration............ 100 73 55 57 52 70
No. 1 White Eggs......... 100 72 58 57 57 56

Annual Report, 1933

ber 30, 1929, during which conditions were relatively stable, was
considered as a base period and comparisons made for each of
the four succeeding twelve month periods. Table II, herewith
reproduced, affords a typical example of the informative manner
in which agricultural economics findings are furnished to the
The Florida Outlook Report for 1934 was in part prepared by
the Specialist in Farm Management, who broadcasted extracts
from it over Station WRUF in Gainesville. Articles containing
reviews of the work accomplished were printed in the "Extension
Instructions in Farm Management and Record Keeping were
given to groups of the older 4-H Club boys and talks were made
before a number of the clubs.

Motor truck transportation continues to be an important factor
in the marketing of farm products. During the past season there
has been a larger percentage of citrus fruits transported by truck
than ever before, while there was apparently a decrease in the
volume shipped by rail in bulk car lots. Investigations conducted
by the Extension Economist in Marketing during 1933 showed
Detroit, Cincinnati, Louisville and other points in that territory
to be the principal receivers of citrus shipped by rail in bulk car
lots. These investigations also disclosed definite reactions in
the trade as to quality, and variation in quantity of contents of
bulk cars.
Records taken on oranges shipped in bulk showed an average
of less than 1/2 to 1 percent decay in transit, while grapefruit
spoilage was less than oranges.
The breakage of citrus packages in transit was studied from
data secured on 3,400 cars. There were 54,400 containers broken
in these cars, or an average of 16 per car. Of this number,
approximately 14 to the car could be repaired and placed in the
regular channels of trade. The other two packages were so
badly broken that they had to be sold at greatly reduced prices.
Expressed in percentage, these data showed that 4.4 percent of
the packages were broken, .6 percent of which had to be salvaged.
"Economic Facts About the Florida Hog Industry"-see Exten-
sion Economist for September, 1933-furnished valuable data
concerning this important item in the state's livestock holdings.
Management and marketing practices with range cattle, and age

54 Florida Cooperative Extension

and weight of beef dressed were subjects of additional 1933
studies in the same field.
A survey of the Jacksonville city market was made at the
request of the City Council Marketing Committee.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration affairs occupied con-
siderable portions of the year in the work of the Marketing
Specialist. Cooperation was given to the National Fruit and Veg-
etable Exchange in an inquiry into the possibilities for increased
tonnage from Florida cooperatives. From November 1, the
Marketing Specialist was loaned to the Farm Credit Administra-
tion for field work in connection with Production Credit Associa-
tions. Other miscellaneous work included speaking at various
meetings, individual and group conferences on marketing prob-

Annual Report, 1933

J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
The Extension agronomy program during 1933 concerned itself
principally with the following lines of endeavor:
1. Conservation and improvement of the soil by terracing and
use of winter and summer cover crops.
2. Economical production of grains and feed crops by use of
cover crops, commercial fertilizers, select varieties, and proper
3. A more economical production of cash crops by the same
4. Control of diseases and parasites of crops.

With the alternate sunshine and heavy rains that are a part
.of Florida climate, any vegetable matter that constitutes a part
of the natural sandy soils is destroyed quickly.. Nitrogen is dis-
sipated quickly also. The soils therefore become poor. To
increase yields Austrian winter peas and vetch have been grown
since 1925. During the falls of 1932 and 1933 very few were
planted due to drought at planting time and low prices of com-
modities grown following them.
Crotalaria has been used for several years to improve soil for
general farm crops and as cover crops of groves and vineyards.
The following statistics show how the practice has grown:
Year Seed sown Acres planted Value
1929 80,000 10,000 $50,000
1930 148,000 18,800 94,000
1931 270,000 35,000 175,000
1932 560,000 68,000 340,000
The seed crop sold last year for $60,000.
During the last three years the County Agents of Florida have
encouraged farmers to plant 50 demonstrations of crotalaria
comprising 524 acres in 1931, and 408 demonstrations comprising
3,538 acres in 1932, and many demonstrations comprising thou-
sdnds of acres in 1933. Last year's demonstrations were fol-
lowed by other crops with very interesting results. They
showed the usual four to six bushels increase in corn production.
Peanuts, beans and other crops showed even better increases.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The land in some of the Northwest Florida counties being roll-
ing and there being a heavy rainfall in that area, it is essential
that the land be terraced. The County Agents have assisted the
farmers in building terraces for several years. The record is
as follows:
Year Number of Demonstrations Acres
1925 49 1426
1926 no records
1927 no records
1928 66 2100
1929 151 3857
1930 211 3875
1931 10 4510
1932 218 5498
1933 179 6157

They have assisted farmers and growers with drainage and
irrigation problems in other parts of the state. During the year
they furnished drainage recommendations to 60 farmers and
1,536 acres were drained by such systems. Thirty farmers and
growers were furnished recommendations on installing irrigation
systems for 590 acres of land. Plans were furnished for the
building and remodeling of 58 farm buildings during the year.

Fertilizing, side-dressing:-Commercial fertilizer is used to
increase the yield of corn and reduce the cost per bushel. This
fertilizer usually is a side-dressing of some quickly available
nitrogeneous inorganic element. During 1933 there were 162
corn fertilizing demonstrations conducted in this territory, con-
sisting of 1,990 acres with an average increase of about 9
bushels per acre.
There were 184 demonstrations conducted by juniors which
comprised 186 acres that produced a total of 5,269 bushels, or
28 1/3 bushels per acre, approximately 15 1/3 bushels more than
the state average.
Corn Weevil Control:-Weevils destroy an enormous amount
of corn in Florida each year. To show that they can be controlled
by fumigating with carbon disulphide the County Agents had
cribs prepared-made air-tight-and conducted demonstrations.
The effectiveness of the fumigation is shown by the following

Annual Report, 1933

Year 1931 Year 1932
Lbs. corn in shuck Lbs. shelled corn Lbs. corn in shuck Lbs. shelled
80-treated 58 80 58.25
80-not treated 52 80 51.4
Saved 6 .. 6.8

Results were similar from demonstrations conducted in the
spring and summer of 1933.
As a result of these demonstrations more cribs have been fixed
and poison bought preparatory to treating the present crop.
The native wiregrass pasture will carry only about- one cow to
10 acres. This grass becomes tough and woody by early summer
and cattle just hold their own thereafter till frost. Pasture
experiments show that carpet grass, dallis grass, and other tame
grasses have carried one cow per acre under careful management
and produced as high as 256 pounds of beef per acre per annum.
To show to the farmers these qualities the agents have been
establishing demonstrations on farms for several years. In
1933 there were 160 pastures planted comprising 6,704 acres.
Soybeans are recommended for hay because they are (com-
paratively) easily cured in the humid atmosphere of Florida and
produce high yields. Fifteen demonstrations comprising 53
acres were grown in 1933, producing 3/4 ton hay more per acre
than cowpeas. Through this means and pasture, the livestock
feed supply and its quality are being improved.
Fourteen trench silos have been added this year to those already
in existence. Sorghum, corn and cane have been put in these
silos to supplement cattle feed this winter.
There are two things that increase the yield of peanuts-an
application of landplaster (gypsum) on runners where they are
inclined to make pops, and thicker spacing of both the runners
and Spanish varieties. Landplaster demonstrations showed ex-
cellent results this year.
Spacing Demonstrations with Peanuts:-This was the second
year that farmers have been shown the advantage of the thicker
spacing by use of charts at meetings held in the early spring.
At these same meetings farmers told of their results from
thicker spacing last year. As a result of these and the demon-

Florida Cooperative Extension

stations, recommendations for thick spacing are becoming well
known. There were 78 well-planned demonstrations conducted,
comprising 1,000 acres.
With both thicker spacing and landplaster applications, much
higher increases were secured.
In the commercial peanut area where the thicker spacing has
been demonstrated for several years the practice is now estab-
Mosaic disease and nematode have affected very materially the
yield of the old red sugarcane varieties which have served for
making sirup for years. The Cayana 10 variety is highly resist-
ant to both. To show the superiority of this cane it has been
planted side by side with the other in 83 demonstrations and
showed an increased yield of 113 gallons per acre.
The commercial growers are nearly all using Cayana 10 now
and many others are using it each year. For the last three or
four years some of the P. O. J. hybrids have been used in experi-
mental demonstrations. They have been going well and are now
being distributed over the cane belt.
Three things have been found to increase the production of
cotton in Florida-more intelligent use of fertilizers, better vari-
eties, and thicker spacing of plants in the rows. Result demon-
strations have been conducted by the County Agents of cotton
counties to show the growers the benefits derived from following
these practices.
Naturally the cotton acreage adjustment campaign has con-
sumed much of the time and energies of the agents in 1933. There
were 5,016 growers contacted and 4,343 contracts accepted by
agents ard committees in 14 counties. There were 22,568 acres
of cotton plowed under, producing an estimated yield of 185.9
pounds per acre or 4,196,250 pounds of lint equal to 8,392,5 bales
of 500 pounds each.
Farmers took options to buy 3,640 bales from the government.
Total rental payments amounted to $263,013.59, advance on op-
tioned cotton $72,800. This means $335,813.59 as direct benefit
payments as a result of the acreage reduction campaign.
Information gathered by studying the contracts turned in and
questionnaires returned were interesting. For instance, who
provided the capital for growing this crop of cotton? Records
show 41% of it was financed by private credit agencies; 34% by

Annual Report, 1933

the government "seed loan"; and 25% by the growers themselves.
In view of the fact that many growers and private credit
agencies said they would reduce their acreage of cotton in 1932
it is interesting to note that the contracts show the private credit
agencies increased theirs 34.9%, borrowers of seed loans 22.8%,
and farmers, financing their own crop, 21.6%.
About the first of November a questionnaire was sent to the
4,343 growers whose contracts had been accepted by the Secre-
tary asking if they were "satisfied" with the "plow-up deal" and
if not, why not? Fifty-nine percent of them replied immediately,
91% of those replying said they were. Of the 9% "not satisfied"
42% gave as their reason, "underestimated yield".; 31% gave "no
checks yet" and others gave many reasons. "No options received"
was most common.
Because such a large percentage of the few "dissatisfied" ones
said the cause was "underestimated yield" the records were fur-
ther studied. These studies show that this complaint came from
certain counties where weather conditions were ideal for boll
weevil destruction and continued growth and production of cotton
the season through, and the average "estimate" there was 47
pounds per acre under the actual yield on same farms. Another
county where there were six weeks rain and cloudy weather just
after estimates were finished the records show the "estimate"
was 33 pounds per acre over the actual yields on same farms. For
the whole cotton belt the actual yield was 4.7 pounds greater per
acre than the average estimate for the same farms.
While sweet potatoes are a minor crop they are grown almost
universally for home use and in rare cases for market. There
were 55 demonstrations conducted on sweet potatoes covering
387 acres producing an average increase of 23 bushels. These
demonstrations were conducted along lines of better fertilization,
improved seed and in Palm Beach County changing the time and
method of planting. TOBACCO
In the spring of 1933 there was held at Live Oak a meeting of
the flue-cured tobacco growers from Suwannee, Columbia, Hamil-
ton, LaFayette, and Alachua counties. The outlook, methods of
fertilizing, and management of plant beds, were discussed by the
Agricultural Extension worker. This information was appre-
ciated by the growers.
A high grade and a good production were secured by the

60 Florida Cooperative Extension

growers. When the markets opened prices, grade for grade, were
no better than they were the previous year. However, the
farmers secured a satisfactory per acre return because of high
grade and excellent yield.
When markets in the northern part of the flue-cured belt closed
and the adjustment sign-up was begun, most all growers signed
the agreement to control acreage in 1934 and 1935. There were
761 agreements signed covering 4,882.5 acres and affecting
3,936,982 pounds. This will mean adjustment payments of
$98,037 and rentals amounting to $25,633 to the growers of the
five counties, or a total of $123,670, to be paid them in the spring
of 1934. Next fall additional parity prices will be paid.

Annual Report, 1933


FLAVIA GLEASON, State Home Demonstration Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, District Home Demonstration Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Home Demonstration Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, District Home Demonstration Agent

During 1933 home demonstration work was conducted by agents
in 26 Florida counties, during all or part of the year. Members
of the state staff worked in 52 of the 67 counties. While regular
activities have continued to occupy a good part of the time of
each agent, the most pressing work in many cases during the
year was in connection with relief activities of the federal and
other agencies. The home demonstration agents have devoted
much attention to the production of vegetables in both relief and
home gardens and the conservation of available vegetables and
fruits. This has been of untold value to the people of Florida.
In the regular work, result demonstrations numbering 924 were
visited by 13,565 people. Thirty-eight tours were held, with an
attendance of 7,599.
County Home Demonstration Agents made 12,725 visits to
6,653 homes and 489 additional visits to 324 farms, an average
of 528 visits each. Educational exhibits were shown at 171
events in 24 counties. Method demonstrations in 1933 aggre-
gated 6,023, with 102,965 persons present. A total of 970 women
and 369 older girls assisted as voluntary local leaders, for whom
175 training meetings were held. County and community
achievement days numbered 98, of which 27 were for adults,
attended by 9,345, and 71 for 4-H club members, 10,710 attending.
Reports of home demonstration agents show that, in connection
with Federal Emergency Relief Admin'stration endeavor, they
assisted 4,825 families in producing on the farm the greater part
of the foodstuffs needed by the members.
Assistance also was rendered to 6,605 families in the canning
of homegrown products. A total of 583,737 quarts canned for
relief purposes were valued at $107,470.50. The FERA furnished
cans but not canning equipment.
In a north-central county, a cannery built by the local farmers
organization was used by 518 families, who put up 67,992 cans

Fig. 4.-Community canning centers in 1933 contributed to the relief of unemployed families. Home demonstration agents
assisted relief workers in establishing and operating these canneries.

Annual Report, 1933

of fruit, meats and vegetables. Output of a community garden
also was canned in substantial quantities, for distribution to
needy families during the winter.
Gardens of the type were established in many localities. Farm
and home demonstration agents advised, and in numerous in-
stances supervised. In a typical instance the garden furnished
fresh vegetables; for 400 families from December through April.
The cost of seed and fertilizer was $42.00 and the products had
a cash value of over $600.00.
Instruction in nutrition and food conservation was freely sup-
plied by agents. They also cooperated in the utilization of cloth
and flour received from the American Red Cross. Later they
served as counsellors to committees devising work projects for
women. Members of home demonstration clubs responded gen-
erously to calls for aid made by the relief authorities.
Studies of production in the cotton counties disclosed the farm
needs for food crops. Information furnished to farmers by Agri-
cultural Adjustment Administration workers will indicate which
of these may be planted on land rented to the government. Exten-
sion agents work directly with the farm families with the same
end in view. Cotton consumption increase effort led to the mak-
ing of innumerable garments, with 334 mattresses made or re-
built, 2,526 rugs constructed and other notable achievements.

Unless the women reported willingly the amount of their
earnings, no special attempt was made to secure it. People are
not always anxious to divulge the state of their finances even to
their agent.
A summary of reports that were submitted by women and girls
showing value of products marketed is as follows:
Baked products ...............................$. 2,937.14
Canned products ................................. 11,565.05
Fresh vegetables .................................. 36,152.47
Orchard products .............................. 13,348.44
Eggs ............................ ... ............. 71,723.41
Poultry ....................... ........ ......... 31,254.31
Butter ........................ .... ........... 11,592.65
Milk ........................................... 9,896.58
Cottage Cheese ................................. 736.20
Other articles sold ............................... 28,217.57
Total ....................................... $217,423.82
Through home demonstration work rural women and girls have
been led into group thinking and group action, in which they have

Fig. 5.-The faithful, efficient county home demonstration agents of Florida, and A. P. Spencer, vice-director of the State
Agricultural Extension Service. Left to right, front: Anna Mae Sikes, Clarine Belcher, Mabel Wilson, Isabelle S. Thursby,
Lois Godbey, Floy Moses, Virginia P. Moore, Pearl Jordan, Mrs. Nellie Taylor, Mrs. Grace Warren; middle: Eleanor Barton,
Albina Smith, Mrs. Elizabeth Moore, Mrs. Bettie Caudle, Pearl Laffitte, Ruby Brown, Allie Lee Rush, Pansy Norton, Ruby
. McDavid, Mrs. Edith Barrus, Mary E. Keown, Mr. Spencer; top: Margaret Cobb, Ethel Atkinson, Eloise McGriff, Jose-
phine Nimmo, Mrs. Joy B. Hess, Matilda Roesel, Elise Laffitte, Anna Heist and Lucy Belle Settle.

Annual Report, 1933

found satisfaction in helping to develop community activities
according to the particular needs of each community.
In 1933 throughout the State, home demonstration groups
helped to keep up the morale of the farm family through the
maintenance of good health, provision of good reading material,
and through inexpensive forms of family and community recre-
ation. They were instrumental in building 27 new community
club houses where community groups gathered for informal
social activities. There were 15 community kitchens established
also. They cooperated with the CWA in growing community
gardens, ranging from one to 25 acres, and they helped to can
the surplus from these community gardens for winter use for
those on relief.
They stimulated the serving of better meals at community
gatherings; they beautified the school and church grounds and
community cemeteries; they assisted 156 schools with hot dish
or school lunch for 27,017 pupils, and 28 clubs managed hot school
lunches for 3,435 school children.
Forty-seven clubs began community libraries, they bought
1,325 books and subscribed to 76 magazines and papers; 338
community achievement meetings and exhibits were held.
A total of 448 communities were assisted in developing vari-
ous community activities according to community needs.
The work with girls, who are organized into 4-H clubs, con-
tinues to be an important function of the Home Demonstration
Agents. During 1933 there were 407 clubs with a membership
of 7,580, of which 5,781 completed the year's work and submitted
records. Of the total membership, 2,907 girls were doing their
first year of this work, while 2,001 were in their second year,
1,384 third, 675 fourth, 341 fifth, and 252 were sixth year girls.
The projects in which the girls were enrolled during the year
included home gardening, market gardening, beautification of
home grounds, growing tree fruits, bush and small fruits, and
grapes, forestry, dairying, swine husbandry, food selection and
preparation, food preservation, clothing, home management, home
furnishing, health improvement, bees and handicraft. Thus it
is seen that club work gave the girls training in practical phases
of home and farm life.
The Home Demonstration Agents were assisted in 'conducting
the work by local leaders in the communities. There were 369
older 4-H girls and 297 women who served most proficiently as

Florida Cooperative Extension

leaders of the younger girls and greatly assisted with the year's
work. During the year 104 training meetings were held for 4-H
leaders, and were attended by 617 women and older girls. Local
leaders held 194 meetings, attended by 13,516 people.
Each club follows a regular form of organization, having its
own officers, and in 21 of the counties there were county councils
composed of representatives of each club. These councils held
regular meetings, usually quarterly, and assisted with the plan-
ning and conducting of the work throughout the county.
Team demonstrations by 4-H girls are an important feature
of the work. During 1933 there were 114 judging teams and 183
demonstration teams trained, each team consisting of two or
more girls.
At a convenient time during the year, usually in late spring,
achievement days and rallies are held in the various counties
doing 4-H club work. This year 71 achievement days were held,
and were attended by 10,710 people.
The annual camp, in most cases lasting a week, was a feature
of the work in practically every county in which 4-H club work
was conducted. Other and shorter encampments were held from
time to time. During 1933 there were 194 encampments held,
with an attendance of 1,828 girls and women.
The 4-H clubs take a leading and appreciated part in community
activities, such as recreation, pageants, sanitation, improving
school grounds, conducting local fairs, and similar enterprises.
During the summer of 1933, 35 camps were held, 16 for women,
nine for boys and girls and 10 for girls exclusively. The attend-
ance included 515 women members of home demonstration clubs,
1,240 girls, 194 boys and 1,445 visitors, leaders and instructors.
A two-day farm and home institute for adults was conducted at
the West Florida 4-H Club Camp.
Trips to the National 4-H Club Camp at Washington, D. C., were
awarded to one girl each from Dade and Hillsborough counties.
Girls from Duval and Jefferson counties won trips to the National
Congress in Chicago. One each from Dade, Duval, Hillsborough
and Polk were honored with trips to the Century of Progress
Exposition in Chicago.
State Short Course for 4-H Club girls at the Florida College
for Women offered a week of special training to 323 club girls,
with 35 local leaders and 23 home demonstration agents also
attending. One week is set aside for this event, between the

Annual Report, 1933

spring and summer terms. Each girl who attends is a winner in
some project in her county.

In promoting gardening and the calendar orchard, county home
demonstration agents held 1,476 meetings; published 410 news
stories; made 3,119 home visits and had 6,270 office calls in con-
nection with this project. Women report 4,405 demonstrations
carried in home gardening; 1,320 with market gardening; and
3,866 with the home orchard. Reports from 24 counties show
3,241 calendar or all-year gardens and from 22 counties they show
962 calendar orchards planted or added to during the year. The
home gardens and orchards have not only supplied fruit and
vegetables but other things for the family resulting from sales
amounting to $49,520.91. There were 4,309 4-H club girls who
carried demonstrations in home gardening and 896 who followed
definite plans in planting perennials as part of the home garden
Poultry flocks were managed and reported on by 4,506 women,
with 139,454 birds. The home flocks helped to furnish the family
food supply. Profits were $45,307. A total of 18,091 birds were
raised by 718 girls. In 18 counties, poultry sales ran to $32,221.65
on the markets and to $6,358.00 for breeding purposes, while
$124,714.22 was received for eggs by the persons reporting.
From 22 counties records of results were submitted on 3,661
family milk cows, 543 of which had been obtained during the year.
Profits on sales of $6,112.00 were reported by 289 women working
with 725 cows.
Clothing the farm family well but economically was the prob-
lem to which Home Demonstration Agents gave thought last year.
The phases of clothing work receiving particular attention were
remodeling, care, repair, and storage of clothing; laundering;
construction of garments for adults and children, and the making
of household articles from flour, feed, sugar and fertilizer sacks.
"Use Cotton" campaigns and the wise buying of ready-made
garments and piece goods also received attention. Thrift exhibits
and cotton dress revues have proved useful in spreading ideas
as to the possible use of inexpensive materials and made generally
popular the wearing of thrift garments.
In one county alone, more than 5,000 garments have been

68 Florida Cooperative Extension

remodeled and 3,000 made from sacks. The thrift dress project
was conducted in a county-wide way by Home Demonstration club
women. A dress revue was held in each community at which the
women modeled their dresses made at a cost not to exceed 50 cents.
A contest was held in 11 clubs with the best from each club fea-
tured in a revue at the county meeting. Some of the dresses were
made of sacks and some of new material. One of the best, a dress
that appeared to be much more expensive than it was, was made
of heavy twilled feed sacks dyed tan and trimmed with the same
material dyed brown. This example is typical of the clothing
work done in all of the counties having Home Demonstration
There were 4,364 women and 6,446 girls who made garments
under the instruction of Home Demonstration Agents. They
studied selection of materials, suitable and becoming colors, com-
binations of materials, and the best use of patterns. There were
3,082 women and 4,849 girls who reported following definite rec-
ommendations in improving care, renovation, and remodeling of

In order to get best returns for their time and products 1,564
homes followed the agents' advice in canning according to needs
of a family budget this year. Reports show that 4-H club mem-
bers canned 164,512 jars of products during the year. Not hav-
ing an itemized list of this we are unable to evaluate it. However,
an incomplete report of the work which the women did under the
direction of Home Demonstration Agents shows the amount con-
servatively values as follows:

Fruit canned .............................. .. 307,637 quarts
Vegetables canned ........................ 595,348
Pickles m ade ................................ 34,410
Relishes made ............................... 15,584 "
Marmalades ................................. 32,970
Preserves made ............................. 29,886 "
Vinegar made ............................... 1,858 gallons
Jellies m ade ................................ 31,492
Fruit juices ................................. 7,023/2 "
Pork canned ................................ 35,849 quarts
Beef canned ................................. 34,558 "
Game canned ............................... 448 "
Fish canned ................................. 5,882
Chicken canned .............................. 7,312

Valuing the 1,047,327 quarts of fruits, vegetables, pickles,
relishes, marmalades, preserves and jellies at 10c each and the

Annual Report, 1933

84,049 quarts of meat products at 50c per quart, we have a cash
value of $146,757.20
Reports on canning for relief purpose which agents or home
demonstration women supervised amount to 587,737 quarts, mod-
estly valued at $107,470.50. There were 6,605 families assisted
with this project.
Improved practices in nutrition, as explained by home demon-
stration agents, were reported as adopted by 4,757 girls and 3,093
County agents' advice in house planning problems was followed
by 215 families, 36 new dwellings were built after plans furnished,
47 sewage systems installed, 66 water systems and 80 lighting
systems. Home health and sanitation were improved in 2,634
In making house furnishings of discarded material 2,500 rugs
were produced. Almost 11,000 yards of mill-end lengths of cot-
ton were utilized, and 6,028 families used sacks for curtains,
chair covers and so on. Furniture was repaired in 3,386 homes.
Home grounds improvement employed 2,653 women and 2,505
girls. Orders were pooled for seeds, plants and shrubs. Adoption
of county flowers helped to arouse interest in ornamentals.
Management of homes was studied with agents by 4,537 farm
women and girls. Help was given to 1,737 homes in securing
inexpensive labor-saving equipment.
Adjustments to provide more satisfactory standards of living
were considered in 2,512 country homes.
Budgeting of family accounts, and child training and care, also
received Extension attention.

Florida Cooperative Extension

ANNA MAE SIKES, Extension Nutritionist
In developing the program for 1933 the Nutritionist studied
the outlook for the Florida farm home for 1933 and developed
projects to aid families to make the necessary adjustments in
order to supply the foods needed for their families to maintain
health. From a study of the conditions in the various sections
of the State the Nutritionist developed a program that would
determine how much of the different foods a family would need
for a year and how it could be secured at the lowest cost.
This program emphasized (1) the foods the body needs to
maintain health, (2) the most economical sources of these foods,.
and (3) wise buying of these foods. Attention was concentrated
on securing the essential groups of foods. Food budget tables
were used in determining the yearly food needs of the various
farm families according to the size of the family and the possible
cost level. In the program the Nutritionist stressed home pro-
duction, consumption, wise buying, bartering of foods and intelli-
gent selection and preparation of foods; an adequate school lunch
for every school child; a physical examination for every pre-
school child and all possible defects corrected before entering
school; the enlisting of girls' and women's clubs carrying a food,
nutrition and health program in a community service in order to
bring about home production and home consumption that resulted
in better nutrition for the community, county and state.
The family food supply plan was presented in association with
related divisions of the Extension Service. The Nutritionist
discussed this plan with 600 farmers in Northwest Florida. Con-
tribution was made by the Nutritionist to promote increased milk
consumption and more family cows, milk drinking campaigns
were conducted through addresses, exhibits, news articles and
More than 65 radio broadcasts were made by the Nutritionist
during 1933, using a number of stations. Stories were written
for newspaper and farm journal reproduction. Addresses were
given at state, district, county and neighborhood meetings.
Exhibits were shown at numerous fairs and gatherings.
Emergency relief activities required considerable time. A
school lunch room project was organized for the F. E. R. A.
Assistance in the execution was rendered with the cooperation
of the agents in many counties.

Annual Report, 1933

The Nutritionist has met with welfare and social service direc-
tors, supervisors and aides from every county in the state, dem-
onstrating the need for providing a balanced diet on at least the
restricted emergency level. Assistance was given by the Nutri-
tionist in working out plans to make the available money secure
the most balanced nourishment for the relief clients. Informa-
tion and instructions were given to the agents and local leaders
on methods of reaching and instructing relief families in rural
areas. The Nutritionist has aided in the organization of the
mothers of under-nourished children and has given them instruc-
tions as to the food needed to maintain health.
Bulletins, charts, circular letters, posters and similar educa-
tional material have been freely utilized.
During 1933, demonstrations were given or arranged by the
Nutritionist, as follows:
Family Food Supply ................................... 105
Low Cost Meals ....................................... 93
Food Preparation ..................................... 78
Wise Buying .......................................... 65
School Lunch ........................................ 63
Pre-natal and Child Feeding ............................ 25
Pre-school ............................................ 38
Posture and Health .................................... 77

A summary of the food, nutrition and health statistics reveals
the tabulation that follows:
Number of method demonstration meetings held by county home
agents-25 counties .............. 1,721
Number of adult result demonstrations completed or carried into the
new year-25 counties ........................... ......... 4,090
Number of 4-H club members enrolled in food selection and prepara-
tion-25 counties .......................................... 4,759
Number of 4-H club members completing-13 counties ............. 3,608
Number of homes assisted in planning family food budget for a year-
21 counties .. .......................................... 2,762
Number of homes budgeting food expenditures for a year-17 counties 1,295
Number of homes balancing meals for a year-20 counties......... 3,092
Number of homes improving home packed lunches according to rec-
ommendations- 24 counties ................................... 2,827
Number of schools following recommendations for a hot dish or school
lunch-15 counties ......................................... 156
Number of children involved in preceding questions-13 counties.... 27,017
Number of homes using improved methods in child feeding-21 coun-
ties ....... ... ........ ....... ........ ........... .. ........ 2,690
Number of individuals adopting recommendations for corrective feed-
ing- 21 counties ............................... ... ........ 2,395
Number of club women adopting improved practices in food prepara-
(a) Baking- 21 counties ..................................... 2,578
(b) Meat cookery-21 counties :.............................. 2,267
(c) Vegetable cookery-25 counties ........................... 2,708
(d) Dairy products-21 counties ............................. 1,328
(e) Poultry products- 19 counties ............................. 2,073

Florida Cooperative Extension

In addition to Circular 32, A Food Supply Plan for Florida
Families, the Nutritionist contributed materials during the year
in accordance with the schedule herewith:
Survey and Record.
Feeding the Family at Low Cost.
Wise Buying of Staples, Vegetables, Fruits, Meats, Poultry, etc.
School Lunch Material.
Pre-natal and Child Feeding Material.
Emergency Relief Material.
(a) Food Supply, Restricted Levels.
(b) Market Orders.
(c) Menus.
(d) Recipes.
(e) Outlines for Relief Workers.
Adequate Foods Requirements, Etc.
Posture and Health Materials.
Outlines of Points to Stress in 4-H Club Work.
Food Selection and Preparation Demonstrations for 4-H Club Girls.
Food, Nutrition and Health Standards.
Food Budget Tables.
Outlook Material.
Information, Menus, Recipes, for Florida Food Products Compaign.
Community Meal Material.
Dairy and Dairy Products Material.
Bread Material.
Bulletins, circulars and other printed matter were used by
County Home Demonstration Agents in the quantities indicated
by the tabulation appended:
1. Printed
Bulletin 69. Buy Health with Your Food Dollar ............. 9,325
Bulletin 56. Food, Nutrition and Health.................... 1,375
Circular 31. Suggestions for the Planning of Economical
Meals ................................... 2,155
Circular 32. A Food Supply Plan for Florida Farm Families.. 3,500
Circular 979. Food, Nutrition and Health for Women's Home
Demonstration Clubs ...................... 850
Nutrition Records ....................................... 2,700
Watch Us Grow Card: ................................... 1,600
Meal Planning Charts..................................... 650
2. Mimeographed
School Lunch Material .................................... 1,182
Bread Material .......................................... 2,500
Posture Material ........................................ 2,100
Health Material .......................................... 1,900
Milk Material ........................................... 1,700
Meat Material ......... .................................. 1,570
Health Scores and Material (Girls) ....................... 2,750
Child Care and Pre-natal Material......................... 982
Food Tables .......................................... 850
Family Food Budgets for Use With Relief Groups............ 1,475
Points to be Considered in Buying ......................... 1,172
Miscellaneous ......................................... 972
Feeding Family at Low Cost............................. 750

Annual Report, 1933

ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
Efforts were redoubled for a Florida that feeds herself. All-
year home garden work was pushed with renewed vigor. Con-
tests conducted as a part of this program were appreciatively
taken part in, and yielded helpful results.
Reports indicate that because of the spread of the gospel of
food production and conservation hundreds of families have been
kept off the relief rolls.
Records on the activities of the senior home demonstration
members show 4,495 gardens in 1933 against 3,972 for 1932.
Vegetables sold fresh this year had a value of $36,152.47; canned
products, $112,937.60, while fresh fruits from the calendar
orchards were valued at $13,348.44.
In junior garden work, 4,309 girls were enrolled, with 3,231
"completions." Calendar orchard demonstrations were contin-
ued, as begun several years ago. Sales of output indicate only
in a minor degree the usefulness of this endeavor for the calendar
orchard is being made profitable in health and pleasure as well
as in cash. The fruit planting tables set up for the three sections
of the state, prepared by H. Harold Hume, Assistant Director of
Research, University of Florida Experiment Station, are used
in promoting this project. Being a widely known horticulturist,
Mr. Hume's recommendations carry weight and inspiration and
are greatly appreciated throughout the state.
Emphasized as never before by County Home Demonstration
Agents, food conservation was practiced more generally than in
the past. More than 1,151,546 containers of fruits, meats' and
vegetables were canned by club women and girls, having a cash
worth of $148,774.20.
It seems that the efforts of these club members in their garden-
ing and canning activities point the surest way out of the troubles
into which agriculture has fallen. Had these women and girls not
grown and canned farm products to the value of $148,774.20, the
thousands of dollars would have gone out of the state for food
stuff raised elsewhere. In addition to making tidy additions to
their own incomes, they benefit every business interest in their
communities by keeping this money at home.
A canning budget contest focused the thought of farm women
on the provision of an adequate and healthful family food supply.

Florida Cooperative Extension

In this contest the importance of making a budget for home can-
ning based on the adequate nutritional needs of the family, and
planned in connection with growing the all-year garden and cal-

Fig. 6.-The canning budget helped Florida farm families to determine
the amount of conserved materials needed, and they grew enough to meet
the needs. This Gadsden County woman's budget showed she had 956
containers, and through sales of some of them she was able to add comforts
and conveniences to her home.

endar orchards was emphasized. Through the contest interest in
canning for quality and variety was augmented. The use of both
glass and tin, better storage facilities and organization of the home
pantry were stressed. The contestants were required to show
in their pantries a minimum of 500 containers of home canned
products between November 1, 1932, and November 1, 1933.
Barter has been encouraged and neighborliness developed
In almost every county, home demonstration women have both
contributed from their own stores and assisted with community
canning projects for relief of the needy. When the advice of
the home agents was followed, and only pressure cookers used,
under competent direction, minimum spoilage occurred.

Annual Report, 1933 75

"Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits," a bulletin of 28 pages, has
been written; "Florida Honey and Its Hundred Uses" was written
in cooperation with Dr. Waldo Horton, President of the State
Beekeepers Association, and was received from the printer in
the spring. The Girls Garden Record Book was revised and
printed the first of the year. The Canning Budget and the 4-H
Club Girls Canning Guide and Record Book, 6 and 19 pages
respectively, are also new publications.
Florida Beef in the Low Cost Diet was written and mimeo-
graphed to take the place of the Home Canning of Meats, copies
of which were exhausted early in the year.
Countless letters have been written to inquiring individuals,
both in and out of the State, regarding use of Florida fruits,
vegetables and other products, their cookery and their preser-
Many radio talks have been written.

Florida Cooperative Extension

VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Specialist in Home Improvement

Requests for help in remodeling homes were unusually numer-
ous during the early part of 1933. Plans were drawn and many
personal visits were made but scarcity of money interfered seri-
ously with the completion of the work in a great number of cases.
Log houses were recommended where timber was plentiful.
Stores and school houses no longer in use for the original purposes
have been made over into places of residence. Furnishings in
large part were devised from old boxes, odds and ends of lumber,
and the like.
Water and solar heaters appear to have been less frequently
installed than in preceding years, owing to economic conditions,
and partly to lack of time for pushing the idea. Despite all the
handicaps carried during the year, other forms of home improve-
ment effort successfully were prosecuted in several counties.
In Jackson County alone 60 kitchens were improved. The
Santa Rosa County Home Agent helped in planning 15 new homes
and with the remodeling of 16 additional ones. Plantings were
featured in the Walton County program, about 80 farm homes
having them made in one way or another. Re-covering of chairs
and repairing of furniture had special attention in Marion County.
Removal from porches of unsightly material was sought in St.
Johns County.
House reconstruction went on vigorously in Palm Beach County.
where 240 farm houses were rebuilt. Six well-planned new resi-
dences were erected. Shrubbery setting earlier taken up in
Alachua made further progress, with 2,050 trees and shrubs
added to the demonstration in the current period. A similar
line of endeavor went forward in Jefferson County, aided by
opportunities for obtaining planting material at low cost from
nurseries quitting business.
Money was no less scarce in Holmes County than elsewhere, yet
the demonstration agent assisted 25 farm families in planning
home additions or changes, two families having installed lighting
systems, eight, water systems, and 10, sewage systems.
Beautification of the exterior surroundings of the home, as well
as of the home itself, has been emphasized this year as usual.
At the suggestion of the Home Improvement Specialist and the
County Home Demonstration Agents, old fences have been torn
down, new and attractive fences have been built and some of

Fig. 7.-These 4-H girls demonstrate the painting of a home-made bed and basket, similar to wicker furniture.


Florida Cooperative Extension

them painted, lawns were sodded and planted, and numbers of
base plantings were started. Backyard improvement has been
a notable feature in some counties.
Sanitation is an important phase of home improvement work,
and this subject received no little attention in 1933. In Jackson
County 280 4-H girls made a special campaign against flies and
mosquitoes by destroying breeding places. In Santa Rosa 20
homes of club members were screened. Demonstrations on the
building of a sanitary toilet were given in 16 communities of this
county, and 60 sanitary privies were installed in the county as a
result of these demonstrations. Similar activities have been
carried on in other counties. More interest in personal and fam-
ily health has been evidenced.
Assistance has been rendered in planting and landscaping
school yards and the grounds surrounding other public buildings.
Renovation of house furnishings has been a big part of the
year's work. In Palm Beach County, for instance, 192 pairs of
curtains, 38 quilts, 41 bedspreads, and 52 luncheon sets were
made, and 278 articles of furniture were renovated.
Lightening of home burdens for the women and girls by the
adoption of more efficient methods of doing household tasks
resulted in considerable improvement of everyday housekeeping
activities in many counties where Home Demonstration Agents
are working. Women studied their daily routine and made im-
provements and rearrangements in their homes, particularly
their kitchens, to make their tasks lighter. Systems for provid-
ing running water and lights were installed in several homes in
each county having a Home Demonstration Agent. Owing to
scarcity of money, this line of the work did not make as good
showing as it should have.!
Indication as to the extent of the work done in other lines than
the foregoing is contained in the distribution of 250 record books
for home demonstration work, 325 requested government bulle-
tins, 1,825 girls' record books for 4-H clubs, 2,427 Extension Ser-
vice bulletins and 5,960 mimeographed articles mailed on request.
Statistics more in detail and on a comparative basis are given

1928 1931 1933
Number of homes remodeled according to plan 87 170 106
Number of sewage disposal plants installed.. 81 164 47
Number of water systems installed.......... 929 138 66
Number of Solar water heaters installed...... ... ... 18
Number of lighting systems installed........ 96 166 30

Annual Report, 1933 79

1928 1931 1933
Number of homes screened................. 393 717 244
Number of sanitary toilets built............. 328 513 152
Number of porches repaired ..... ...... ... ... 596
Number of houses and out-buildings painted or
white-washed ............................ 292 327
Number of kitchens improved ........... .... 952 1,003 657
Number of other rooms improved .......... 1,884 4,037 1,786
Number of women and girls refinishing walls,
woodwork and floors ..................... 1,574 2,703 806
Number of women and girls following definite
plans for yard beautification............... 5,064 6,693 5,158
Number of women and girls repairing and re-
modeling furniture ...................... 2,251 4,307 3,386

Florida Cooperative Extension


A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent

Depression conditions have placed emphasis on the Negro
farming population of Florida, numbering 75,469. Negro farm-
ers own 514,833 acres of land and have 248,867 acres in cultiva-
tion. Land, buildings and livestock holdings are valued at
$19,096,157.00 and the products at $7,509,250.00 annually.
Foundation exists for better farming practices making the rural
Negroes of the state a self-sustaining group..
Effort in that direction had some encouraging results during
1933, despite complications and handicaps. One Negro farmer,
David Miles, of Alachua County, harvested 650 bushels of corn
from a 45-acre field, and had 350 bushels on hand from previous
crops. On 287 acres, Negro 4-H Club boys produced 5,581
Negro agricultural Extension work was carried on in 14 counties
by local agents, under the supervision of one District Agent for
men and one for women, the latter only during the first half of
the year. In a few other counties, activities were prosecuted
through cooperative farmer associations.
The local district agent worked 213 days in the field and 104
in the office, traveling 19,494 miles during the year.
Negro farmers held 92 method and completed 188 result dem-
onstrations in corn culture, with 2,890 acres. Average increased
yield on the adult result demonstrations was 31/, bushels per acre.
Local Negro agents also arranged 16 method and completed 25
result demonstrations with 281 acres in oats, mainly used for
grazing and hay. The oat crop was short almost everywhere in
the state, owing to drouth, which likewise was true of corn.
Legumes and forage crops, as soil builders, had special attention
and Negro farmers growing them reduced their fertilizer bills
considerably. Demonstrations were conducted as follows: cro-
talaria, result, 11,110 acres; cowpeas, 28 method and 81 result,
628 acres-increase of yield in forage averaging one-fourth ton
an acre; velvet beans, 39 method and 107 result, 1,166 acres-
average increase, 3.8 bushels; field beans, eight method and 18
result, 215 acres-average increase, 3.1 bushels; peanuts, 67
method and 134 result, 1,313 acres-average increase, 14 bushels.

Annual Report, 1933

Sweet potatoes, 29 method and 104 result, 211 acres-average
increase, 6.2 bushels; cotton, 42 method and 32 result, 216 acres-
average increase, 99 pounds; tobacco, two method and two result,
seven acres-average increase, 15 pounds; sugarcane, four method
and 37 result, 34 acres; home gardens, 68 method and 192 result;
poultry, 19 method and 51 result, 2,260 birds; livestock, 12 method
and 25 result with 114 dairy animals, five method and five result
with 41 beef cattle, hogs, 32 method and 54 result, 822 animals.
Local Negro farm agents organized and supervised 63 4-H
clubs, with 836 boys and 214 girls enrolling, 463 and 56 complet-
ing. Projects were carried on with calves, corn, home gardening,
hogs, poultry and sweet potatoes.
Exhibit of farm and garden products, cured meat and pork,
furnished by men farmers, and canned fruits and vegetables,
preserves, pickles and jellies, from women, gave creditable repre-
sentation at the South Florida Fair in Tampa, January 31 to
February 10, 1933.
Displays sponsored by the Negro farm and home agents with
the Florida farmers cooperative associations and Smith-Hughes
teachers, shown at the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago
for the week September 3 to 9, was the only Negro exhibit of
state-wide importance during the World's Fair. Over 1,000,000
visitors passed through Florida Hall in the seven day period.
Federal relief agencies called on the Negro Extension workers
for much assistance, in investigating and reporting on needy
cases and in supervising the planting of community gardens.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration duties also took up a
substantial amount of time. The period of the first hog reduction
campaign was too short for many Negro farmers to meet the
requirements but the farm agents succeeded in having 1,070
acres of cotton taken out of production.
In addition to field achievement days in the several counties,
arranged by the farm agents, they directed two state meetings
for special training, one was held December 6, 7 and 8, 1932, and
the other, June 6, 8 and 9, 1933, at the Florida A. and M. College,
Tallahassee. At the December session, for adults, 143 men and
women from 14 counties were present. Devoted specially to 4-H
Club boys and girls, the June event was taken advantage of by
202. Only one state tour was made, during July, when 41 coun-
ties were visited. Local communities were organized for cooper-
ation in government activities and matters handled pertaining to
the World's Fair Exhibit.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Report by Miss RUBY MCDAVID, District Home Demonstration Agent

Death by drowning of the Negro district demonstration agent,
Rosa J. Ballard, occurred in the middle of 1933 and no successor
has been appointed, owing to the scarcity of funds. For the
latter half of the year, greater supervision over the work pre-
viously under her direction was given by the white District Home
Demonstration Agent.
Activity was maintained in eight counties. The financing
largely is from federal and state funds, Duval, Hillsborough,
Leon and St. Johns counties alone supplementing them. Orange
County was forced to withdraw the support it previously had
extended, effective April 30. The agent working there was
transferred to Suwannee until November 1, thence to Alachua.
In the eight counties, 95 adult home demonstration clubs had
1,189 members and 117 junior clubs had membership of 2,085.
Meetings were conducted in 168 communities, 4,573 visits were
made to 1,545 homes, 4,312 office calls were handled and 1,161
calls by telephone. Local leaders who helped in carrying on the
work numbered 360.
Method demonstrations held on 1,483 occasions had an aggre-
gate attendance of 29,156 while 544 result demonstrations were
attended by 6,212 persons.
Tours to established demonstrations in 35 instances were taken
part in by 524 people, the number present at achievement day
exercises was 5,518 and other events sponsored by the Negro
home demonstration agents brought out 6,528 persons.
During National Health Week particularly gratifying work
was done in many communities. In one county the agent re-
ported that it was observed by all club members and that the
concrete results included cleaning of 221 houses and 337 yards.
Six homes were screened and one remodeled ready for painting.
Seven counties held 28 exhibits. Outstanding displays were
shown by several at the South Florida Fair in Tampa. Agents
also were responsible for much of the material in the Negro
exhibit at the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago, which
attracted a great deal of favorable attention. Exhibits constitute
one of the chief means used by Negroes in presenting their accom-
plishments to the public.

Annual Report, 1933

The annual conference for Negro agents was held for two days
during December, at the Florida A. and M. College, with local
district agent A. A. Turner in immediate charge. Members of
the Agricultural Extension Service staff gave personal direction
to much of the program.
Assistance of a valued character also was rendered by mem-
bers of the college faculty. They were responsible for most of
the program at the Farmers' Institute which followed the agents'
conference. County Agents in turn furnished the greater part
of the attendance.
The Negro Boys' and Girls' Short Course at the A. and M.
College has grown to be highly popular with young folks working
under supervision of the agents. Board, lodging, and instruction
are furnished by the institution. Transportation is supplied
principally in agents' cars or by local Negro farm organizations.
Two boards of county commissioners have financed it.
Gardens were planted, under direction of Negro Home Demon-
stration Agents, in seven counties by 730 adults and 963 juniors,
951 of the 1,693 having been calendar gardens. From 234 of
these, $2,877.45 worth of fresh vegetables were sold. Five coun-
ties reported 50 calendar orchards planted or added to, from 39
of which the owners used or sold fruit.
Reports were made of 56 houses whitewashed and 10 painted,
236 outbuildings whitewashed and five painted, 46 fences white-
washed and one painted. Complete improvement of grounds
according to plans were made on 320 premises. Aside from club
members 122 persons were influenced to make extensive home
improvements. In five counties adopting official flowers, 381
club members planted the annual and 148 the perennial.
Enrolled in agricultural engineering were 135 persons, who
stopped soil erosion on five acres, cleared 10 farms of stumps,
assisted 55 families in house planning, furnished plans for six
new houses and remodeling of 22, helped in installing five sewage
disposal systems, seven water systems, one heating system and
three lighting systems. Farm buildings erected included two
dairy barns, 50 poultry houses and eight others.
Poultry club members to the number of 861 reported owning
10,429 birds. Flocks were culled during the year in 211 cases,
6,511 chickens were raised for home consumption, valued at
$3,756, while 135 sold for breeding were worth $146.00 and 4,669

Florida Cooperative Extension

disposed of for other purposes brought $2,941.00. Eggs with
a value of $5,537 were produced, about half of these having been
used at home and the other half marketed.
Stressing the need for milk in the diet, Negro agents influenced
84 families to buy cows during the year, 542 already owning them.
In 345 homes a quart of milk for each child and a pint for every
adult are used daily.
Improved dairying practices have been adopted in 156 instances,
and 113 club members reported a surplus of milk. Butter used
at home was 18,452 pounds, valued at $26,622.75; with 2,959
pounds going to market for $654.47. Of milk 4,155 gallons were
sold, and of cream 148 gallons.
In 514 families, 11,784 pounds of meat were cured, 495 made
1,421 pounds of sausage, 509 rendered 1,273 pounds of lard and
306 prepared 2,775 pounds of homemade soap. Canning accord-
ing to a family budget was done in 408 homes, where 56,101 con-
tainers were filled with fruit and vegetable products and 2,730
with beef, pork, fish, game, or poultry.
Food and nutrition enrollment among juniors was larger than
for any other phase of the work, running to 1,544 with clothing a
close second at 1,434. Assistance was given 750 homes in plan-
ning food budgets. In 27 schools, recommendations followed for
hot dish or school lunches involved 4,171 children. Three coun-
ties have 23 adult groups with 101 members mainly devoting the
time to child training and care.
Home management improvement was undertaken in 387 homes.
On home furnishings, 1,185 adult club members were enrolled,
more than for any of the projects. Girls to the number of 970
also were interested. Health and sanitation effort included 535
complete physical examinations. Sanitary toilets were installed
in 106 homes, screening was done on 114 houses and 696 families
followed recommended practices for control of pests in the house-
Five junior councils, with 55 members, and seven councils for
women, having 75, direct community activities. Funds were
raised through 74 entertainments and 32 were given for purely
social purposes. Local fairs and like events had help from 67
clubs, 48 places developed recreational work, 36 school yards
were improved, 13 maintained hot school lunches, five have started
libraries. Agents helped on emergency relief for 1,084 families,
and assisted 460 in producing more of their livings on the farms.


Acreage reduction, 1933,
cotton, 6, 58
tobacco, 60
Administration, 9
Agents, list of, 5
Agricultural Adjustment Administra-
tion activities, 19, 42, 54, 60
Agricultural economics, 52
Agricultural Extension staff, 3
Agricultural situation, the, 7
Agronomy, 55
Animal husbandry, 40
Florida Bankers', 35
Florida Dairymen's, 39
Florida Poultry Producers', 45
Avocado disease experiments, 21

Bankers aid, 23
Association Florida, 35
Beef cattle, 40
Boys' 4-H clubs, 30
Breeding dairy cows, 39
Bulls bought with bankers' help, 23
Bulls, distribution and sources of
supply, 40

Calendar flock records, 44
Calendar orchards, 74
Camp, National 4-H Club, 35, 66
Camps, trips and short courses, 66
Canning, home, 68
Cash value of work, 28
Cattle conditioning tests, 21
Cattle for market, 41
Citrus cover crops, 22
culture, 49
grove demonstrations, 23
Clothing work, 67
Clubs, boys' 4-H, 30
girls' 4-H, 65, 68, 78
Community activities, 63
Control, Board of, 10
Cooperation with other agencies, 11
with other institutions, 10
with U. S. Department of
Agriculture, 13, 19, 42, 54, 60
with Vocational agricultural
teachers, 12
Corn production costs, 21
Cotton, 1933 acreage reduction, 6
County and home demonstration
agents, 5
Counties, typical examples of agents'
work in, 20
Cover crons, with citrus and truck, 22
Culture of citrus, 49

Dairy industry, 26
Dairying, 37
Dairymen's Association, Florida, 39
citrus grove, 20
fern insect control, 24
oats for hay, 24
peanut planting, 20
permanent pasture, 29
sugarcane varieties, 20
Development of special crops, 26
Director, report of, 7

Economics, agricultural, 52
Economists, Extension, 52
Editor's work, 14
Egg-Laying Contest, 47

Fairs, exhibits and shows, 24
Farm crops, 56
Farm forestry program, 24
Farm management, 52
Farm paper stories, 15
Farmers' institutes, 25
Feeding beef cattle, 41
dairy cattle, 39
Fern insect control, 24
Fertilizing citrus groves, 49
white potatoes, 25
Financial statement, 13
Food, nutrition and health, 70
Furnishings, home, 78

Gardening and food conservation, 73
Gardens, home, 36
Girls' 4-H clubs, 65, 68, 78
Grapes and other small fruits, 28
Grove work, citrus, 50

Health, food and nutrition, 70
Heifers, raising for dairies, 38
Hog cholera and animal diseases, 27
Home demonstration work, 61
workers, 64
Home improvement, 76
Home gardens and orchards, 67
Industries, home, 63
Insects and diseases, citrus and
truck, 25
Institutes for farmers, 25

Management, farm, 52
home, 78
Marketing farm products, 53
Meat cutting and curing, 23
Methods for increasing efficiency, 12
Money-making home industries, 64

National 4-H Camp, 35, 66
National Egg-Laying Contest, 47
Negro Extension work, 3
home demonstration work, 82
men's work, 80
Newspapers, local use of, 16
News service, 15
Nutrition, food and health, 70
Oats for hay demonstration, 24
Orchards, calendar, 74

Pastures, permanent, demonstrations,
Peanut planting demonstrations, 29
Pine ashes for sweetening soils, 22
Poultry associations, 45
Poultry husbandry, 26, 43
Publications and news, 14

Radio broadcasting, 16
Reduction campaigns, acreage, 6,
58, 60
Relief and emergency work, 61
Reports, annual, 7, 14, 18, 30, 37, 40,
43, 52, 55, 61, 70, 73, 76
Restoring fruit industries, 25
Revenue, sources of, 13

Salt sick in cattle, 27
Sheep raising improvement, 27
Short courses, 34, 66
Silo building, 21
Soils, 55
Sources of revenue, 13
Staff changes, 10
members, 3
Storage plants, cold, 42
Sugarcane variety demonstrations, 20
Sweet potatoes in summer, 22

Terracing rolling lands, 28
Tobacco crop endeavor, 22
acreage reduction, 59
Typical examples, county agent
work, 20
development of work, 24
Truck crops, insect control, 25

U. S. D. A. cooperation, 13, 19, 42,
54, 60

Vocational education, agricultural, 12

Winter feeding of cattle, 40