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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Credits
 Report of the director
 Publications and news
 County agent work
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Dairying
 Animal husbandry
 Poultry
 Citrus culture
 Agricultural economics
 Rodent control
 Home demonstration work
 Negro men's work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00016
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1932
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00016
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of the director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Publications and news
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    County agent work
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Dairying
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Animal husbandry
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Poultry
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Citrus culture
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Agricultural economics
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Rodent control
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Home demonstration work
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Negro men's work
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Index
        Page 110
        Page 111
Full Text
0 )LLINS COLLEGE. IUflSW
A"._ T.Ei.R P-Qw, F-Q~lO"*






1932 REPORT
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK
IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME
ECONOMICS


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director




REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1932
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1932.















1932 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK
IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME
ECONOMICS

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director

REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1932
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1932.












CONTENTS
PAGE
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR ....................... ............... 7
Financial Statement ................. ...................... 11
Farmers' W eek .............................. .......... 12

PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS .... ..................................... 13

COUNTY AGENT WORK .... ....................................... 17

BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK ....... ................................... 33

DAIRYING ....................................................... 43

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY .............. ................................ 48

POULTRY ...................... ................... ............... 54
National Egg-Laying Contest ............................... 62

CITRUS CULTURE ....................................... .......... 63

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ............ ............................ 68
Farm Management Activities ................................. 68
M marketing .............................................. 71

RODENT CONTROL ................................................... 76

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ................................... 79
Food, Nutrition and Health .................................. 82
Gardening and Perennial Plantings............................ 83
Food Conservation .......................................... 85
Home Improvement ....................... ................. 87
Clothing ..................................................... 89
Money-Making Home Industries .............................. 91

NEGRO MEN'S W ORK ............................................... 99

NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ........ ....................... 106
















Hon. Dave Sholtz,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, Univer-
sity of Florida, for the calendar year 1932, including a fiscal
report for the year ending June 30, 1932.

Respectfully
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman, Board of Control.




Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report
of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of
Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you trans-
mit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the
Governor of Florida.
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida.









BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach
GEO. H. BALDWIN, Jacksonville
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee


STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON-NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandryl
J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist2
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
W. R. BRIGGS, B.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
J. R. GREENMAN, B.S.A., Asst. Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control1

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
ROSA J. BALLARD, Local District Home Demonstration Agent

1In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2Part-time.













COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
County County Agents Address Home Demonstration Agents
Alachua ..........F. L. Craft ........ Gainesville.......Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Bradford and Union L. T. Dyer ........ Lake Butler.. Miss Pearl Jordan (Starke)
Calhoun .......... J. G. Kelly ........ Blountstown ........................
Calhoun and Liberty ................. Blountstown..... Miss Josephine Nimmo
Citrus ..............................Inverness...... Mrs. Elzabeth W. Moore
Dade ............. C. H. Steffani ......Miami ..............Miss Pansy Norton
DeSoto ...........J. J. Heard ........ Arcadia .............................
Dixie .............D. M. Treadwell .... Cross City ...........................
Duval ............ A. S. Lawton..... Jacksonville......... Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.) .....E. G. Pattishall ... Jacksonville .........................
Escambia .........E. P. Scott ........ Pensacola...........Miss Ethel Atkinson
Gadsden .......................... Quincy ............ Miss Elise Laffitte
Hamilton .........J. J. Sechrest ..... Jasper ...................... .....
Hernando ......... B. E. Lawton ..... Brooksville ..........................
Highlands ........L. H. Alsmeyer.... Sebring .............................
Hillsborough ......C. P. Wright.......Plant City (E).....Miss Motelle Madole
Hillsborough ........................ Tampa (W) ...........Miss Allie Rush
Holmes ............................. Bonifay ..........Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Jackson ............ ................... Marianna........... Miss Eleanor Clark
Jefferson .......... E. H. Finlayson.... Monticello............Miss Ruby Brown
Lafayette ......... W J. Davis........ Mayo ................................
Lake ............. C. R. Hiatt......... Tavares .............................
Leon ............G. C. Hodge.......Tallahassce........ Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum
Levy ........... N. J. Albritton .... Bronson .............................
Liberty ..........Dewey H. W ard.... Bristol ..............................
Manatee ..........J. H. Logan .......Bradenton ......... Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion ...........Clyde H. Norton.... Ocala ...............Miss Tillie Roesel
Okaloosa ..........Joseph W. Malone.. Crestview ...........................
Okeechobee .......C. A. Fulford...... Okeechobee ........................
Orange ...........K. C. Moore....... Orlando......... Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola ...........J. R. Gunn......... Kissimmee..........Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach .......M. U. Mounts......W. Palm Beach....Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
Pinellas ...........Wm. Gomme ..... Clearwater ........Mrs. Joy Belle Hess
Polk ..............F. L. Holland ......Bartow ............... Miss Lois Godbey
Polk (Asst.) .......................Bartow ...........Miss Mosel Preston
St. Johns..........Loonis Blitch ......St. Augustine.......Miss Anna E. Heist
Santa Rosa ........J. G. Hudson.......Milton........... Miss Eleanor Barton
Taylor ............R. S. Dennis.......Perry................. Miss Floy Moses
Wakulla .......... H. E. Hudson ...... Crawfordville ........... ........
Walton ...........Mitchell Wilkins....DeFuniak Springs...Miss Eloise McGriff
W ashington .......Gus York.......... Chipley ..... .......................

*This list correct to December 31, 1932.



































Fig. 1.-This open house display, showing the work of home demonstration women of one county, was visited by 1,200 people.









REPORT FOR 1932

PART I-GENERAL

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report
of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932, and a summary of
the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1932.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.

During 1932 there has been a better balance in agricultural
production in the counties where Extension work has been carried
on than in former years, in spite of the general and widespread
depression. This readjustment of farm operations has made it
possible for farmers to maintain good living standards even
though their cash incomes have been greatly reduced.
The "live-at-home" program adopted by farmers has given most
of them ample supplies of produce in the form of meats, vege-
tables, feeds, livestock and poultry, and with the soil-building
program that has been practiced, better yields of crops have been
produced with a relatively small outlay for labor and fertilizer.
Farmers have not only supplied most of their immediate needs
from the farms but have larger supplies of meat, poultry and
other farm products that are being exchanged for labor and
materials that are usually purchased.
The home demonstration agents' programs have been respon-
sible for increased incomes for farm families in the preparation
of salable articles of food, clothing and handicraft. These pro.
grams have been made adaptable to existing conditions in the
locality and the local demand for available articles.
Prior to 1928 a large part of fluid milk used in this state came
from other states, but since that time the Florida supply of dairy
products has so increased that there is now a surplus in the larger







Florida Cooperative Extension


centers and a more liberal supply for farm use in the rural homes.
While this increase has resulted in lowered prices being received
by commercial dairymen, it has given the farm family a needed
supply and has enabled the family to reduce household expenses
for food but at the same time to maintain a better balanced diet.
Farmers have profited by information made available through
outlook reports supplied to them by the Extension Service. This
has afforded a much lower production cost on many farms and a
larger supply of products that can be used at home.
The Extension Service and the Experiment Station are pre-
paring milk production and cost studies throughout the state.
These are to be used by county agents in determining future pro-
grams and adjusting the farm business.

ADMINISTRATION
The Agricultural Extension Service of Florida has 18 projects
in its program. These represent the agricultural, horticultural,
livestock and poultry and home interests.
The supervisory staff consists of the following:
Director, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader, three dis-
trict agents for men's work and three district agents for women's
work; the State Home Demonstration Agent, Boys Club Agent
and the following specialists: Citriculturist, Dairyman, Animal
Husbandman, Poultryman, Rodent Control Specialist, Agricul-
tural Economist, Economist in Marketing, Economist and Assis-
tant Economist in Farm Management; one part-time specialist in
Agronomy and one outlook specialist. Specialists for the home
demonstration work consist of one Nutritionist, one Economist
in Marketing and one Agent in Home Improvement.
The Animal Husbandman and Rodent Control Specialist are
employed in cooperation with the United States Department of
Agriculture, the former with the Bureau of Animal Industry and
the latter with the Bureau of Biological Survey.
There were 39 counties with white Extension agents, all of
these cooperating financially in support of the work during the
year.
In the negro work there is one district agent for women's work
and one for men's work. There were 14 counties having negro
agents; eight of these have home demonstration agents and seven
have farm demonstration agents. Four of these counties con-
tribute to the support of home demonstration work, all the others
are supported entirely from State and Federal funds.






Annual Report, 1932


STAFF CHANGES
Frank W. Brumley, Economist in Farm Management, was
granted leave of absence beginning October 15, to pursue gradu-
ate study at Cornell University. J. R. Greenman, who graduated
in the College of Agriculture in 1932, was appointed as Assistant
in Farm Management.
Rosa J. Ballard, District Agent for Negro Home Demonstration
Work, was appointed January 1, 1932, succeeding Julia Miller, who
resigned November 15, 1931.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES

Both the Teaching Division and the Experiment Station of the
University of Florida' College of Agriculture have cooperated to
the fullest extent with the Agricultural Extension Service. They
have made studies to obtain information desired by Extension
workers, have tested soils, assisted in meetings, written bulletins,
and rendered other assistance.
The State Marketing Bureau, the State Livestock Sanitary
Board, the Commissioner of Agriculture and the State Plant
Board have rendered excellent cooperation also. The State Live-
stock Sanitary Board assists in the distribution of improved live-
stock for breeding purposes and in the control of diseases of hogs
and poultry. The State Marketing Bureau cooperates in the sale
of farm produce, particularly in arranging car-lot sales of hogs
and poultry and in the shipment of beef cattle.
The State Forest Service cooperates with the Extension Service
in conservation work and in 4-H club work, principally to protect
the timber growth.
The State Board of Health cooperates with the home demon-
stration projects in nutrition and health educational work.
The State Plant Board assists county agents in the distribu-
tion of plant material supplied to farmers and farm homes on the
recommendation of the county agents.
During 1931, the Farmers Cooperative Vegetable Growers As-
sociation, the Alabama-Florida Peanut Growers Association and
the National Pecan Growers Association were organized with the
help of the Federal Farm Board. While the progress of these
organizations has not been encouraging, the Extension Service in
cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau has assisted in
various programs in connection with the organization on the rec-
ommendation of the Federal Farm Board. This has been handled






Florida Cooperative Extension


principally through the agricultural economists of the Extension
Service and with the help of the county agents.
During the early part of the year, an effort was made to stim-
ulate interest in the Florida Poultry Association that had been
reorganized in the previous year, but because of falling prices
was losing patronage. Meetings were held in the most important
centers to obtain the viewpoint of the producers in reference to
the association. However, due to low prices of eggs, the organi-
zation has not made substantial progress in the last 12 months
and during that time, two branches of the organization have
disbanded.
The Inter-State Early Potato Committee, with representatives
in the early potato growing states, has assisted in the movement
of the early potato crop in the potato area of North Florida.
During the spring of 1932 the crop was more promising than
usual, but because of the freeze occurring in March, the average
yields were reduced to one-fifth of the normal yield. This, to-
gether with falling prices, resulted in a disastrous year for the
growers.

COOPERATION WITH VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE
TEACHERS
It has been the policy of the Extension Service to urge cooper-
ation between the personnel of the different branches. County
agents and teachers have endeavored to work cooperatively and
in most cases have been successful.

SOURCES OF REVENUE
The three main sources of revenue are from founds appropri-
ated by the United States Department of Agriculture, state off-
set and other Extension funds appropriated by the Florida Legis-
lature, and county appropriations.
State Smith-Lever offset funds have been appropriated by the
Legislature. Other offset funds needed have been made available
through county appropriations. These county appropriations
have shown a reduction since 1931. The State of Florida also
has a continuing appropriation made available by an act of the
Legislature in 1911 and in addition an appropriation for conduct-
ing the Florida National Egg Laying Contest and other minor
activities of the Extension Service.
The expenditures and resources for the Extension Service are
shown in detail in the attached financial statement.







Annual Report, 1932 11

FINANCIAL STATEMENT

RECEIPTS
Smith-Lever, Federal and Supplementary ..................... $ 84,685.21
Smith-Lever, State ........................................ 53,968.80
Capper-Ketcham, Federal ................................... 26,555.82
Bureau Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. ......................... 2,400.00
Additional Cooperative Iederal............................. 20,500.00
U. S. D. A. Appropriations.................................... 20,000.00
State Appropriations ..................................... 46,775.81
County Appropriations .................................... 110,000.00
$364,885.64
EXPENDITURES
Administration ............................................ $ 9,321.02
Publications .......................... .............. ... 9.564.80
County Agent Work ...................................... 140,075.52
Home Demonstration Work.................................. 104,097.96
Food Conservation .......................................... 3,934.84
Home Improvement ........................................ 4,125.16
Extension Nutrition ....................................... 4,000.00
Negro work-men .......................................... 13,668.32
Negro work-women ..................................... 13,098.22
Boys' Club work ........................................... 7,089.96
Dairy Husbandry ........................................ 5,827.04
Animal Husbandry ........................................ 4,482.30
Plant Pathology .......................................... 4,957.31
Agricultural Economics .................................... 18,371.24
Poultry Husbandry ......................................... 4,699.35
National Egg Laying contest .................. ........... 8,446.93
Extension Schools, Farmers Week.......................... 1,893.63
Unexpended balance ....................................... 7,232.04
$364,885.64

METHODS FOR MAINTAINING EFFICIENCY

The efficiency of the Extension Service is dependent upon its
intimate, satisfactory contacts with the agriculture of the state.
Contacts with the research work of the Experiment Station and
University and the U. S. Department of Agriculture and other
research institutions also aid the Extension Service greatly.
Federal crop production loans have been handled through the
county extension offices with the assistance of county agents.
Outlook information based on state reports and Federal statistics
has been prepared to guide farmers in their farming operations.
Cooperative associations have been organized under the direction
of the Extension Service with the cooperation of the State Market-
ing Bureau and the Federal Extension Service. To carry out this
cooperative effort Mr. H. G. Clayton, District Agent, has been
assigned to the duties of Outlook and Organization Specialist.
Mr. J. Lee Smith has been assigned as Extension Agronomist,






Florida Cooperative Extension


in addition to district agent duties. The agronomy program
applies to all counties in Florida and deals with grain, feed and
soil improvement crops.

EXTENSION AGENTS AND FEDERAL CROP LOANS

Farmers of Florida have obtained crop production loans from
funds appropriated by Congress. Local county committees are
appointed who have a knowledge of the agricultural needs. This
committee, together with the county agents, make recommenda-
tions governing loans to farmers.

COOPERATION WITH BUREAUS IN THE DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE
The Florida Agricultural Extension Service has cooperated with
the Bureau of Animal Industry in the assignment of a specialist
from the Bureau to work with beef cattle programs. The expenses
of this are borne on a fifty-fifty basis with the Bureau of Animal
Industry.
The Extension Service also has a working relationship with the
Bureau of Biological Survey. A report of this service is contained
in the following pages. The work has been confined to the truck-
ing area of South Florida, and for the purpose of controlling rats
that destroy crops on the lower East Coast and Everglades. The
expense of this work is borne by the Bureau of Biological Survey.
This cooperative work with the Bureau of Animal Industry and
the Bureau of Biological Survey has given valuable assistance in
working out the Extension program and to the farmers and stock
raisers of this state.

FARMERS' WEEK
All departments of Extension workers cooperate in the program
for Farmers' Week which is an annual event held at the College
of Agriculture during August. The attendance at Farmers' Week
is stimulated by the activities of the county agents who work up
interest in the counties for this event. Facilities are provided
to accommodate the visitors by permitting the use of the college
dormitories and serving meals at actual cost. The program was
divided into sections and sectional programs were arranged by
committees from the College of Agriculture as a whole.
During 1932 the attendance was around 1,600 men and women.







Annual Report, 1932


PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS
J. FRANCIS COOPER, Editor
R. M. FULGHUM, Assistant Editor
Information of interest and value to the farmers, growers and
housewives of Florida was disseminated during the year in in-
creasing quantities through the Editorial Department and other
divisions of the Agricultural Extension Service. Methods used
included bulletins, circulars and other publications, the Agricul-
tural News Service (weekly clipsheet), the monthly Agricultural
Extension Economist, articles for farm papers and newspapers,
and radio.
The two Editors and two Mailing Clerks devote approximately
one-half of their time to work for the Agricultural Extension
Service, and the other half to duties connected with the Agricul-
tural Experiment Station.
PUBLICATIONS
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932, four new Extension
bulletins were printed and one bulletin and one circular were
reprinted. The yearly calendar for 1932 was printed and dis-
tributed. The Agricultural News Service was distributed weekly
to newspapers, county and home agents, Smith-Hughes agricul-
ture teachers and others. The Agricultural Extension Economist
was sent monthly to nearly 1,000 people interested in economics
information. The monthly and final reports of the National Egg-
laying Contest at Chipley were distributed to contestants and
more than 1,000 others. Material for all of these was either
written or edited, or both, by the Extension Editors.
The five new bulletins amounted to 308 pages of printed matter.
Editions ranged from 5,000 to 12,000, with a total of 49,000 copies
being printed. The reprinted bulletin was 56 pages in size, and
15,000 copies of it were run.
Publications issued during the year are listed below:
Pages Edition
Bul. 63 Strawberry Production ......................... 52 12,000
Bul. 64 Save the Surplus ............................. 48 10,000
Bul. 65 Club Work and the Farm Boy.................... 20 5,000
Bul. 66 Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets.............. 48 12,000
Bul. 67 Citrus Insects and Their Control .................140 10,000
Bul. 58 Vegetable Crops of Florida (Reprint)............ 56 15,000
Circ. 27 First Year Sewing Program (Reprint) ........... 16 15,000
Annual Report, 1931 .................................... 152 2,000
Final Report, Fifth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest.... 20 1,500
Monthly Report, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest....... 4 750
1932 Calendar .............. ......... ........ ... 12 10,000
Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 weeks)* ............ 1 31,500
Monthly Agricultural Extension Economist................. 6 12,000
*Ten issues, of 750 copies each, were paid for by the State Plant Board.







Florida Cooperative Extension


In addition to the regular publications listed above, a quantity
of supplies, including farm record book and a healthy chick folder,
was printed. The annual Florida Farm Outlook Report was mim-
eographed and distributed.
Thousands of copies of Extension bulletins and circulars, both
new ones and old ones, were distributed from the mailing room,
which is a part of this department. Materials and supplies for
use by the agents are distributed from the mailing room also.
An enormous quantity of mimeographing for Extension workers
was done by the mailing clerks.
NEWS AND FARM PAPER STORIES
Newspapers and farm papers receiving the weekly Agricultural
News Service continued to clip and reprint copious material, both
news stories about the Agricultural Extension Service and its
workers and informational material furnished by them and work-
ers of the Experiment Station. The service carried from eight
to 12 different stories each week, and one or more of them was
reprinted in from two-thirds to three-fourths of the weekly
papers of Florida. To a certain extent, the material was reprinted
by the dailies, also.
From three to six stories a week were sent to the state mail
service of the Associated Press, for redistribution to its 45 mem-
ber papers, mostly dailies, in the State. This service did not prove
very satisfactory during the year. At infrequent intervals,
special stories were sent direct from this office to certain of the
dailies, and in most cases they used the material. Two dailies
carried farm sections each Sunday to which this office contributed
largely.
A Farmers' Week page, consisting of 10 to 15 different stories,
was carried by one of the Gainesville dailies for four days during
that event, copies of the paper being distributed free to visitors
by the Extension Service.
Farm papers of Florida and the South make copious use of
material supplied by this office and by other workers. Occasional
stories are printed in national farm magazines. Copies of numer-
ous radio talks by staff members are printed by the Florida farm
papers.
During the year six Florida farm papers printed 71 stories,
amounting to 1,714 column inches of printed matter which were
furnished by the Editors. This is an average of approximately
six stories a month. They printed many other articles by other
members of the staff. Southern farm papers printed seven







Annual Report, 1932


stories for a total of 83 column inches of material. Two national
papers printed a story each, giving a total of 66 column inches.
One paper in Michigan ran a 10-inch story and one in California
used a 21-inch story by the Florida Extension Editors.
In the Spring of 1932 a number of news stories on Crotalaria
were sent to newspapers in Alabama, North Carolina, Texas, Iowa,
Illinois, and Pennsylvania. Most of these were used by papers
to which sent. These, together with stories on the same subject
in Southern farm papers, resulted in widespread interest in this
crop in many other States.

RADIO
Noon-day farm programs, 45 minutes in length, were broadcast
over WRUF each day except Sunday. Approximately 25 minutes
of these were devoted to music and 20 minutes to talks prepared
by workers of the College of Agriculture and the United States
Department of Agriculture. The programs were arranged and
supervised by the Editors, and many of the talks were read by
them. During the year a microphone was installed in the bulletin
room, and farm program talks now go on the air from the bulletin
room studio.
The Editors themselves prepared and gave 51 of the farm talks.
Other members of the staff prepared the remainder of the 438
which were broadcast. Approximately 175 USDA talks were
broadcast during the Florida farm hour. During Farmers' Week
the principal addresses were broadcast from the University audi-
torium each day, and an extra 15-minute period in the evening
was given over to talks by visiting farmers. During County
Agents' Week, the first of October, an evening broadcast period
was used daily.
At the end of June this office took over the daily 15-minute
period of hints to housewives, and is now broadcasting that fea-
ture each morning.
Once each month 4-H club members and their friends from
various Florida counties put on a 30-minute program over WRUF.
In most cases the music and talks for these programs were fur-
nished by 4-H members.
The Florida Extension Service joined with the United States
Department of Agriculture in celebrating 4-H achievement day
on the first Saturday in November with a one-hour program, half
of which was furnished from Washington and the other half from
each local station. Three stations of the NBC chain in Florida







Florida Cooperative Extension


participated in the event. Local programs for these stations were
arranged by the Editors.
An outstanding special series of talks on ornamentals, prepared
at the request of Garden Clubs of the State, was started on Sept.
14, 1932. One talk each week for 44 weeks is scheduled. Copies
of all of these talks are sent to five other radio stations in Florida,
and are used by them. A total of 74 other talks were sent to other
Florida stations and used during the year.

MISCELLANEOUS
A news writing contest was conducted among county and home
demonstration agents during the year, with only fair success.
The agents expressed an interest in doing more news writing and
publicity work, and a large proportion of them enrolled for the
contest. A number of them submitted entries for judging and
display during County Agent Week in October, 1932. Ribbons
were awarded to the winners.
Ten club boys attending the annual short course at the Uni-
versity of Florida in June were given training in news writing,
and issued a daily mimeographed paper for those attending the
event. Twenty-two club girls attending their short course during
the same month at the State College for Women were given train-
ing in reporting club news.







Annual Report, 1932


PART II-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENT WORK
A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
W. T. NETTLES, District Agent

The results of research work, outlook information, farm and
grove record studies and other economic data are used as the
basis for developing programs of county Extension work. The
Extension program has been based largely upon plans for reduced
cost in operations which included (a) a reduction in acreage in
some cases, (b) lessening the labor cost, (c) economy in the use
of fertilizer and the planting of summer and winter legumes,
(d) keeping out of debt and (e) following a program of "living
at home." Some of the main projects are as follows:
1. Conservation and improvement of the soil by terracing and
use of winter and summer cover crops.
2. Economical production of grains and feed crops by use of
cover crops, more intelligent use of commercial fertilizers,
spacing, culture and selected varieties.
3. More economical production of cash crops by the intelligent
use of commercial fertilizers, improved varieties, proper
spacing, and rotation of crops.
4. Improvement of livestock and poultry-introduction of im-
proved breeding stock, better feeding and pastures.
5. Control of parasites in sheep, cattle and hogs and livestock
management to prevent diseases.
6. Reduced production costs of commercial fruits and vegetables
through changes in cultural and fertilizer practices.
7. Cooperative purchases and sales.
8. Establishing a home fruit garden, and production of a more
complete living on the farms.

SOME ACCOMPLISHMENTS
In January and February a series of "Planning Meetings" was
held in the general farming counties to recommend the adjust-
ments that could be made on farms in the light of the outlook
and the research data available. Two thousand and seven hun-







Florida Cooperative Extension


dred farmers attended. Their names and addresses were taken
and by means of direct contacts by county agents and circular
letters the program as outlined was followed up. Finally a ques-
tionnaire was submitted to each farmer asking him to check the
practices he had followed that were recommended at the spring
meetings. Replies from 20 percent of the persons who received
the questionnaire show the following:
Percent
1. Produce food and feeds needed for farm and home consumption.. 91
2. Have a standard garden the year round .................... 74
3. Have or begin a home fruit garden of six fruits............... 70
4. See that money spent has a good chance to come back.......... 44
5. Establish permanent pasture for workstock and other livestock.. 45
6. Sow crotalaria for improving soil............................ 36
7. Get improved seed corn for planting.......................... 47
8. Fumigate corn to control weevil .......................... 17
9. Use quickly available nitrogen as a side-dressing for corn if fer-
tilizer is used ................ .......................... 21
10. Use inorganic nitrogen in cotton fertilizer................... 32
11. Space cotton to have 18 to 20 thousand plants to the acre....... 46
12. Use Cayana 10 sugarcane for planting........................ 55
13. Space peanut plants close-double the amount of seed.......... 81
14. Grow hogs on worm-free pastures........................... 49
15. Grow succession of grazing crops for hogs and market early.... 34
16. Arrange to gather a calf crop............................... 63
17. Use purebred sires ........................................ 64
18. Supply fresh milk for home needs.......................... 80
Austrian winter peas and vetch have been the main winter
legume crops grown in North and West Florida and turned into
the soil. There were 106,000 pounds of seed of these crops
planted in Florida during the winter of 1931-32. The yield of
corn in 1932 was practically doubled on land where crops had
been turned under.

CROTALARIA AND OTHER SUMMER COVER CROPS
Crotalaria has been used for several years to improve soil for
general farm crops and as a summer cover crop for groves and
vineyards. In 1932 there was 560,000 pounds of seed sown in
Florida. Seed to the value of $60,000 were sold in the state this
spring.
To demonstrate the benefits derived from crotalaria during the
last two years to the farmers of North Florida the county agents
have procured 50 demonstrations comprising 524 acres in 1931
and 408 demonstrations comprising 3,538 acres in 1932. These
demonstrations showed the usual increase in the yield of corn,
peanuts, beans and other crops.
In Central and South Florida, soil improvement legume crops
were planted very generally and consisted mainly of crotalaria,







Annual Report, 1932


soybeans, clovers, velvet beans, cowpeas and lespedeza. Reports
from the agents' show 309 demonstrations covering 4,683 acres;
142 of these, covering 2,929 acres, were crotalaria.
The results of these demonstrations have varied with local
conditions and types of soil. On potato demonstrations in Palm
Beach County one grower cut his fertilizer application by 750
pounds per acre following crotalaria and increased the yield by
18 bushels per acre. Another grower used the same amount of
fertilizer but reduced the ammonia one percent and produced an
increase of 614 bushels of potatoes following crotalaria.
Demonstrations in DeSoto County show an increase of 98 1/3
bushels of potatoes over the check plot adjoining on same type
of soil and treated the same way, except for the crop of crotalaria
grown. Other growers reported satisfactory crops of cucumbers
on nematode infested land following a crop of crotalaria.
In Duval County there were 166 demonstrations on 1,920 acres
in cover crops of clovers, soybeans, cowpeas, velvet beans and
crotalaria. The crotalaria proved the most satisfactory, pro-
ducing 10 tons green material per acre, or twice the tonnage pro-
duced by other crops except cowpeas.
In Union and Bradford counties crotalaria produced an increase
of 10 to 15 bushels of corn per acre on the most outstanding dem-
onstration plots.
TERRACING, DRAINAGE AND IRRIGATION
On rolling lands in Northwest Florida subject to heavy rainfall
it is essential that the land be terraced. The county agents have
demonstrated the value of terraces for several years. These ter-
racing demonstrations have increased from 1,426 acres in 1925
to 5,500 acres in 1932.
County agents have furnished recommendations for drainage
and irrigation. One hundred and fifty-seven farmers installed
drainage systems according to recommendations on 6,311 acres
and 72 farmers were assisted with irrigation systems on 3,104
acres. On 164 farms buildings were either constructed or re-
modeled according to plans furnished by county agents.

FARM CROPS
CORN
Fertilizing, Side-Dressing:-Commercial fertilizer is used to
increase the yield of corn and reduce the cost per bushel. This
fertilizer is usually a side-dressing of some quickly available







Florida Cooperative Extension


nitrogenous inorganic material. A complete fertilizer is used in
some areas.
There were 626 demonstrations conducted by juniors on 696
acres that produced a total of 19,718 bushels of corn. This was
28 1/3 bushels per acre, or approximately twice the state average.
Demonstrations of field selection of seed have been responsible
for an increase of seven bushels per acre.
Standard Fertilizer and Cover Crop Demonstrations:-To dem-
onstrate the superiority of the approved practice of cover-crop-
ping, a series of demonstrations known as the standard demon-
strations with corn were conducted. The yield of corn per acre
following Austrian peas or vetch was 23 bushels; following sum-
mer cover crop, 18.3 bushels; following farmer's most common
practice, 14.6 bushels; and following no fertilizer, 10.5 bushels.
It is seen that summer and winter cover crops resulted in
increased yields of the corn which followed.
Variety Demonstrations:-Out of 65 varieties of corn tested
by the Experiment Station, Whatley's Prolific and Kilgore Red
Cob have proven the best yielders. Twenty-one demonstrations
with these varieties were conducted in 1932 by farmers with the
following results:
Average yield with improved varieties recommended, 15.5
bushels; average yield of common corn, 10.5 bushels; increased
yield due to improved variety, 5 bushels.
As a result of the demonstrations conducted last year and pub-
lished results of experimental and demonstration tests, there were
139 bushels improved varieties of seed corn bought by farmers
for planting. Replies to questionnaires sent out indicate that
approximately one-third of the farmers attending the planning
meetings where improved varieties were recommended planted an
improved variety of corn.
CORN WEEVIL CONTROL
The fumigating of corn with carbon bisulphide to control corn
weevils was generally recommended by county agents. Demon-
strations were conducted by having the cribs made airtight an?
the carbon bisulphate applied regularly. During both 1931 anG
1932 fumigation saved more than 10 percent of the corn, which
would have been lost without fumigation.
PASTURES
Pasture experiments show that carpet grass, dallis grass and
other tame grasses have carried one cow per acre under careful
management and produced as high as 256 pounds beef per acre







Annual Report, 1932


per annum. County agents have been conducting demonstra-
tions to show best methods for establishing pastures and the
returns that might be expected for several years. Through the
influence of this information gathered from demonstrations and
tests there were 153 pasture demonstrations comprising 5,096
acres.












Fig. 2.-County agents encouraged the development of improved pastures
for both dairy and beef cattle. Cattle owners report more grazing and less
feed bills as the result.

One pasture demonstration of 100 acres in Dixie County carried
54 head of cattle, 28 being milk cows, during the best growing
season. The owner reports a saving of $18 per cow on feed bill
for the milk cows.
Many acres of cut-over unimproved lands have been seeded to
improved pastures, which indicates a decided progress toward
improved livestock production.
SOYBEANS
Soybeans are recommended for hay because they are easily
cured and give fair production on suitable lands. Thirteen dem-
onstrations comprising 68 acres produced 3/4 ton hay more per acre
than cowpeas.
PEANUTS
Spacing Demonstrations:-The results of the thicker spacing
as shown by data gathered from 1931 demonstrations and experi-
mental plots were presented at planning meetings. Reports from
farmers who attended these meetings indicate that approximately
80%0 of them followed the thicker spacing practices. There were
282 well-planned demonstrations conducted comprising 2,331
acres giving an average increase of 12 bushels per acre.
Where thicker spacing and landplaster application were both
used the yields were further increased.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SUGARCANE
Mosaic disease and nematode have materially reduced the yield
of syrup of the common varieties of red sugarcane. The Cayana
10 variety is nearly immune or resistant to both. To show the
superiority of this cane it has been planted side by side with the
red variety in 39 demonstrations, and has returned an increased
yield of 113 gallons per acre. These demonstrations have caused
it to become established generally with farmers who produce
syrup on a commercial scale.
Replies from 20% of the farmers who attended meetings where
Cayana was recommended show that it is being planted in prefer-
ence to other varieties.
COTTON
The five-year average production of seed cotton from 1925 to
1929 was 315 pounds per acre. This yield was produced with the
use of $3.44 worth of commercial fertilizer. There are three
things-more and better fertilizer, more plants on land, and
better varieties-that have been found to increase yield. There
were 22 demonstrations conducted with an average yield of 637
pounds per acre compared with 422 pounds by use of usual prac-
tices, an increase of 215 pounds per acre.
The yield of cotton has been increased by putting more stalks
on the land-closer rows and thicker in the drill. Demonstrations
with 18,000 stalks per acre produced 586 pounds seed cotton and
11,000 stalks yielded only 363 pounds per acre, a difference of
223 pounds in favor of closer spacing.
FRUITS
In the North Florida area the fruits generally grown are Sat-
sumas, pears, blueberries, pecans and grapes. Demonstrations
with cover crops, fertilization and spraying produced increased
tree growth and more bearing surface. In 1931 there were 42
demonstrations covering 299 acres and in 1932 the number was
94,. on 668 acres.
More fruits for home use and as cash crops could be profitably
produced in this general farming area. The county agents have
made it a part of their program to increase the planting of such
fruits for home use and for marketing.
Both citrus and truck growers have been aided in obtaining
economical production. The program has been directed to reduce
production costs from every angle possible. The economic con-
ditions have caused growers to use Extension workers to a greater
extent than when economic conditions were better. New ferti-







Annual Report, 1932


lizer materials, new insecticides and unusual weather conditions,
coupled with low prices, called for readjustments even among the
most experienced and best growers. County agents devote a large
part of their time to calls from grove owners for advice on ferti-
lization, culture, spraying, insect and disease control.
The value of cover crops as demonstrations in many groves
has made it possible to carry on an extensive program in cover
crop work with the result that growers have produced their
fruit at a much lower cost per box because of this program.
The Experiment Station, Agricultural College and Extension
Service jointly compiled uniform fertilizer recommendations for
all commercial crops. These were published in an Extension
circular. This served as a basis for uniform recommendations
by county agents. This fertilizer program is subject to modifi-
cations according to soil type, age of trees, and sufficiently flexible
for all varieties of citrus. Growers report a saving of from 30 to
60 percent in the costs over former fertilizer programs.
Demonstrations, tours, meetings, personal visits, the radio,
press and letters were all used in carrying out the horticultural
program.
The program of economical citrus production included cover
crops for soil improvement, reduced cultivation which goes with
the cover crops program, careful timing of spraying operations,
and less spray operations due to better development of friendly
fungi where cover crops are produced. More nitrogen from
cheaper sources reduces fertilizer cost and increases the vigor of
the tree to better resist insect and disease injury.
The program for truck crops involved cover crops, cheaper fer-
tilization from inorganic and high analysis goods, and improving
spraying methods.
Some of the results of the year's work are summarized as fol-
lows: 137 citrus meetings, 169 truck crop meetings and 101 home
gardens meetings were held during the year. A total of 248
news stories about citrus, 293 about truck crops and 224 about
home gardens and home beautification were published. There
were 4,762 farm visits on citrus, 3,774 on truck crops and 1,654
on home gardens made during the year. There were 8,890
office calls relating to citrus production, 8,338 relating to truck
crops and 3,058 relating to home gardens and home beautification.
During the year there were made 3,937 inspections of citrus
groves, involving 54,810 acres; 2,060 inspections of truck crop
properties, involving 10,281 acres; and 991 inspections of home







Florida Cooperative Extension


gardens and small fruits, involving 744 acres. Improved prac-
tices were followed by 3,625 citrus growers, truck crop producers
and home gardeners handling 66,335 acres; 2,112 of these involved
fertilizer practices. There were conducted 375 demonstrations
on 2,255 acres of truck crops and 647 demonstrations on 19,565
acres of citrus.
In the truck work, demonstrations in fertilization, disease and
insect control, seed varieties and time of planting were carried
on. There were 145 of these demonstrations, covering 1,387
acres. In Palm Beach County the agent reports an increase of
15% on demonstrations where certified seed potatoes were
planted.
LIVESTOCK
POULTRY
County agents have conducted 295 demonstrations involving
66,658 birds in culling, better feeding, feed growing, incubation
and brooding of poultry. Home built brick brooders are in use
on the recommendations of county agents.
Feed prices have fallen faster than egg prices and the close of
the year finds the poultry business in a more favorable position
than other livestock enterprises.
Reports show 128 demonstrations including 32,494 birds in the
state-wide Grow Healthy Chick program; culling, proper feeding,
disease control and marketing have been carried on.
Nine thousand chickens have been vaccinated,to prevent sore-
head. Several hundred purebred chicks have been placed on the
poultry farms for breeding purposes. As a result of the devel-
opment of the extension program there are to be found more
purebred, better kept flocks, and a more profitable poultry indus-
try in the state.
DAIRYING
The marketing problem confronts the dairymen of the state.
Milk prices have fallen and there is a surplus of whole milk to
supply the trade. The county agents have actively assisted
dairymen in perfecting organizations. to stabilize prices. Two
hundred and thirty demonstrations have been conducted with
dairying (involving 6,288 cattle) and 85 dairymen have been as-
sisted in securing purebred sires and 126 in securing purebred
females. The development of pastures and the production of
green feeds have received much attention. County agents have
received 4,101 office calls from dairymen, have made 1,598 farm
visits to dairies and have held 163 dairy meetings.







Annual Report, 1932


In Duval County the agent put on 40 dairy feeding demonstra-
tions to reduce the protein content of the ration from 24 to 18
per cent. This was put on with a hope of correcting some breeding
troubles confronting dairymen. The results seemed to indicate
an improved condition and the cows showed improvement in flesh
and weight. Through the efforts of this agent, 102 purebred
dairy bulls have been brought into the county.
More dairymen are now raising their best heifers to replace
cows taken out of production. Approximately 2,500 heifers have
been raised by the dairymen this past year.
BEEF CATTLE
There have been 233 demonstrations of better herd manage-
ment conducted; they touched 64,625 head of cattle. There
were 789 cows treated for worms, and 2,682 vaccinated for hem-
orrhagic septicemia.
Three hundred and fifty-six purebred bulls were secured by
farmers. Local cattlemen's associations have been organized for
the protection and improvement of the range cattle.
Livestock shows with exhibits of bulls, scrub cows and their
grade calves were featured. In one show 200 head of cattle were
exhibited. These shows demonstrated what had been done in
improving the cattle by the introduction of purebred bulls and
gave many farmers and cattlemen a living picture of what can
be done in improving the quality of cattle.
Demonstrations to relieve salt sickness in range cattle have
been conducted by the agents with good results.
SHEEP
Stomach and tape worms have been responsible for the decrease
in the number of range sheep. They can be controlled by drench-
ing sheep with a solution of bluestone and nicotine sulphate.
Demonstrations to control these worms have resulted in regular
treatments through the summer season, giving a larger lamb
crop, stronger sheep, and larger fleeces. This year 5,726 sheep
were treated. Nine purebred rams were placed by county agents.
SWINE
Demonstrations were conducted in which hogs were pastured
on grazing crops rather than on permanent pastures; young pigs
were kept free of worms and were supplied green grazing crops.
Young pigs handled in this way made good growth and were
thrifty. This is an inexpensive method of feeding hogs and
makes them marketable at from 6 to 9 months of age.







Florida Cooperative Extension


County agents vaccinated 117,942 head of hogs as a prevention
against hog cholera. Two hundred and fifty-two swine demon-
strations involving 5,579 animals were completed. One hundred
and fifty-seven farmers were assisted in securing purebred boars
and gilts.
Many hogs have been butchered and the meat cured on the
farm on account of low prices. Much of this cured meat was
traded for supplies and farm labor. Meat cutting and curing
demonstrations have been held to improve the trim and curing
process.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
FARM MANAGEMENT AND CREDIT
County agents in cooperation with necessary committees han-
dled applications for crop production loans for 2,395 farmers.
An outlook report was prepared by the Extension Service; it
was based on state and federal information dealing with demand,
supply, and credit. This report was put in the hands of agents,
farmers, and business men. Agents report that 2,976 farmers
adjusted their cropping systems because of information given in
the outlook report.
Three hundred and thirty-one farmers kept farm accounts on
forms supplied by the Extension Service.
Studies of the corn enterprise and other farm management
practices have been made.
Poultrymen have been assisted in keeping cost records. These
records show cost of producing laying stock, feed cost, egg pro-
duction costs, and size of flocks most profitable.
County agents have assisted in getting 138 complete citrus
grove records during the year.
PURCHASING AND SELLING
County agents have arranged for cooperative sales and pur-
chases at a substantial saving to the farmers. The items con-
sisted of poultry, dairy, beef, hogs, sheep, fruits, vegetables, cot-
ton, peanuts and miscellaneous farm products. Total sales were
$3,052,056; purchases, $48,962; saving, $156,842.82.
Where there were no cooperative organizations functioning the
county agents through their committees marketed a variety of
miscellaneous farm products and purchased supplies at a sub-
stantial saving.
SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
A stock show was held in Tallahassee under the supervision of
the county agent in connection with the state 4-H Pig Club Show







Annual Report, 1932


where poultry, sheep, dairy cattle and beef cattle of the county
were shown.
Personal services to the farmers and growers, including con-
sultations, inspections of groves or fields to see conditions and
advise the growers, and many other things took up a large part
of the county agent's time.


~L, It.


Fig. 3.-Both county and home demonstration agents rendered valuable
and effective service in connection with unemployment relief. Community
gardens were planted in many places. A seedbed for one large gardening
operation is shown here.

County agents have assisted in planting gardens and distrib-
uting seed and fertilizer for the unemployed in cooperation with
the Florida Emergency Relief Administration. The largest gar-
dening project for unemployed was in Hillsborough County where
the county agent assisted in planning the work and supervising
the growing of the crops on a 160-acre tract.
The agents have cooperated in the management of 6 fairs and
have displayed 58 fair exhibits.
County agents have made 1,211 soil tests for acidity and 108
phosphate testson citrus and truck soils.
PUBLICITY
MEANS USED FOR DISSEMINATING KNOWLEDGE
Practically every means of disseminating knowledge at the
county agents' command has been used consistently, as follows:


ill ,







Florida Cooperative Extension


Number of personal letters .....................................
Bulletins sent ................................................
Talks over radio ...............................................
Tours conducted ..............................................
Circular letters ...............................................
Newspaper articles ...........................................


28,236
33,924
216
68
796
2,031


There were 68 tours conducted with 2,934 farmers and business
men attending. About half were county-wide farm tours. Those
attending saw a cross-section of the agent's plan worked out in


Fig. 4.-A unique part of a county exhibit at one of the larger fairs.

demonstrations. The tours were concluded with programs. These
tours have been effective in showing the value of constructive
Extension work.
MEETINGS
Extension agencies served the people through meetings of va-
rious kinds during the year. Statistics on these follow:
Number Attendance
1. Training meetings for leaders .................. 72 561
2. Method demonstration meetings ................. 1,306 14,037
3. Result demonstration meetings .................. 528 6,745
4. Achievement days and fairs ..................... 30 5,622
5. Camps held, junior ............................. 24 1,202
6. Other extension meetings ....................... 1,327 53,997
7. Meetings held by local leaders .................... 185 3,375
8. Institute .......................... ............ 1 751







Annual Report, 1932


The Institute mentioned above deserves special attention, it
being the first one held at the 4-H Club Camp on Choctawhatchee
Bay. Programs for both men and women on livestock, field crops,
nutrition, home beautification and other subjects, in addition to
recreation, were presented.

4-H CLUB WORK
There were 1,333 boys enrolled in 4-H Clubs. There were 10
Achievement Day programs conducted in connection with final
contests. The completions were larger than in former years.
Older boys are assisting the county agents in club leadership work.
Corn and truck projects led by a wide margin. This was ex-
pected as most of the district is in the trucking section of the
state, still there were 73 projects in poultry, 74 in calves and 73
in swine.
OTHER PROJECT WORK
RODENTS AND INSECT CONTROL WORK
The work with rat control shows that there was 8,310 pounds
of poison bait used, and 2,362 pounds of poison bait used in com-
batting insects. Reports from Dade County show a saving of
$160,709.50.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
COUNTY AGENTS
Number of county agents ................................. 38
Number of months of service .............................. 453
Number of communities in which Extension program has been
conducted ............................................. 496
Number of voluntary county or community local leaders or com-
mitteemen assisting in the Extension program ............. 691
Total number of farm and home visits ...................... 35,490
Number of different farms and homes visited ............... 16,289
Number of office and telephone calls ........................ 92,180
Number of days agents in office ............................ 3,276
Number of days agents in field ............................ 8,2182
Number of news articles or stories published ................ 2,031
Number of individual letters written ....................... 28,236
Number of bulletins distributed ............................ 33,924
Number of radio talks made ............................... 216
Number of events where Extension exhibits were shown ..... 58
Number Attendance
Training meetings for local leaders ................. 38 338
Method demonstration meeting held ............... 1,306 14,037
Meetings held at result demonstrations ............. 528 6,745
Tours conducted .................. ............... 68 2,934
Achievement days held-Adult work ............... 3 806
Achievement days held-4-H Club .................. 27 4,816
Encampments held for 4-H Clubs .................. 23 1,186
Other Extension meetings ........................ 1,347 53,997
Meetings held by local leaders-Adult work ........ 34 659
Meetings held by local leaders-4-H Club ........... 151 2,716








Florida Cooperative Extension


Cereals
Number of method demonstration meetings ................. 102
Number of adult result demonstrations completed ............ 369
Total number of acres in result demonstrations .............. 3,824
Average increased yield per acre on result demonstrations-
corn, 8 bu.; oats, 5 bu.; rye 5 bu.
Number of farmers following improved practices ............ 1,433
Number of acres involved ................................ 19,042
Legumes and Forage Crops
Number of method demonstration meetings held ............. 279
Number of adult result demonstrations completed ........... 887
Number of acres in adult result demonstrations ............. 13,325
Number of farmers following improved practices ............ 1,667
Number of acres involved ................................. 18,307
Potatoes, Cotton, Tobacco and Other Special Crops
Number of method demonstrations held .................... 152
Number of adult result demonstrations completed .......... 289
Number of acres in adult result demonstrations ............. 1,311
Average increased yield per acre in adult result demonstra-
tions-Irish potatoes, 24.8 bu.; sweet potatoes, 32 bu.; cotton,
198 lbs.; tobacco, 24.8.
Number of farmers following improved practices ............ 1,737
Number of acres involved ................................. 6,981
Fruits, Vegetables and Beautification of Home Grounds
Number of method demonstration meetings held ............. 896
Number of adult result demonstrations completed ........... 1,978
Number of acres in adult result demonstrations .............. 22,543
Average increased yield per acre on result demonstrations-
truck crops, 20 bu.; tree fruits, 20 bu.; bush and small fruits,
196 qts.
Number of grove or field inspections made .................. 7,488
Number of spray or dusting demonstrations conducted ....... 1,031
Number of acres involved ................................. 61,776
Number of cover crop demonstrations conducted ............ 566
Number of acres involved in cover crop demonstrations ...... 8,324
Number of growers known following fertilizer practices recom-
m ended .............................................. 2,358
Number of growers known following improved practices this
year believed due to Extension efforts ..................... 3,995
Number of acres involved .................................. 67,012
Savings made in fertilizer practices ....................... $ 351,637
Forestry
Number of method demonstration meetings ................. 21
Number of adult result demonstrations ..................... 15
Acres new forest or farm woodland areas planted ............ 95
Number of farms assisted in forest or wood-lot management .. 52
Acreage ......................................... 8,445
Number of farms planting windbreaks ..................... 17
Animal and Insect Pest Control
Number of method demonstration meetings ................. 230
Number of result demonstrations completed ................ 358
Pounds of poison used ................. ................. 18,071
Agricultural Engineering
Number of method demonstration meetings .................. 205
Number of adult result demonstrations completed ........... 240
Number of farms following recommendations in installing
drainage systems ....................... ....... ........ 151







Annual Report, 1932 31

Acres drained ............................................ 6,151
Number of farms following recommendations in installing irri-
gation system s ........................................ 111
Acres irrigated ........................................ 3,9251/2
Number of farms building terraces to control erosion ........ 228
Acres on which soil erosion was so prevented ................ 5,753
Number of farms clearing land of stumps .................. 80
Number of families assisted with house-planning ........... 46
Number of dwellings constructed ......................... 7
Number of dwellings remodeled .......................... 12
Number of sewage disposal systems installed ............... 29
Number of water systems installed ..................... 21
Number of lighting systems installed ...................... 5
Number of farms on which buildings were constructed or re-
m odeled .......................................... 238
Dairy barns, 56; poultry houses, 129; silos, 30; others, 33.
Number of farms following recommendations on machinery .. 220
Tractors, 36: tillage implements, 167; harvesters and
threshers, 6; others, 101; miscellaneous machinery, 169.
Poultry
Number of method demonstration meetings .................. 226
Number of adult result demonstrations completed ........... 235
Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations.. 64,625
Total profit or saving result demonstrations ................$ 23,717
Number of farms assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade
breeding stock ..... .. ................................ 123
Number of farms keeping performance records of animals .... 134
Dairy Cattle
Number of method demonstration meetings ................. 67
Number of adult result demonstrations completed ........... 230
Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations.. 6,288
Total profit or saving result demonstrations ...............$ 14,740
Number of farms assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade
breeding stock ....... ................................ 85
Number of farms keeping performance records of animals .... 66

Other Livestock
Number of method demonstration meetings ................ 199
Number of adult result demonstrations completed ............ 391
Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations.. 20,271
Total profit or saving result demonstrations ...............$ 20,402
Number of firms assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade
breeding stock ............................ ........... 568
Number of farms keeping performance records of animals .... 61
Number of animals vaccinated ........................... 138,281
Number of animals treated for worms ...................... 26,588
Number of sanitation demonstrations completed ............. 94
Number of animals involved .............................. 16,250
Number of animals obtained for farmers ............... .... 9,020
Number of offspring obtained this year from sires secured
through Extension efforts .............................. 25,635
Farm Management, Credit, Insurance, and Taxation
Number of method demonstration meetings ................. 82
Number of adult result demonstrations completed ........... 178
Number of farms keeping farm accounts ................... 331
Number of farms keeping cost-of-production records ......... 361
Number of farms assisted in summarizing their accounts..... 250
Number of farms assisted in making inventory or credit state-
m ents ................................................. 327
Number of farm business or enterprise survey records taken .. 194








Florida Cooperative Extension


Number of farms making recommended changes in their busi-
ness ................ ............ ................ 140
Number of other farms adopting cropping, livestock, or com-
plete farming systems .................................. 495
Number of farms advised relative to leases ................. 320
Number of farms assisted in obtaining credit ............... 2,395
Number of different farms assisted in using outlook information 2,976
Corn, 676; cotton, 732; potatoes, 334; tobacco, 215; truck
crops, 809; dairy cattle, 110; beef cattle, 309; hogs, 535;
sheep, 25; poultry, 241.
Marketing (Farm and Home)
Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups or-
ganized ........................ ....................... 11
Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups pre-
viously organized ... ............................... 80
Membership in associations organized ...................... 5,455
Value of products marketed by all associations ............. $3,670,870
Value of supplies purchased by all associations ..............$ 395,285
Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups with
problems of-preliminary analysis, 27; organization, 35; ac-
counting and auditing, 19; financing, 41; business policies, 46;
production to meet market demand, 60; reduction of market
losses, 40; use of current market information, 56; standard-
izing, 48; processing or manufacturing, 10; packaging and
grading, 50; loading, 22; transporting, 22; warehousing, 11;
keeping membership informed, 52; merging into larger units,
19.
Number of farms or homes not in cooperative associations or
groups assisted with problems of-standardizing, 751; pack-
aging and grading, 375; use of current market information,
2,220.
Savings made by:
Cooperative Sales ...................................$ 167,786.50
Cooperative Purchases ...............................$ 32,136.00
Community or Country Life Activities
Number of communities assisted in making social or country
life surveys ................................. .. ........ 5
Number of country life conferences for community leaders .... 16
Number of community groups assisting with organization prob-
lems, activities, or meeting programs .................... 10
Number of communities developing recreation programs ...... 19
Number of community or county-wide pageants or plays pre-
sented ....... ............................ ...... 9
Number of communities assisted in improving hygienic prac-
tices .................................................. 6
Number of school or other community grounds improved ..... 12
Number of 4-H Clubs engaging in community activities ...... 15
Total number of different communities assisted with communi-
ty or country life work .................................. 42

PROGRAM SUMMARY
Number
Number Days by Meet-
Communi- Special- Days of ings Farm
ties ists Work Held Visits
Farm Crops ............ I 279 1 110 1,657Y% 428 4,972
Horticultural Crops .....1 271 163 12 2,4951/2 407 10,190
Livestock .............. 208 263 3,543 603 12,359
Agricultural Economics.. 330 148 I1,1801/ 290 3,505
Miscellaneous and Pro-
gram Making ........ 70 35 363/2 71 541
Forestry ............... 44 3 75 11 180







Annual Report, 1932


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. BLACKLOCK, State Boys' Club Agent

ENROLLMENT
Boys' 4-H club work shows an increased enrollment for 1932
as against a decrease in both 1930 and 1931. The opportunity
for earning more money by outside work is limited, which has
made our rural boys more country-minded.
More efficient 4-H organizations and the slowly developing
leadership of older club boys is overcoming the major cause of
the loss of membership in the past two years, lack of time on the
part of the county agents.
The following talle shows the gains and losses in the different
projects:
Pota- Poul- Total Total
Corn Cotton toes Truck Citrus try Pig Calf Misc. 1932 1931
total, 1932.. 654 123 195 425 100 346 507 235 538 3123
1931.. 612 200 163 551 71 355 432 150 194 2728
lain or Loss 42 -77 32 -126 29 -9 75 85 344 395

ORGANIZATION
The improvement in local organization of 4-H club work con-
tinues and increased enrollment and increased percentage of re-
ports prove the value of such organizations. While the number
of local club organizations has decreased two, due to consolida-
tions, the clubs are functioning more efficiently. More of the
routine work connected with the projects is being handled by the
older boys and the club officers. With the ever-increasing de-
mands upon the county agents, the only hope for continuing 4-H
club work at anywhere near its present volume rests upon better
organization and the development of local leadership.
Local 4-H Clubs:-Twenty-five of the 32 agents reporting club
work have one or more organized clubs. A total of 111 local clubs
are functioning. Charters have been awarded to seven clubs, two
of which have won gold seals for their club achievements. That
the clubs can and do function is shown by the fact that during
1932 the local clubs held 151 meetings (attendance, 2,716) which
were neither arranged for nor attended by the county agents.
Outstanding Local Clubs:-The Lake Worth Boys' 4-H Club of
Palm Beach County is an example of efficient organization over a
period of years. This club has a small membership, averaging







Florida Cooperative Extension


about 14. Every boy of club age except one living in the area
outlined by the county agent as belonging to the club was a mem-
ber in 1932. The club has met regularly once a month for five
years. This club has never failed to furnish a creditable exhibit
at the fairs and contests in the county. The county delegation to
the short course has always included members of this club. The
record books are well kept and a large per cent of the projects
completed. This club was the first in Florida to earn a charter
and later a gold seal, given to any boys' 4-H club which meets
certain requirements as to membership, meetings and projects.
One of its members was one of the two 4-H boys representing
Florida at the National 4-H Camp.
The Newberry Club of Alachua County was judged the second
best all-around boys' 4-H club in the county in 1931. When new
officers were elected for this year, a definite plan was outlined
to win first place. The officers worked out a plan to increase en-
rollment and to keep the record books up to date. A month before
the county 4-H club contest, a committee was appointed to see
that all record books were completed and sent in and that all the
calves and pigs were exhibited as well as the corn, cotton, pota-
toes and peanuts. At contest time two trucks were secured and
all club exhibits were sent to the contest. Sixty-eight records
were secured from the one club and 67 exhibits were made. The
plan outlined in the spring was carried out and the club won first
place in the county.
LEADERSHIP
With the local organizations comes the necessity of some local
leadership. The lack of leaders has been the biggest obstacle in
organizing local clubs. The work of the leader was not under-
stood at first and there was great difficulty in getting competent
men and women to serve. This difficulty is being gradually over-
come. The older club boys and the older club girls are taking
over the job of leading their community clubs. The clubs are
placing more responsibility on the older members. The clubs have
project leaders or captains whose duty is to visit the younger
members, help them with their record books and to act as leaders
in their community.
The social side of 4-H club work is being directed by the club
members through their social committees. Parties, picnics and
camp fires are planned and carried out by the older members. It
is no longer necessary for the county agent to take active charge
of all details of club work.







Annual Report, 1932


Obtaining records is a big item in club work. The percentage
of reports in well-organized clubs averages nearly 50% greater
than under the old method when the county agent did not secure
the active assistance of the older club members. The training in
leadership which the older members get from trying to help the
younger ones is building an ever-increasing number of young
people in rural communities who are not only willing but also
able to plan and execute for the general welfare. In 1931 out of
193 local 4-H leaders but 81 were older club members, while in
1932 out of 225 local leaders 106 were old club members. When
4-H club work comes to the point that it has grown and trained
its own leadership, the problem of rural leadership will be partly
solved.

PROJECT DEMONSTRATIONS

DEPRESSION DIFFICULTIES
The lack of money and the surety of low prices for products
forced a change in methods of conducting project work. The
boys have been restricted in the money procurable for carrying
on their work. Again, the low price of farm products has stressed
the necessity of cutting costs of production. The boys have been
attempting to produce their crops and animals in the most eco-
nomical ways. With all the attempts for lowering costs, the
profits have been very small.
FARM CROPS
Corn:-356 boys grew 452 acres of corn and produced 13,612
bushels. The average yield was but 30.1 bushels against 37.3 for
1931. This decrease was caused in a large part by less fertilizer
being used. The price of corn was so low that side-dressing with
a quick-acting nitrogenous fertilizer was not recommended.
Cotton:-The enrollment in the cotton project dropped from 106
in 1931 to 66 in 1932. The general lack of finances and the at-
tempt to lower cotton acreage worked to secure the lower enroll-
ment. The yield of 966 pounds seed cotton per acre was very
good, as the boys decreased the amount of fertilizer used per acre.
In 1932, 400 pounds per acre was a fair average while in previous
years the average was around 600 pounds.
Peanuts:-While this project is a minor one, but 56 boys com-
pleting, it showed a 70% increase over 1931. The drive for in-
creased acreage of feed crops was responsible for the increase.
More boys are growing peanuts to fatten their pigs.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Home Gardens:-This club increased 150% over 1931. Two
hundred and three club boys completed their work in home gar-
dens, against 79 in 1931. The boys made very little cash profit
from their gardens but they added much to the family food supply.
Again, the club boys showed a response to a popular demand.
The demand for increased gardens was answered in a fine manner.
Truck Crops:-The crop used depends upon the truck crops
grown in the boy's community, as the boy in a bean growing sec-
tion usually grows beans. The profit in 1932 depended upon mar-
ket conditions at the time the crop was harvested. One boy in
Hillsborough County happened to have a fine crop of beans ready
just as the crop in the Glades was cut off by water. The result
was that he had a profit of over $200. Another boy in the same
community who had his crop mature two weeks earlier made
practically nothing. The truck crop projects were confined to the
counties and communities where the raising of truck is the main
agricultural business of the farmers. Seventy-three boys com-
pleted their projects in truck.
Citrus:-In Manatee County three clubs are continuing with
their citrus nursery projects. The work is carried on in connection
with their rural schools. The club boys fence off a small plot of
ground, prepare the soil and each boy plants a row or two of sour
orange seed. The seedlings are fertilized and cared for as directed
by the county agent. At the proper time the little trees are
budded. When the trees have reached the right age, the boys
have them to sell or to set out at home. The oldest club in the
county, at Parrish, has trees ready for setting out in a grove.
Some are starting a small grove of their own and some are selling
the trees. In addition to raising trees each club member is given
instructions in the identification and control of citrus insects and
diseases.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
With increased production of feed there came an increase in
the number of pigs raised. Two hundred and twenty boys com-
pleted their pig project, raising 627 pigs. This was an increase
of 12 boys and 172 pigs over last year. The boys are growing
more feed crops and are fattening their pigs in place of selling
them for breeding stock. The low market price for hogs made
it almost impossible for the boys to make a profit, but most of
them showed a fair labor income.
Bill Clegg of Alachua County carried out a very complete dem-
onstration in swine production in cooperation with the animal







Annual Report, 1932


husbandry department of the Experiment Station. Good stock
and a good system of grazing and fattening crops enabled Bill to
get $4.45 per hundred pounds for his litter of nine pigs which
were sold in Moultrie, Georgia, when the prevailing price was
$3.75.
The pigs were farrowed early in February. They were raised
under a cooperative agreement with the Florida Experiment
Station and on a gazing crop system worked out by the Station.
They were farrowed in a clean house and immediately turned on
a field of oats. Later they were grazed on millet and sudan grass.
They were fed shorts, dry peanuts, corn, and milk and supple-
mental feeds, and had a mineral mixture before them. They
were weaned at two months old, and about the middle of July
were turned on a field of corn to fatten.
The total cost of producing the pigs was $33.64. The nine pigs,
averaging 182 pounds, brought $72.89, leaving a profit of $39.64.
There are two main reasons for the pigs topping the market;
they were free of worms and they were of fine quality and the
size which the market prefers.
Arthur McNeeley has his first pig club pig. This Poland China
sow has raised over 100 pigs. Arthur has a herd of Poland Chinas
which he hopes will help him go to college.
DAIRY HUSBANDRY
The dairy club is growing. The eradication of the Texas fever
tick is encouraging the introduction of better milk cows. Two
hundred and twenty-one club members raised dairy animals in
1932 while 172 were members in 1931. With the return of better
times this project will show a decided growth.
Twenty-four Duval County boys who raised purebred heifers
last year are continuing with their cows this year. They are
keeping feed and milk records. Three of the cows give promise
of being outstanding milk producers.
In Hernando County, B. E. Lawton, county agent, brought a
carload of Jerseys from Tennessee, 14 of which were placed with
4-H club members.
POULTRY HUSBANDRY
This project remains about the same. The boys are culling
their flocks and trying to decrease production costs. Club boys
continue to be among the leaders in the Home-Egg-Laying Con-
test.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FORESTRY
This project is new and promises to be an interesting one. Fifty-
three acres were planted to pines by club boys in Liberty County,
and 85 per cent of these plantings were successful. The others
failed because of poor drainage or destruction by hogs. Fire was
kept from all plantings by means of fire lines. In Palm Beach
County a community reforestation project is being attempted by
the club boys in cooperation with an interested citizen who is
furnishing the land and protecting against fire.
FARM COST ACCOUNTING
A new type of citrus club work was attempted this year. In
Orange and Lake counties boys kept grove cost accounting rec-
ords on commercial groves. Record books approved by the Ex-
tension Economics Department were furnished the boys. The
boys kept complete records on bearing groves. The boys met
with the County Agent at intervals and the records were studied.
Visits were made to the groves on which records were kept and
the grove owner's system studied. The records kept are to be
checked and commented upon at the end of the year by the Ex-
tension Farm Management Specialist and returned to the boys.
This project is limited to boys in high school.

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
The aim of club work-to improve farm and home life-is not
confined to the production of products. The socialization of farm
people is just as important. Club work has its biggest opportunity
in this field. The fostering of the cooperative spirit and the de-
velopment of trained rural leadership means much to the
future of rural America. 4-H club work is trying to do its part
in building intelligent citizens out of its members.
Recreation:-The lack of money for trips, picture shows and the
usual types of recreation has left a blank in rural social life which
needs filling. Club boys and girls are trying to meet the emergen-
cy through more socials, picnics, fish frys and camps. The only
opportunity some farm boys and girls have is furnished by the
4-H club.
Four recreation leadership training schools were held again in
cooperation with the Playground and Recreation Association of
America. This was the second of a series of four which will be
held in the state. The trouble is not in getting enough interested
leaders to take the course but to keep the number small enough






Annual Report, 1932


that the instructions can be given in the proper way. The leaders
attending have gone back to their communities and have taken
the lead in improving community recreational activities.
Radio Programs:-The club department continues to provide a
30-minute program over WRUF each month, the boys having one
month and the girls the next. The programs are varied to show
the various phases of club work. In addition to the regular fea-
ture, speakers were furnished for Florida's part in the National
4-H Achievement program on November 5. The 4-H club story
has been told from every radio station in the state on at least
one occasion during the year.
ClubCamps:-The summer club camp continues to hold its pop-
ularity with the boys. Twenty-three camps were held with a total
attendance of 1,176. Howard Curry and Donald Matthews were
employed again to assist with the camps.
A program of supervised recreation and leadership training is
supplied for each camp. A spirit of healthy rivalry is built. The
boys are divided into squads of 10 and the squads compete in all
phases of camp life for the ribbons given to each member of the
honor squad.
The West Florida Club Camp was improved by the building of
two more cottages and the installation of a lighting and a water
system. The value of the central camp is being appreciated more


Fig. 5.-The 4-II club boys attending the annual short cour e at the Uni-
versity of 1lorida planted a palm tree in honor of the 200th anniversary of
the birth of George Washington.







Florida Cooperative Extension


each year. The camp was used for a West Florida farmers' in-
stitute this year.
Annual Short Course:-The biggest event of the club year is the
short course. The county champions meet at the University of
Florida for a week of inspiration and instruction. Many boys
get the inspiration to go to college from their visit to the short
course.
In June, 1932, 258 boys were enrolled. Courses were given in
livestock, dairying, horticulture, poultry, farm mechanics, farm
accounting, tree surgery, swimming and organized recreation.
The evenings were used for entertainment. A George Washing-
ton program was put on one night and a palm was planted in
memory of the first President.

STATE EXHIBITS
South Florida Fair:-4-H club work made an exhibit of corn and
cotton at the South Florida Fair in February, 1932. The cotton
exhibit attracted much favorable attention from the northern
visitors. John Hentz of Liberty County won the grand champion
bushel and the grand champion 10-ear exhibit for the second
time. Union County showed the best county exhibit of 10 bushels.
For the first time, a calf club show was held at this fair. Twen-
ty-six registered Jersey calves were shown. Duval County boys
exhibited the greater part of the calves shown. On one day all
the Duval club members came to Tampa and witnessed the judg-
ing. A parade of the club members and their animals was staged
before the grandstand.
State Pig Club Show:-For the third year, the Leon County
Chamber of Commerce sponsored the State Pig Club Show. Over
100 club pigs were exhibited.
John Carter, Jr., of Jefferson County, showed the grand cham-
pion barrow, a Chester White. He was awarded a $100 scholar-
ship offered by Frank E. Dennis of Jacksonville, Florida.
Eugene Boyles of Suwannee County showed the grand cham-
pion breeding pig, a Duroc Jersey, and won a $150 scholarship to
the University of Florida offered by Frank E. Dennis.
State Poultry Club Show:-The Second Florida 4-H Poultry
Show was held in connection with the Volusia County Fair. This
was open to boys and girls. Two hundred thirty-one birds were
exhibited in 1932 against 180 in 1931. The poultry judging contest
held in connection with the show was won by a team of boys from
Lake County. Tom Lamb of Orange County won the $100 schol-







Annual Report, 1932


arship to the University of Florida offered to the high individual
in the judging contest.

STATE PRIZE WINNERS FOR 1932
Jack Platt of Marion County, Marable Love of Leon County,
and Guy Botts of Santa Rosa County entered the College of Agri-
culture this year on their Florida Bankers' Association 4-H
scholarships. Frances Allen of Madison County entered on his
Frank E. Dennis scholarship.
Bankers' Scholarship:-The Florida Bankers' Association
offers three $100 scholarships to the Florida College of Agricul-
ture. The scholarships are awarded at the short course on an
examination given by the State Boys' Club Agent. The winners
for 1932 were W. W. Bassett, Jr., of Jefferson County for West
Florida, William Clegg of Alachua County for Central Florida and
David Scott of DeSoto County for South Florida.
National 4-H Camp:-Each state is allowed to send but two boys
and two girls to this camp, which is held in Washington. The
delegates are the two most outstanding club boys and girls in
the state, the requirements being rigid.
Ralph Arant of Santa Rosa County and Herbert Fritz of Palm
Beach County attended the camp in June, 1932. Expenses for
this trip were supplied by the Boys' 4-H Club Fund.

BOYS' 4-H CLUB STATISTICS
ORGANIZATION
111 Organized community 4-H clubs
8 County club organizations
ENROLLMENT AND COMPLETION
2409 Members enrolled
3123 Different projects carried by club members
1430 Members completed
1858 Projects completed
PROJECT WORK
Crops
Acres
Project Grown Yield
356 members completed corn ............ 426 13,612 bu.
56 members completed peanuts ......... 75 2,572 bu.
6 members completed Irish potatoes.... 9 1,162 bu.
115 members completed sweet potatoes... 71 8,266 bu.
66 members completed cotton .......... 75 72,109 lbs. seed cotton
1 member completed tobacco ......... 1 750 Ibs.
203 members completed home garden..... 73
73 members completed truck crop....... 70%
89 members completed small fruits...... 16
41 members completed home beautification 41 homes
beautified
74 members completed cover-crop 74 acres improved
61 members completed forestry 144 acres planted








Florida Cooperative Extension

Livestock


171 members completed poultry
144 members completed dairy
10 members completed beef cattle
220 members completed wine
Farm Management
140 members completed farm records
Leadership and Recreation
4 Demonstration teams trained
8 Judging teams trained
34 Leadership meetings with 223 attending
27 Achievement days held, 4,816 attending
151 Social meetings held, 2,716 attending
23 Club camps held, 1,076 attending


Animals Involved
6,943 birds
210 animals
14 animals
627 animals







Annual Report, 1932


DAIRYING
HAMLIN L. BROWN, Extension Dairyman
Dairy work has been carried on in the following counties during
1932, in cooperation with the county agents: Dade, Palm Beach,
Okeechobee, Martin, DeSoto, Manatee, Hillsboro, Pinellas, Her-
nando, Orange, Polk, Lake, Marion, Bradford, Union, St. Johns,
Duval, Alachua, Suwannee, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Calhoun,
Washington, Walton, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, and Escambia. Some
cooperative dairy work was carried on with farmers in some of
the counties not having county agents: Bay, Gadsden, Madison,
Columbia, Putnam, Citrus, Volusia, Seminole, Pasco, Glades, and
Broward.
DAIRY FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS
The increase in forage production was continued in 1932. The
efforts of Extension workers were limited to assistance in the
production of pasture crops, silage crops and some hay crops.
The very low prices for grain and mill feeds, together with the
low yield of corn and other grain crops grown in Florida makes
it impractical to devote time to demonstrations with grain crops.
There has been an increase of approximately 3,970 acres of
grazing and silage crops in the market milk areas of the state
during the last 12 months. This has reduced the cost of pro-
ducing milk very materially. The cooperative purchases of mill
feed and grains in car-lots, and the home mixing of the dairy
feeds at the barn to supplement the roughage has saved the
dairymen of the state $75,000 to $100,000 in reduced cost of
producing milk. E. C. Fogg, secretary of the Miami Home Milk
Producers Association, states that during March, 1932, five mem-
bers of their association saved $1,356 by cooperative purchase
of feeds. This reduction in cost of producing milk has been an
important factor in helping many dairymen to meet outside com-
petition, and in many cases it was the means of enabling the dairy-
men to continue in the dairy business.
An important part of the feed growing program has been to
get the dairies located on lands best adapted to growing feed
crops. Eleven thousand acres of farm lands have been purchased
by 73 dairymen to enlarge their pasture areas. With paved roads
and modern trucks, it is practical for dairymen to move 15 to 20
miles out from town if necessary to locate on good land. There
is a determination among dairymen to have pastures and produce
feed that will reduce feed costs.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PASTURES

Dairy farmers seeded 1,545 acres to permanent pastures.
Improvement in pasture management has contributed in help-
ing to increase the supply of grazing from permanent pastures.
There were some 4,500 acres of pastures in the state that are
being mowed. Demonstrations have proven that it is important
to seed permanent grasses on the heavier moist soils. The lighter,
drier soils are being planted to Bermuda grass and to corn and
other silage crops. An occasional plowing or disking of the
Bermuda pastures increases the yield of grass by killing weeds
and loosening the soil.
Annual crops for pasture are recommended. The dairymen in
Marion County use cowpeas and soybeans extensively with silage
as a supplement to permanent pastures.
Reduced prices for milk have forced dairymen to lower pro-
duction costs.
There was approximately 3,000 acres more winter crops seeded
in the state in 1932 than in any previous year; 1,160 acres of rye
and oats and 310 acres of Italian rye grass were seeded by Duval
County dairymen. County Agent Lawton has demonstrated the
value of heavy seeding and the use of inorganic nitrates.
In Walton County good results were obtained with crimson
clover mixed with sweet clover and sown on a Bermuda sod and
disked down thoroughly. C. T. Smith, operating a dairy farm,
says this pasture replaced commercial feeds to the value of $65
an acre.

SILAGE
The results from the 1932 silo demonstrations were very
effective. Two trench and two pit silos constructed by North
Marion dairymen in 1931 were enlarged in 1932. These dairymen
weighed and tested the milk from individual cows and were in a
position to know the feeding value of silage. Silage and peavine
hay cut with ensilage cutters and blown into the hay mows made
up the winter roughage feed. It was the first time these farmers
had an abundance of roughage.
Demonstrations in proper methods of filling silos accounted
largely for the success of the silage demonstrations. The common
mistake is in not wetting down the silage from corn sorghum or
cane where the leaves have overcured. This was largely avoided
in 1932.






Annual Report, 1932


FARM DAIRYING
The "Live-at-Home" program emphasized by county and home
agents has continued to increase the number of cows to supply
the family needs.
D. H. Ward, county agent, Liberty County, arranged for the
cooperative purchase of 35 grade Jersey heifers from middle
Tennessee at bargain prices. These Jerseys were purchased by
31 farmers to supply milk for family needs. They are replacing
scrub cattle and furnishing family cows to small farmers.
There were 375 high grade and registered dairy heifers and
cows placed on farms to supply milk and butter. Marion, Walton,
Santa Rosa, and Madison counties are the principal counties
marketing cream for butter-making purposes.
RAISING DAIRY COWS
In 1927 approximately 30% of the herd replacements were
raised on the market milk dairy farms. In 1932 approximately
93% of the herd replacements were raised on dairy farms. The
dairymen in 60% of the counties of the state have raised more
than enough heifers for herd replacements.


Bma.U I? I ii ii


Fig. 6.-Dr. P. K. Yonge, for many years chairman of the State Board
of Control of Higher Institutions, is shown here with one of his outstanding
dairy cows.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The demonstrations in growing out dairy calves in all market
milk centers has increased, which is resulting in a reduction in
the number of dairy cows imported into our dairy centers. In
1927 approximately 4,000 cows a year were purchased for herd
replacements, at $90 to $140 each, at a cost of approximately one-
half million dollars. The money expended for replacements in
1932 was very much less.
Demonstrations in control of intestinal parasites in Duval
County have greatly helped in improving the quality of calves.
Keeping calves off of sod pastures and pasturing them on culti-
vated fields planted to cowpeas, soybeans, corn or similar crops,
until they are 6 to 8 months old is preventing infestation with
intestinal parasites in addition to keeping the calves from drink-
Sing polluted water in stagnant ponds.

DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS
The large volume of locally produced milk has prevented the
importation of cheap milk from other states and the movement
of milk from long distances within the state, thereby avoiding
a general disorganization of local marketing conditions. An
abundance of fresh fluid milk at reasonable prices has reduced
the consumption of condensed milk and milk powders.
Individual dairy records have proven valuable as a guide to
adjusting dairy rations. Five years ago probably 30% of the
dairy rations were home-mixed, with a view to supplying a grain
concentrate to supplement the grazing and roughage crops on
the farm. Now about 95% of the dairymen are having their
grain feeds mixed according to their needs with a view of economy
in milk production.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES
There were 114 registered dairy bulls placed on farms in Florida
during 1932. Duval County has a registered bull at the head of
every dairy herd in the county. It is a conservative estimate to
state the dairy herds of Florida have an increased productive
value of $47,000 for 1932, directly traceable to purebred sires.

BUILDING SILOS, REMODELING DAIRY BARNS AND
MILK HOUSES
Silos have been constructed as follows: 4 pit; 11 trench; 2
Tennessee wooden hoop; 5 monolythic concrete; 4 steel; a total
of 26. These silos were built at a relatively low cost.







Annual Report, 1932


Seventeen agents assisted dairymen with improvements on 41
dairy barns and in building six sheds for shade and protection
during rainy weather.

MARKETING OF FLUID OR MARKET MILK
Dairy leagues for cooperative marketing of milk were organized
in Hillsborough, Pinellas and Alachua counties. The Duval County
Better Milk League reorganized with a 95% sign up. The Miami
Home Milk Producers Association operates a distributing plant
in Miami. Cooperative producer dairy associations in Marion,
Leon, Escambia, Dade, Palm Beach, Orange, Broward, Volusia,
Manatee, Seminole, Polk, Flagler, and Hernando counties have
worked together in adjusting conditions to stabilize the market.
The State Dairy Association is made up of the 17 county and
community dairy associations in the above named counties.
Through cooperative understanding the markets of one city were
not disrupted by the surplus fluid milk from other cities. By
means of cooperative pools the surplus milk was converted into
sweet cream and other dairy products. This cream from surplus
milk replaced imported cream from other states.
The general dairy situation in Florida is equally as good as the
situation in best dairy sections in the United States with regards
to market conditions, as shown in market reports published by
the U. S. Bureau of Markets. This favorable condition is largely
the result of cooperative efforts by milk producers to stabilize
conditions.
4-H DAIRY CLUB PROGRAM
Fifteen county agents conducted 4-H dairy club work with 152
members owning 192 animals in 1932. Of these animals, 106
were registered females and 86 grade females. This was a large
increase in registered animals over previous years.
Club members of Duval and Jefferson counties exhibited 26
registered heifers at the South Florida Fair in Tampa.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
WALTER J. SHEELY, Agent in Animal Husbandry
The major part of the beef cattle in Florida are raised under
range and semi-range conditions with a few herds restrained on
farms in the northern and western part of the state. Many of
the cattle owners own or control very little land upon which their
cattle graze and make little or no preparation for pasture, winter
feed or for improvement in breeding and selection.
Cattlemen in the tick-free areas are showing a decided interest
in improved breeding stock, development of permanent pastures,
production of feeds, fattening and finishing cattle in the bean
fields and feed lots.
The financial situation has checked the demand for improved
breeding stock, purebred bulls, and good native cows. Still, the
number of beef cattle in the state shows an increase and there is
a healthy interest despite the low prices of beef.

LIVESTOCK MEETINGS
During this year the Agent in Animal Husbandry has taken
part in 46 meetings with an attendance of 5,247 people and has
made radio talks on livestock work at Gainesville and at Pensacola.
Civic clubs in Pensacola, Quincy, Tallahassee, Lake City, St.
Augustine, Monticello, Ocala, and Leesburg have interested them-
selves in the Extension livestock program. A livestock program
was carried out in connection with Farmers' Week at the Univer-
sity of Florida.
During 4-H club week at the University and at the annual meet-
ing of Smith-Hughes students, the Agent instructed 140 club
boys and 180 future farmers in selecting breeding beef cattle and
using purebred sires.

LIVESTOCK FIELD DAY DEMONSTRATIONS
Four livestock field day demonstrations have been held this
season with 1,050 people attending. Two were in Marion County,
one in Alachua County, and one in Okaloosa County. They were
held on the following farms:
L. K. Edwards, Irvine, with a showing of purebred Angus cattle,
native and grade cows, good calves and steers. Results: 14 pure-
bred Angus bulls and 16 steers sold.
A. L. Jackson, Gainesville, showing purebred Shorthorn and







Annual Report, 1932


Hereford bulls, native and grade cows. Results: Sold a car of
fat steers.
J. B. Simonton, Micanopy, showing purebred and high grade
Angus cattle, silos and pastures. Results: 11 Angus bulls sold.
J. W. Gaskin, Laurel Hill, 300 people attended from eight
counties. Showing 100 acres of Carpet grass pasture (planted
1930).
FAIRS AND SHOWS
The agent has cooperated with fair associations, with the result
that a Florida herd of Angus cattle were shown at the South Flor-
ida Fair and a Hereford herd from Alabama at DeLand.
A unique livestock demonstration without premiums was held
in connection with the 4-H club contest in Gainesville; 130
Alachua County owned beef cattle were shown. Results: 6 pure-
bred bulls and 7 purebred cows were sold, and two men traded
bulls.
DISTRIBUTION OF PUREBRED BULLS
In cooperation with county agents, breed associations, breed-
ers, and other state agencies, a total of 316 purebred bulls, 26
high-grade bulls and 40 Brahman bulls have been added to Flor-
ida herds in 38 counties.
On May 7, at Ocala, 18 Angus bulls and six heifers were sold
to Florida farmers, in six counties. On May 13, at Thomasville,
Georgia, the Extension agents assisted cattlemen in five North
Florida counties in securing 10 bulls. Florida breeders have
readily sold their surplus bulls to cattlemen of this state.
One man advises that he has purchased 15 Red Polled bulls
that will go to Orange County in February.
Approximately 122 purebred heifers and cows have been
brought into the state, while Florida breeders have sold a few.
Fifty-three bulls were sold to cattle owners in Osceola and
Orange counties. Twenty-six high grade Hereford bulls were
secured by one man in Dade County. Forty registered Brahman
bulls came into Dixie County from Texas.
Private individuals and companies have been encouraged to
handle purebred beef bulls for sale and exchange to cattlemen to
provide stockers and feeders.



















-t











Fig. 7.-A large number of purebred bulls for improving range herds were brought to Florida during the year by cattle-
men and with the assistance of county agents and others. The carload shown here is one of the best received during the
year. Considerable improvement in the quality of I lorida beef should be noticeable in a few years.


~rS. ijl-
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s

t~P~,


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Annual Report, 1932


SILAGE AND WINTER FEEDING
The Marianna Fruit Company stored 1,080 tons of sorghum in
trench silos and successfully wintered about 1,100 cows and calves
on silage and cottonseed meal. Farmers and other business men
from 9 northwest Florida counties attended a field meeting on the
Marianna Fruit Company farm to inspect the trench silos and
cattle being fed on silage and cottonseed meal. Following this,
six trench silos were constructed in Jefferson, Washington, and
Walton counties.

STEER FEEDING
During 1931-32, P. E. Williams of Davenport fed and kept
records of feeds and gains on 165 native South Florida steers; 108
two- and three-year-old cattle were fed sorghum silage and cot-
tonseed meal and 57 two-year-olds were fed corn silage and cotton-
seed meal. The steers were divided in three lots. Following are
the results:
Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3
Two-year Two-year Three-year
Cottonseed Cottonseed Cottonseed
meal meal meal
Corn Sorghum Sorghum
silage silage silage
Number of steers ................. 57 58 50
Average daily gain per steer lbs..... 1.35 1.49 1.69
Average daily ration silage per
steer lbs ...................... 34.10 34.10 40
Average daily ration C.S.M. per
steer Ibs. ...................... 3.65 3.65 4.53
Silage to make 100 lbs. gain........ 2,516 2,280 2,352
C.S.M. to make 100 lbs. gain........ 262 244 267

Tobacco growers in Madison and Gadsden counties in 1931
bought $55,000 worth of steers from outside the state to feed out
to secure manure to fertilize tobacco. That Florida cattle owners
might furnish these steers, cattle owners from adjoining counties
met at Quincy. One man sold 20 head of black steers to a Gadsden
County feeder. During the season 1931-1932 the shade tobacco
men in Gadsden County fed 1,600 steers. Two of the men fol-
lowed recommendations in handling and feeding and for the first
time weighed the steers at regular intervals and kept records of
gains and feeds consumed.
At Pensacola, Morgan & Crosby fed out 220 native and grade
steers last season. This year these men are feeding 300 head;
have put in scales and will have hogs follow the steers and are fol-
lowing feeding recommendations.







Florida Cooperative Extension


LIVESTOCK ASSOCIATIONS
During this year five local county associations held two general
meetings at DeFuniak Springs and Laurel Hill. At the DeFuniak
Springs meeting two Escambia County men sold 14 purebred bulls
to Walton County cattle owners.
At the Laurel Hill meeting 300 men from seven counties were
shown 100 acres of pasture that had been sown to carpet grass in
1930 and was then carrying 100 cattle three days each week, 100
hogs and 85 sheep all the time during the best grazing season.

PASTURES
In the spring of 1931 the Putnam Lumber Company, Cross City,
sowed 200 acres of flat, sandy land to Carpet grass. The land was
double disked. Due to dry weather very little grass came up.
However, on 100 acres of this land well prepared there is a good
stand of grass.
In 1931 a Jackson County farmer with 400 acres of grazing land
has mowed his pastures for two successive years with good
results.
In Alachua County where the mowing machine was used in
1931 the grass was good, where not mowed the weeds choked out
the grass. This is but one of the examples of the good of mowing.

FARMERS' BEEF CLUB
To encourage the consumption of Florida beef, a mimeographed
circular with plans for operating "A Farmers' Beef Club" was
prepared and distributed to the county agents, home demonstra-
tion agents and farmers. K. F. Warner, B.A.I., U.S.D.A., demon-
strated just how the cuts are made so that each member gets his
proportion of beef. This circular is available to any person ask-
ing for it.
Marianna Fruit Company sold on the Montgomery market 200
calves ranging in price from 11/2c to 4c per pound. The difference
in price was due to the difference in breeding, quality, and finish.
The better bred calves carried the most flesh.
Arthur Adkinson, Walton County, sold grade calves for a
premium of $5 per head over the price paid for natives. 0. N.
Powell, Suwannee County, says his grade calves when 9 months
old brought 15 percent more than native yearlings.







Annual Report, 1932 53

HOGS
In hog work, emphasis has been placed on economical produc-
tion of quality animals by selecting the best breeding stock and
keeping them free of parasites and feeding on grazing and fat-
tening crops.
To encourage better home-curing and handling of meat, in
February, 1931, K. F. Warner helped in cutting and curing
demonstrations. This year meat cutting demonstrations were
held at the Annual Farmers' Week and County Agents' Week,
also 15 meat cutting and curing demonstrations have been held in
nine counties.







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY
N. R. MEHRHOF, Extension Poultryman
During 1932 the principal points emphasized in Extension work
with poultry were as follows: Growers were encouraged to raise
healthy chicks, to grow green feed, to practice culling, and to keep
flock records. The fifth of the principal projects was the work
with 4-H club members interested in keeping poultry. Other
phases of the work for the year included the Florida National
Egg-Laying Contest, assistance in vaccination and parasite and
disease control, and miscellaneous work.
Thirty-eight counties were visited .by the Extension Poultry-
man during the year.

GROW HEALTHY CHICKS
A program of encouraging and assisting poultrymen to produce
healthy chicks, and thus reduce chick mortality, improve the
quality of pullets produced, and reduce the cost of raising pullets,
was started in 1928 and has been continued every year since then.
During 1932, its fifth year, it included the same six factors that
have been found so desirable in raising chicks and have been in-
cluded each year. These factors are: hatch early, clean eggs and
chicks, clean brooder houses, clean land, balanced ration, and
separation of cockerels from pullets. Poultrymen were en-
couraged to adopt all six of these factors, and results have shown
that their adoption is profitable to the producers.
A summary of the results obtained indicates the value of put-
ting into practice the six factors stressed in the program. Each
year the mortality on farms adopting all six factors was below
10 percent.
Table I shows chick mortality by weeks, and the average. It
will be noted that the greatest mortality occurs during the first
week, and mortality declines after that.
TABLE I.-CHICK MORTALITY TO 8 WEEKS OF AGE.
Weeks Number Chicks Alive Weekly Mortality
Percent
Start ............................ 85,729
1st Week ........................ 82,100 4.21
2nd W eek ........................ 78,938 3.85
3rd W eek ........................ 76,882 2.60
4th W eek ........................ 75,517 1.77
5th W eek ........................ 74,704 1.07
6th W eek ........................ 74,127 .77
7th W eek ........................ 73,657 .63
8th W eek ........................ 73,251 .55
TOTAL ....................... 90,615 16.27







Annual Report, 1932


TABLE II.-RESULTS OF GROW HEALTHY CHICK CAMPAIGN.
1928 1929 1930 1931
No. of producers ..................... 35 38 28 21
Av. number chicks per farm .......... 845 579 1,017 793
Percent mortality during 8 weeks ...... 24.26 13.87 14.25 12.76
No. of farms with mortality over 20%.. 15 8 8 4
Average mortality-6 factors adopted.. 7.29 5.03 9.49 8.33

Table II gives number of producers, average number of chicks
per farm, average chick mortality, and percent mortality of farms
adopting the six factors.
TABLE III.-IMPORTANCE OF ADOPTING THE SIX FACTORS.
Four-year Average Results in the
Grow Healthy Chick Campaign
No. of No. of Mortality Mortality
Factors Adopted Chicks Number Percent
6 ......................... 47,577 3,217 6.76
5 ......................... 35,686 7,873 21.51
4 ......................... 11,240 3,318 29.51
3 ......................... 239 99 41.42
Table III shows the results when one or more factors were not
put into practice. Note how the mortality increased from 6.76
percent to 41.42 percent as the number of factors adopted de-
creased.
GROW GREEN FEED

The use of green feed as a part of the feeding program for
poultry is both desirable and important for the growing bird and
the producer.
Printed literature on types of green feed, planting dates, etc.,
has been available for the producers, encouraging them to adopt
a plan to have green feed the year round.
Succulent green feeds have proven to be a profitable phase of
feeding efficiency.
TABLE IV.-RELATION OF USE OF GREEN FEED TO EGG PRODUCTION AND
RETURNS, 36 FARMS, 1930-31.
Value of Eggs
No. of Eggs Eggs Oct. Percent Over Feed,
Farms Per Bird to Dec. Mortality Per Bird
No green feed ......... 6 135.2 14.1 14.6 $1.18
Green feed part of year. 12 151.3 17.3 13.2 1.32
Green feed all year ..... 18 167.00 24.4 12.5 1.64
Average or total .... 36 156.47 20.33 13.12 $1.45

In Table IV the 36 farms were sorted on the basis of whether
green feed was fed part of the year, all the year, or none at all.
The farms feeding no green feed had an average production of
135.2 eggs per bird, while the farms feeding green feed all year
had an average egg production of 167, a difference of 32 eggs.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The farms feeding green feed had a greater winter egg pro-
duction, greater total production, lower mortality, greater re-
turns over feed cost, and lower feed cost per dozen eggs.

CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS
Lower egg prices during the past year made it possible and de-
sirable to discuss culling and to give more culling demonstrations.
The maintenance of high production was essential. The low pro-
ducer had to be discarded, either sold or eaten.
The Extension Poultryman has assisted the agents in conduct-
ing 35 culling demonstrations. The reports from 30 agents show
that 713 culling demonstrations were given during the year.

CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
The project known as the Home Egg-Laying Contest was
changed to the name "Calendar Flock Records." The purpose of
this project is to encourage poultry producers to keep records of
their poultry expenses and receipts, so that the year's business
can be summarized and studied.
Two different record books were used, starting with the new
records 1932-33, one for small flocks, and the other for commer-
cial flocks.
Table V gives the yearly egg production, number of farms com-
pleting, and number of birds represented since 1926.
TABLE V.-YEARLY EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD FOR SEVEN YEARS, 1926-1932.
No. of Farms No. of Birds Eggs Per Bird
1926 ................... 25 5,515 161.07
1927 ................... 29 6,620 160.04
1928 .................... 18 4,275 156.60
1929 .................... 38 7,893 158.46
1930 .................. 41 14,915 159.87
1931 ...........:....... 51 17,040 158.54
1932 ................... 59 16,989 156.15

The flocks are divided into four groups according to the number
of birds involved as follows: Group I, 10-50 birds; Group II,
51-250 birds; Group III, 251-500 birds; Group IV, over 500 birds.
Table VI gives the monthly egg production, percent mortality,
and percent culling in the Seventh Florida Calendar Flock
Records.
The number of eggs per bird per month was figured on the basis
of average number of birds for the month divided into the total
egg production for the month.







Annual Report, 1932 57

TABLE VI.-MONTHLY EGG PRODUCTION, PERCENT MORTALITY AND PERCENT
CULLING IN THE SEVENTH FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
OCTOBER 1, 1931-SEPTEMBER 30, 1932.
No. Eggs Percent Percent
Month Per Bird Mortality Culling
October .................. 6.68 1.14 2.42
November ................ 8.84 2.55 1.08
December ................ 10.79 2.67 1.15
January ................. 14.00 1.17 3.41
February ................ 15.91 1.08 5.23
March ................... 16.97 1.22 5.24
April .................... 18.26 1.38 3.91
May ..................... 17.92 1.85 3.75
June ..................... 15.20 1.55 5.13
July ................. .... 12.20 3.74 12.80
August ................... 10.77 1.99 3.95
September ................ 8.58 1.69 10.28

The culling and mortality percentages were figured on the basis
of the number of birds reported the first of the month divided into
the total number of birds that died and the number of birds culled
(sold or eaten).
During the year 42 records for the year October 1, 1930-Septem-
ber 30, 1931, from poultry producers were studied. A number of
these records were from producers enrolled in the Calendar Flock
Records. These records were analyzed by the Extension Econ-
omist and the Extension Poultryman. The findings were mime-
ographed and distributed to the cooperators and other interested
producers.
Some of the results obtained are:
1. The average number of birds per farm was 874.
2. The average capital invested in poultry farming was $2,872
per farm, or $3.29 per bird.
3. The cash family income was $731.
4. The average egg production per bird was 156 eggs.
5. The feed cost per bird per year was $1.79.
6. The size of flock affected labor earnings. The larger the
flock the greater were the labor earnings.
7. An increase in egg production resulted in greater labor earn-
ings and a lower cost for producing a dozen eggs. The total cost
of producing a dozen eggs was 28.5 cents.
8. Winter egg production is an important factor in successful
poultry farming. High winter egg production resulted in high
total production and high labor earnings.
9. An increase in adult mortality resulted in lower egg produc-
tion, greater depreciation per bird, a lower value of eggs over feed
costs and smaller labor earnings.







Florida Cooperative Extension


10. The average feed consumption per bird was 77.5 pounds.
High feed intake and high egg production were found to be cor-
related.
JUNIOR POULTRY WORK
The 4-H poultry club program was developed around these three
phases:
1. Production project-the boy or girl owns and manages his
or her own flock.
2. Improvement project-the boy or girl manages the flock on
farm if purebred.
3. State Poultry Club Show and Judging Contest.
The total number of boys and girls enrolled in 4-H poultry work
was 1,550 and 1,282 members completed their projects. The total
number of birds in the completed projects was 37,837, or an
average of 30 birds to the flock.


Fig. 8.-A 4-H club girl demonstrates the points of a good layer to fellow
club girls and boys.

Visits were made to 4-H poultry flocks during the year. Club
meetings were attended, and various phases of poultry produc-
tion were discussed, principally sanitation, feeding, houses, cull-
ing, growing healthy chicks, and record keeping. Three 4-H
poultry tours were conducted.







Annual Report, 1932


The 4-H boys' and girls' short courses were held at Gainesville
and Tallahassee. Record keeping, and fundamental poultry in-
formation was given.
The second state 4-H Poultry Show and Judging Contest was
held in connection with the Volusia County Fair, DeLand, Febru-
ary 16-20, 1932.
There were 33 boys and girls from five counties who exhibited
231 birds, mostly Rhode Island Reds, White Leghorns, Barred
Plymouth Rocks, White Plymouth Rocks, White Wyandottes, and
Blue Andalusians.
The 4-H Judging Contest was held in connection with the poul-
try show. Each judging team was composed of three 4-H poultry
club members. There were seven teams competing for individual
and team awards. Each member of the judging team competing
for prizes was required (1) to make an exhibit of at least 5 birds,
including one male, (2) submit a record book, (3) answer 10
questions concerning Standard-bred birds, and (4) judge 16 birds,
4 each of Barred Plymouth Rocks, White Wyandottes, Single
Comb Rhode Island Reds, and Single Comb White Leghorns.
A team of boys from Lake County, trained under the leader-
ship of the County Agent, was awarded first place. A team of
boys and girls from Orange County, trained by the county and
home demonstration agents, was awarded second prize.
The outstanding award-given to the highest scoring individ-
ual-went to Thomas Lamb, an Orange County club boy. Thomas
will receive a $100 scholarship to the University of Florida.
The second highest individual was Marcus Williams, Eustis,
Florida.
The 4-H Club Egg-Laying Contest ended the year September
23, 1932. There were five pens entered, six pullets to a pen, one
pen from Escambia County, and four pens from Lake County.
There were three pens of White Leghorns, one pen'of Barred
Plymouth Rocks and one pen of White Plymouth Rocks.
The high pen of heavy breeds was the pen of Barred Plymouth
Rocks owned by Herbert Babb, Umatilla, Florida. These five
pullets produced a total of 983 eggs for a value of 902.15 points.
Three of the birds produced over 200 eggs each.
The high pen of light breeds was the pen of White Leghorns
owned by Frieda Nowak, Cantonment, Florida. These five pullets
produced a total of 1,116 eggs for a value of 1,119.30 points. There
were eight birds from the three competing pens of White Leg-
horns that produced over 200 eggs each.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The White Leghorn owned by Edward Zellman, Umatilla, had
the greatest number of eggs to her credit. This bird produced 255
eggs for a value of 210.95 points. The highest bird in this contest
was a White Leghorn owned by Frieda Nowak. This bird produced
227 eggs for a value of 237.50 points.
POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS
Local and county poultry associations in Lake, Orange, Pinellas,
Okaloosa, Seminole, Hillsborough, Polk, Manatee, Lee, Highlands,
and Dade counties have assisted materially in carrying out the
Extension poultry program. Meetings were held with the various
associations, at which time educational data were presented.
The American Poultry Association of Florida through its mem-
bers has cooperated in every way to encourage junior poultry
work and higher quality poultry in the state. It has also fostered
and assisted in making the State 4-H Poultry Club Show and Judg-
ing Contest a success.
The Florida Baby Chick Association and its members have co-
operated and assisted the Agricultural Extension Service in mak-
ing the Grow Healthy Chick program successful. A two-day
meeting was held at Orlando in October. An interesting and valu-
able program was given.
The accreditation of poultry flocks in Florida is under the su-
pervision of the Livestock Sanitary Board. Dr. D. C. Gilles, Poul-
try Service Veterinarian of this Board, has assisted in poultry
meetings and with regulatory work at the National Egg-Laying
Contest.
The State Marketing Bureau, with its Poultry Marketing
Specialist, F. W. Risher, has worked in close cooperation with the
agents and the state office in an educational way.
HOME-MADE BRICK BROODERS
The use of home-made brick brooders which was started three
years ago in West Florida has become more widespread. The
brooder is cheap and efficient and is being used successfully on
farms in West and Central Florida.
More than 100 of these brooders were in operation this past
season. Farmers report better results since they started using
them, in place of the hen or some other method.
CHICKENPOX VACCINATION
The use of chickenpox vaccine has become more widespread
each year. This vaccine is in general use among commercial







Annual Report, 1932


poultrymen to prevent the occurrence of chickenpox. In Florida
this disease generally makes its appearance in the late summer
and fall, about the time the young pullets come into production,
and results in a loss of egg production at the time when the price
of eggs is high. Very often this disease is accompanied by colds
and roup, resulting in mortality and a decrease in returns.
The birds are generally vaccinated when they are from 12 to 16
weeks of age.
It has been estimated that 100,000 birds were vaccinated this
past season.
POULTRY MEETINGS
The Extension Poultryman attended 42 poultry meetings with
1,260 present. Seven all-day poultry schools were held.
An intensive poultry program was presented during Farmers'
Week. The daily attendance in the poultry section ranged from
25 to 75 people.

PARASITE AND DISEASE CONTROL
Worm control studies are still in progress, in which the Veter-
inary Division of the Experiment Station and the' Extension
Service are cooperating. The experiment is to determine the
value of worming as practiced by a large number of Florida poul-
trymen and to determine if it is profitable to worm pullets at the
National Egg-Laying Contest.
In brief, the experiment may be outlined as follows: All flocks
were divided into three equal pens. All management practices
were similar in each experiment. One pen was treated with
tetrachlorethylene and kamala, the second was treated with iodine
vermicide, and the third was untreated.
Complete records were kept on Experiment Station pens two
years and on flocks of three different producers one year.
The conclusions drawn from these preliminary studies are:
1. These experiments indicate that hens given one worm treat-
ment and placed back on the same ground are handicapped, since
they suffer a decreased egg production due to treatment, and are
reinfested with ascarids and tapeworms before they have time
to recover.
2. Worm treatment as has been practiced in Florida and used
in these experiments is apparently not only worthless but harm-
ful and expensive.
3. There apparently was no superiority of one treatment over
the other.







Florida Cooperative Extension


4. There is no correlation between the degree of ascarid infesta-
tion and egg production in laying hens.
5. It would seem from the indications in these preliminary
studies of the value of vermifuges that the best procedure for
poultrymen to follow would be to inaugurate sanitary measures
to prevent as far as possible infestation and when infestation does
occur, cull vigorously, and forget worm treatment until some
vermifuge and method of use has been found, tested, and proven
beneficial by the use of control flocks.
The Extension Poultryman is cooperating with the Experiment
Station in preliminary surveys of fowl paralysis.

NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST
The Sixth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest located at
Chipley was conducted from October 1, 1930, to September 22,
1931. There were 84 pens entered. Twenty-one different states
and 17 counties from Florida were represented. The average egg
production for the 51 weeks' period was 187.4 eggs per bird. The
average egg production for the heavy breeds was 168.87 eggs,
and for the light breeds 194.81 eggs.
A detailed report of the Sixth National Egg-Laying Contest is
available in printed form.

MISCELLANEOUS AND EMERGENCY WORK
Judging was done at eight poultry shows last year, the Exten-
sion Poultryman handling the junior poultry exhibits and in
some cases the open classes.
Fifteen conferences were held with feed men and fair managers
relative to poultry problems in their localities.

POULTRY STATISTICAL DATA
The following data have been compiled from the county and
home demonstration agents reports:
Number of communities participating ........................... 556
Number of leaders assisting ........................... ...... 232
Days agents devoted to poultry ................................. 1180
Number of meetings held ...................................... 827
Number of news stories published .............................. 424
Number of different circular letters issued ...................... 321
Number of farm or home visits .............................. 3241
Number of office calls ....................................... 6334
Number of method demonstration meetings held.................. 749
Number of adult result demonstrations completed or carried into the
next year ............................................ 1363
Number of animals involved in these completed adult result demon-
strations ..................................................225,724
Total profit or saving on adult result demonstrations completed..... $67,016







Annual Report, 1932


CITRUS CULTURE
E. F. DEBUSK, Citriculturist
Citrus growers are making drastic reductions in grove operat-
ing costs. Consequently, increasing demands are being made on
the Extension Service by growers and organizations in adjusting
their practices to meet existing conditions. All projects and
special service work, therefore, have centered around reducing
the cost of producing citrus without sacrificing quality of fruit.

COVER-CROPS AND MULCHING
The need of more organic matter in our citrus soils is univer-
sally recognized. More than 70 percent of our citrus acreage
shows a great need of more coarse organic matter than is being
supplied. The minimum requirement of these soils is indicated
by research as three tons per acre (dry weight) per annum. This
is our goal.
The Service conducted 139 cover-crop demonstrations in 13
leading citrus counties and representing approximately 5,200
acres to demonstrate the best adapted cover-crops and the most
efficient method of handling them. Under certain conditions cro-
talaria is by far the most satisfactory cover-crop. Under other
conditions it is difficult to secure a stand of crotalaria, and conse-
quently better results are obtained by purchasing a cheap form
of soluble nitrogen and applying it as a fertilizer to the grasses
(mostly Natal) that come voluntarily. In such demonstrations
a dollar's worth of nitrogen has, on the average, increased the
yield of grass approximately 1,000 pounds (dry weight) per acre.
This grass has a value of about $5.00 a ton in a large percentage
of our groves on the light sandy soils.
Demonstrations have shown that best results are obtained from
a cover-crop of grass by mowing it in July or August and applying
the material around the trees as a mulch. Demonstrations in
mulching representing more than 5,000 acres have given good
results. Muck, grass, weeds and leaves are being hauled into the
groves from the outside. The proper use of such material reduces
the cost of production and improves the quality of both fruit
and tree.
CULTIVATION
This project has aimed at reducing production cost by elim-
inating unnecessary and injurious cultivation. Aside from incor-
porating the cover-crop material with the top soil as a means of







Florida Cooperative Extension


fire protection, it is doubtful if any further cultivation is justified
under ordinary grove conditions. Research has pointed out that
organic matter is lost by unnecessary grove cultivation. Dem-
onstrations have established the fact that root pruning by deep
cultivation weakens the tree and renders it more susceptible to
disease attack and insect injury. Poor texture of fruit is trace-
able mainly to excessive cultivation. One hundred demonstrations
in 13 counties have been conducted but it is extremely difficult to
measure results accomplished. This work has saved the growers
of one county $15,000 in actual operation costs.
The savings on production costs by improved practices will
exceed $500,000 annually.

IRRIGATION

The rainfall in the citrus belt has been unusually light and
groves have suffered from a deficiency of soil moisture. Forty-
six growers with 3,000 acres have been assisted in installing grove
irrigation plants. Assistance has been rendered 57 growers in
applying irrigation water. Fourteen grower meetings were held
in which grove irrigation was the chief subject discussed. Twenty-
three demonstrations were conducted in which irrigation is used
to replace one to three grove cultivations. The objective is to
save enough on the cost of cultivation to pay for the irrigation,
thus giving heavier cover-crop yields and more organic matter.
Study is being made by the Extension Citriculturist, correlating
the average daily rainfall of 30 to 35 stations distributed through-
out the citrus belt, of each year since 1925, with the production
of each respective year. This is done to point out the months in
which a deficiency or an abundance of soil moisture have marked
influence upon production; these data to be used as a guide as to
the time, and rate of application of irrigation water. An analysis
of these data suggests the importance of keeping up the soil mois-
ture content in December, and March to June. A bearing orange
grove takes up approximately one inch, or 27,000 gallons, per acre
in 10 days. Irrigation water is applied during the critical months,
on that basis.
FERTILIZING

Since fertilizing calls for more than 50% of the total cash outlay
in producing a crop of citrus fruit, our program of supplying or-
ganic matter, by a more efficient use of cover-crops and manures;
of improving cultivation practices; and of more efficient grove







Annual Report, 1932


irrigation, is designed as a basis for more efficient use of the com-
mercial fertilizers.
The cheaper forms of plant food are being used. As the grower
obtains the desired results with the concentrated inorganic ferti-
lizers he sees that the cost permits him to use them more liberally,
with the result of increased yield and reduced unit cost in ferti-
lizing.

METHODS OF APPLICATION

The efficiency of fertilizing citrus groves has been greatly in-
creased by improvements in the methods of application. A study
of the root distribution of citrus trees has brought out facts that
are leading to the practice of applying more of the fertilizer under
the branches of the tree, especially in the fall and spring applica-
tions, since 80 to 90 percent of the roots of a tree are found under
this area. An extra application of nitrogen is made out in the
tree middles in June to August to fertilize the cover crop. This
change from the practice of applying the fertilizer largely from
the end of the branches of the tree outward in a narrow belt is
giving much better results, with no additional cost. This study
of the distribution of the tree roots has also been the means of
improving practices in cultivation, mulching, and in the applica-
tion of irrigation water.

DISEASE CONTROL

The most effective work during the last four years in the con-
trol of melanose and stem-end rot, dieback and ammoniation,
gummosis and psorosis, has been directed along the line of indirect
control or prevention.
Melanose:-Controlling melanose by spraying with bordeaux-
oil is a general practice when returns permit and when conditions
seem to justify the practice, but opportunities through indirect
control-prevention of the production of dead wood-are still too
often overlooked.
Inadequate soil moisture, deep cultivation and improper ferti-
lizing are the chief causes of dying back of twigs and branches.
In rare cases twigs are killed by scale-insects, and by the improper
use of oil in scale control. The problem of practical melanose con-
trol runs through the whole program of citrus culture. The same
may be said in reference to withertip, dieback, ammoniation,
frenching and other trunk and root diseases.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Our efforts to control melanose by spraying were unsuccessful,
owing to the long drawn-out blooming and fruit setting period
following an unusually warm, dry, winter.
Scab:-The economic factors that affect melanose control
operate also in scab control. The long fruit-setting period of last
spring presented a condition under which spraying was very
ineffective. In a few cases the dormant spray of lime-sulphur
1-25 gave satisfactory results. Bordeaux applied at the same
time gave better control.
Blue Mold Decay:-The control of blue mold decay depends in
a large measure upon the manner in which the fruit is handled
from the tree to the packinghouse. Nine meetings with growers
and pickers were held, in which the proper method of handling
fruit was carefully outlined.

INSECT CONTROL
Assistance has been rendered in improving spraying equipment
used in applying lime-sulphur. The cost of spraying has been
greatly reduced and lime-sulphur is finding a larger place in our
insect control program, beginning to replace oil emulsion in scale
control. It has the advantage of being stimulating to the tree,
instead of shocking it, as does the oil emulsion used in scale
control.
Rust-Mite:-Seventy-one demonstrations in spraying and dust-
ing for rust-mite control, covering more than 2,000 acres and
affecting 300,000 boxes of fruit, were conducted.
Scale and Whitefly:-Natural control of scale-insects and white-
fly is being rapidly developed. Considerable time is being devoted
to a study of individual grove conditions where natural control
of scale-insects is most effective, to determine- the minimum
amount of spraying required for satisfactory control under the
given conditions. Some of these demonstration groves have not
been sprayed for scale for six years, and are just as free of scale
injury as they were when sprayed once, and sometimes twice, a
year. Besides, the trees are in a more vigorous condition and
are producing larger crops of fruit.
Three cents invested in nitrogen and applied to the tree will
often accomplish more in the long run in ridding the tree of scale
than 15 cents invested in oil spraying. The point is, if a tree is
properly fertilized it will be able to withstand a light scale attack
until the scale fungi have time to develop and put the pest under
control. A hungry tree is a feeble fighter.







Annual Report, 1932


Whitefly have given very little trouble this year. This pest is
being held under control very largely by the use of. the Red
Aschersonia, a parasitic fungus that is grown in cultures by the
State Plant Board and supplied to growers as they need it. Sev-
eral hundred cultures are placed through the influence of Exten-
sion workers each year.
The greatest need in our program of economical scale and white-
fly control is the development of a practicable method of growing
and distributing the brown fungus parasite of the whitefly and
the ;pink and red-headed fungi parasites of our most common
scale-insects.
MEETINGS AND GROVE TOURS
During the year, 126 meetings and schools of instruction were
conducted, with a total attendance of more than 3,000 growers.
In Lake, Orange and Highland counties, organized citrus clubs
meet every two weeks and follow definite courses of study in
citrus culture. Twenty-one grove tours were conducted in 10
counties with more than 500 growers taking part. These tours
were made to various demonstrations and cooperative experi-
ments in the different counties, and to the Citrus Experiment
Station at Lake Alfred.

GROVE VISITS
It is through these visits that the grower's needs and view-
points are fully appreciated. During the year, more than 4,000
grove visits and inspections were made, going into every com-
mercial citrus-producing county of the state.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
J. E. TURLINGTON, Agricultural Economist
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
W. R. BRIGGS, Asst. Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, Agricultural Economist, Marketing

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

The continued world-wide depression, in which prices of the
commodities the farmers have to sell have fallen more rapidly
than the prices of the commodities they buy, has greatly reduced
the farmers' income. In addition to low purchasing power, a
heavy indebtedness contracted when prices were much higher has
caused many farmers to lose their farms. Much information is
needed regarding farm credit, purchasing of farm supplies, effi-
cient marketing, organization of the farm business, and econom-
ical production. This need has been met by use of previous re-
search studies or through short-time projects carried on during
the year. The efforts to accomplish this can be grouped as fol-
lows: farm accounts, studies of farm organization and enterprises,
and dissemination of economic information.

FARM ACCOUNTS AND RECORDS
There were 43 poultry record books turned over to the County
Agents, Poultry Specialist, or Farm Management Specialist for
summarizing in the fall of 1931. These records included receipts
and expenses, egg and mortality records, and incubation records.
Commercial flocks in central Florida gave information to compute
the cost of producing eggs, raising pullets, hatching chicks and
total labor returns to the operator. Each cooperator received a
two-page summary of his record compared with the average re-
sults. A mimeographed report was prepared showing the costs,
returns and relationship of certain management practices to
profits.
Some of the practices found to be related to returns may be
found in the report of the Poultry Specialist and are not given
here.
During 1931-32, two poultry record books were prepared, one
for commercial and a less detailed book for the small flocks. Since
there are many non-commercial flocks where records will be taken,
a smaller poultry record book was prepared for their use in 1932-
33, in addition to the book for commercial flocks.







Annual Report, 1932


GENERAL FARM ACCOUNTS
The third account project in 1932 was a farm account book for
general farms. It provided for receipts and expenses and for
an inventory at the beginning and end of the year. These were
distributed in meetings of farmers and county agents.

STUDIES OF FARM ORGANIZATIONS
There are certain general farm management practices that
cause variations in the amount of money made by farmers. These
can best be determined by studying the operation of farms in an
area. Two community surveys were made for the year 1931.
Records for 79 farms were secured from farmers in Suwannee
County and 43 from farmers in the Jay community of Santa Rosa
County.
The procedure for such surveys was as follows: The Farm
Management Specialist with the County Agent took the records.
This required from three to five days in a county. The records
were summarized and analyzed at the College. Each farmer was
furnished a summary of his farm business compared with the
average of all the farms in the community.
The farms in Santa Rosa County received about 75% of their
income from the sale of cotton and cotton seed. The farmers in
Suwannee County sold cotton, watermelons, tobacco and hogs.

TABLE VII.-SUMMARY OF FARM BUSINESS FOR SUWANNEE AND SANTA
ROSA COUNTY FARMS, 1931.
Average 79 Farms Average 43 Farms
Suwannee County Santa Rosa County
Average Farm Capital ............. $3,643 $6,439
Receipts:
Crops ................ ........... 397 979
Livestock and Livestock Products.. 258 137
Miscellaneous ................... 30 25
685 1,141
Expenses:
Cash Expenses .................. 456 726
Decrease in Capital .............. 218 143
Unpaid Family Labor............. 111 142
785 1,011
Farm Income ..................... $ -100 130
Interest on Capital 7% ............. 255 450
Operator's Labor Income ........... -355 -320
Cash Receipts less Cash Expenses.... 229 415
Factors for Analyzing Farm Business:
Acres Crops per Farm ............. 78 77
Number of Workstock per Farm..... 2.2 2.7
Crop Acres per Work Animal ....... 35.6 28.0







Florida Cooperative Extension


The results of these two surveys clearly show the effect of
present low prices on the incomes of farmers in these areas. We
see that the cash farm income over expenses was $229 for the
Suwannee County farms, and $415 for Santa Rosa. This is the
amount the family had to spend, provided the farmer owned all
of the farm capital and he did not go in debt. If interest and
other non-cash expenses were charged, the operators of these
farms lacked $355 and $320 respectively of receiving anything
for their labor in 1931. See Table VII.
Under these conditions, with 75 to 80% of the farms showing
a minus labor income, the larger the farm the greater the loss.
The most important factor that was found to increase labor in-
come was crop yields per acre. The large farms with below-
average crop yields showed the largest loss for both areas. The
group showing the smallest loss was the small farms with above-
average crop yields. With high fixed overhead in capital, real
estate and equipment, with certain fixed expenses and the impos-
sibility of quick changes in organization of the farm, the farmer
is in a relatively difficult position during falling prices. It would
take prices 150 to 200% of those for 1931 before the large farm
operators would receive more for their labor than the small farm
operator, if the expenses remained the same.
TABLE VIII.-RELATIONSHIP OF SIZE OF FARM AND CROP YIELDS TO FARM
RETURNS, 1931.
Number of Percent Operator's Farm Cash
Workstock Average Labor Receipts over
Per Farm Yield Income Cash Expenses
SUWANNEE COUNTY:
Small Farms:
Low crop yields ....... 1.6 68 $ -364 $ 77
High crop yields....... 1.5 135 -234 217
Large Farms:
Low crop yields ....... 3.9 72 -740 251
High crop yields....... 3.5 140 -270 563
SANTA ROSA COUNTY:
Small Farms:
Low crop yields ....... 1.7 86 $ -257 $185
High crop yields....... 1.9 114 35 460
Large Farms:
Low crop yields ....... 3.8 88 -619 426
High crop yields....... 3.7 123 -322 780
A study was also made of corn production. Records were
obtained from farmers in six counties. They were summarized
and comparisons were made of cost of fertilizing, cultivation and
harvesting by various methods. The results were used at farm-
ers' institutes, Farmers' Week and County Agents' Week. At







Annual Report, 1932


this time, no report has been prepared on the results. This will
probably be done after another year's results have been collected.
DISSEMINATION OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION
This type of work goes on throughout the year in the form of
radio talks, "The Florida Extension Economist," mimeographed
reports and letters. Radio articles are broadcast over WRUF
when data of general interest are available. "The Florida Exten-
sion Economist" which has a circulation among approximately
1,200 farmers and agricultural workers, is printed each month
and usually carries one or more farm management articles.
In addition, farmers interested in special subjects are provided
with farm management facts. Mailing lists of poultrymen, potato
growers, dairymen, and others, are kept; and, as various farm
management research data, outlook reports or special data are
available, they are mimeographed and sent to those interested.

MARKETING
The marketing activities of the Extension Specialist have in-
cluded the following projects:
1. Hog prices by grade and season-continued from previous
year.
2. Effect of motor truck transportation on marketing of farm
products and bulk movement of citrus fruits.
3. Economic study of cucumber farms.
4. Management and marketing practices of range cattle.
5. Distribution of citrus fruits.
6. Assistance to existing and prospective marketing organiza-
tions.
The project was started March, 1931. The following report is a
continuation of that study to determine variation in farm prices
of hogs by season and grade.
HOG PRICES BY GRADE AND SEASON
The assembling and tabulation of prices paid to farmers by local
dealers have shown that farm prices of Florida hogs have tended
downward since the fall of 1927, or the beginning of the market-
ing season of 1927-28.
TABLE IX.-FARM PRICES OF HOGS, NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA, SEASONS
1928-29 THROUGH 1931-32.
Number Price per Average
Season of Head 100 Pounds Weight
1928-29 ........................ 5,537 $7.05 138
1929-30 ........................ 13,619 6.89 144
1930-31 ........................ 13,913 6.14 139
1931-32 ........................ 12,877 3.50 124







Florida Cooperative Extension


Prices for the 1931-32 season reacted in approximately
the same manner as in previous seasons. August-September
prices were from 11/2 to 21/2 cents higher than December-January
prices. February-March prices failed to increase very much.
Prices did not increase materially until about August-September
of the present season.
The average weight of live hogs marketed during the 1931-32
season was lower than normal. This was due to a higher percent-
age of small hogs marketed early and also that prices fell so low.
BULK CAR-LOT SHIPMENTS OF CITRUS FROM FLORIDA,
SEASON 1931-32
Data for the bulk car-lot movement of citrus were obtained
from the railroads and tabulated, showing states and principal
cities to which this fruit was billed. Total car-lot unloads also
were tabulated to determine the relative importance of bulk car-
lot shipments for various states and cities. Approximately 11/2
million boxes of bulk citrus were shipped by rail during the season
1931-32. About 1,750 cars of this number were oranges, 1,350 cars
were grapefruit, and 1,125 cars were mixed and miscellaneous
fruit. Practically no tangerines were shipped in bulk.
Ohio, Michigan, Tennessee, Virginia, Georgia, Pennsylvania,
and Indiana were the principal receivers of bulk car-lot citrus.
Approximately 80 percent of all car-lot receipts in Virginia,
Georgia, and South Carolina were in bulk cars.
TABLE X.-UNLOADS OF ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT AT NINE CITIES, SHOW-
ING PERCENTAGE ORIGINATED IN FLORIDA-FIVE-YEAR AVERAGE 1927-31.
Oranges Grapefruit
Total Florida Total Florida
Unloads Unloads '% of Total Unloads Unloads % of Total
New York .. 14,495 .5,804 40 5,646 3,750 66
Chicago ..... 5,340 1,039 19 1,871 1,650 88
Boston ...... 4,754 1,893 40 1,244 1,143 92
Philadelphia.. 4,486 2,485 55 1,215 1,152 95
Detroit ..... 2,356 364 15 747 706 95
Pittsburgh .. 2,076 767 37 546 538 99
Cleveland ... 1,861 540 29 590 570 97
St. Louis .... 1,468 325 22 447 353 79
Baltimore ... 1,455 965 66 442 435 98
Observations indicated that there was a larger percentage of
spoilage of citrus in bulk cars than in trucks or in packages
shipped by rail.
ECONOMIC STUDY OF CUCUMBER FARMS
A business analysis was made of these farms to determine the
relation of such factors as crop yields, capital turnover, diversity
index, price index, education of operator, manwork units per man,
total manwork units, and acreage of cucumbers to profits.









TABLE XI.-SUMMARY OF FARM BUSINESS PER FARM ON FLORIDA CUCUMBER FARMS, SEASONS 1927-28 AND 1929-30.

Winter
Area Williston Webster-Bushnell Wauchula Alachua Garden
Season 1927-28 1929-30 1927-28 1929-30 1927-28 1927-28 1927-28

Number of farms ............... 71 119 62 101 52 34 27
Farm area acres ................. 137.1 226.4 90.8 70.8 37.0 206.7 71.6
Crop acres ...................... 61.7 77.7 27.2 29.1 16.0 68.0 48.0
Acres in crops* .................. 64.7 85.5 36.1 39.2 24.5 82.2 67.7
Number of work stock ............ 2.4 3.0 1.9 2.3 1.2 2.7 2.5
Total capital .................... $7,914 $2,326 $9,419 $6,026 $8,225 $9,361 $53,912
Receipts ........................ 2,807 787 3,947 2,539 3,462 3,983 16,022
Expenses ....................... 1,674 696 2,630 2,202 1,908 2,876 11,309
Farm income** .................. 1,133 91 1,317 337 1,554 1,107 4,713
Interest on investment 7% ........ 554 163 659 422 576 655 3,774
Labor income*** ................. 579 -72 658 -85 978 452 939
Value operator's labor ............ $ 368 $ 130 $ 323 $ 483 $ 450 $ 404 $1,212
Percent return on investment...... 9.7 -1.68 10.6 -2.42 14.3 7.5 6.5
Value unpaid family labor (except
operator's) .................. $ 134 $ 35 $ 115 $ 158 $ 208 $ 136 $ 155
Family income .................. 1,267 126 1,432 495 1,762 1,243 4,868

Difference equals the acres re-cropped.
** Receipts less Expenses.
*** Farm Income less 7% on Capital.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Man hours of labor required to produce and harvest an acre of
cucumbers during the 1928 season varied from an average of 151
in the Williston area to 384 in the Webster-Bushnell area; while
man hours required for the 1930 season averaged 120 in the
Williston area and 313 in the Webster-Bushnell area. Also, more
horse labor was required to produce cucumbers in the Webster-
Bushnell area. For the 1928 season, it required 45 hours of horse
labor in the Williston area with 65 in the Webster-Bushnell area;
while in 1930, it required 40 hours in Williston and 52 in Webster-
Bushnell.
The Webster-Bushnell area produces cucumbers in a much more
intensive way. Frost protection is generally used by covering the
plants with cypress troughs. More farms are irrigated and larger
quantities of fertilizer are used in that area.
The low yields of the 1930 season partly explain why less labor
was used. Not only did they require less labor for harvesting,
but where a portion of a field was killed by frost or drowned, it
was. abandoned. Since these portions were fertilized, planted and
cultivated for a while, the entire acreage was included in calculat-
ing labor and materials required.
The study of these data is being continued in an effort to deter-
mine the factors that affect yields.
MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING PRACTICES OF RANGE CATTLE
Ninety-one herds located in 14 counties were studied. One of
the purposes was to determine the economic effect of purebred
bulls; therefore, a large number of herds which had purebred
bulls were included. Since the Texas fever tick had been eradicat-
ed in only a few counties and in most of these for a short time
(this fever seems to affect imported cattle more than native), it
was impossible to determine the economic advantage of purebred
bulls crossed with native cattle.
It is the consensus of opinion that pastures must be improved
at a low cost and ranges must be fenced if cattlemen make sub-
stantial headway with purebred bulls.
The slaughter of beef from 59 of the 91 herds observed was on
farms or in local slaughter pens and the beef sold locally. Low
price of beef cattle partly explains the high percentage of farm
killing, since many of those who were holding for higher markets
were owners of large herds who depended on packer markets as
their outlet.







Annual Report, 1932


DISTRIBUTION OF CITRUS FRUITS
Data for this study were taken from the reports of the Bureau
of Agricultural Economics, U. S. D. A., showing unloads for 66
cities. The majority of the markets which receive more cars of
Florida than California oranges are in the east and southeast.
Philadelphia is the only very large receiver which gets more than
half of its oranges from Florida.
Florida exceeds its competitors in percentage of grapefruit
unloads in practically all the large receiving cities.
ASSISTANCE TO EXISTING AND PROSPECTIVE MARKETING
ASSOCIATIONS
Live-at-home and diversification programs resulted in the pro-
duction of a surplus of a number of commodities which had no
previous outlet. This caused an unusual demand to be made on
the Extension Service for assistance. Existing marketing organ-
izations were not always in a position to handle these products.
Several local organizations were formed during the last year, hav-
ing as their purpose the furnishing of an outlet for their products.







Florida Cooperative Extension


RODENT CONTROL
CARLYLE CARR, Specialist in Rodent Control

COTTON RAT
Cotton rats are present over the rolling lands in the central and
north portions of the state and are exceedingly numerous in the
low areas and over the Everglades. Although being destructive
to ground-nesting birds and their eggs generally, they do not
seriously damage agricultural crops except in the low areas such
as the Everglades. The greatest damage is done in the Indian
River section, the Okeechobee area, the marl land on the lower
East Coast, and the tomato growing area in Collier, Lee, Sarasota
and Manatee counties; on a total area of approximately 55,000
acres fruit and vegetable lands.
The principal crops injured are tomatoes, sugarcane, sweet
potatoes, squash, carrots and beans. The cotton rat damages
citrus by eating the bark at the base of the trunk, often completely
girdling the tree.
In the Manatee and Indian River sections, damage is so scat-
tered that so far no control by campaigns has been undertaken.


Fig. 9.-This Dade County farmer knows that the rodent control demon-
strations were effective-he gathered 263 dead cotton rats off of one acre of
sweet potatoes, and when he dug the potatoes found 250 more.







Annual Report, 1932


However, farmers of these areas have been advised as to control
methods.
In the Lake Okeechobee section, the United States Sugar Com-
pany, which farms large areas, has poisoned the cotton rat using
the recommendations of this Service. A supply of strychnine to
be used in the Everglades area has been placed at the Experiment
Station at Belle Glade, and 4,075 ounces of strychnine have been
used in the Okeechobee Section, resulting in the effective control
of rats at a substantial saving to the growers. In 1931 the United
States Sugar Company suffered a loss of 36 percent by rat damage
on 5,000 acres of sugarcane; this loss amounting to $96,000 from
rats alone. In 1932 the loss was less than 5 percent due to effec-
tive poisoning methods.
A total of 350 pounds of bait were distributed in the northern
area of Dade county, which resulted in perfect control.
The County Commissioners of Dade County have appropriated
$400 for cotton rat control in the northern part of the County.
During the past 12 months, 93,000 pounds of sweet potato bait
and 625 ounces of strychnine resulted in near perfect control over
the treated areas of 12,000 acres which suffered a loss of $150,000
from the cotton rat during 1931. Others donated $600 in services
and bait.
The Board of County Commissioners of Collier County donated
$100 for the purchase of strychnine, but insisted that all farmers
affected must carry on the work as recommended by the U. S. Bio-
logical Survey and the Agricultural Extension Service. There
are approximately 2,200 acres of truck crops, mostly tomatoes,
affected by cotton rats in this area.
The poison formula recommended and used over the trucking
areas is as follows:
Slice 16 pounds of raw sweet potatoes in slices %1-inch in thickness and
from % to 1 inch in diameter. Sprinkle one large handful salt over the
slices. Mix together, dry, one ounce of alkaloid strychnine and one ounce
of bicarbonate of soda (baking soda). Sift the strychnine mixture over the
salted sweet potatoes, stirring and mixing until the slices are evenly coated
with the poison. These slices should be dropped every 10 feet apart in 10-foot
rows in the field, or five feet apart about the edges of the field where the rats
come into the field from adjoining lands.

HOUSE RATS
Three kinds of house rats are prevalent over the entire state of
Florida, and after many tests it was found that the control of
the three requires a different method from the accepted control
in other states. In general, the northern part of Florida is







Florida Cooperative Extension


populated with the Norway rat, while the roof and black rats have
a general distribution.
Injury:-The injury caused in most cases by house rats is
similar to that in other states. Along the Indian River citrus and
South Florida sections, the roof rat is destructive to grapefruit,
oranges and guavas. These rats get into the tree by climbing
the wires, fences, or limbs which extend to the ground. They
damage the fruit by eating out the contents. The estimated
damage will amount to several thousand dollars each year.
The use of calcium cyanide for dusting the runs about poultry
houses is recommended where poisons may be dangerous to
animals and where a concentration of gas can be obtained.
Red squill, recommended for the control of the Norway rat, is
not effective in controlling the roof rat. Therefore, it was neces-
sary to find a poison and bait combination that would kill the Nor-
way rat and also the roof and black rats. A bait is made from
1 part of barium carbonate to 6 parts, by weight, of hamburg
steak or chopped apple.
Campaigns on a county-wide basis for the control of house rats
are contemplated during the ensuing year. The cost of a campaign
is low compared to the results obtained. Barium carbonate if
purchased wholesale will cost approximately 6 cents per pound,
whereas the retail price is often $2.00 per pound. When all
infested places in a county are poisoned at the same time more
permanent results are obtained.
In the Fort Pierce citrus grove section, C. B. Murray and a
group of citrus growers in his locality, have been conducting a
drive against the roof rat. They used 200 pounds of barium
carbonate.
MISCELLANEOUS
The control of moles, land crabs, pocket gophers, marsh rabbits,
and melon mice are problems in the state which are being handled
at present by individual effort through directions supplied by
this office.
This rodent control work has the active cooperation of the State
Game Commission, the Izaak Walton League, the Florida Wild
Life League, and approximately 2,000 farmers over the state.
These farmers are users of larger quantities of poisoned bait for
rat control than city people on rat campaigns. The saving to th2
farmer, during this period of low purchasing power of the farm-
er's dollar, is receiving our greatest attention and support.







Annual Report, 1932


PART III-WOMEN'S WORK

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Home Demonstration Agent
LUcY BELLE SETTLE, District Home Demonstration Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Home Demonstration Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, District Home Demonstration Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
ANNA MAE SIKES, Nutritionist

Many women and girls respond enthusiastically to the demon-
stration method of instruction. They establish demonstrations
in their own homes by putting into practice recommendations
made by home demonstration agents. Through these demonstra-
tions they learn and teach others. That the agent may serve all
of the farm families in the county, it is necessary for her to
amplify her services many times.
During 1932 home demonstration work was cooperatively
carried on in 515 communities in 30 counties by state and county
home demonstration staff and local people. There were 6,831
women enrolled in 284 home demonstration clubs and 8,496 girls
enrolled in 474 4-H clubs. Membership in the clubs is voluntary.
During the year these 15,327 women and girls met monthly for
instruction pertaining to greater thrift, best uses of farm home
resources, and other homemaking activities for the improvement
of the farm home and community life.
The clubs were organized into 19 county councils for women's
work and 26 for girls' work. The home demonstration council
represents the clubs of the county and all the activities of home
demonstration work. The Council is a demonstration in organ-
ization. It enables the agent to better plan for local needs and
conditions.
County boards make appropriations to conduct the Extension
work in counties. The school boards are generous in arranging
time for 4-H meetings, furnishing school busses for special oc-
casions, furnishing bulletin board space and encouraging 4-H club
members. Men's and women's civic clubs are generous in donat-
ing funds for 4-H club girls to attend the annual state short
course.
Welfare associations are looking to home demonstration agents
to assist with distribution and use of cloth for needy and also the







Florida Cooperative Extension


use of flour distributed through the Red Cross. Home agents
have conducted bread making demonstrations to which the lead-
ers in welfare work were invited.
Agents are giving assistance to welfare organizations with the
emergency gardening work and by distributing seed with instruc-
tions for planting.
The home agents have assisted in canning vegetables and meats
for the unemployed. Canning centers have been established in
counties.
Home demonstration club members are using information
which they have gained from the agent on school lunches and
clothing. Agents have the opportunity of assisting with clinics
for sick and crippled.
The 4-H club members have contributed jars of canned food for
the Children's Home in Pensacola.
The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs always evidences
support and interest in home demonstration work. This organ-
ization participates in each state meeting that the Federation
holds. One program each year is given over to home demonstra-
tion work in each club. The chairman of home demonstration
work spent the week in attendance at Farmers' Week.
The first vice-president of the State Congress of Parent-Teach-
,ers spent the entire time in attendance at Farmers' Week; and
their home service chairman two days of our Annual Conference.
She explained their program and acquainted herself with the Ex-
tension program. They are emphasizing home demonstration
work through their home service department. An excellent dem-
onstration of cooperation with that group and home demon-
stration members is in Pinellas County in work with the school
lunchroom managers. Both the Federation of Women's Clubs
and the Congress of Parents and Teachers invite contributions
from this organization to be published in their official magazine.
State Board of Health physicians and nurses have assisted with
special programs and the State 4-H Health Contest.
The home demonstration organization has participated in the
program at the annual meeting of the State Horticultural Society
and has a representative on the State Council of Health Welfare
and Education. The home improvement specialist is a member
of the beautification committee of the State Chamber of Com-
merce. The state home demonstration agent is counselor for
the State Home Economics Association and edits the State Home
Economics News Letter. She is also a member of the board of
directors of the Florida Social Workers Conference. Miss Keown,







Annual Report, 1932


district agent, has served on the executive committee of the
American Home Economics Association, and is president of the
Florida Home Economics Association.
EMERGENCY CONDITIONS
There has been curtailment of county funds and increased de-
mands for services. In every case reports show that to the home
demonstration agent individuals and organizations rightfully look
for counsel and assistance pertaining to families in the rural sec-
tions. In times of depression it is to the.home garden, canning
of surplus, and best use of obtainable foods and clothing that
attention is turned to meet the immediate needs. Consequently
the agent extends her services to a larger group of people than
her own club members.
The program has centered around those things which would
provide food and feed, increase the family income, wise buying
and abundant living. This was termed the "live-at-home" pro-
gram. Outstanding in this program have been the calendar vege-
table gardens, calendar orchards, food conservation, food prepara-
tion, poultry flocks, home dairying, nutrition, clothing, home
industries, standardizing products for market, recreation and
home improvement.
The report from a St. Petersburg Relief Council shows that
persons who are applying for relief have not taken advantage of
home demonstration instruction. There is not a club member in
Holmes County who has had to ask for help of any kind from the
Red Cross or any other organization. Record books show from
115 to 1,400 quarts of canned fruits and vegetables are on the
pantry shelves of each club member.
Emphasis was placed on the following points during the year:
1. Production of meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, vege-
tables, fruit and honey necessary for the family.
2. The conservation of surplus food.
3. Adding to the family income through farm women's market-
ing of surplus garden, orchard, poultry and dairy products-en-
couraging home industries.
4. Thrift in clothing through renovation, care, wise buying.
5. The arrangement of work and equipment to save time and
steps; lowering the cost of operation; and budgeting the income.
6. Keeping up the family morale through the maintenance of:
(a) The comfort and beauty of the home.
(b) Community work and recreation in the home and com-
munity.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
ANNA MAE SIKES, Nutritionist
The general purpose of the work is to develop a clear under-
standing of the essential principles of human nutrition and a
program for food selection, preparation and adequate economical
meal planning, disease prevention, school lunch, group of com-
munity meals, exhibits, school and club demonstrations, using the
women and girls as individual exhibits of results.
A part of this program relates the nutrition work to the produc-
tive program of poultry raising, dairying, beekeeping, gardening
and fruit growing. Another phase of the work interests girls'
and women's clubs in a community service that will bring about
home production and home consumption which will result in better
nutrition and health.
The food, nutrition and health program for girls stresses suffi-
cient food in proper balance, correct eating habits, correct posture,
proper mental attitude, adequate sleep and rest, plentiful sun-
shine and fresh air, regulated exercise and play, personal and
home hygiene. This program begins with learning how to score
food, nutrition and health habits and continues with a definite
plan of study and demonstrations of improvement in food, nutri-
tion and health.
Records show that in 1932, 6,156 4-H club girls participated in
health improvement work; 5,429 individuals improved health
habits; 4,366 individuals improved posture, and 4,432 adopted
recommended positive preventive means to improve health.
.Realizing that a child builds both physically and mentally, the
plan is to establish better school lunches. Intelligent choice of
food, right attitude toward food, better nutrition and economical
foods are demonstrated in actual practice. Records for 1932 show
that 2,385 homes improved home-packed lunches and 117 schools
followed recommendations for a hot school lunch.
The food, nutrition and health program for the pre-school child
includes physical examination, study of child and health protec-
tion. Demonstrations of the need for wholesome food, properly
masticated, and natural elimination each day are given to groups
of mothers. In 1932 a result of nutrition work showed 1,690
homes improved methods in child feeding; 318 homes substituted
positive methods of discipline for negative ones; 268 homes pro-
vided recommended play equipment; 775 homes made recom-
mended physical adjustments to better meet the children's needs,
and 487 adopted better adult habits with respect to development
of children.







Annual Report, 1932


The women's nutrition program suggests means of correction
through diet of a few common ailnients. The points emphasized
are the classification of foods according to functions, the selection,
preparation, service and cost of meals for individuals. The family
market orders and menus for the week are made with demon-
strations given of meals using Florida products. Records are
kept of expenditures for food.
The food, nutrition and health program was conducted in 29
counties this past year. There were 3,898 adult result demon-
strations, and 5,022 4-H club girls enrolled.
Improved practices were adopted by 1,595 women in baking;
1,491 women in meat cookery; 2,266 women in vegetable cookery;
1,599 women in poultry products, and 1,597 women in dairy
products. I '
The records of 1932 show there has been an improvement in
food habits, improvement of general health, improvement in
planning diets, increased production and consumption of milk,
eggs, fruits, and vegetables, improvement of school lunch and
lunch rooms.

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Extension Economist in Food Conservation

Recognizing the need for Florida people to have fresh fruits
and vegetables at all seasons, of the year, the "live-at-home"
project was emphasized. The trend has been the development
of more home gardens and fruits.
ALL-YEAR HOME GARDEN WORK
Home gardens average a little more than $34 per farm. This
is above all costs and does not include trucking areas or acreage.
Hundreds of 4-H gardens and all-year garden projects carried
by the junior and senior home demonstration club members have
amounted to as much as $300 and over.
ALL-YEAR GARDEN CONTEST
In spite of no awards to serve as a stimulus to record-keeping,
records have improved greatly and more club members have kept
the garden record books as supplied by the state office than in
previous years. Club members realize the value of well-kept
records of accomplishments and results and the habit of being
business-like and methodical is gaining.
The compilation of the gardening work of the senior home







Florida Cooperative Extension


demonstration members show 3,972 gardens made in 1932 with a
total cash valuation of $22,364.24 for vegetables served at home;
$31,917.47 for vegetables sold fresh; $11,590.50 of vegetables
canned and $22,364.24 for fresh fruits sold from the orchard.
The women and girls who have kept garden records have dem-
onstrated very clearly to themselves the value of the garden, both
in dollars and cents and in dividends far greater than gold-better
health.
The calendar orchard was stressed as a valuable asset.

4-H GIRLS' GARDEN WORK
There were 4,646 enrollments and 3,646 completions in garden-
ing by the girls. By completions is meant finishing one full
year's work, growing the vegetables and flowers as outlined, hav-
ing the perennials started as required, and submitting the record
of the work done and exhibiting when and where called for by
the home demonstration agent.
A suggestive list of perennials is given in the record book and
the club girl selects the type and variety adapted to her needs and
to the soil and climatic conditions of her locality.
Fresh vegetables marketed by members of the 4-H clubs
amounted in Palm Beach County to $496.41.
In Dade County, 392 girls grew vegetable gardens, while both
girls and women raised 500 flower gardens.
Walton County has this interesting report:
"The plan for junior club members in gardening was divided
into two main projects and 154 first and second year girls planted
three or more kinds each season. This gave a variety of winter,
spring, summer and fall vegetables. Third and fourth year girls
chose a spring garden of vegetables for canning. Most of the
older girls go to school on buses and have little time for garden-
ing. They plant to have vegetables for canning and can the
surplus during vacation.

CALENDAR ORCHARD (perennial plantings)
The need for more fruit throughout the year is recognized and
emphasis is placed on variety plantings to supply fresh fruits
most of the year. Twenty-three counties report 629 calendar
orchards planted or increased.
The Senior Home Demonstration Council sponsored a special
project, Calendar Orchards, this year with both women and girls.
To encourage this, the Council had one of its first meetings of
the year in a typical, tropical orchard. This was followed by a







Annual Report, 1932


visit to a nursery that offered a special discount to home demon-
stration members and 4-H club girls.
Fourteen demonstrations were given on "what, when, and how
to plant." Members were asked to report on fruits they had
grown, how many canned products they bought for the month and
for the year, and how much they had canned at home. Up to this
time these members had not realized how many canned products
were usually purchased.
Alachua County has been carrying the calendar orchard demon-
stration for several years. In 1932, 18 more women planted cal-
endar orchards.

FOOD CONSERVATION
Miss ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist
Scientific research has proved that canned foods are equal in
nutritive value to the same foods entirely prepared in the home
kitchen. Adequate, well-balanced meals, rich in vitamins and
other essential food elements, may be served with much ease and
very little preparation by the home gardener who plans a canning
program of quantity and of a variety to suit the needs and tastes
of her family.
THE CANNING BUDGET
The program has provided for a planting and canning budge.
to meet individual family needs. These budgets include, of course,
the fruits, vegetables, meats, sweets and relishes necessary to
supplement the fresh products of the season.
MEETING ECONOMIC NEEDS
Food conservation in Florida has received more attention than
usual. Pantry shelves have never been better filled. Extra
canned products are being exchanged for other home necessities.
Sales from surplus canned products have aided in payment of
taxes. There has been a large amount of canning equipment
bought.
The following is an illustration of how canning may be used
advantageously from the standpoint of economy:
In Holmes County, the Home Demonstration Agent gave meat
canning demonstrations in each community. She carried her
equipment to the home of some interested family where she held
a community meeting. They spent the day in canning meats. As
a result 106 animals were canned in tin and glass ready to be
served or sold in exchange for other necessities, farmers getting
35c per No. 2 tin can of this meat.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SUMMARY
Last year, 3,898 women in Florida canned and preserved:
154,928 quarts of fruit
219,547 quarts of vegetables
53,965 quarts of pickles and relishes
91,155 quarts of jams, marmalades and jellies
1,910 gallons of vinegar
4,602 gallons fruit juice
61,850 quarts pork, beef and game
6,107 quarts chicken
8,865 quarts fish

In addition to the above amounts saved by the women, 205,927
quarts were canned by 4-H girls; 272,820 pounds of meat were
cured by 1,245 families and 27,358 pounds soap were made.
Valued at 10 cents a quart, the farm women and girls have
saved during one year more than $114,771 through home canning.

CANNING A PHASE OF RELIEF WORK
The nation-wide concern over unemployment has touched Flor-
ida and in many places where the problem:of feeding the unem-
ployed (mainly from other states) has become acute the doctrine
of conservation and its practical application has helped in a very
substantial way in meeting the "depression situation."
Through cooperative and community canning, Leon County
home demonstration workers stocked their pantries with canned
products and assisted the County Welfare Board in supplying the
needs of the unemployed.
Farmers supplied the produce and the labor and the Welfare
Board furnished the tins and jars. Filled containers were divided
evenly between the two.
During the month of June alone a total of 3,851 No. 2 cans of
vegetables and 67 gallons of green beans had been canned; 385 of
the cans were of soup mixture, 991 of Fordhook beans, 2,199
green beans and 276 of corn.
A community center was established in West Palm Beach in
January to meet local conditions. The home demonstration agent
gave instructions and demonstrations to a group of 15 volunteer
workers on canning all types of products available. A civic com-
mittee arranged for space and equipment. With the cooperation
of the gas and water companies a complete and convenient can-
ning center has operated during the trucking season. The Sal-
vation Army then took over the management of the cannery and
at the closing the last of June, 12,000 cans of products were ready
for distribution during the summer months, the season of scarcity.
It is important that honey be used generously in the diet and







Annual Report, 1932


club members should be influenced to learn more about the food
value of honey and how it may be used.
For two summers, the Economist in Food Conservation has
cooperated in the joint program with the State Beekeepers Asso-
ciation during Farmers' Week. A five-page mimeographed cir-
cular was prepared for distribution regarding the uses of honey
in the menu.
Home demonstration agents have sponsored county products
dinners. It was interesting to see in this connection that civic
clubs over the state last year entered into the idea of serving All-
Florida Products Dinners as a means of helping to relieve depres-
sion and unemployment. A great deal of local pride and interest
has been aroused by the county products dinners given under the
direction of home demonstration women and 4-H girls. Products
taken from their gardens, orchards, poultry flocks, dairies and
pantries provided excellent food of great variety.
POULTRY
Development of the home poultry flock is a part of the home
demonstration program mainly for two reasons (1) for family
nutrition, (2) to increase the family income. There were 1,186
women who managed and reported on flocks with a total of
166,339 birds. They report a profit for their work of $44,465.
A total of 1,077 girls raised 33,543 birds. Nine counties report
104 entries in the Florida Calendar Flock Records.
Enthusiasm in the home poultry flock has been stimulated by
the Home Egg-Laying Contest, tours to flocks and hatcheries and
through marketing of products in addition to the regular work
of the agents under leadership of the poultry specialist. Eighteen
counties report $18,227.58 worth of poultry sold on the market,
and $75,500.33 received for eggs sold by those who reported.
DAIRYING
Reports from 18 counties show that 359 family milk cows have
been obtained for farm families this year. There are 1,901 fam-
ilies who report using daily a quart of milk for each child and a
pint for each adult. Two hundred sixty-two women working
with 636 cows report a profit of $25,080.
HOME IMPROVEMENT
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Specialist in Home Improvement
To have rural homes that are clean, orderly, convenient and
attractive in appearance leads to the development of happy,
healthy, progressive dependable rural citizens.







Florida Cooperative Extension


During the year 3,184 homes improved home health and sani-
tation to control malarial mosquito, hookworm, flies and other
parasites.





















Fig. 10.-The 4-H girls try their hands at painting garden furniture dur-
ing their short course at the State College for Women as a part of their
home improvement work.
There were 5,391 women and girls utilizing discarded materials
who renovated and made attractive house furnishings at small
cost.
Reports show that:
116 homes were remodeled
79 sewage plants installed
101 water systems installed
63 solar water heaters installed
231 families installed electricity
438 homes screened
383 sanitary toilets built
806 porches repaired
303 houses and outbuildings painted and 319 whitewashed
943 kitchens improved
2,178 other rooms improved
2,126 women and girls refinished walls, woodwork and floors
2,295 women and girls repaired and remodeled furniture.
Tours to see improvements made in homes, shopping tours,
educational trips, demonstrations in communities at county-wide
events, Short Course and Farmers' Week have helped to increase
improvements along definite lines.
HOME MANAGEMENT
To secure greater convenience, comfort and orderly methods
of homemaking, the demonstration agents have worked with







Annual Report, 1932


3,508 farm women and girls to improve (1) the management of
time and energy, and (2) the management of income or farm
home resources.
In helping farm women to manage their time and use their
strength, home demonstration agents worked with 1,520 homes,
assisted in obtaining inexpensive and practical labor-saving equip-
ment. Also 1,168 homes were given help to improve the family
laundry problem, and 1,840 homes were helped to improve their
everyday housekeeping duties.
Five hundred eighty-five women kept home accounts, 455 women
budgeted their expenses, 1,098 women made a study of their buy-
ing methods and followed recommendations of the home demon-
stration agent.
Managing the farm income in most cases means using it for
those necessities that cannot be produced on the farm. In one
county under the direction of the home demonstration agent 20
women kept accurate records on the vegetables produced and
used and found they each saved in a year from $97 to $247 on
grocery bills.
BEAUTIFYING HOME GROUNDS
To make the rural home attractive, special attention is given
to open lawns, the use of native shrubbery and foundation plant-
ings.
During 1932 there were 6,198 women and girls who beautified
their home grounds. Club members are using native shrubbery.
Seedsmen and nurseries have cooperated in offering reduced
prices. Seeds were portioned out in penny packages and sold to
club members. Various counties have adopted a county flower
to be grown by all club members.

CLOTHING
LucY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent
This year 10,418 women and girls improved their sewing skill
through instructions given by the home demonstration agents in
short cuts and time-saving methods in construction.
WISE BUYING
Economic conditions had a direct bearing on clothing the family
in 1932, and fewer articles were bought. Methods to inform
women what was good value in material, workmanship, and suit-
ability, shopping tours, clothing exhibits, judging and scoring
ready-made and home-made garments were featured, with the
result that 10,755 women and girls bought and made clothing







Florida Cooperative Extension


for themselves with the help of the home demonstration agents,
while 1,188 women and girls made out a clothing budget before
purchasing anything new.
CHILDREN'S CLOTHING
4-H Club girls learn to sew in their club meetings and after
they become skillful often take over the task of sewing for them-
selves and the younger children of the family. Two thousand two


Fig. 11.-These girls were winners of the 4-H clothing contest at the short
course. They are wearing dresses made by themselves.

hundred and eighty-three girls in 1932 made such clothing with
the guidance of the home demonstration agent, and 2,341 women
were given assistance in making children's clothing. Six thou-
sand two hundred and sixty women and girls were helped to make
old garments into garments that were clean and wearable.
4-H HOME SEWING
After a club girl has received two years of instruction in
sewing she demonstrates her ability. One thousand nine hundred
and thirteen 4-H club girls made curtains, bedspreads, quilts,
table linen and other household articles for the home.
Home agents and their club women have helped with the mak-
ing of thousands of garments from cotton cloth distributed by
the Red Cross.







Annual Report, 1932


One home demonstration agent reports that, under the direc-
tion of six women cooperating with her, 150 needy women of the
county were given employment in making 3,390 garments from
12,000 yards of cloth.
In another county the home agent and club women made 1,500
garments for needy families. They met once a week and brought
old clothing which was cleaned and made into garments.
Interest in wise buying, color, design, good workmanship, acces-
sories and personal grooming has increased, culminating in dress
revues at county-wide meetings and short courses for 4-H Club
girls.
At the State Short Course for 4-H club girls in June, Mary
Ellen Lovelace won a clothing contest for girls who have had a
clothing program for three years. She was awarded a trip to
the National 4-H Club Congress and won third place in a National
Clothing Contest.

MONEY-MAKING HOME INDUSTRIES
MARY E. KEOWN, District Agent
Lowered cash receipts from farm products have caused farm
families to seek ways of supplementing their incomes. The home
demonstration agents have helped the women develop standard-
ized articles for sale; examples: the canned spiced guava of
Pinellas, the boned chicken of Gadsden, the poultry products and
wreaths of Alachua, or the hooked rugs of Dade County.
Marketing enterprises have been established, such as direct
sales from the producer to the consumer through the home dem-
onstration office; sales stands on the highways; booths in curb
markets, and home demonstration shops equipped and operated
by the farm women.
Reports by girls and women to the home demonstration agents
show the following sales by counties:
Bradford and Union counties report total sales amounting to
$4,628.60; Alachua, $8,371.35; Dade, $37,746.80; Palm Beach,
$7,449.21; St. Johns, $7,385.00; Duval, $4,223.53.
Amounts received for poultry in Gadsden total $7,390.74; in
Jackson $4,138.50; in Jefferson $2,034.00; in Holmes $3,201.40;
in Lake $2,580.00; in Santa Rosa $5,109.25.
Amounts received for garden produce alone total $2,150.00 in
Orange; $18,746.00 in Polk; $1,875.00 in Leon; $2,502.95 in Gads-
den, and $3,283.20 in Walton.
The total sales reported by the women and girls amount to







Florida Cooperative Extension


$213,896.68; poultry and eggs, $93,468.13; fresh fruits and vege-
tables, $56,228.92; dairy products, $12,315.20; canned products,
$11,590.50; home baked goods, $6,107.07; and other craft articles,
$34,186.86.
Particular attention is given to standardizing canned and baked
products for market.

COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Club houses for club and community meetings were available
in 51 communities. There were 117 schools in 18 counties that
served a hot dish or school lunch for 25,519 pupils and 26 clubs
managed hot school lunches for 16,136 school children under
home agent' plans.
Community recreation was developed in 166 communities and
122 community plays were presented.
There were 162 communities assisted in definitely improving
hygienic practices, and 183 school or other community grounds
were improved according to recommendations from home demon-
stration agents. Thirty-two clubs began community libraries,
subscribing to 149 magazines. Club members subscribed to and


Fig. 12.-A home demonstration club house is an ideal community center.
This one was named in honor of the home demonstration agent.







Annual Report, 1932


exchanged among themselves 5,054 magazines and papers. There
were 439 community achievement meetings and exhibits held. A
total of 515 communities were assisted in developing various
community activities according to community needs.
The decrease in counties appropriating, consolidation of schools
and increased number of organizations in many of the schools and
dropping from the rolls those not definitely carrying 4-H club
work as required, reduced the total enrollment in girls' 4-H club
work this year 472. However, the percentage of completions
increased from 78% to 82.2% this year. Older girls have con-
tinued active in their 4-H club work, so strengthening the work
generally and providing a fine group of leaders for the younger
generation.
Alumnae Clubs, so called for lack of a better name as yet, have
been organized in two counties, with two other counties planning
to perfect their organization during the holidays. The member-
ship of these alumnae clubs consists of girls too old to be active
in the groups of younger girls and still too young to enjoy active
membership in the clubs for women. The counties have various
standards for admission to membership, but their object is the
same: To aid in furthering 4-H club work and to aid the members
themselves to find jobs, or get further education or to carry on
long time and comprehensive demonstrations in their homes and
communities.
This group of girls has already taken considerable responsibility
in club camps, etc., and we expect them to render invaluable
service. When this plan was discussed by the district agent re-
cently with the College 4-H Club at the Florida State College for
Women, numbers of these college girls indicated their intention
of helping their agents form similar groups.

PUBLICITY

Each home demonstration agent submits a radio talk with her
monthly report. Members of the state staff prepare talks at
varying intervals.
We participated in the National 4-H Achievement Day program
presenting programs from four stations in Florida. A 4-H club
radio program was presented over WRUF monthly, the girls and
boys alternating. Twenty-eight agents report 174 radio talks
this year, an increase of 143 over last year.
Twenty-nine counties report 3,008 news articles or stories pub-
lished.







Florida Cooperative Extension


News reporters elected or appointed in the 4-H and women's
clubs have as their duties the reporting of individual and club
activities. A special course given by the Extension Editor during
Short Course for 4-H club girls and occasional courses in the
counties have proven of much help to these reporters. As an out-
growth of this instruction a good many girls' councils edit and
publish their own news sheet. Several women's councils have
similar publications which have created considerable interest
among the club members.

VISITS, TOURS, MEETINGS

Reports show that the agents made 13,434 home visits to 6,964
homes and an additional 884 farm visits to 610 farms.
There is an interest in tours or visits to successful result dem-
onstrations in the home.
An exhibit of citrus by-products was placed at the Orange
Festival held in Winter Haven in January. The exhibit has
grown from year to year in variety and in quality, featuring this
year what was probably the largest and finest collection of crys-
tallized citrus fruits that could be found anywhere in the United
States-oranges, grapefruit, shaddock, tangelo, citron, kumquats,
limequats, orangequats, calamondins, and still other members of
the marvelous citrus family, all exquisite in form and color.
Home demonstration agents held 946 demonstration meetings
with an attendance of 15,589 and 15 agents conducted 71 tours
with an attendance of 9,999.
Team demonstrations by 4-H club girls have been encouraged
in all counties during the year. Forty-eight judging teams and
243 demonstration teams were trained in the state. These scoring
highest in the counties entered state-wide contests conducted
during the Girls' 4-H Club Short Course. The county making
the highest score annually is awarded a silver pitcher for the
year. Dade County was the recipient in 1932.

LOCAL LEADERS

The development of local leaders, both girls and women, and
the strengthening of county and state councils contribute to effi-
cient development of the rural home. In 1932, 919 women and
368 older girls assisted home demonstration agents as voluntary
local leaders. There were 203 training meetings held for leaders
with an attendance of 2,288.







Annual Report, 1932


SPECIAL EVENTS
ACHIEVEMENT DAYS
Community and county achievement days are observed at the
culmination of the year's work. Features of the program include
exhibits, reports, demonstrations by club members, addresses by
the state staff, local persons as county superintendents and others,
awarding of certificates and pins to those who have accomplished
most as a club. They also afford splendid opportunities to observe
methods and progress.
During the year there were 112 achievement days held; 36 were
for adults, attendance 15,692; and 71 for 4-H club members,
attendance of 16,504.
CAMPS
There were 35 camps held. Twelve of these were for women,
10 for boys and girls and 13 for girls. There were 666 women,
1,347 girls, 242 boys and 1,482 others including visitors, instruc-
tors, and leaders in attendance. Three trained camp workers,
College 4-H club girls, assisted agents with the camps.
A two-day farm and home institute for adults was held at the
West Florida 4-H Club Camp.
SHORT COURSE FOR 4-H CLUB GIRLS
The Annual State Short Course for 4-H club girls was held at
Florida State College for Women. There were 416 girls, 41 local
leaders, and 28 agents in attendance. The average age of those
attending is from 14 to 15 years.
Scholarships were provided by club members, county commis-
sioners, school boards, women's clubs, men's clubs, banks, mer-
chants. The L. & N. Railroad has provided expenses for a girl
to attend from each county traversed by its lines.
Outstanding features were assistance given by College 4-H
girls, project demonstrations, contests, afternoon program for rec-
ognition of accomplishments, state council meetings, recreation
and entertainment. The council awarded a scholarship to Cora
Boyette, Manatee County, for her junior year at Florida State
College for Women. The business manager of the State College
for Women followed this by awarding a dining room scholarship
to supplement funds provided by the Council.
Individuals entered clothing, posture and health contests.
Demonstration teams of 10 girls representing each county entered
contests in table setting, dishwashing, canning, judging of canned
products, poultry judging, salad and sandwich making. The entire
county group entered the 4-H song contest.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Points won by each county were totaled and Dade County, scor-
ing highest, was awarded an engraved silver pitcher to be held
until 1933 Short Course.
The Short Course was ended with an impressive candle lighting
service through the cooperation of Dr. Edward Conradi, president
of the College, which typified the extending of knowledge from
Florida State College for Women through the Extension Service
into the iural communities.
FARMERS AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK
There were 700 women in attendance during Farmers' Week.
The theme for the home economics program was "Opportunities
for Florida Homemakers Today." Demonstrations and instruc-
tions were given. Outstanding features were exhibits and group
work with rural women, musical programs, dress revue, radio
programs. The State Home Demonstration Council awarded a
scholarship to Mary George of Marion County for her junior year
at Florida State College for Women, and a silver loving cup to
Dade and Alachua County Councils.
OUT-OF-STATE TRIPS
Martha Briese of Escambia County and Ruth Ansley of Marion
County were awarded trips to the National 4-H Club Camp for
Boys and Girls, in Washington, D. C., directed by the Extension
Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Two girls and
two boys making the highest score within the states are permitted
to attend. The girls' trips were financed by The Capitol City
Publishing Company and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Com-
pany.
Trips to Chicago for attendance at the National 4-H Club
Congress are awarded those scoring highest in various phases of
club work. Recipients of the trips were Loraine Chamberlain,
Alachua County, for home improvement work; Ellen Dirr,
Manatee, winner in the state health contest; Mary Ellen Love-
lace, Dade County, winner in state clothing contest. She won third
place in the National Contest. These trips were financed by the
State Department of Agriculture, Montgomery Ward and Com-
pany, and Chicago Mail Order Company.

STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Number of home demonstration agents .......................... 29
Number of assistant home demonstration agents................... 1
Number of county home demonstration councils for girls' work...... 26
Number of county home demonstration councils for women's work... 19
Number of communities actively participating in home demonstration
activities .............................................. 515








Annual Report, 1932 97

Number local leaders-adult work:
M en .............. ...................................... 4
Women ................................................ 584
Number local leaders-4-H club work:
Men ......... .......................................... 14
Women ................................................ 335
Older club boys .................. ......................... 20
Older club girls ........................................... 368
Number adult home demonstration clubs.......................... 254
Membership .............................................. .. 6,831
Number 4-H clubs ............................................ 474
Membership:
Boys ...................................................... 76
Girls .......................... ......................... 8,496
Number of 4-H club members completing:
B oys ... ........................................... 55
Girls .... ....................................... .. 6,991
Number of 4-H club teams trained:
Judging ................. .............................. 48
Demonstration ......................................... 243
Number farm and home visits made .............................. 14,318
Number different farms and homes visited ..................... .. 7,574
Number days agents spent in office .............................2,3871
Number days agents spent in field.............................. 6,187
Number newspaper articles or stories published................... 3,008
Number individual letters written ............................. 31,289
Number different circular letters written ........................ 2,085
Number bulletins distributed ................................. 70,585
Number events at which extension exhibits were shown............ 236
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
(a) Adult work: Number ................... ............ 99
Women leaders attending .................. 1,346
(b) 4-H Club: Number .................................. 105
Leaders attending ......................... 932
Method demonstration meetings held:
Number ............................. .......... ........ 8,430
Attendance ............................................. 147,642
Meetings at result demonstrations:
Number ......................... .............. 946
Attendance ............................................. 15,589
Tours conducted:
Number .................................................. 71
Attendance ................................................ 9,999
Achievement Days held:
(a) Adult work: Number .................................. 36
Attendance ............................... 15,692
(b) 4-H Club: Number .................. .............. 76
Attendance ............................... 16,504
Encampments held:
(a) Farm women: Number ................................ 12
Total attendance .......................... 766
(b) 4-H Club: Number ............................... 25
Girls attending ............................ 1,347
Others attending .......................... 1,482
Other meetings of extension nature:
Number .................................................. 910
Attendance ............................................. 127,099
Meetings held by local leaders:
(a) Adult work: Number ................................. 455
Attendance ............................... 9,015
(b) 4-H Club: Number .................................. 1,393
Attendance ............................... 23,186












PROJECT ACTIVITIES
No. Days Days No. No. Differ- No. individuals
PHASE OF WORK Corn- No. Special- devoted meet- news ent Home Office adopting practices
muni- of ist to ings stories circular visits calls
ties Leaders helped work held [published letters made made Women Girls

Home gardens and home beautification.. 460 338 37 6,064 1,672 337 213 3,116 4,354 3,972 4,646
Market garden and truck crop......... 55 38 8/2 49Y2 158 39 29 351 1,240 1,093 383
Fruits ............................... 227 124 3 189 448 73 32 270 809 3,176 2,409
Rodents and miscellaneous insects...... 28 26 5 31 101 11 4 144 480 527 .
Agricultural (Home) Engineering...... 162 54 7 156Y 114 37 16 264 373 531 70
Poultry ............................ 359 150 43 451/2 621 227 252 1,345 2,258 1,186 1,358
Dairy .............................. 141 77 .... 113/2 168 24 36 497 553 262 34
Marketing home products ............ 228 127 15 214 317 112 141 550 1,834 362
Foods and nutrition .................. 435 337 70 1,270 % 2,132 557 204 2,070 5,182 3,898 5,022
Child training and care................ 28 90 .... 82 219 37 47 151 533 1,004
Clothing ............................. 506 485 18 1,337 2,112 322 130 966 2,311 3,048 7,370
Home management ................... 231 125 11 223 341 78 51 370 510 2,188 1,661
House furnishings .................... 454 227 30 535 926 128 133 818 1,907 2,992 2,399
Home health and sanitation............ 386 253 21 353 849 110 37 790 1,268 1,610 ....
Community activities ................ 341 484 32 304 292 262 130 748 1,770 .... ....
Miscellaneous ........................ 256 235 42 324 429 176 126 642 1,991 .... ..
Building extension program of work..... 295 443 142 264 335 108 186 492 1,430 ....
Organization ......................... 393 674 64%1 .342 273 317 314 700 1,628 ...
TOTAL .......................... .... 4,292 5492 2,305%111,807 2,955 2,081 14,284 130,431 125,849 25,352







Annual Report, 1932


PART IV-NEGRO WORK

NEGRO MEN'S WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent

Negro Extension work is carried on by local agents supervised
by one district agent for the men's work and one district agent
for the women's work. The office headquarters are at the A. & M.
College for Negroes in Tallahassee and the work has the same
supervision as other Extension work.
In the farm work among Negroes, the counties of Alachua,
Columbia, Hamilton, Jackson, Jefferson, Marion and Suwannee
had agents. The work, however, was not confined to these coun-
ties but was carried on through Negro Farmer Cooperative asso-
ciations in Gadsden, Leon, Hillsboro, Madison and Suwannee
counties. Reports show that there were definite Extension pro-
grams in 85 communities. These agents work an average of 11
months during the year.
Definite plans for an Extension program with Negroes were
made in the Gainesville office of the Extension Service. These were
given to the colored agents and farmers at community meetings.
This was made up in the form of programs and placed in the
hands of the county workers who were to use it as their program
for the year. This plan harmonized all agricultural programs for
all classes of farmers and was made up with a view of economical
production, taking into consideration the needs of the farm and
farm family, and with the further plan to produce only such cash
crops as were to find a fair market, and these crops to be produced
on the best land with a small outlay of expense. Where cash
crops were grown, consideration was given to the possible mar-
kets, the cost of fertilizer, and farmers were urged to avoid going
into debt.
These recommendations resulted in a reduced acreage of cotton,
tobacco and marketable vegetable crops, and as a result of this,
such farmers as followed these recommendations found them-
selves in a position to hold their farms, feed their families and
prepare for next year's crops. A further result shows that the
loans advanced for Negro farmers for marketing their crop were
relatively small as compared with former years. Colored farmers