Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Report of the director
 Publications and news
 County agent work
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Dairy husbandry
 Animal husbandry
 Poultry husbandry
 Agricultural economics
 Rodent control
 County home demonstration work
 Home improvement
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Negro men's work
 Negro home demonstration work

Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00015
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1931
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00015
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of the director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Publications and news
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    County agent work
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Dairy husbandry
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Animal husbandry
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Poultry husbandry
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Agricultural economics
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Rodent control
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    County home demonstration work
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Home improvement
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Negro men's work
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
Full Text




JUNE 30, 1931



JUNE 30, 1931


REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR ............... ....... ... .. ................ 7

BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF ..................... ............. 4

COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS ......................... 5

PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS .......................................... 13

COUNTY AGENT W ORK ................. ... ... .................... 17

BoYS' 4-H CLUB W ORK .............. ................... ........... 38

DAIRY HUSBANDRY ............... ............................. 46

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY ..................... .......................... 52

POULTRY HUSBANDRY ..... ........................................ 56

CITRICULTURE ..................................................... 63

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ... .... ............... ................. 72

RODENT CONTROL ....... ......................................... 85

COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK .............................. 89

HOME IMPROVEMENT ............................................... 115

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION ............................... 121

NEGRO MEN'S WORK ................................................ 131

NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ............................... 141

Hon. Doyle E. Carlton,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, Univer-
sity of Florida, for the calendar year 1931, including a fiscal
report for the year ending June 30, 1931.
Chairman, Board of Control.

Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report
of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of
Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you trans-
mit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the
Governor of Florida.

President, University of Florida.


P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
GEO. H. BALDWIN, Jacksonville
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee


JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest


W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry1
J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist2
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
W. R. BRIGGS, B.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control'


LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist


A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
ROSA J. BALLARD, Local District Home Demonstration Agent

'In cooperation with U. S. D. A.

County County Agents Address Home Demonstration Agents
Alachua .......... F. L. Craft ........ Gainesville.........Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Bradford and Union.L. T. Dyer ........ Lake Butler..Miss Pearl Jordan (Starke)
Calhoun .......... J. G. Kelley........ Blountstown ........................
Calhoun and Liberty ................... Blountstown..... Miss Josephine Nimmo
Citrus .............................. Inverness......Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Dade (North)......J. S. Rainey........ Miami............. Miss Pansy Norton
Dade (South)...... C. H. Steffani...... Homestead ..........................
DeSoto ............ J. J. Heard ........ Arcadia .............................
Dixie.............. D. M. Treadwell .... Cross City ...........................
Duval .............A. S. Lawton ...... Jacksonville ..........Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.) ...... C. H. Magoon...... Jacksonville ........................
Escambia .........E. P. Scott ........ Pensacola......... Miss Ethel Atkinson
Gadsden .............................Quincy ............. Miss Elise Laffitte
Hamilton .......... J. J. Sechrest ...... Jasper ................. ..............
Hernando ........ J. H. Logan ....... Brooksville ........................
Highlands ........ L. H. Alsmeyer'.... Sebring .............................
Hillsborough ......C. P. Wright....... Plant City (E)......Miss Motelle Madole
Hillsborough ........................Tampa (W) ...........Miss Allie Rush
Holmes ............................ Bonifay........... Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Jackson ...........Sam Rountree.... Marianna...........Miss Eleanor Clark
Jefferson ..........E. H. Finlayson .... Monticello............Miss Ruby Brown
Lafayette ......... W. J. Davis........ Mayo .................................
Lake.............. C. R. Hiatt........ Tavares .............Mrs. Mary S. Allen
Lee ...............W. P. Hayman......Fort Myers........Miss Clarine Belcher
Leon ............. G. C. Hodge ....... Tallahassee........ Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum
Levy.............. N. J. Albritton..... Bronson .............................
Liberty ...........Dewey H. W ard.... Bristol ..............................
Manatee ..........L. H. Wilson....... Bradenton..........Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion ...........Clyde H. Norton.... Ocala .............. Miss Tillie Roesel
Martin ........... C. P. Heuck ...... Stuart ...............................
Okaloosa ..........Joseph W. Malone.. Crestview...........Miss Bertha Henry
Okeechobee ....... C. A. Fulford ...... Okeechobee ......... ..................
Orange ........... K. C. Moore .......Orlando..........Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola ...........J. R. Gunn ....... Kissimmee..........Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach ....... M. U. Mounts ...... W. Palm Beach.... Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
Pinellas ........... Wm. Gomme ...... Clearwater......... Mrs. Joy Belle Hess
Polk .............. F. L. Holland ...... Bartow ...............Miss Lois Godbey
Polk (Asst.) .........................Bartow.............Miss Mosel Preston
St. Johns ..........Loonis Blitch ...... St. Augustine.......Miss Anna E. Heist
Santa Rosa ........ J. G. Hudson ......Milton ...........Miss Eleanor Barton
Taylor ............ R. S. Dennis ....... Perry ...............................
Volusia ..............................DeLand .............. Miss Orpha Cole
Wakulla .......... H. E. Hudson ...... Crawfordville ........................
Walton ...........Mitchell Wilkins ... DeFuniak Springs... Miss Eloise McGriff
Washington .......Gus York .........Chipley ............................

*This list correct to December 31, 1931.


Fa oryowfla+k
MMTON =do..,.

rw i;-n-

Fig. 1.-During 1931 there were 329 demonstration teams of two girls each trained in giving demonstrations to others in
phases of work in which they have been particularly successful.

-If, I "I (




Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report
of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1931, and a summary of
the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1931.



The Agricultural Extension Service of Florida has continued
under the same administration as during former years. The
general headquarters are at the University of Florida, Gainesville,
while headquarters for the home demonstration work are at the
Florida State College for Women at Tallahassee, and those for
Negro work are at the A. and M. College for Negroes at Talla-
The supervisory staff consists of the following: Director, Vice-
Director and County Agent Leader, three district agents for
men's work, three district agents for women's work, State Home
Demonstration Agent, Boys' Club Agent; and specialists as fol-
lows: Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist, Dairyman, Animal
Husbandman, Poultryman, Specialist in Rodent Control, Agri-
cultural Economist, Agricultural Economist in Marketing, Agri-
cultural Economist in Farm Management and one assistant,
Extension Nutritionist, Food and Marketing Agent, Home Im-
provement Agent.
For the Negro work, there is one district agent in charge of
men's work and another in charge of women's work.
During the year Extension work has been conducted in 52

Florida Cooperative Extension

different counties. At the close of the year 45 counties had county
extension agents, all of these cooperating financially in support
of the work.
There have been relatively few changes in the supervisory and
specialist staff since December 1, 1930. On February 1, D. E.
Timmons was appointed Agricultural Economist in Marketing.
On June 1, Mrs. Eva R. Culley was appointed Extension Nutri-
tionist and resigned August 15, 1931. July 1 Carlyle Carr was
appointed Specialist in Rodent Control in Cooperation with the
Bureau of Biological Survey, United States Department of Agri-
All appointees have full-time appointments with the exception
of Dr. J. E. Turlington, Agricultural Economist, who serves part
time for the Extension Service and part time for the Teaching
Division of the College of Agriculture.
On November 16, 1931, Julia Miller, District Agent in charge
of Negro home demonstration work, resigned to take up similar
duties in Oklahoma.

The Agricultural Extension Service, being a part of the College
of Agriculture of the University of Florida, works cooperatively
with the Teaching Division and the Florida Experiment Station.
This cooperation provides for assistance at state and county
meetings, interchange of data between the Experiment Station
and Extension, particularly in reference to field work, coopera-
tive recommendations concerning various phases of agriculture,
distribution of plants and seed by the Experiment Station to
farmers, cooperation in poultry disease control work, particu-
larly at the National Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley, and prep-
aration and distribution of outlook material. Inasmuch as the
Experiment Station maintains sub-stations throughout the state,
it affords an opportunity for cooperation between the county and
home agents and those in charge of the work of the sub-stations
to interest the farmers in the research work under way at these

The Extension Service cooperates with the State Plant Board
by assisting in an educational way in control of diseases and
insects affecting plant life. It also cooperates with the State

Annual Report, 1931

Livestock Sanitary board in the control of hog cholera and other
diseases of livestock and poultry.
The Extension Service cooperates with the State Marketing
Bureau by assisting in the assembling of car-lots of products and
providing for sales of livestock and poultry; and with the Com-
missioner of Agriculture's office in various ways. The State
Board of Health has problems in nutrition and sanitation in
common with the home demonstration work.
In conducting Farmers' Week and tther state meetings, these
various departments of the state assist in the programs and also
render assistance in county programs when called upon to do so.
With the exception of the College of Agriculture, none of the
institutions mentioned give financial support to Extension work.
Teachers of vocational agriculture and county and home
demonstration agents have cooperated on many of their projects
during the year. They have similar problems, and the working
together in arranging and holding meetings and conducting other
activities has resulted in benefit to both groups.
The A. & M. College for Negroes has supplied office space and
working facilities for the Negro Extension work. The College
also has assisted in programs of state meetings of colored agents,
club short courses, and occasionally in county meetings when local
agents asked for such assistance.

The Extension Service works with the State Marketing Bureau
and the Federal Farm Board in rendering service to cooperative
organizations. Among such groups this year were the following:
Florida Truck Growers, Inc., Alabama-Florida Peanut Growers
Association, and National Pecan Growers Association. All of
these associations are relatively new, and considerable time has
been given to their organization and plans. Other cooperatives
also have had assistance during the year.
While the Extension Service does not aid cooperatives in solicit-
ing memberships, through its specialists and county agents it does
assist in placing information regarding the desirability of coop-
eration and the aims and purposes of different associations before
prospective members.
Through the Inter-State Early Potato Growers Committee,
composed largely of workers from the United States Department
of Agriculture and from the Extension services of the early potato
growing states, assistance has been rendered to growers of early

Florida Cooperative Extension

potatoes. The Florida Extension Service bears part of the ex-
penses of A. E. Mercker of the United States Department of Agri-
culture in conducting this work. For a part of the season he had
headquarters at Hastings, in the center of the Florida potato
The Florida Extension Service has three main sources of reve-
nue, as follows: (1) Funds appropriated by Congress to the
United States Department of Agriculture; (2) State appropria-
tions by the Florida Legislature; and (3) county appropriations.
State offset funds to match federal Smith-Lever funds were pro-
vided by the Legislature; other offset funds have been made from
county appropriations. The Legislature also makes a continuing
appropriation of $5,000 a year and an additional appropriation
of $32,280 for all phases of Extension work, including the Florida
National Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley.
County appropriations, with two exceptions, have been made
by boards of county commissioners who are empowered to levy
one-half mill for agricultural development. Economic conditions
confronting the various boards have made county appropriations
more uncertain this year than during any other time recently.
There has been a small reduction in the number of counties appro-
priating, and the amounts appropriated by the individual coun-
ties have been curtailed considerably in some cases. It is hoped
that a method can be evolved whereby a much larger part of
agents' salaries will be paid from State ard Federal funds.
A summary of the receipts and expenditures for the past year
Smith-Lever, Federal and Supplementary ................... $ 77,646.71
Smith-Lever, State ......................................... 48,872.25
Capper-Ketcham, Federal ................................... 25,941.28
Bureau Animal Industry, U. S. D. A ................... ....... 2,400.00
Additional Cooperative Federal .............................. 22,000.00
U. S. D. A. Appropriations ................................. 21,000.00
State Appropriations ..................................... 47,530.00
County Appropriations .................................... 123,949.73

Annual Report, 1931

Administration .................. ......................... 8,504.80
Publications ............................... ............. 6,857.22
County agent work ...................................... 161,237.56
Home demonstration work ................................. 111,402.29
Food conservation ................ ......................... 4,049.10
Home improvement ........................................ 4,505.41
Extension nutrition ...... ............................... 4,300.00
Negro work-men ...... ............................. 13,458.26
Negro work-women ............. ....................... 12,610.90
Boys' club work ....................... .................... 7,352.37
Dairy husbandry ....................................... 5,055.66
Animal husbandry ...................................... 4,721.37
Plant pathology ................................ ... ..... 5,350.05
Poultry husbandry ........................................ 5,264.46
National Egg-Laying Contest ................................ 10,368.53
Extension schools, Farmers' Week ........................... 2,647.51
Unexpended balance ............................ ... ....... 1,654.48
Due to a lack of space in the College of Agriculture, there were
no housing facilities for the economics department when it was
established a year ago. To make room for the specialists in
economics and the clerical staff, and to house the supplies, a
building was leased adjoining the University campus. This was
formerly a residence but the arrangement allows of suitable
office space. The lower floor of this building is used by the
Agricultural Extension Service and the upper story by the
Experiment Station. It is known as the economics building for
Extension and research.
The economics building is now fairly well equipped with desks,
filing cases, typewriters, calculating machinery and other needed
supplies for the proper conduct of the work of that department.
Other additions have been minor and just sufficient to meet the
needs from time to time.

Extension workers have been encouraged to increase their
efficiency by study, observation and contacts with other depart-
ments of the University of Florida and with bureaus of the
U. S. D. A. In addition, the Florida State College for Women
provided a short course designed especially for county home dem-
onstration agents. Those who took advantage of this were
allowed full time without reduction in salary during the summer
term when this short course was offered.
Frequent conferences were held with the Extension staff and

Florida Cooperative Extension

with department heads, so that there would be uniformity in
subject matter and methods in extension teaching. The Univer-
sity of Florida does not offer sabbatic leave and as a large part
of the salary of county workers is paid from county funds, no
means have been devised for giving a leave of absence for study
except at personal expense and loss of time of the agent.

Extension schools were conducted by supervisors, specialists
and county Extension agents. The meetings have been of one-
half day and one day duration. These meetings have been rela-
tive to the county or state Extension program, outlook topics, etc.

The annual Farmers' Week was held at the College of Agricul-
ture during August. The program was handled by the Agricul-
tural Extension Service, assisted by the Florida Experiment
Station, teaching division and State Plant Board.
The University dormitories were used to accommodate the
visitors. Classrooms were used for sectional programs. The
University Cafeteria served meals at actual cost.
One section of the University was used exclusively by the home
economics department, and the program arranged by the Home
Demonstration Department and conducted under their direction.
The attendance numbered 2,000. The total cost was $1,800,
provided by State appropriation.

Annual Report, 1931

R. M. FULGHUM, Assistant Editor
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1931, four new Extension
bulletins and four new circulars were printed; the yearly calendar
for 1931 was printed and distributed; the Agricultural News
Service was distributed weekly to newspapers, county agents, and
others; the Florida Agricultural Extension Economist (mimeo-
graphed) was distributed monthly for the last six months to
nearly 1,000 people interested in economic information; and the
monthly and final reports of the Florida National Egg-Laying
Contest were distributed to contestants and others. Material for
all of these except the monthly egg-laying report was handled by
the Editors.
The four bulletins amounted to 124 pages of printed matter, and
45,000 copies were run. The calendar contained 12 pages, and
9,000 were printed. The circulars contained a total of 60 pages;
there were 38,000 of them printed.
Following is a list of the publications issued during the year:
Pages Edition
Bul. 59 Rose Growing ........ ....................... 28 15,000
Bul. 60 Culling for Egg Production............ ....... 16 10,000
Bul. 61 Sweet Potatoes ................................. 32 10,000
Bul. 62 Why Grow Tomatoes............................ 48 10,000
Circ. 26 Beautifying the Home Grounds................. 12 15,000
Circ. 28 Second Year Sewing Program .................. 16 10,000
Circ. 29 Third Year Sewing Program .................... 16 8,000
Circ. 30 Fourth Year Sewing Program ................... 16 5,000
Annual Report ............................ .... .......... 2,000
Final Report, Fourth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest.. 20 1,500
1931 Calendar ........................................ 12 9,000
Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 weeks)* ............. 1 31,500
Monthly Agricultural Extension Economist (6 months)...... 6 6,000
In addition to the regular publications mentioned above, a
quantity of supplies was printed. These included a citrus grove
record book, two poultry record books, record book for all-year
garden work, laying flock account book, home egg-laying contest
pads, a milk sheet, certificates for the National Egg-Laying Con-
test, and programs, window cards, and stuffers for Farmers' Week.
Thousands of copies of Extension bulletins and circulars were
distributed from the mailing room, which is a part of the Editorial
and Mailing Department. Materials for use by agents are dis-
tributed from here also.

*Ten issues were paid for by the State Plant Board.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The Agricultural News Service, a weekly clipsheet sent to news-
papers, farm papers, county agents, Smith-Hughes agriculture
teachers, and a few others, continued to be the principal means
used for the dissemination of information about the Extension
Service and hints about Florida farming subjects. From eight
to 12 stories were carried each week, and were clipped and re-
printed- in many of the Florida papers, particularly the weeklies
and the farm papers. The service is held in high regard by the
newspaper editors.
From three to six stories each week were sent to the state mail
service of the Associated Press for distribution to its member
papers, mostly dailies. This arrangement has not proven entirely
satisfactory during the past year, and it may be necessary to
provide a service to the dailies direct from this office. One daily
carried a farm page and another carried a farm department each
Sunday during the year. Material for both of these came almost
exclusively from this office. Forty-five different special stories
were sent direct to from one to eight dailies during the year.
A Gainesville daily accorded us the usual courtesy of a Farmers'
Week page for four days during that event, the material being
supplied by this office. Copies of the paper were distributed free
to visitors, the Extension Service buying them at a reduced rate
and supplying them to visitors.
Farm papers of Florida and the South make copious use of
material supplied by this office and by other workers in the Col-
lege of Agriculture, Experiment Station, and Extension Service.
During the year 87 different stories were sent from this office to
eight Florida, two Southern, and two national papers, and were
printed. They amounted to 2,329 column inches of material. In
addition, many articles by members of the staff were published
by these papers during the year.

Farm programs were broadcast over WRUF each day except
Sunday. These programs go on the air during the noon hour,
and for the first part of the year they consisted of 30 minutes
only; however, beginning on January 26, 1931, they consisted of
45 minutes from 12:00 noon to 12:45 p. m. In practically all cases
the first part of the program was given over to music, and music
was interspersed between the talks.

Annual Report, 1931

The programs were arranged by the Assistant Editor, and
ranked equal to the local farm programs of practically any other
station. Workers at the Experiment Station, College of Agricul-
ture, and Extension Service, as well as other state employees and
farmers, were used as speakers. Papers prepared by the United
States Department of Agriculture were read to fill out the pro-
grams. On Saturdays the gist of the weekly clipsheet, Agricul-
tural News Service, was read as a part of the farm radio program.
Each worker who prepared a paper was encouraged to read his
own paper; however, in cases where the workers could not, for
any reason, be present, the papers were read by the Assistant
On the farm hour broadcasts during the year there were given
a total of 783 talks, 28 of which were prepared by the Editors
In addition to the regular farm hour programs, during Farmers'
Week the general session programs in the University auditorium
were broadcast, and an extra hour in the evening was given to
Farmers' Week speakers and other visitors.
Once each month (except January, 1931) a 4-H club program
was put on the air over WRUF. As a rule, the girls had one
month and the boys the next. These programs lasted for one-
half hour. Ten specialists, 27 4-H club members, and eight
others, a total of 45, spoke on these 4-H club programs during
the year.
The Florida Agricultural Extension Service joined with the
United States Department of Agriculture in celebrating 4-H
achievement day the first Saturday in November. Three Florida
stations of the National Broadcasting Chain carried these pro-
grams, which lasted for one hour. The first 15 minutes came
over the chain from Washington, the middle 30 minutes being
furnished from local stations, and the last 15 minutes coming
from Washington. The programs for the local stations were sup-
plied entirely by the Extension Service, and in each case consisted
of music and talks by Extension specialists, club boys and girls,
and business men.
About 15 papers were prepared and sent to two other stations
for broadcasting as part of their farm programs.
Ten club boys attending the annual short course at the Univer-
sity of Florida in June were given training in news writing, and

16 Florida Cooperative Extension

assisted in issuing a daily mimeographed club paper for the short
course. Twenty-five club girls in one county were given training
in news writing during one of their quarterly council programs.
These girls have club columns in each of their two local papers.
A news writing contest among county and home demonstration
agents was started on October 5, at the annual agents' conference.
It will continue until September 30, 1932. About half of the
agents are entered in the contest, and are paying especial attention
to local news stories, news from their counties for state distribu-
tion, and circular letters and photographs.
The Editors devote approximately half of their time to work for
the Experiment Station, the other half being available for Exten-
sion Service work. The Mailing Clerks also devote about half of
their time to Experiment Station work.

Annual Report, 1931

A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent and Organization and Outlook Specialist
W. T. NETTLES, District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Extension Agronomist
Although county agent work has been maintained during the
past year under more financial difficulties than are usually experi-
enced, the reduction in the number of counties has not seriously
affected the progress. General economic conditions have forced
county boards to reduce expenses in practically every county and
the agents have come in for a fair share of difficulties because of
this retraction. In many cases the county's part of the agent's
salary has been reduced and, while in some instances this reduc-
tion is relatively small, in others 30 to 50 per cent has been taken
off that of former years. This has been generally accepted by
the staff as a necessary reduction. It has nevertheless hampered
the undertaking and created uncertainty that has been unwhole-
some. This has been in part made up by an increased amount to
apply on county agents' salaries from state and federal funds and
has been of material help in maintaining the morale so that the
programs could be carried on without too much disturbance.
Reduced values in counties have naturally produced a reduced
revenue and the effect has been passed along to all departments.
However, it has served to force attention on the realization of
economic problems that confront the farmers and in many in-
stances has brought about a closer cooperation between the
farmers and the Extension Service. This again emphasizes the
necessity for greater stabilization of the program by having the
work financed from sources not subject to local influences or the
interest of those who have only a passing interest in the welfare
of agriculture in the general development of the state as a whole.
County agents render considerable personal service to the
farmers and growers. By this item is meant consultations, in-
specting groves or fields to see conditions and advise the growers,
and many other things that cannot be tabulated, yet they take
up a very large part of the county agent's time.
County agents have fostered the live-at-home programs in so
far as such work is necessary. A survey of the North Florida

Florida Cooperative Extension

territory shows that the live-at-home program has not been en-
tirely neglected by the farmers for many years, that is, it has
been customary for the farmers to produce their own meat, grains,
some fruits and some vegetables. This, however, in many cases
has fallen short of the actual possibilities of maintaining the
families' needs from the produce grown on the farm.
Attention has been given to better care of the poultry flocks,
the all-year garden, fruit orchard and an adequate and properly
prepared meat supply. The farmers have in storage larger quan-
tities of meats for home use than heretofore and have been com-
pelled to make provision for carrying on their farming operations
expecting small cash returns for their crops. This has meant
that labor is being maintained from supplies largely home-grown,
thereby avoiding an outlay of cash.
In other sections of the state the live-at-home programs have
not been as carefully worked out. The dairymen are finding it
necessary to shift from city conditions back on to the grazing
lands. This has meant a larger acreage of pasture and home-
grown feeds for the farm dairy as well as the commercial dairy.
In the vegetable and citrus area where general farming is not
usually practiced, special attention has been given to gardening,
poultry, and food for the work-stock. In a few instances home
industries, such as canning and preserving and beekeeping, have
been taken up by the farmers and have proven a valuable source
of income. In many cases they have made it possible for owners
or tenants to maintain their business operations without going
into debt.
The products have meant more than merely helping out with
the family's food, they have meant a reduced cash outlay for living
expenses and in some instances the payment of taxes and other
expenses that usually come from the sale of the usual commer-
cial crops.
As Extension work is educational by means of demonstrations,
the district agents have encouraged county agents in conducting
farm tours. This proposes to interest not only farmers but other
leading citizens in the welfare of the farms of the community.
Farm tours during the past year have served a useful purpose in
this respect. Bankers have been particularly interested, and
those merchants who realize their dependency on the farmers
have laid aside their work and have participated in the tours.
These tours are made during the summer months when farmers

Annual Report, 1931 19

feel they have time to attend. Also when the results of better
methods of production can be observed.
A farm tour usually lasts one day in the community and encour-
ages a large number of people to observe the results of the demon-
strations carried on under the direction of the county agents and
supervisory forces of the Extension Service. These farm tours
fit into practically every phase of agriculture and horticulture.
Many tours have been taken through the branch experiment
stations in central and south Florida, but greater emphasis is
placed on the farm tours where the farmers themselves can be
observed by those who feel interested enough to leave their reg-
ular business for a short time to see the programs of agriculture
in their respective counties. These tours stimulate a cooperative
interest in the farmers' problems and help the bankers and other
business men to get a better viewpoint of the farming business,
resulting in a more sympathetic and constructive view.
These farm tours have demonstrated that there are better
methods of production practiced on the farm. They indicate that
business methods and the relationship of production and returns
must be understood not only by the farmers but by the business
men as well. County and home agents have had the cooperation
of the leaders of the state in keeping their work before the public.

To increase the humus and nitrogen content of the soil and
thereby increase yields, Austrian winter peas and vetch have
been grown during winter and early spring and turned into the
soil since 1925. County agents have encouraged this practice
and caused its increase. Table I shows the growth of this prac-
tice in North and West Florida:

No. lbs. Tons Yield(bu.) Yield(bu.)Increased
Year No. seed No. acres green of corn of corn yield(bu.)
Dem. planted planted matter after peas on check of corn
1925-26 10 200 10 42 ... .... ....
1926-27 23 600 30 126 ....
1927-28 60 6,000 250 1,063 .... ..
1928-29 78 53,000 2,100 8,820 31.1 13.2 17.9
1929-30 91 110,000 4,500 21,816 29.2 12.4 16.8
1930-31 113 153,000 6,000 25,200 26.1 13.2 12.9
1931-32 ... 106,000 4,300 ..... .... .... ....
Total ....... 428,800 18,190 57,087 .... .... ...

Florida Cooperative Extension

Because of extreme drought from July 15 to December 8, the
planting has been less this year.
County agents throughout most of Florida, and particularly in
the central and southern parts of the state, have encouraged the
use of Crotalaria as a summer cover crop. Results last year
seemed to justify pushing the program still further. Last year
there were 195 demonstrations covering 3,450 acres; this year
reports show 257 demonstrations covering 4,457 acres.
Citrus growers have been encouraged to grow cover crops, to
stop cultivation early enough in the spring to avoid injuring the
young cover crop, to top-dress the native grass cover crops with
100 pounds to the acre of some source of quickly available ni-
trogen, to sow Crotalaria if native cover crops are not producing
sufficient tonnage, and to use the mowing machine and disc har-
row to handle the cover crop.
The cover crop program has succeeded and almost 100% of
the citrus plantings in this territory grow some kind of cover
crop. There is much to be done yet to find out the surest way
to get stands of cover crops. Last year and this year the drought
during the summer caused poor stands and light tonnages on the
dryer lands.
In Highlands County in 1926 there were 205 acres of Crotalaria
planted, and this year 55% of the citrus acreage was planted to
Crotalaria. Highlands County probably has the largest per-
centage of acreage in Crotalaria of any county in the state.
Crotalaria is also very promising as a cover crop on truck farms
and the demonstrations are proving the value of this cover crop
and are attracting the interest of growers. Manatee County has
taken the lead in using this crop on truck farms, 30 demonstra-
tions being under way this year. Yields following Crotalaria
were from 10 to 50% larger than on the check plots.
The highest yield reported was 23 tons of green matter per
acre in Palm Beach County on truck farm soil while the average
ran around 11 tons per acre.
Reports from county agents in the early potato section show
an increase in some instances as high as 20 bbls., through the use
of Crotalaria, and in practically every case a more vigorous
growth and an increase in the percentage of No. 1 potatoes.
In the citrus section, fertilizer demonstrations are being con-
ducted by the county agents to check up on the actual value of
Crotalaria as a cover crop in the grove. In the truck section the

Annual Report, 1931

same demonstrations are being conducted. Another year should
bring some definite figures on these demonstrations.
In the citrus and truck sections the slogan "Grow More Cover
Crops" has become well established in the mind of the grower
in a majority of cases. County agents have established in addi-
tion to demonstrations in vetch, Austrian winter peas and Crota-
laria, some 156 demonstrations covering 1,683 acres in such cover
crops as soybeans, velvet beans, cowpeas, beggarweeds, natural
cover crops, and three demonstrations covering 28 acres of sweet
clover and black medic in the southern end of Dade County.

In some of the Northwest Florida counties with rolling land
and heavy rainfall, it is essential that the land be terraced. The
county agents have assisted the farmers in building terraces for
several years, as shown by the following figures:
Year No. Terracing Demonstrations Acres
1925 49 1,426
1928 66 2,100
1929 151 3,857
1930 211 3,875
1931 10 4,510
Total 577 15,868

Fertilizing, Side-Dressing:-Commercial fertilizer is used to
increase the yield of corn and reduce the cost per bushel. This
fertilizer is usually a side-dressing of nitrate of soda or some
other quickly available inorganic nitrogenous material. A com-
plete fertilizer is used in some areas.
During 1931 there were 142 adult demonstrations which pro-
duced an average increase of 11.8 bushels per acre on 1,028 acres.
There were a series of 208 demonstrations conducted by juniors.
These comprised 230 acres which produced a total of 7,573 bush-
els-32 bushels per acre, or approximately 18 bushels more than
the state average. Demonstrations of field selection of seed have
been responsible for seven bushels' increase.
A good part of the corn and other staple crops in central and
southern Florida are planted as catch crops following truck crops
and usually very satisfactory yields are made. Twenty-seven

Florida Cooperative Extension

demonstrations in growing corn were carried out with an average
increase in yield of 13 bushels per acre. These demonstrations
were with corn varieties and fertilization by top-dressing with
quickly available nitrogenous fertilizers. In Hillsborough Coun-
ty 36 4-H corn club boys grew 44 acres of corn with a total yield
of 2,574 bushels, an average of 71.5 bushels per acre. These boys
have for several years made the highest average yields of any
county group of boys in the state. The demonstrations con-
ducted in Polk County with sweet corn indicate that corn fer-
tilized before planting will stand more cold without injury than
corn fertilized later.
One series of demonstrations in Union County with Crotalaria
planted in the row with corn and at the time of planting the
corn consistently showed an increase of around 40 percent in
yield of corn.
Standard Fertilizing Demonstrations:-A series of demonstra-
tions were conducted to show the advantages of planting corn
behind a winter crop of vetch and peas, or of fertilizing the corn
with about 150 pounds per acre of nitrate of soda or other quickly
available nitrate fertilizer. It has been found in past years that
applications of phosphate and potash seldom pay with corn in
The average yields per acre from the use of different methods
in the standard demonstrations were as follows: Following peas
or vetch, 431/2 bushels; fertilized with nitrate only, 32 bushels;
fertilized according to most common practice among farmers in
community, 27.8 bushels; fertilized with 200 pounds of 16 per-
cent superphosphate, 23.5 bushels; not fertilized, 20.4 bushels.
Variety Demonstrations:-In 10 demonstrations in West Flor-
ida the variety Whatley's Prolific, which has been found by the
Experiment Station to yield best in the general farming area of
Florida, returned an average increase of 6.4 bushels per acre over
other varieties.
Corn Weevil Control:-During 1931 Florida county agents con-
ducted 41 demonstrations in the control of corn weevils by fumi-
gation with carbon bisulphide. They used 2,801 pounds of the
fumigant in air-tight cribs constructed for the purpose. The
fumigated corn shelled out 10 percent more grain than the un-
As a result, many farmers have made their cribs air-tight and
bought materials for fumigating the crop harvested this fall.

Annual Report, 1931

Fulghum oats and Abruzzi rye are the most satisfactory va-
rieties of small grains under Florida conditions. Fifty to 100
pounds per acre of quickly available inorganic nitrogen as a top-
dressing has proven a satisfactory fertilizer. Eleven demonstra-
tions with oats on 93 acres were grown, with an increase of from
4 to 23 bushels per acre over check plots. All 11 rye demonstra-
tions were grown on 64 acres. The increase was from seven to
nine bushels per acre.
Wiregrass pasture will carry only about one cow to 10 or 15
acres. Some pastures established by the Florida Experiment
Station four or five years ago of carpet and Dallis grasses have
carried one cow per acre for nine months during the growing sea-
son and produced as high as 256 pounds of beef per acre.
Because of the scarcity and high price of seed, and a drought
extending over approximately two years, there were not as many
acres of pasture established this year as last in the North Florida
In Central and South Florida pasture demonstrations have been
largely carried on by the dairymen, but now that tick eradication
work is reaching this area, pasture work is being started with the
beef cattle men. There were 77 pasture demonstrations with
5,924 acres. Carpet grass is the basis of most pasture sowings
but centipede, Bermuda, Dallis, bahia, and lespedeza are used in
mixtures. In Orange County one dairyman has his pastures so
arranged that the cattle are rotated. In one block centipede is
the grass planted. This year each time the cattle were grazed
on this centipede grass the milk flow increased.

Soybeans are recommended for hay because they are compara-
tively easily cured and yield fairly well. Twenty-nine demonstra-
tions were grown on 106 acres and produced 3-ton hay more per
acre than cowpeas.
There are two things that increase the yield of peanuts-an
application of landplaster (gypsum) on runners and thicker spac-
ing of both the runners and Spanish varieties. The virtue of these
practices is shown in demonstrations as follows:

Florida Cooperative Extension

Fifty landplaster demonstrations gave an average increased
yield of 121/2 bushels per acre.
Twenty-seven spacing demonstrations gave an average in-
creased yield of 11 bushels per acre.

Mosaic disease and root-knot have reduced very materially the
yield of the red sugarcane varieties. The Cayana 10 variety is
immune or resistant to both. In 26 demonstrations where Cayana
10 was planted to compare it with red cane, the Cayana 10 pro-
duced an increase of 156 gallons of syrup per acre.

Potatoes grown from non-certified seed often are affected with
mosaic and other diseases and produce practically nothing. This
year the county agents of West Florida persuaded dealers to stock
some certified seed. The county agents conducted demonstrations
in which common stock seed and the certified seed were planted
in plots side by side. With 44 demonstrations on 83 acres, the
certified stock produced 42 bushels per acre more than the un-
certified seed.

Fertilizing:-The five-year average production of cotton in
Florida, 1925 to 1929, inclusive, was 315 pounds seed cotton per
acre. In 1930 it was 675 pounds and in 1931, 525 pounds. These
unusually high yields were brought about by dry weather which
enabled plants to mature the cotton and prevent weevil damage.
The 315-pound average yield was produced with the use of $3.44
worth of commercial fertilizer of various kinds. There are three
things-more and better fertilizer, more plants on land, and bet-
ter varieties-that have been found to increase the yield of cotton
in Florida. By the use in demonstrations of the "approved for-
mula" the farmers were shown a better method. There were 68
demonstrations conducted on 295 acres with an increase per acre
of 253.6 pounds.
Closer Spacing:-In the cotton spacing demonstrations, the
following results were obtained: Where there were 18,000 stalks
per acre the yield was 1,107 pounds; where there were 12,000
stalks per acre the yield was 805 pounds. The extra 6,000 stalks
gave an increased yield of 302 pounds.

Annual Report, 1931 25

Variety Demonstrations:-Florida soils and rainfall are so
varied that no consistent results are obtained with any one va-
riety of cotton. Very few of the farmers save their seed, there-
fore each year they purchase seed of one of the several outstand-
ing yielders. There were 10 special tests run in the territory
this year, which showed slight increase for two or three varieties.
A small acreage of Sea Island cotton was grown in Hamilton
County this year for the first time since the boll weevil made
the crop unprofitable. This was introduced by the county agent.
A fair yield was produced and it sold at 15c and 12c per pound.

The county agents have furnished plans and assisted in the
following activities:
Farms putting in drainage systems ...................... 12
Acreage drained .................................... 81
Farms clearing land of stumps as recommended ............. 49
Families assisted with house plans ....................... 19
Dwellings constructed according to plans ................. 10
Sewerage disposal systems installed ..................... 10
W ater systems ...................................... 8
Number of farms other buildings constructed ............. 68
Dairy barns .............. 14
Hog houses ............. 22
Poultry houses ........... 42
Silos .................... 3
Others .................. 17


The poultry industry is on a fairly stable basis. Few new
poultry farms have been established but some increase in the
size of flocks among those already in business has been made.
Egg prices have changed little from last year, while feed prices
have dropped considerably. This means that, as compared to
other agricultural enterprises, poultry is in a little more favor-
able position than a year ago.
During the year many of the county agents have been busy
conducting demonstrations in culling, better feeding, feed grow-
ing, incubating, and brooding of poultry. There have been 20
brick brooders built and used as demonstrations in brooding.
There were 46 demonstrations in culling conducted by the agents.
A serious effort has been made this year in the cooperative
marketing of eggs and poultry products. The net results seem
to be that the poultrymen in the outlying sections away from

Florida Cooperative Extension

the market centers are completely sold on cooperative marketing
while the poultrymen near the market centers believe it to be
a good practice for the business generally and for the county
neighbors, but for themselves they feel they can make more money
marketing their own eggs.
Many purebred chicks have been placed during the year. Thou-
sands have been vaccinated for sorehead.
Dairying is conducted largely near consuming centers and pro-
duction is more than adequate to supply the local demand for
fluid milk. The production per cow and the grade of cows is being
gradually improved. The work done by county agents in the
improvement and development of pastures has been the most sat-
isfactory work accomplished. Some dairy herds are being moved
to cheaper lands farther from the cities and to lands better
adapted to producing grasses. One of the most serious problems
before the dairymen is the one of marketing. The agents have
worked with the dairymen and assisted in forming local organiza-
tions of milk producers and some good has come of this work,
but the problem is not yet solved.
There were 214 demonstrations on dairy work, irrespective of
pasture work, covering 4,497 dairy cattle. These demonstra-
tions covered such subjects as balanced rations, feeding dairy
calves, control of parasites, dairy production records, introduc-
tion of purebred bulls, and building silos and sheds. These dem-
onstrations have shown practical results in lowering the cost of
production and raising the standard of dairy herds.
The quality of the dairy cattle in Florida is still being improved.
More definite plans are being made to provide sufficient feed for
them. Both county agents and dairymen are more conscious of
the need of more home-grown feed. More production records
are being kept. Register of merit tests are being conducted. Be-
cause of the low price of butterfat and unsatisfactory methods
of marketing, one milk station was discontinued during the year.
In West Florida four bull circles have been organized. During
the year county agents conducted 86 demonstrations, involving
1,394 cattle. Sixteen purebred sires have been purchased.
The work with beef cattle has been (a) establishing improved
woods and farm pastures, (b) introducing good bulls where ticks

Annual Report, 1931

have been eradicated, and (c) encouraging the saving of the best
females in sections where cattle dipping was in progress or soon
to be in progress. In St. Johns County three different men are
working out a woods pasture program on some 2,000 acres by
fencing and planting carpet grass and lespedeza. Duval County
reports three demonstrations in beef bulls. In one case three
purebred bulls were placed with 90 native cattle and brought a
calf crop of 60 calves.

Fig. 2.-Cattlemen get together at a beef cattle demonstration to discuss
their problems and get the results of the latest tests.

Relative to better herd management, there have been 45 dem-
onstrations involving 756 animals. There were also 113 bulls of
improved breeding and a much larger number of high grade and
selected females purchased to improve the herds.
Three purebred cattle sales were conducted by the Extension
workers-one at Crestview and two at Gainesville.
During the dipping campaign throughout this territory cattle
were sold out by the thousands. Now the cattlemen are under-
taking to restock.
Stomach and tape worms have been largely responsible for the
decrease in the number of sheep on our ranges. For the last two
years drenching demonstrations, in which sheep were drenched
with a solution of bluestone and nicotine sulphate, have been held.
Many sheepmen are now drenching regularly through the summer
season. Their lamb crop is larger, the sheep stronger, and their
fleeces heavier. A few rams of better breeds are being placed
on the ranges.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The market hogs of Florida are produced largely in North and
West Florida. There are a few produced in practically every
county. Most of those go to local markets and do not reach the
packinghouse. The hog industry of North Florida is one of its
most important sources of revenue. The Extension Service and
the county agents have given this more attention than any other
phase of livestock production. The improvement has been in
process since the beginning of 4-H club work with hogs. This
club work and adult demonstrations continue to show how to
cheapen production and improve quality.
A special effort has been made to market hogs during the
months when the prices are usually the highest, in the early fall.
Demonstrations have helped show how to have green crops ready
as early as possible in the summer months and then finishing
crops such as corn and peanuts ready for the early fall months.
This requires careful planning of the field crops. The county
agents have been encouraging farmers to produce litters as early
as February and March and then have a succession of growing
crops as many months during the period as weather will permit.
Encouragement has been given to having better breeding stock
so that hogs may be marketed when six to eight months of age.
Also farmers have been urged to give more attention to the rear-
ing of the litters, to prevention of diseases and parasites, and to
keeping hogs thrifty.
Demonstrations have been conducted in sanitary methods for
raising hogs following the plan of the Bureau of Animal Industry,
with the litters farrowed on clean ground and precautions taken
to see that there is little chance for infection with parasites. On
a farm basis this has not been entirely practical for many farm-
ers. However, methods leading up to this have been adopted
by many.
Cooperative marketing of hogs has been a feature of Extension
work during the past year. Much of this has been in cooperation
with the Florida State Marketing Bureau. However, in many
places where the large packinghouses are easily accessible, the
farmers have not seen fit to ship their hogs collectively, for they
considered it more economical and saving of time to handle them
by truck. In any case, county agents have encouraged the farm-
ers to produce good quality of hogs and grade them according to
the buyers' demands. This has stimulated interest and, although

Annual Report, 1931

the price during the past year has been disappointing, it has placed
hog raising on a more substantial basis.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry, meat cut-
ting demonstrations were conducted under the supervision of
county agents. These demonstrations were intended to show
how to make the best cuts and utilize the carcass to the very best
advantage. Some instruction was given as to curing methods
so that the meat could be marketed if desired to the very best
advantage. The meat so put up has been used largely for local
consumption and for a limited trade with the county merchants.
No attempt has been made to compete with the packinghouse
Some interest has been aroused by promoting the use of peanut-
fed pork. One county agent arranged for a dinner and invited
influential people so that they could understand something of the
quality and value of the peanut-fed products. This aroused con-
siderable interest and was helpful in increasing the demand for
this product in the territory.
A meat display was arranged at the South Florida Fair in
Tampa. This meat was supplied by Swift and Company, Moultrie,
Ga., and its display was arranged by the animal husbandry de-
partment and the packinghouse company.
In 1931 there was a total of 191 demonstrations involving 3,120
hogs. In the North Florida territory reports show that 270 head
of breeding stock were placed with the farmers through the ef-
forts of the county agents. The pig club work continues as usual
and is reported elsewhere.

All the counties in northwestern Florida received loans from
the drought relief fund appropriated by Congress. The agents,
in cooperation with local committees, handled the application for
loans. There were 1,019 farmers securing loans.
Information as provided by outlook reports for 1931 was dis-
cussed at meetings and with individuals in the early part of the
year. Outlook publications were put in the hands of county
agents, farmers, and business men. Reports show that 699 farm-
ers adjusted their operations because of information given in this
outlook. It is not known how many more. The number of indi-
viduals making changes in different enterprises are reported as
follows: Corn, 27; cotton, 153; tobacco, 70; truck, 127; dairy, 31;

Florida Cooperative Extension

beef cattle, 62; hogs, 178; and poultry, 118. The number of
farmers keeping farm accounts throughout the year under super-
vision of agent was 23. Thirty-four kept cost of production rec-
Meetings have been held with groups of poultrymen where facts
pertaining to their business have been shown-such as cost of
production of hens, cost of eggs, size of flocks, and feed costs.
Many are changing their practices after having these facts pre-
There are a number of farmers' cooperative organizations which
have been in existence for one year or more and several which
have been operating successfully for a period of years. Under pres-
ent business conditions these organizations have had to meet prob-
lems similar to those encountered by other businesses. County
agents assist these organizations in various ways. This year
assistance was rendered 18 associations in some phase of their
operation. The agents also assisted growers in the formation of
eight new associations.
The Extension forces have cooperated with the Florida State
Marketing Bureau and the Federal Farm Board in their efforts
to assist cooperative organizations.
In addition to work with cooperatives, individual farmers have
been assisted in establishing a system of accounting, in making
purchases and sales of farm products, and in readjusting farm
acreages and operations in line with the outlook. Due to this line
of work 313 farmers made adjustments in one or more crops.

Three commodity organizations have been launched and set up
in cooperation with the Federal Farm Board. A unit of the Ala-
bama-Florida Peanut Marketing Association was organized and
membership secured in Jackson County. Sixteen meetings were
held and a thousand tons were signed up.
Units of the National Pecan Marketing Association were also
formed to serve the pecan area in North and West Florida. Flor-
ida Truck Growers, Inc., with headquarters in Bradenton, was
To protect their interest better and to do the things found most
advantageous to the cattle industry, a Northwest Florida Cattle-
men's Association has been formed.
Hog marketing associations also have been formed during the
last two years.

Annual Report, 1931

Statistics from county agents' reports during the past two
years in the general farming area show that 41 cooperative as-
sociations have been in operation, with a membership of 2,297.
These organizations have marketed $206,857 worth of products,
and their cooperative purchases have totaled $165,144.

Citrus work is a large part of the work of county agents in the
citrus area of Florida.
County agents' reports show that 652 demonstrations were
conducted on 17,656 acres. An important part of the citrus work
this past year has been with the soil improvement programs. For
several years the county agents have emphasized the importance
of cover crops and have generally introduced Crotalaria to a large
part of the citrus growing territory. This has continued for the
past year with the same interest and value.
Due to a more difficult marketing condition, the main problem
of attack has been on costs of production. For the past two years
growers have been confronted with small returns for their crops,

Fig. 3.-Lake County Agents, Mrs. Mary S. Allen and Clifford R. Hiatt
(center two), being awarded cups for winning exhibits in citrus and vege-
tables at the South Florida Fair. Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan
Mayo is presenting the cups.

Florida Cooperative Extension

so it has seemed wise to urge reductions in the cost of production
wherever possible. Cover crop demonstrations have served a
useful purpose to that end, for growers have found that fertilizer
bills can be easily reduced by a systematic use of Crotalaria and
other cover crops. It is not expected that maximum yields will
be the result of reduced commercial fertilizer, however, reports
indicate that the yields have held up in a satisfactory way and
since the price of the property has been relatively low the cost
of production could be materially lower, which would mean a large
saving and the possibility of maintaining good grove practices
even under the stress of uncertain marketing conditions.
The Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred has been a
source of information for the growers, since much of the work
has been under way a sufficient length of time to indicate the best
methods. County agents have therefore arranged tours in their
respective counties, inviting leading citrus growers to study the
recent improvements that have been under way at the Citrus
Experiment Station.
New sources of fertilizer materials, mostly to supply nitrogen,
have been introduced in the market and have led to a further
study of fertilizer applications. Considering economic conditions,
growers have expressed a keen interest in a modification of fer-
tilizer practices. County agents have studied the matter with a
great deal of care and have paved the way for improved practices.
This work has been valuable in view of the present financial situ-
The county agents in the southern territory have continued
with vegetable crop demonstrations. These have always been
less definite than many other demonstrations conducted by farm-
ers of this state. This year cover crops have received emphasis
and are proving verytaluable. Crotalaria has been used wher-
ever the system of vegetable growing permits. Demonstrations
with this crop indicate that a study must be made of the soil con-
ditions, particularly for vegetables.
There have been some changes in fertilizer practices with vege.
table crops. However, this has been carried on to a less extent
than with ctirus.

Grapes, strawberries and blackberries have come in for a fair
share of attention. Grapes are grown principally in three Central
Florida counties with the largest acreage in Lake County. The

Annual Report, 1931 33

industry is new and there are many problems in fertilization, cul-
tivation, disease and insect control in which the county agent of
Lake County has rendered valuable assistance to the growers.
Much interest is manifested in varieties that will mature a little
The county agent in Lake County has been elected secretary of
the grape growers' organization and at various times has been
responsible for programs that will bring the grape growers to-
gether in the interest of more satisfactory products and market-

Florida Cooperative Extension

Number of county agents .................................. 40
Number of months of service ................................. 470
Number communities in which extension program has been con-
ducted .................................................. 310
Number voluntary county or community local leaders or committee-
men assisted in the extension program ..................... 551
Total number of farm and home visits ...................... 33,057
Number of different farms and homes visited .................... 14,157
Number of office and telephone calls ........................... 89,385
Number of days agents in office............................. 3,3551/
Number of days agents in field ........................... 8,236
Number of news articles or stories published .................... 2,098
Number of individual letters written ........................... 33,968
Number of bulletins distributed ............................. 29,054
Number of radio talks made ................ ................. 218
Number of events where extension exhibits were shown ............ 58

Number Attendance
Training meetings for local leaders .................... 19 270
Method demonstration meetings held .................. 1,625 17,478
Meetings held at result demonstrations ................. 662 6,663
Tours conducted .................................... 71 2,304
Achievement days held-Adult work ................... 5 6,776
Achievement days held-4-H Club ..................... 47 2,586
Encampments held for 4-H Clubs ...................... 21 736
Other Extension meetings ............................. 1,004 47,817
Meetings held by local leaders-Adult work ............ 65 2,080
Meetings held by local leaders-4-H Club .............. 95 2,213

Number of method demonstration meetings .................... 137
Number of adult result demonstrations completed ............... 375
Total number of acres in result demonstrations ................. 3,898
Average increased yield per acre on result demonstrations-corn,
11% bu.; oats, 6 bu.; rye, 4% bu.

Legumes and Forage Crops
Number of method demonstration meetings held ................ 310
Number of adult result demonstrations completed ............... 996
Number of acres in adult result demonstrations ................. 19,8101

Potatoes, Cotton, Tobacco, and Other Special Crops
Number of method demonstration meetings held ................ 201
Number of adult result demonstrations completed .............. 325
Number of acres in adult result demonstrations ................ 2,651/4
Average increased yield per acre on adult result demonstrations-
Irish potatoes, 33 bu.; sweet potatoes, 23 bu.; cotton, 288 lbs.;
tobacco, 150 lbs.
Fruits, Vegetables, and Beautification of Home Grounds
Number of method demonstration meetings held ................ 1,664
Number of adult result demonstrations completed .............. 1.652
Number of acres in adult result demonstrations ................ 16,081
Average increased yield per acre on result demonstrations-truck
crops, 24 bu.; tree fruits, 19 bu.; bush and small fruits, 178 qts.

Annual Report, 193.1

Number of method demonstration meetings .................... 3
Number of adult result demonstrations ........................ 4
Acres new forest, or farm woodland areas planted ............... 380
Number of farms assisted in forest or wood-lot management ...... 25
Acreage ................................................ 8,450
Number of farms planting windbreaks ......................... 18

Animal and Insect Pest Control

Number of method demonstration meetings .................... 272
Number of result demonstrations completed .................... 231
Pounds of poison used ........................................ 4,909

Agricultural Engineering

Number of method demonstration meetings .................... 170
Number of adult result demonstrations completed .............. 197
Number of farms following recommendations in installing drainage
systems ................................................ 194
Acres drained ........................................... 6,557
Number of farms following recommendations in installing irriga-
tion systems ............................................. 58
Acres irrigated ............................................ 9161
Number of farms building terraces to control erosion ........... 85
Acres on which soil erosion was so prevented ................... 4,427
Number of farms clearing land of stumps ......... ............. 90
Number of families assisted with house-planning ............... 47
Number of dwellings constructed .............................. 14
Number of dwellings remodeled ............................... 16
Number of sewage-disposal systems installed ................... 35
Number of water systems installed ............................ 40
Number of lighting systems installed .......................... 40
Number of farm buildings constructed or remodeled ............ 281
Dairy barns, 39; hog houses, 32; poultry houses, 137; silos, 28;
other, 45.
Number of farms following recommendations on machinery ...... 386
Tractors, 35; tillage implements, 164; harvesters and threshers,
8; other, 35; miscellaneous machinery, 144.

Number of method demonstration meetings ....................... 314
Number of adult result demonstrations completed .............. 263
Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations ..... 80,275
Total profit or saving result demonstrations .................. $22,778.19
Number farms assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade breed-
ing stock ............................................... 221
Number of farms keeping performance records of animals ....... 62

Dairy Cattle
Number of method demonstration meetings .................... 148
Number of adult result demonstrations completed ............... 265
Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations ...... 4,878
Total profit or saving result demonstrations ................... $12,861
Number farms assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade breed-
ing stock .................. ............................ 166
Number of farms keeping performance records of animals ....... 41

Florida Cooperative Extension

Other Livestock
Number of method demonstration meetings ...................... 174
Number of adult result demonstrations completed .............. 284
Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations ..... 10,633
Total profit or saving result demonstrations ..................$14,385.50
Number farms assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade breed-
ing stock .............................................. 448
Number of farms keeping performance records of animals ....... 8

Farm Management, Credit, Insurance, and Taxation
Number of method-demonstration meetings .................... 114
Number of adult result demonstrations completed ............... 242
Number of farms keeping farm accounts ...................... 222
Number of farms keeping cost-of-production records ............ 368
Number of farms assisted in summarizing their accounts ........ 160
Number of farms assisted in making inventory or credit statements 220
Number of farm business or enterprise survey records taken ..... 92
Number of farms making recommended changes in their business.. 127
Number of other farms adopting cropping, livestock, or complete
farming systems ......................... ............... 320
Number of farms advised relative to leases ...................... 242
Number of farms assisted in obtaining credit .................... 1,421
Number of different farms assisted in using outlook information .. 1,824
Corn, 123; cotton, 162; potatoes, 183; tobacco, 75; truck crops,
400; dairy cattle, 97; beef cattle, 94; hogs, 299; sheep, 3; poul-
try, 221; citrus, 124; strawberries and grapes, 35; bulbs, 8.

Marketing (Farm and Home)
Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups organized 27
Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups previous-
ly organized ............................................... 84
Membership in associations organized ....................... 5,028
Value of products marketed by all associations ............. $2,169,314.14
Value of supplies purchased by all associations ............. $1,089,673.82
Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups assisted
with problems of-Preliminary analysis, 21; organization, 34;
accounting and auditing, 20; financing, 29; business policies,
39; production to meet market demand, 39; reduction of market
losses, 21; use of current market information, 68; standardiz-
ing, 39; processing or manufacturing, 8; packaging and grad-
ing, 45; loading, 22; transporting, 18; warehousing, 8; keeping
membership informed, 63; merging into larger units, 10.
Number of farms or homes not in cooperative associations or groups
assisted with problems of-standardizing, 526; packaging and
grading, 474; use of current market information, 1,853.

Community or Country Life Activities
Number of communities assisted in making social or country life
surveys ................... ........ ... ..... .......... 3
Number of country life conferences for community leaders ....... 10
Number of community groups assisting with organization problems,
activities, or meeting programs ........................... 14
Number of communities developing recreation programs ......... 21
Number of community or county-wide pageants or plays presented 13
Number of communities assisted in improving hygienic practices.. 4
Number of school or other community grounds improved ......... 2
Number of 4-H Clubs engaging in community activities .......... 13
Total number of different communities assisted community or coun-
try life work ........................................... 25

Annual Report, 1931 37


Number Numbe Meet-
ombr Days by Days of Farm
omu ies Special- Work wings Visits
munities ist Held

Farm Crops ........... 277 143 20171/2 365 6780

Horticultural Crops ... 205 138 2481 380 8156

Live Stock ........... 238 256 30781 485 8690

Agricultural Economics 245 146 1001 I 269 2612

Miscellaneous and
Program Making ... 149 66 859% 208 1727

Forestry ............. 14 3 24% 3 40

Florida Cooperative Extension

R. W. BLACKLOCK, State Boys' Club Agent
For the second consecutive year, there has been a slight decrease
in enrollment. The reasons lie in the increasing demands upon the
time of the county agents. The addition of farm management
work and the increased effort given to organization and market-
ing have forced the agents to give less time to work with boys,
All but six of the county agents have club work as a part of their
programs of work.
The following table shows the gains and losses in the different


SL0 a E 0

Total, 1931 ..... 612 200 163 551 71 355 432 150 194 2728 ...

1930..... 586 219 176 316 113 423IJ 686 196 197 ... 2912

Gain or Loss ...|+ 26 -191 -13 1+235 -42 -68 -253 -46 -3 1-184 ....

The greatest improvement in boys' 4-H club work in Florida
for 1931 is in organization, both of the local clubs and of county
councils. The decrease in enrollment would have been much
larger and the percentage of reports much smaller had it not been
for these club organizations. The well organized counties showed
the least loss and in some cases showed an increase, particularly
in percentage of reports received.
Local Clubs:-Twenty-four of the 30 county agents who have
4-H club work as part of their program have local club organiza-
tions. In four counties a cup or banner is awarded to the best
local club in the county.
The local club organization serves in many ways. New mem-
bers are secured and reports inspected during the year. Some
clubs have held tours of inspection and visited every project.
Concerted effort on the part of the club organization has secured
an exceptionally high percentage of reports. The fact of the club

Annual Report, 1931

organization itself helps keep the members interested and makes
other boys wish to join.
Local clubs help in adding to the social life of the community.
Picnics, socials, and camping parties have given opportunity for
social contacts which are proving worth while in developing a
more wholesome local social environment.
Outstanding Local Clubs:-The Archer Club of Alachua County
has functioned well. This club has held meetings regularly
whether the county agent has been present or not. Under its
officers the club has held business and social meetings and sent
members to the county camp and to the state short course. Its
crowning achievement was the securing of a report from every
member of the club.
The Bratt Club of Escambia County won the cup offered to the
best local club in that county. This club has 23 members with
26 projects. All completed their projects and all but one handed
in record books. A club meeting was held every month and a
picnic with the club girls was held in the summer. Every member
attended the county rally and nine went to the summer camp.
In Bradford and Union counties club tours were held by the
local clubs. Every project was visited. This is a practice which
should be carried out in every county.
County Organizations:-After the local clubs are functioning,
a county organization is formed. This organization is called a
county council and can be made a big factor in promoting club
work in a county. County councils have been set up in seven
If 4-H club work is to hold its own under the ever-increasing
burden of work of the county agents, leaders must be developed
in every locality. Six agents report that the club work secured in
1931 was due to the efforts of the old club members. Practically
all agents reported that the only acceptable leadership to be had
was by the older club members or by former club members. One
club of 14 members was organized by two older boys without
assistance from the county agent. These boys not only secured
the boys for the club but had visited the parents of every boy who
wished to join and obtained promises of their cooperation.
In Escambia County, during the protracted illness of the county
agent, the leaders of the local clubs carried on so well that the
county reported the highest percentage of completions in the
history of club work in that county.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The building of leaders from the club members is our most
important problem and one which will follow naturally when
organizations are perfected.

The most intelligent approach to more profitable farming in
Florida seems to be through the building of our soils. Club boys
are turning to this method in larger numbers each year. The use
of Austrian winter peas and vetch has been practiced for some
years and now Crotalaria, a summer soil building legume, is being
used. In Union and Bradford counties, 39 boys planted an acre
each of crotalaria. The crop was planted in rows and cultivated,
and seed were gathered to be sold to pay expenses of making the
crop. The crotalaria stalks will be turned under and a crop of corn
planted for 1932. Wherever possible an adjoining acre will be
planted to corn to check the value of this crop as a soil builder.
The results from these demonstrations will determine whether or
not this plan of soil building will be pushed.

Corn:-The yield of corn varied over the state due to spotted
weather conditions. The average for the state remained about
the same, 37.4 bushels per acre.
Hillsborough County club acres produced the highest average
in all the years of club work in Florida. Thirty-six club acres
produced an average of 75.1 bushels per acre.
The quality of the 10-ear exhibits at county contests was above
the average. The state corn club show at Tampa is responsible
for this in a large measure.
Cotton:-The work with cotton in 1931 was not up to standard.
The low prices and a lack of money for the necessary fertilizers
caused yields below normal. Where proper methods were fol-
lowed some very high yields were made. One boy reported 11/2
bales from his acre.
The work with truck crops was about normal. The profits
were small but the yields were about as usual.
In Manatee County three citrus clubs are at work on a tree-
growing project. Each boy plants the same number of sour
orange seed in a common plot. The seedlings are cultivated, set

Annual Report, 1931

in rows and budded. This is a three-year proposition but in this
county one club has kept going for three years. Whenever a boy
moves away another takes up his projects and carries on. The
first club now has enough trees grown to plant an acre of grove
for each boy. Some will start groves while others will sell
their trees.
Hard times are holding pig club work in check. Many boys do
not have the money to buy purebred pigs. The old boys are car-
rying on but have been forced to cheapen their cost of production,
which is in line with what should be done.
Arthur McNeeley of Marion County was awarded the Thomas
E. Wilson gold watch as the outstanding pig club member in
Florida. Arthur has developed a fine herd of Poland Chinas.
With so much of the state freed from the tick quarantine, more
interest is being shown in this project. In Duval County, 25 pure-
bred calves were placed with club members. The dairymen's
association of the county is backing this venture and results above
the average are expected.
In some counties a start is being made with grade calves, as
money is not available for buying purebred animals. This project
should show an increase during the next year.
Work with poultry is decreasing in number of projects but in-
creasing in number of birds involved and in efficiency of the work
done. Poultry club members are among the leaders in the Home
Egg-Laying Contest. This fall five club members entered a pen
of five birds each in the National Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley.
To date the club birds are holding their own in egg production.
The actual work in connection with a club demonstration or
project is but part of 4-H club work. The social side of life is
important and deserves attention as much as does the making of
a living. Educational trips and club exhibits are of prime im-
portance in the promotion of club work.
Social Meetings:-Farm boys and girls need and value the en-
joyments of a social good time. The 4-H club organizations are
furnishing means for recreational meetings in many communities.
Picnics, socials, and fish fries in which oftentimes the community

ii- -' L t

Fig. 4.-Duval County club boys and girls exhibited more than 20 club calves at the South Florida Fair.

Annual Report, 1931

joins, have been held by the boys and girls. One agent reports
10 such occasions in his county.
Recreation Schools:-The Playground and Recreation Associa-
tion of America is interested in developing the recreation move-
ment in rural areas. Working in connection with this association
four recreation schools were held in 1931. At these schools,
selected rural leaders and outstanding club members were given
instruction in organized recreation. Schools were held at Crest-
view, Marianna, Gainesville and Plant City. The results from
these schools were such that advanced work will be given in
schools held in the same places in 1932.
Radio Programs:-Each month a 30-minute program is broad-
cast over state station WRUF, the boys alternating with the girls
in planning these. In addition the department took part in the
National 4-H Achievement Program on November 7, by supplying
speakers for WIOD, WFLA and WJAX.
Club Camps:-The summer club camp remains popular and one
of the best features of the club recreation program. The work
has grown until in 1931 it was necessary to use two extra men
during the camping season. Howard Curry and Donald Matthews
were employed for three months to assist with camps.
A total of 691 boys from 22 counties spent four days at the 15
camps held during June, July and August of 1931. A central
camp, similar to that in the Choctawhatchee National Forest, is
needed for Central Florida.
Annual Short Course:-Each June the county club champions
are brought to the University for a week of instruction and recre-
ation. This is the crowning event of the club year. The visit to
the University seems to make a lasting impression on the lives of
many boys. Each year the number of former club boys enrolled
in the University increases, due to the effect of a visit to the
short course.
In 1931, 252 boys spent the week in Gainesville and 22 others
came for a one-day visit. The most enjoyable occasion was a
camp fire in the woods given by the former club boys who are
now attending college. The evening program for one night was
broadcast over WRUF.
Exhibits at South Florida Fair:-For the second year an ex-
hibit of corn was made at the South Florida Fair. Cotton was
added for the first time. A total of 3,300 square feet of exhibit
space was filled with corn and cotton grown by the club boys.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Some of the corn shown at this show was donated by the boys
to be sold and the proceeds sent to the State Club Leader of
Arkansas to buy seed corn for the club boys who had suffered
from the drought of 1930. In all, $50 was sent, and it supplied
over 100 Arkansas boys with seed for their 1932 club acres.
State Pig Club Show:-Again in 1931, the Leon County Cham-
ber of Commerce sponsored the State Pig Club Show. The show
was held in October so that Florida boys could enter the national
contests, which close on November 1.
Wilmer W. Bassett, Jr., of Jefferson County showed the grand
champion barrow, a Poland ChTna and the offspring of the gilt
with which he won the Frank E. Dennis scholarship in 1930.
State Poultry Club Show:-The first Florida 4-H Poultry Club
Show was held in connection with the Volusia County Fair. Both
girls and boys participated.
In addition to an exhibit of 180 club chickens, a judging contest
was held. Six county teams were entered. Alachua County's
team of girls won and Eunice Nixon of Gainesville was awarded
a trip to Chicago as high point contestant.
Two boys represented Florida at the 1930 National 4-H Camp
at Washington. One boy attended the National Dairy Show and
three the International Live Stock Exposition and 4-H Club Con-
gress at Chicago.
Five boys entered the College of Agriculture on scholarships
given by the Florida Bankers Association.
The 4-H scholarship winners continue to maintain enviable
records for scholarship in the College of Agriculture. Two of
the four boys who entered in 1930 were on the honor roll for
Bankers' Scholarships:-Due to the fact that three winners in
previous years decided not to come to college, six scholarships
were awarded this year. The winners were John Hentz, Liberty
County, and LeRoy McCurdy of Santa Rosa County for West
Florida; Clyde Byrd of Union County and Ben McLaughlin of
Marion County for Central Florida; Kenneth Newkirk of Lake
County and Maurice Lamb of Orange County for South Florida.
National 4-H Camp:-Arlington Henley of Walton County and
Jack Platt of Marion County represented Florida 4-H club boys at
the National 4-H Camp in Washington.

Annual Report, 1931

Trips:-The Armour and Company trip to Chicago for cham-
pion pig club barrow was won by Wilmer W. Bassett, Jr., of
Jefferson County.
The L. & N. Railroad trip to Chicago for outstanding club boy
in counties served by that road was awarded to Dennis Bradley
of Escambia County.
Essay:-The Creamery Package Company prize for best essay
on a milk plant was written by Dupont Magill of Duval County,
who was given a trip to the National Dairy Show at St. Louis.
South Florida Fair:-Grand champion bushel of corn at the
State Corn Club exhibit was shown by John Hentz of Liberty

113 Organized community 4-H clubs
7 County club organizations
2239 Members enrolled
2554 Different projects carried by club members
1197 Members completed
1389 Projects completed

Irish potatoes
sweet potatoes



39 members completed
89 members completed

144 members completed
102 members completed
2 members completed
208 members completed

home garden
ruck crop
mall fruits
home beautification


Live Stock
beef cattle

Acres Grown



12,866 bu.
1,508 bu.
365 bu.
3,776 bu.
85,212 lbs. seed
12,560 Ibs.

9 homes
11,000 lbs. seed
89 acres

Animals Involved
7,153 birds
141 animals
2 animals
455 animals

Farm Management
members completed farm records
Leadership and Recreation
Demonstration teams trained
Judging teams trained
Leadership meetings with 260 meetings
Achievement days held, 2,586 attending
Social meetings held, 2,213 attending
Club camps held, 736 attending







Florida Cooperative Extension

HAMLIN L. BROWN, Extension Dairyman
Dairy work has been carried on in the following counties during
1931, in cooperation with the county agents: Dade, Palm Beach,
Okeechobee, Martin, St. Lucie, Lee, DeSoto, Manatee, Hillsbor-
ough, Pinellas, Citrus, Hernando, Orange, Polk, Marion, Bradford,
Union, St. Johns, Duval, Alachua, Suwannee, Jefferson, Leon,
Jackson, Washington, Walton, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, and Escam-
bia. Some cooperative dairy work was carried on with the farmers
in some of the counties not having county agents, including Bay,
Gadsden, Madison, Columbia, Putnam, Volusia, Pasco, Glades,
and Broward.
The unfavorable season with limited rainfall in many sections
of the state has prevented the success of many of the feed-growing
demonstrations. However, the drouth did not prevent the dairy-
men of the state from making one of the greatest efforts they have
ever made to grow roughage. Feed-growing demonstrations for
dairy cows are being limited to the production of pastures, grazing
crops, silage, soiling crops and hays.
There was a shortage of pasture grass seed in 1931, as a result
of the severe drouth in seed-producing areas in 1930. This con-
dition, coupled with limited finances, greatly retarted the pasture
program for dairymen. However, county agents in 15 counties
reported 2,140 acres seeded to permanent pasture. An increased
number of dairymen are mowing the permanent pastures. The
large weeds, such as the coffee weed, bitterweed, and dog fennell,
shade out the permanent pasture grasses and take up moisture.
The pasture program has been emphasized by field visits to
dairy farms where good pastures are established, and by direct co-
operative purchase of grass seed. One Alachua County dairyman
drove 100 miles to attend an extension field meeting on pastures.
He was convinced after seeing the demonstration and knowing
the method used to obtain results. This dairyman now has an
excellent pasture of 130 acres. This is just one of many dairy-
men who have been influenced by this one pasture demonstration.
The dry season has made the seeding of winter grazing crops
very unsatisfactory. Rye, oats and winter legumes were almost
a complete failure in north Florida. Some county agents are con-

Annual Report, 1931

ducting demonstrations with winter legumes for grazing, and are
using sweet clover (melilotus) and black medic. These two
clovers give promise of fitting into a grazing plan with bermuda
grass that will give an all-year grazing crop. The clover is
disked into the bermuda sod in the fall and comes along in the
winter after the bermuda is frosted down. These clovers thrive
best when the soil is underlaid with marl formation, or shells.
The agent in lower Dade County reports yields of sweet clover
amounting to 25,000 pounds of green material to the acre from
volunteer seeding. In a demonstration with sweet clover on a
Pinellas County farm five cows were grazed to the acre for a
short period through the best growing season. The agent in
Walton County reports a successful demonstration with sweet and
crimson clovers disked into a bermuda sod. County agent Fin-
layson of Jefferson County had similar demonstrations, using
vetch with bermuda.
Silage demonstrations have shown how it is possible to produce
a roughage to take the place of other roughages usually purchased.
The. greater profits will come from feeding cheap roughages
that will increase the milk production and lower the cost of pro-
duction, which will make it possible later to expand dairying.
Demonstrations in methods of filling silos in four counties have
helped to correct wrong impressions about silage. Demonstra-
tions with sorghum have given satisfactory yields and this has
increased the interest in sorghum silage as a feed. In several
counties where corn was planted for silage the dry weather cut
the yield until it was necessary to plant sorghum to finish filling
the silos.
Soybean and cowpea silage demonstrations were put on in four
counties. This legume silage is valuable as a substitute for
legume hays.
The 1931 dairy prices put farmers in several of the West Flor-
ida counties out of business. In Okaloosa County 15 farmers
quit shipping cream when the prices got down to 17 and 18 cents
a pound for cream. Okaloosa County and several of the West
Florida counties were started into farm dairying under wrong
conditions. In several instances the creamery placed the cream
stations with commercial feed dealers whose prime interest was
to sell the farmers high priced feeds.

Florida Cooperative Extension

There are a good many farmers and a few county agents m
West Florida who are in a better position to start building a farm
dairy business after this experience. Most of them know now
that it requires a lot of cheap roughages and some good cows to
succeed with farm dairying.
In Walton County the farmers did not follow the cream pro-
moters. A few farmers started into dairying and patronized a
cooperative cream station selling the cream in Pensacola. They
have organized a cooperative bull association and now have four
bulls and have shipped in several high grade Jersey heifers with
the help of the county agent. County agents in Jefferson, Su-
wannee, and Marion counties are also making real progress with
farm dairying.
There has been more interest in raising calves, partly due to
surplus milk in most of the market milk centers and the low
price of veal.
Feeding demonstrations were carried on with 35 calves in Duval
County. In these demonstrations the purpose was to reduce the
cost of raising calves and increase the size of the animals and the
feed capacity, or barrel, by the feeding of more bulky feeds as
supplements to skimmilk. In the feeding demonstration it was
possible to reduce the cost of feeding calves about one-half what
it has cost the dairymen. Demonstrations have been carried out
in the control of parasites in calves. Polluted water and too early
grazing of calves on sod pastures account for most of the parasite
There has been more interest in keeping individual milk records
as a basis for correct feeding, and 134 dairymen have kept records
on 2,386 cows.

Practically all of the dairy herds in Duval and Leon counties
are headed by purebred sires. The president of the State Dairy-
men's Association, a leading dairyman of Duval County, pur-
chased a proven Guernsey sire that cost approximately $2,000,
to head his herd of purebred and high grade Guernseys.
There were 127 registered sires placed on farms during 1931
in 25 counties. There were 67 purebred females placed in the

Annual Report, 1931

During the year 1931 silo building on dairy farms was con-
ducted along conservative lines. Most of the silos were the home-
made variety. There were 10 trench silos; six pit, three Ten-
nessee wooden hoop, two wood stave-steel hoop, six concrete
(home-made), three steel (manufactured), and two wood (man-
ufactured), making a total of 32 in addition to the trench silos.
County agents carried on silo building demonstrations in Wal-
ton, Washington, Jefferson, Leon, Duval, Alachua, and Marion
The cost of construction of the different types of silos varied
in the following order: Trench, pit, home-made Tennessee wooden
hoop, wood stave-steel hoop, concrete, patented wooden and steel
silos. The concrete silo is the most practical silo for the larger
dairy farms where dairy farming is permanently established.
It is usually possible to finance the construction of a concrete
silo and the machinery for filling it on the larger, permanent dairy
farms. Financial conditions in 1931 made it difficult to finance
silo building on farms where farm dairying is practiced. For
this reason, and the uncertainty of permanence of the trench, pit
silos and home-made wooden silos seemed the logical kinds to
County Agent Wilkins in Walton County gives figures showing
that the complete cash outlay on construction and filling a 20-ton
trench silo was only $1.00 per ton. County Agent York in Wash-
ington County practically duplicated this demonstration, with a
trench silo. There were charges for machinery in filling these
silos as they used borrowed silage cutters and secured the power
from a car. Relative costs of building the different types of
silos were about as follows:
Trench 20-30 ton capacity .......................$ .50 per ton
Pit 15-25 ........................ .75 "
Tennessee wooden hoop 180 ton capacity.......... 1.54 "
Concrete (monolythic) 100 ......... 4.75 "
Steel 100 ton capacity ............... .... ..... 6.25 "
In the Lowell community in Marion County the farmers have
all the different types of silos except the Tennessee wooden hoop.
The farmers in that community cooperate in filling their silos.
They pool labor, teams and wagons and use one silage cutter and
engine. In this manner there is practically no cash outlay for
all the teams and wagons that are required to carry on the opera-

Florida Cooperative Extension

In Duval County, through the efforts of the Extension workers,
four dairy sheds were constructed. The sheds are built some
distance from the barns and they serve as a shade in the summer
and as a shelter in the winter on dairy farms where 20 or more
cows are milked. These sheds only need a good roof supported by
strong posts for studding. Dairymen find this kind of shed will
pay for itself in about one year in increased milk production.

There has been a 12 months' problem in marketing fluid milk
in Florida in 1931. The old trouble of summer surplus and winter
shortage has completely vanished. There was about as much
surplus in Jacksonville markets in January as in July. This con-
dition has been brought about by a concerted effort on the part of
the dairymen to have cows freshen in the fall.
There was an active State Dairyman's Association in 1931 with
12 county organizations that contributed a great deal in helping
stabilize dairy marketing. The state milk law is a product of the
State Dairymen's Association. The provisions in this law that
require shipped milk to meet local inspection requirements has
served to check the wholesale shipping of milk out of milk product
plants as was the case five or six years ago.

There has been a gradual increase in the number of counties
doing dairy club work as tick eradication has progressed. This
year there were 17 counties with 127 heifers doing some 4-H dairy
work. The quality of club work is improving as the numbers
have increased. This year's plans are made to exhibit registered
club heifers at the South Florida Fair in Tampa.
It has been the work of the Extension dairy agent to assist the
state boys' club leader with the boys' short course in Gainesville,
and for the last few years a special group has been given four
days' special training in dairying. Several of the boys in these
special groups have come back to the campus later to take up the
four years' college course in the University. This work has an
important place in the 4-H club work and there is a splendid
opportunity to expand these short courses to reach more farm
boys in the state.
The 4-H dairy clubs offer an opportunity to help finance the
introduction of purebred dairy animals. -There is a good 10-year
record in financing dairy club work in the state. The banks of

Annual Report, 1931

the state have not lost a dollar in financing any registered animals.
This fine record helped to secure finances for 25 registered dairy
animals in Duval County this year. All of the 25 notes have been
paid in full. The financial stress has not affected the financing
of worthy dairy club work.
Special time in 4-H dairy club work by the Extension dairy
agent was given to helping with a judging contest at the field day
held at Inspiration Ranch near Bradenton in June. In the absence
of the state club leader from the state, the Extension dairy agent
took charge of the state essay contest put on by the National
Dairy and Ice Cream Manufacturing Association. Thirty-one
essays were turned in to the three district agents, the committee
selected to act as judges. Dupont Magill, a club boy in Duval
County, was awarded first prize and a free trip to the National
Dairy Show in St. Louis in October.

The Extension dairy agent attended 105 meetings, with an
attendance of 4,361, during the year. He wrote 1,143 letters and
traveled 26,010 miles.

Florida Cooperative Extension

WALTER J. SHEELY, Agent in Animal Husbandry

Extension work in animal husbandry has been carried on
mainly in the tick-free area consisting of that part of the state
north of a line drawn east and west from the southeastern end
of Volusia County, the southern edge of Marion County and the
southern part of Levy County. Practically all of the counties
north and west of this line have been interested in beef cattle
improvement and hog development.
Contrary to the usual effect of low prices, there is a healthy
interest in beef cattle development in Florida. This interest is
manifested by cattle owners in the demand for better bulls and
breeding cows, for information on pasture development, the
growing tendency to winter feed the bulls and weak cows, to
insure a calf crop and the saving of the heifers.
Further evidence is the interest shown by the large land-owners
who control millions of acres of land in this state.
During the year 56 meetings, with a total attendance of 6,500
people, have been attended in the following counties: Levy,
Alachua, Dixie, Taylor, Suwannee, Columbia, Jefferson, Leon,
Gadsden, Jackson, Liberty, Calhoun, Washington, Walton, Oka-
loosa, and Santa Rosa. Picture films setting forth beef cattle
development were shown in Levy, Taylor, Jefferson, Leon, Jack-
son, Washington, Alachua, and Orange counties with a total
attendance of 1,300.
During 4-H club week at the University and at the annual
meeting of Smith-Hughes students the Agent instructed 128 club
boys and 200 future farmers in selecting breeding beef cattle and
using purebred bulls.
Demonstrations of cutting the beef carcass were held in coop-
eration with K. F. Warner of the Bureau of Animal Industry in
Levy, Taylor and Gadsden counties. Pork cutting demonstra-
tions were held in Alachua, Levy, Taylor, Jefferson, Leon (2-
whites and Negroes), Gadsden, Jackson and Washington.
In cooperation with county agents, prominent breeders and the
Hereford Cattle Association, three bull sales were held. At

Annual Report, 1931

Gainesville (June 20 and July 11) 48 registered bulls were dis-
tributed in Alachua and adjoining counties.
On October 22 at Crestview, Okaloosa County, 8 bulls and 6
heifers were sold to farmers in that section.
Five additional bulls and four heifers came to Florida from a
South Georgia sale.
The Animal Husbandman has located bulls, secured prices and
furnished livestock information to county agents and a large
number of individuals. A total of 171 purebred bulls have been
added to Florida herds.
Fifty-six purebred beef heifers, 308 high grade cows and 190
calves have been brought in from other states during the year.
This office located 1,660 feeder steers, secured prices and freight
costs for farmers in Gadsden and Madison counties from Mont-
gomery, Alabama, South Georgia and in this state.
P. E. Williams, Davenport, Fla., has been for the last three
years feeding large numbers of native range cattle. Last year
they fed 1,160 head. Mr. Williams is, for the first time, keeping
records of feeds and weighing 400 steers every 30 days. He is
following in a large measure our outline for feeding silage and
cottonseed meal.

Fig. 5.-A trench silo is easily made, inexpensive, easily filled, and preserves
silage successfully. Well drained clay land is best.

Floiida Cooperative Extension

Pasture work has been hampered this season by the drouth and
by the scarcity of grass seed. However, 7,000 pounds of grass
seed were sown in Taylor County, 2,000 pounds in Dixie County
and in St. Johns County there were 2,000 acres fenced and seeded
with 1,000 pounds of grass seed. J. J. Taylor of Marion County
sowed 1,500 pounds of grass seed. In Jackson County 600 acres
were planted in carpet and lespedeza, and in Alachua County 10
acres were planted to Dallis grass on muck land. P. E. Williams,
Davenport, is developing 250 acres of muck land pasture.
A trench silo for beef cattle feeding was put in by the Marianna
Fruit Company. This company stored 1,080 tons of silage in a
trench silo.
Early in the year county agents in the hog producing counties
adopted standard demonstration plans for economic swine pro-
duction. Meetings were held advising on the breeding and
handling of hogs and on planting crops to finish the hogs for the
early markets.
In April at Trenton, eight purebred boars and 18 sows and gilts
were sold at public auction. In addition, county agents report 82
purebred boars and 88 gilts placed.
In cooperation with the county agents and the Bureau of Animal
Industry, U. S. D. A., pork cutting demonstrations were held in
eight counties. At these demonstrations instructions were given
on curing of pork. This stimulated inquiries for information on
the curing of meats.
With the idea of calling attention to the good qualities of "pea-
nut pork," and with the hope of increasing the demand for peanut-
fed meat, a peanut pork luncheon was held at Chipley, Florida,
which was attended by representative business and professional
men from the hog-producing counties.
Following this the Gainesville Kiwanis Club held a peanut pork
luncheon when H. McDowell, Manager of Swift and Company's
Moultrie, Ga., plant, explained the packing company's plans for
a wider distribution of southern pork. As a result, Nathan Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture and Chairman of the State Agricul-
tural Committee of the Kiwanis Clubs, recommended that each
club in the state hold a "peanut pork" luncheon.
In cooperation with Swift and Company, a peanut pork exhibit
was displayed at the South Florida Fair. Mr. McDowell advised

Annual Report, 1931

Fig. 6.-The peanut pork luncheon at Chipley was well attended, and stim-
ulated interest in this delicious product.

that this meat show was responsible for new customers for the
peanut pork.
A meeting was held in Atlanta with representatives from Geor-
gia and Alabama with the idea of working out better plans of
marketing hogs in the Southeast. At this meeting there was
formed the Southeastern Peanut Pork Association.
Most of the sheep are in west Florida and are of the range type.
The main revenue obtained from these sheep is the wool. The
low price of wool has kept many owners from getting purebred
This season this office located and secured prices on purebred
rams of the various breeds and furnished this information to the
county agents and sheep owners. Due to tightness of money, no
importations of rams were made.
During the year three livestock associations have been formed
in as many counties: Escambia, Walton, and Washington. These
associations have for their object improving the grade of the
animals by breeding, herd management and feeding; also better
Experiment Station bulletin 236, "Swine Production in Florida,"
was issued under the joint authorship of the Agent in Animal
Husbandry and the head of animal husbandry department in the
Experiment Station.

Florida Cooperative Extension

N. R. MEHIHOF, Extension Poultryman
Extension work in poultry production for the year 1930-1931
was concerned chiefly with several phases of economical produc-
tion, including cost records, worm control, chickenpox vaccination,
production of quality chicks, and culling.
Both egg prices, feed prices and poultry meat prices were lower
than last year. Feed and egg prices dropped rapidly since Jan-
uary 1, 1930. Until July, 1931, the price of eggs fell more rapidly
than did the price of poultry feeds. Feed has continued further
downward to 60 percent of the five-year period and about 50 per-
cent of the peak price in June, 1928, while eggs have remained
about stationary at 70 percent of the five-year average, 1926-30.
Thirty-two counties were visited during the year and construc-
tive poultry work was accomplished.
During the year 1931 the following phases of work were de-
1. Grow healthy chicks.
2. Grow green feed.
3. Practice culling.
4. Home egg-laying contest.
5. Junior poultry work.
The purpose of the Grow Healthy Chick program is to reduce
chick mortality, thereby reducing the cost of rearing pullets. The
lower the chick mortality, the higher the quality of pullet that
can be placed in the laying house.
Table II shows the value of such a program:
Percent Mortality
Percent Mor y Eggs Per Bird Value of Eggs over Feed
Chick Layers 1929 1929
1928 1929

8 9 168 2.80
15 10 155 2.49
26 12 143 2.15
35 13 140 2.00
55 19 116 7.66
26 11 145 2.29

*From records by Frank W. Brumley, of Agricultural Economics De-

Annual Report, 1931

The Grow Healthy Chick program was centered around six
fundamental factors, as follows: hatch early, clean eggs and
chicks, clean brooder houses, clean land, balanced ration, separa-
tion of pullets from cockerels.
This plan when adopted was effective in reducing chick mor-
The following data have been assembled from the records
No. of No. of Chicks
Year Records Put Under Brooder Average Mortality
1928 ........ 35 .......... 30,000 .......... 24.3
1929 ........ 38 .......... 22,000 .......... 13.9
1930 ........ 28 .......... 28,500 .......... 14.3
1931 ........ 18 .......... 15,523 .......... 12.5

The following results were summarized from the 1931 reports:
When poor quality chicks were used the mortality was 38.8
Failure to put chicks on clean ground results in a chick mor-
tality of 19.6 percent.
Farmers adopting all six factors reported a chick mortality of
8.2 percent.
The feeding of green feed is important from the viewpoint of
the growing bird and the layer. It is essential that poultrymen
provide a year-round green feed program.
The liberal use of green feeds has proven a profitable phase of
successful poultry feeding.
Producers are adopting a rigid culling program. It is a good
business practice to keep nothing but good layers in the flock.
In all flocks there are individuals which tend to lower the aver-
age egg yield. This is the problem for the producer to solve. To
make more money from the flock, the poultry raiser must main-
tain a high egg yield.
Through culling demonstrations the producers have learned
the art of separating the. high egg birds from the low egg birds.
The Extension Poultryman has assisted the agents in conducting
25 culling demonstrations.
The purpose of the Home Egg-Laying Contest is to encourage
poultry producers to keep records of their expenses and receipts,
so that the year's business can be careful analyzed.

58 Florida Cooperative Extension

November 1 was the starting date for contests prior to 1930.
Since then the contest begins October 1, and it is now known as
the Florida Calendar- Flock Records project.
A new form of record book was put into use in 1931.
Year No. of Farms No. of Birds Eggs Per Bird
1926 ...................... 25 5,515 161.07
1927 ...................... 29 6,620 160.04
1928 ...................... 18 4,275 156.60
1929 ...................... 38 7,893 158.46
1930 ...................... 41 14,915 159.87
1931 ...................... 51 17,040 158.54
The flocks are divided in 4 groups according to the number of
birds involved.
Group I- 10-50 birds
Group II- 51-250 birds
Group III-251-500 birds
Group IV-Over500birds

Group Group Group Group
Month I II III IV Average
October ............ 5.86 7.28 7.25 5.99 6.53
November .......... 5.83 7.98 7.48 7.05 7.32
December .......... 7.45 8.94 8.79 8.86 8.81
January ............ 10.35 12.70 11.50 11.86 11.84
February ........... 15.13 16.65 16.17 15.25 15.81
March .............. 16.67 19.08 19.43 19.34 19.25
April ............... 16.46 18.55 19.21 20.41 19.70
May ............... 15.86 18.31 17.66 18.78 18.38
June ............... 12.31 14.59 14.96 16.99 16.03
July ............... 11.73 12.56 12.72 14.86 13.91
August ............. 10.09 11.15 11.33 12.61 11.96
September .......... 6.92 9.35 8.72 8.01 8.38
Total ............. 140.19* 165.85* 157.39* 157.82* 158.54*
*Yearly egg production per bird. This is figured by taking the total
number of eggs produced and dividing by the average number of birds.

Per Bird Per Dozen Eggs
Feed Cost ................................. $2.23 $ .159
Depreciation on birds ....................... .83 .059
Value of Eggs sold......................... 4.26 .304

Likewise the following statements have been taken from the
results tabulated from the Fifth Home Egg-Laying Contest (12

Annual Report, 1931

1. Flocks that averaged 187 eggs per bird per year returned
$2.85 a bird above feed costs; while flocks averaging 138 eggs per
bird returned only $1.65 a bird above feed costs.
2. An average of 42 eggs per bird during November, December,
and January resulted in 177 eggs for the year and a value of eggs
over feed cost of $2.84; while 22 eggs during November, December,
January resulted in 149 eggs or a value of $1.67.
3. A high percentage of pullets meant a greater yearly egg pro-
duction and a lower feed cost per dozen eggs.
4. Flocks which had an adult mortality of 14.6 percent produced
an average of 146 eggs per bird per year and returned $1.80 (the
value of eggs over feed costs) ; while flocks averaging 7.1 percent
mortality produced an average of 182 eggs per bird per year and
returned $2.85.
The 4-H poultry club program was developed more efficiently
during the past year.
Visits to 4-HI poultry flocks during the year were made. Club
meetings were attended, and the fundamentals of poultry pro-
duction were discussed.
The 4-H boys' and girls' short courses held at Gainesville and
Tallahassee have been places where various phases of poultry
production were discussed.
The first State 4-H Poultry Show and Judging Contest was held
in connection with the Volusia County Fair, DeLand, February
17-21, 1931. It was made possible through the cooperation of
the manager.
The 4-H poultry exhibit had a separate building, with new cages.
There were 34 4-H exhibitors from eight counties (Alachua, Union,
Bradford, Lake, Marion, Orange, Duval, and Volusia) and they
entered 180 birds.
Ten different varieties were exhibited, consisting mostly of
White Leghorns, Barred Plymouth Rocks and Rhode Island Reds.
The exhibits were judged by a licensed A. P. A. judge, Mr. Daniel
Each judging contest team was composed of three 4-H club
members. Teams from Alachua, Bradford, Lake, Marion, Orange,
and Volusia counties competed. Each member of the judging
team competing for prizes was required (1) to make an exhibit of
at least 5 birds, including one male, (2) submit a record book, (3)
answer 10 questions and (4) judge 16 birds, 4 each of Barred
Plymouth Rocks, White Wyandottes, Single Comb Rhode Island

Florida Cooperative Extension

Reds, Single Comb White Leghorns. The method employed to
find the winners, both individual and team, was as follows:
1. Record book ............................ 20 points
2. Exhibit ...................... ....... 15 points
3. Questions .................. 10 points
4. Judging ............ ............... 55 points
100 points
A team of girls from Alachua County trained under the leader-
ship of the home demonstration agent, was awarded first place.
The second award went to a team of boys from Lake County
under the leadership of the county agent.
The outstanding award (a trip to the Coliseum Poultry Show
and National Club Congress) to the highest scoring individual
was awarded to Miss Eunice Nixon, Gainsville, Florida.
The second highest scoring individual was Thomas Lamb, an
Orange County club boy.
At the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, a 4-H Club Egg-
Laying Contest was started. There are 5 pens of 6 pullets each
entered, one pen from Escambia County, and 4 from Lake County.

Local, county and state poultry associations have assisted ma-
terially in carrying out the Extension poultry program.
The American Poultry Association of Florida has helped in fur-
thering the Extension program,-has made it possible for club
members to secure higher quality standardbred poultry, and also
has fostered the junior poultry club show and judging contest.
The Florida Baby Chick Association has as its motto, "Better
Quality Chicks." The members have cooperated and assisted in
putting over the Grow Healthy Chick program. Accreditation
work is handled under the supervision of the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board, Tallahassee. A two-day meeting of the associa-
tion was held at Orlando in October which was well attended by
the hatcherymen of the state.
The State Marketing Bureau, with its poultry marketing spe-
cialist, has worked in close cooperation with the agents, and the
state office in an educational way.

Two years ago the county and home demonstration agents in
West Florida secured plans for a home-made brick brooder. This
type of brooder is cheap and efficient and is being used success-

Annual Report, 1931

fully on many farms in West Florida. Between 75 ana 100 of
these brooders were in operation this past season. Better brood-
ing is reported since the farmer installed this brick brooder.

A vaccine to check outbreaks of chickenpox is in general use
by commercial poultrymen. This disease generally makes its
appearance during the fall of the year just as the pullets come
into production and results in a loss in egg production. Often it
is accompanied by colds, roup and mortality and results in a sub-
stantial decrease in returns. The birds are generally vaccinated
when 12 to 16 weeks of age. The cost is one to two cents per bird.

The Extension Poultryman attended 47 meetings with 1,280
present. Four all-day poultry schools were held.

An intensive poultry program is presented during Farmers' and
Fruit Growers' Week. The daily attendance in the poultry section
ranged from 25 to 100 people.

Dr. E. F. Thomas, Assistant Veterinarian, Experiment Station,
has cooperated with the Extension Service in this program by
attending meetings, making farm visits, studying parasites and
diseases, and making post-mortem examinations.
Worm control studies are now under way in which the Veteri-
nary Department of the Experiment Station and the Extension
Service are cooperating. Treatments were applied to three pens
of pullets in 1931 and are being repeated in 1932. A report of
progress will be given.
The Extension Poultryman is cooperating with the Experiment
Station in preliminary surveys of fowl paralysis.

The Fifth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest located at
Chipley, ran from October 1, 1930,'to September 22, 1931. There
were 58 pens entered. The average egg production for the 51
weeks' period was 204.9 eggs per bird. The average egg produc-
tion for the heavy breeds was 180.68 eggs, and for the light breeds
214 eggs.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Judging was done at 5 fairs last year, the Extension Poultry-
man handling the junior poultry exhibits and in some cases the
open classes.
Twenty conferences were held with feed men, fair managers,
and secretaries of chambers of commerce, relative to poultry
problems in their localities.
A veterinary short course was held at Gainesville, June 5-9, in
cooperation with the Animal Husbandry Department of the Ex-
periment Station. Approximately 15 were in attendance. A very
interesting and educational program was presented.

At request of poultry producers, a broiler cost account was
made available. A study of cost of broiler production will be
made this year.
Also at the request of the members of the Florida Baby Chick
Association, a hatchery record was mimeographed to facilitate
study of costs of producing chicks and study factors affecting the
production of baby chicks.

Annual Report, 1931

E. F. DEBUSK, Extension Citriculturist.
The year that has just closed has been one of history-making
for the citrus industry of Florida. The crop of 1930-31 was the
largest in the history of the industry, and was grown and mar-
keted at a loss to the producers. The 1931-32 crop apparently
is too large for consumer demand under existing conditions.
Consequently growers have been forced to make drastic reduc-
tions in operating expenses in order to "make ends meet." The
result is that many of the time-honored practices in citrus culture
in the state are undergoing rapid changes, some of which" of course
will be only temporary, while others will no doubt become per-
manent and far-reaching in the citrus industry and in certain
allied industries. The movement of fruit by motor truck to
markets of the South has virtually come into existence during
the year and grown to the enormous volume of approximately
3,000,000 boxes, or 10% of the commercial crop. This affects
certain phases of production and presents new and intricate mar-
keting problems. Consequently, under existing conditions, new
and increasing demands have been made on Extension Service
men throughout the citrus belt for special service to individual
growers, small groups of growers and organizations, in adjusting
their grove management practices to meet present conditions and
demands. This accordingly has necessitated certain changes in
our plan of work entered upon at the beginning of the year. But
the keynote of our whole program of citrus culture has been
economical production.

The most fruitful efforts in the control of melanose during the
last three years have been directed along lines of what might be
termed indirect control. Growers understand very well the
method of controlling melanose by spraying with bordeaux-oil,
and apply the treatment when funds will permit and conditions
seem to justify the practice, but opportunities through indirect
control-prevention of the production of dead wood-are often
overlooked. Inadequate soil moisture, breaking the roots by deep
cultivation, and improper fertilizing, are recognized as the chief
underlying causes of dieing back of twigs and branches. In rare
cases, twigs are killed by scale-insects, and in some cases they are
killed by the improper use of oil in spraying for scale control.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Thus it can be seen that this problem of practical melanose control
runs through the whole program of citrus culture. The same
may be said of withertip, dieback, ammoniation, frenching, and
perhaps the tree trunk and root diseases. Practical control of
these diseases, therefore, resolves itself largely into one big
problem of proper soil management and cultural practices.
Twenty-two melanose control demonstrations by spraying with
bordeaux-oil, were conducted in three counties (Hillsborough, St.
Lucie and Manatee), covering 870 acres and affecting approxi-
mately 175,000 boxes of fruit. In addition, 575 consultations
were held with county agents and specialist on the problem of
melanose control in 13 counties, representing approximately
15,000 acres, and practical suggestions were given the growers
on the proper procedure in combatting this disease. The results
on the whole have been very satisfactory.

Twenty-six scab control demonstrations were conducted in five
counties (Highlands, Pinellas, St. Lucie, Jackson, Bay) covering
780 acres and representing more than 100,000 boxes of fruit.
In many cases liquid lime-sulphur 1-25 was used in the dormant
spray, instead of 3-3-50 bordeaux plus 1% oil, with good results.
Grower interest in scab control on grapefruit was below normal
this year, no doubt due to the low price received for good fruit of
the previous crop and to the development of the canning industry
that promised to absorb the slightly scabby fruit at little or no
The control of blue mold decay depends largely upon the man-
ner in which the fruit is handled from the tree through the pack-
inghouse. Approximately 70 percent of the fruit abrasions,
caused by rough or improper handling, result in decay before the
fruit is consumed. The proper use of picking equipment to obviate
fruit injuries has been stressed in 11 meetings with growers and
packers. The handling of approximately 2,000,000 boxes was
involved. Additional growers and packers were reached through
press articles on the subject, appearing in 27 publications, and by
two radio talks. The adoption and general use of the nipper type
fruit clipper by the leading organizations that pick and pack fruit
has resulted in almost complete elimination of long stems and
clipper cuts, the two main picking blemishes.

Annual Report, 1931

Twenty-five demonstrations were reported by county agents in
the control of foot rot, dieback, frenching, gummosis and psorosis.
It should be noted here that with the trend toward less grove
cultivation, dieback and ammoniation of fruit tend to become of
less importance and disappear entirely in individual groves.

The usual rust mite control by the rust mite fungus, during
the months of July to September, could not be depended upon in
certain localities this year because of the very light rainfall. This
made rust mite control more difficult for the average grower.
Thirty-two demonstrations in spraying and dusting for rust
mite control were conducted in three counties (St. Lucie, Martin
and Polk), covering 1,280 acres and affecting approximately 250,-
000 boxes of fruit. In addition, more than 900 consultations were
held with county agents and specialist on rust mite control prob-
lems, representing approximately 36,000 acres. The results have
been highly gratifying.

Natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is claiming more
attention from year to year. Considerable time has been devoted
to a study of individual grove conditions, with special reference
to natural control of these pests, to determine the minimum
amount of spraying required for satisfactory control under given
conditions. Groves are often sprayed when conditions do not
justify the expense. One grower will spray religiously once or
twice a year for scale control, while another in the same locality
either never sprays for scale at all or sprays only every two or
three years with apparently the same degree of success in scale
control. The explanation is found in natural control by the scale
Several hundred growers have been induced to secure from the
State Plant Board cultures of the Red Aschersonia for whitefly
control. This natural control of whitefly is a great saving to the
growers of the state who take advantage of it. It is growing
more popular every year, and will continue to constitute an im-
portant part of our whitefly control program. The greatest need
in our program of scale and whitefly control is the development
of a practical method of growing and distributing the brown fun-

Florida Cooperative Extension

gus parasite of the whitefly and the pink and red-headed fungi
parasites of our most common scale-insects.
Fifty-five demonstrations in the control of scale and whitefly
were conducted during the year in 7 counties (St. Lucie, Martin,
Putnam, Pasco, Lake, Pinellas and Hillsborough), covering 1,650
acres. More than 900 consultations were held in which practical
suggestions were given growers on both natural and artificial
control of scale and whitefly.

Sixty-three demonstrations were conducted and approximately
700 office consultations held with growers in 20 counties on the
control of aphids, red spider, cottony-cushion scale, mealybug,
pumpkin bug, thrips and other minor insects. In the spring, there
was a heavy outbreak of red spider across the central part of the
citrus belt and considerable damage was done before it could be
checked. In this emergency, county agents rendered valuable
service to a large number of growers by instructing them in the
kind of spray material to use and when and how to use it. Many
thousands of acres were thus served. Many growers were aided
in securing the cryptolaemus ladybeetles in mealybug control.

The need of cover crops in citrus groves is universally recog-
nized. The grower's chief concern lies in determining the crop
best adapted to his particular conditions, and finding out the meth-
ods of growing and handling the crop that will give best results.
To meet these demands, 212 cover-crop demonstrations were con-
ducted in 17 counties (Polk, Dade, DeSoto, Hernando, Highlands,
Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Marion, Martin, Orange, Pinel-
las, St. Lucie, Putnam, Bay, and Jackson), including 6,708 acres.
Perhaps the greatest service has been rendered through the 1,228
consultations with county agents on cover-crop problems affect-
ing more than 50,000 acres.
It has been shown that by the proper use of the best adapted
cover crop, the cost of producing fruit can be reduced 20 to 30 per-
cent, and at the same time the quality of the fruit is improved.
Of the cover crops that are planted, Crotalaria is far in the lead
and is rapidly increasing in popularity and acres. It is estimated
that the acreage planted this year was about double that of 1930.
Unfortunately a poor stand was secured, on account of unusually
dry weather, and the yield generally has not been satisfactory.

Annual Report, 1931

In many cases, however, where the young Crotalaria was killed
by drought the demonstrations were turned into fertilizing the
grasses (mainly natal) with cheap nitrogen to increase the yield.
Invariably the increase in yield has been highly satisfactory, and
the practice of fertilizing the grass cover crop with nitrogen has
been established.
Seventy-five percent of our citrus acreage shows a great need
of more bulky organic matter than is being supplied. The mini-
mum requirement of these soils is fixed by research at three tons
(dry weight) per acre per annum. This is our goal. Under prac-
tices still too common, less than one ton per acre is produced. The
first and main objective, therefore, is to increase the yield of
organic matter.
Since the fertilizing cost represents approximately 50 percent
of the total cost of producing citrus fruits, the demand for reduc-
ing production costs under existing conditions rests heavily upon
this main item. Supported by research results, the cost of fer-
tilizing is being materially reduced by the use of inorganic sources
of plant food, and by reducing the amount of phosphoric acid and
potash in common use. With this objective, 188 fertilizer demon-
strations are being conducted in 16 counties (Polk, Dade, DeSoto,
Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lee, Lake, Manatee, Martin,
Okeechobee, Orange, Osceola, Pinellas, St. Lucie, and Putnam),
including 7,317 acres. In addition to the demonstration work,
more than 1,300 consultations were held with growers on the
subject of fertilizing citrus, representing more than 50,000 acres.
One of the main problems in profitable production of tangerines
is to produce large, firm fruit, well colored. Tangerine trees are
inclined to produce very heavy crops, with the result that a large
percentage of the fruit is too small to be marketed at a profit.
Thinning eliminates very largely the small, unprofitable sizes
and results in more fruit of the larger sizes. Eight thinning
demonstrations were conducted this year, affecting 480 acres,
with very satisfactory results.
The results of a few mulching demonstrations of the past four
years are stimulating wide interest. Any kind of vegetable mat-
ter is used. It is applied either under and around individual trees
or over the entire area, with strips left as a fire guard. Where

Florida Cooperative Extension

individual trees are mulched it is applied just heavy enough to
keep vegetation smothered down, and added to from time to time
to replace losses by decomposition. Fertilizer is applied on the
mulch. The benefits of the mulch that have been noted are as
follows: results in better growth and more vigorous trees, gives
better quality of fruit, conserves soil moisture, and reduces fer-
tilizer and cultivation costs.
Eighteen demonstrations were added this year in five counties
(Polk, Highlands, Lake, Pinellas, and Putnam), including 2,642
acres, and 283 consultations were held with growers on the subject.

Grove cultivation has come up for considerable attention during
the year. Aside from the useless expense of the operation, it has
been clearly demonstrated that too much grove cultivating is
practiced under certain conditions for the best health of the trees
and for quality fruit. This grove operation is often found to be a
very aggravating factor in disease and insect control as well as in
general soil management. Root pruning by deep cultivation
throws the tree out of natural balance, thus weakening it and
rendering it more susceptible to disease attack and insect injury.
The result is weakened and dead wood, followed by an increase in
diplodia, withertip, stem-end rot, melanose and other diseases.
Less cultivation and the growing of cover crops over a longer
period result in more effective natural control of all insects, thus
reducing the insect-control bill. Perhaps the greatest evil of ex-
cessive cultivation is in the utter waste of organic matter. In a
six-year experiment on ridge soil, where an average of more than
two tons of organic matter per acre per annum was supplied and
the usual cultivation practiced, the organic content of the soil
actually decreased about 19 percent.
Twenty-five demonstrations in proper cultivation were con-
ducted this year, with very striking results, and more than a
thousand consultations were held with extension workers in 24
counties on the subject of proper grove cultivation. These dem-
onstrations and consultations are resulting in the saving of thou-
sands of dollars to growers on their grove operations.
The rainfall was unusually heavy during the first three months
of the year. This brought up numerous problems in drainage on
the low lands. The usual summer rainy season did not come, and

Annual Report, 1931

the last quarter of the year has been the driest for many years.
These conditions, coupled with the scarcity of money among grow-
ers, have made heavy demands upon the extension workers for
service of a more or less temporary character-handling the im-
mediate problems with the expenditure of as little money as pos-
sible. Approximately 200 consultations have been held on mat-
ters of drainage and irrigation in 21 counties. Drainage facili-
ties, in many instances, have been greatly improved; the efficiency
of a number of irrigation installations has been greatly increased
and the operating cost materially reduced.

There has not been a time during the last 20 years when citrus
growers were more eager for facts and more willing to think for
themselves and draw their own conclusions. They are thinking
of each grove operation as having a direct and important bearing
on the efficiency of the grove as a paying business enterprise. This
frame of mind welcomes an opportunity to study in detail the cost
of production in the individual grove and a careful analysis of the
whole grove management set-up, with the view of making im-
provements and reducing the cost of production where practicable.
More than 300 consultations with growers in 10 counties went into
various phases of grove management, with the result that many
improvements have been made and production costs reduced. A
detailed report on grove records and production cost studies is
found in the reports of the Extension Economists.

There is an increasing demand made upon extension workers
for what is called special service. Requests come from growers
for personal visits to their properties and consultations on various
grove problems. This service consumes a large part of the coun-
ty agent's time, and unquestionably constitutes a very important
part of his year's work, perhaps the most important from the
grower's standpoint. It is through these grove visits that lasting
contacts are made between growers and the Extension Service.
It is through these visits that the county agent's supply of first-
hand information about current grove conditions is obtained, and
that the needs and viewpoint of the grower along various lines
are fully appreciated. During the year, 3,572 grove visits were
made covering every citrus-producing county of the state and
representing approximately 200,000 acres.

Florida Cooperative Extens~ion

During the year, 198 meetings and schools of instruction were
held in 24 counties with an attendance of 4,345. All phases of
citrus culture were covered in the discussions. Twenty-eight
grove tours were held in 13 counties (Polk, Dade, DeSoto, Her-
nando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Orange,
Osceola, Palm Beach, and Pinellas), attended by 652 growers.
These tours were made to the various demonstrations and cooper-
ative experiments in the respective counties and to the Citrus Ex-
periment Station at Lake Alfred. They are the most effective
means yet devised for teaching the lessons in the demonstrations
and experiments. They are sure to increase in popularity and
Extension workers took part in 284 additional meetings in 20
counties, with an attendance of more than 9,000. In these meet-
ings various phases of extension work were discussed.

Exhibits on extension work, in connection with fairs, attract
attention and seem to have a distinct educational value. During
the year, 45 exhibits were made by 16 counties (Polk, Dade, De-
Soto, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Manatee,
Marion, Martin, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Pinellas and St.
Lucie), at various points, including the South Florida Fair, Tampa;
the Central Florida Festival, Orlando; and the Florida Orange
Festival, Winter Haven. At the Orange Festival a space of 10x110
feet was occupied by exhibits on soil building and cover crops, va-
rieties of fruit, rootstocks and propagation, disease and insect con-
trol, and the conservation and use of the fruits and fruit products
in the home. The exhibit was staffed continuously through a
period of four days by various county agents and extension spe-
cialists who explained to thousands of interested people the les-
sons in the exhibit and the different phases and functions of the
Extension Service. It was estimated that around 50,000 people
viewed this exhibit alone.

The press of the state has cooperated 100 percent in getting
before the people articles, news items and announcements, pertain-
ing to the Extension activities. Four hundred and ninety-three
articles on various phases of citrus culture were prepared by the

Annual Report, 1931

specialist and county agents of 16 counties (Polk, Dade, DeSoto,
Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Marion,
Martin, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Pinellas, and St. Lucie)
and published in local and state papers.
Fifty-nine radio talks were delivered on various citrus subjects
from stations in Clearwater, St. Petersburg,.Tampa, Orlando, Mi-
ami and Gainesville by the specialist and 10 county agents (Hol-
land, Heard, Alsmeyer, Wright, Hiatt, Hayman, Wilson, Moore,
Gunn and Gomme). This is a very effective means of reaching
the citrus growers of the state.

That citrus growers read matter pertaining to citrus culture
is attested by the fact that 6,047 bulletins on different phases of
citrus culture were called for and distributed from the offices of
15 county agents (Holland, Steffani, Heard, Logan, Alsmeyer,
Wright, Hiatt, Hayman, Wilson, Heuck, Moore, Gunn, Mounts,
Gomme and Warren) during the year.
More than 5,000 letters on citrus subjects went out to growers
from the offices of these county agents during the same period.
The Extension citriculturist is joint author with Dr. Arthur S.
Rhoads of Experiment Station Bulletin 229, "Diseases of Citrus
in Florida." This bulletin has been in course of preparation for
more than three years, but was completed early this year and
published in June.

Florida Cooperative Extension

J. E. TURLINGTON, Agricultural Economist
F. W. BRUMLEY, Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
W. R. BRIGGS, Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, Agricultural Economist, Marketing

Organized Extension work in Agricultural Economics in Flor-
ida is now a little more than one year old. There are two full-
time specialists in Farm Management and one in Marketing. The
Marketing man began work on February 1, 1931. One of the Dis-
trict Agents gives a part of his time to outlook and organization
activities, and the Agricultural Economist is also on part-time.
It has been a busy year for the agricultural economists and the
demands for securing economic information within the counties
have been greater than our ability to comply with requests. The
collection of seasonal commodity price data as affected by quan-
tity and grades has been very popular, and the marketing special-
ist has been able to secure valuable and important data on prices
by farmers for hogs, cucumbers, and tangerines.
Farm and enterprise surveys have also met with much favor in
a number of counties and present requests in this field of work
would keep the entire personnel of the department busy for more
than two years if superficial data only were taken, analyzed and
returned to the farmers in each of the counties requesting that
the work be done.
A grove record book has been prepared and distributed to citrus
Another record book suitable for commercial producers has been
prepared jointly by the Poultry Specialist and Farm Management
Specialist, and these are being used to good advantage by poultry-
Campus Extension activities by the Agricultural Economist
have consisted of outlining and/or approving work to be carried
out by the other Extension Economists; answering correspond-
ence; radio talks; interviews with farmers and county agents;
participation in County Agents' Week and Farmers' Week. He
has been directly responsible for "The Florida Agricultural Exten-
sion Economist," a small paper mailed on the 15th of each month
to railroad agents, bankers, cooperative associations, farm papers,
county and home demonstration agents, Smith-Hughes teachers,
Extension workers, and a group of selected farmers over the state.
This publication has a monthly circulation of about 1,000 copies.
The whole-hearted cooperation of the Experiment Station and

Annual Report, 1931

Teaching staffs in Agricultural Economics in the preparing of the
"Economist" and other economic activities has been extended.

Farming in Florida is generally specialized and the farmers are
confronted with a number of production and management prob-
lems for each enterprise. Therefore, it is necessary that all Agri-
cultural Economics work be closely allied with that of the subject
matter departments. For this reason, the efforts of the Farm
Management Specialist in 1931 have been largely cooperative with
those of the subject matter specialists in an effort to find the most
profitable methods of crop and livestock production. Enterprise
accounts for citrus, poultry, and dairy have been kept as a means
of aiding producers of these products.
During 1931 three groups of enterprise accounts were carried
on, namely: citrus, poultry and dairy. A small number of farm
cash account books were distributed in one county.
Citrus Accounts:-During October, 1930, 25 to 40 citrus ac-
counts were started in each of the following counties: Polk, Or-
ange, Lake, Highlands, and Manatee. The objects of these ac-
counts were (1) to stimulate interest in record keeping and to
determine the cost of producing fruit, and (2) to determine the
most profitable methods of fertilizing, spraying, and producing
quality fruit.
At present, sufficient cost records for 1931 have been completed
in only two counties to prepare county summaries. A summary
of the 1931 expenses and receipts for Lake and Orange county
groves is shown in Table V.
Number of groves ................................. 82
Acres per grove ............. ........ ..... ..... 16.0
Average age ............................... ...... 17.0
Yield per acre (boxes) ............................. 185.8
Expenses per acre:
Labor and equipment .......................... $ 24.32
Fertilizer ..................................... 39.50
Spray and dust materials ....................... 3.10
Taxes ........................................ 11.17
M miscellaneous .................................. 3.41
Average total expenses (except interest).............. $ 80.27
Value of fruit per acre.............................. 144.47
Value of fruit per acre over expenses (except interest).. 64.20
Value of grove per acre ............................ 969.00
Average percent return on investment ................ 6.1

Florida Cooperative Extension

These expenses and receipts are for the same year, namely,
1931. A great many of the expenses for 1931 probably have more
influence on the 1932 and following crops than for the crop har-
vested during that year. Therefore, the results of different cul-
tural, fertilization, and disease control methods cannot be com-
pared to best advantage until the 1932 and later crops are har-
vested. At present the greatest use of the records has been to
return each citrus grower's record compared with the average
for other growers in his county. From this comparison, he could
tell where his grove expenses, receipts, or yields were high or low
compared with other growers' records.
Further study of 65 of these records was made in regard to
methods of fertilization used in 1929-30 to produce the crop har-
vested in 1930-31, during this year's record. This information
was obtained from the growers at the beginning of the year when
the 1930-31 record was started.
The indications from these 65 records were that after due
allowance was made for age of trees, potash seemed to be the
most important of all the fertilizing elements. This was followed
by ammonia. Addition of phosphoric acid beyond a minimum
amount did not seem to increase the yield for the year in question.
Fifteen of the 65 groves were fertilized with high analysis goods
or materials. On these groves, the cost per acre and cost per box
of fruit was lower than for the other groves. The data indicated
that this may have been due in part to better buying, lower costs
of materials and the use of less phosphoric acid.
Poultry Accounts:-A simple record book was prepared by the
Extension Poultry Specialist in 1925 and has been used for six
years in the Home Egg-Laying Contest. All poultrymen wanting
to keep records do not care to enter the Home Egg-Laying Contest.
For their use a poultry account book was prepared by the Farm
Management Specialist in October, 1930, and distributed for use
during 1930-31. Records for flocks in the Home Egg-Laying
Contest and those kept in poultry account books are now being
summarized for the 1930-31 poultry management study. For
1931-32 the record books of the poultry and farm management
specialists have been combined and perforated blanks supplied
for mailing in the data for the Home Egg-Laying Contest.
Twelve of the records for commercial flocks sent in for the
Home Egg-Laying Contest in 1929-30 were complete enough to
work out the cost of producing eggs. On 17 farms the records
were complete enough to work out such factors as eggs per bird,

Annual Report, 1931 75

percent mortality, feed costs, prices received for products, percent
culled, etc.
Table VI shows the average cost and returns of producing eggs
on the 12 farms having complete records. The average size of
flock was 652 birds, producing an average of 167 eggs per bird.
The average cost of $4.38 includes both cash and non-cash items,
such as interest, depreciation on land, buildings and birds. It also
includes the labor of the operator and his family at 30c per hour.
The cost for man labor of $.82 was $.05 more than the returns
above other costs, thereby causing a loss of this amount.
31, 1930.
Cost Items Average Cost for 12 Farms
Per Bird Per Dozen Eggs
Food ................................. $2.23 $0.159
Man labor .... ............ .......... .82 .058
Horse labor ........................... .02 .001
Truck and auto ....................... .06 .004
Land and fences .................... .08 .007
Buildings ............................. .16 .011
Equipment ............... ............ 04 .003
Interest on Birds ...................... .08 .006
Depreciation on Birds ................. .83 .059
Miscellaneous ......................... .06 .005
Total Costs ...................... 4.38 $0.313
Credit Items
Eggs sold .......................... $4.26 $0.304
Eggs eaten .......... ............ .05 .004
Other credits ....................... .02 .002
Total Credits ................. .. $4.33 $0.310
Profits ............................ $0.05 $0.003

From the limited number of 12 records, it is possible to show
two factors that affected the cost of production. They were (1)
eggs per bird and (2) number of layers.
12 FARMS, 1929-30.
Costs Per Dozen
Average 5 Flocks Under Average 7 Flocks Over
Cost Items 150 Eggs per Bird 150 Eggs per Bird
Feed ...... ..... .. ..... ..... $0.182 $0.152
Man labor ..................... .073 .053
Horse labor .................... .002 .000
Auto and truck ................ .008 .003
Land and fences................ .005 .006
Buildings ..................... .013 .011
Equipment .................... .002 .003
Depreciation ................... .073 .055
Interest ...................... .007 .005
Miscellaneous ................. .005 .005
Total Costs ................ $0.370 $0.293

Florida Cooperative Extension

12 FARMS, 1929-30.

Average 7 Flocks
Cost Items Under 500 Layers
Feed ......................... $0.169
Man labor .................... .069
Horse labor .................. .002
Auto and truck .............. .008
Land and Fences............... .008
Buildings ..................... .009
Equipment ................... .003
Depreciation .................. .050
Interest ...................... .006
Miscellaneous ................ .003
Total Costs ............... $0.327

Per Dozen
Average 5 Flocks
Over 500 Layers

Other comparisons were made between farms having different
winter egg production, percent culled, percent mortality, and
pounds of feed per bird. They are shown in detail in the report
of the Extension Poultry Specialist.
Dairy Accounts:-The dairy industry over the country is going
through a severe crisis. Prices of fluid milk around Florida cities
have been fairly satisfactory to producers but with the present
surplus, lower prices are very likely to occur. During a period
of adjustment, it is necessary to study the most profitable methods
of feeding, rates of producing, culling and replacement of cows,
and labor efficiency in order to produce milk as economically as
possible. Dairy enterprise records were started in Duval and
Marion counties in February, 1931. Up to date, sufficient results
have not been tabulated and completed to make any comparisons.
General Farming Accounts:-In January, 1931, approximately
25 of the general farm cash account books prepared by the Experi-
ment Station were distributed in Washington County. During
the year, cash account books and books for farm enterprises have
been distributed as called for throughout the state. With present
force, it will probably be impossible to summarize any of these
account books.
Special Enterprise Surveys:-There are ways other than ac-
counting for securing information regarding the successful opera-
tion of farms and economical methods of producing crop and live-
stock products. The survey method offers a very satisfactory
method of securing such facts at a low cost. During the year
1931, two such surveys were made, namely:
1. Comparative cost of harvesting potatoes by hand and by
machine diggers in the Hastings Area.

Annual Report, 1931

2. Relative yields and cost of producing corn under various
methods used in West Florida.
The common method of digging potatoes in the Hastings area
up to the present has been by hand with rakes. Many growers
have used machine diggers in the area, trying to overcome the
labor problem and the injury resulting to the new potatoes from
the rakes, but because of the large initial cost, heavy repairs, poor
adaptability of the old-type digger to the area, dislike of the
laborers towards the digger, and large amount of rainy weather
during harvesting season, the number of diggers in the area has
increased very slowly.
In the spring of 1931 after the digging season, a number of
growers were visited and the attitudes of a large percentage were
found to be more favorable towards diggers. The field men who
inspect potatoes at harvest time for four shipping organizations
estimated that 47 out of their 196 growers harvested their pota-
toes with diggers. This indicates about three times as many
growers in the area using diggers as in 1925, when a labor study
was made in the same area.
Because of this apparent change in attitude and method of
harvesting in the area, two weeks were spent in visiting potato
growers and records were secured for 81 farms in the Hastings
Area. Fifteen of these farms, averaging 39 acres in potatoes,
contracted most of their harvesting operations and it was impos-
sible to study the costs by operations. A summary of harvesting
costs are shown in Table IX.
The farms using diggers had a cost of $ .273 per barrel com-
pared to $ .326 for those not using diggers. The saving of $ .053
was not all in the digging and picking up operation. The farms
using diggers were 11 acres larger than those using rakes and
saved 2c of the 5c on operations other than digging and picking
up. For this year with a yield of almost 60 barrels, the digging
and picking up operation was done 3c per barrel cheaper by ma-
chine than with rakes. If the costs per acre to dig an acre of
potatoes with a digger were the same, regardless of yield, a yield
of 40 barrels per acre could be dug with a digger and picked up
as cheaply as they could be dug with rakes at the rates for the
1931 season. Below 40 barrels the cost would be higher and above
40 it would be less, under the prevailing rates and costs for this

Florida Cooperative Extension

Cost per Barrel Dug Percent Cost on Cost

26 Farms 40 Farms
Operation Using Mch. Using
Diggers Rakes
Barring off............$ .001 $ .007
Digging and picking up.. .138 .169
Checking .............. .007 .009
Hauling to grader....... .035 .040
Grading and coopering.. .053 .056
Hauling to market...... .039 .045
Total Cost ...$ .273 $ .326

for 66
$ .003
$ .300

of 15 Farms
Total Contracting
Cost Digging
$ 1.0 $ ...
51.7 ..
$100.00 $ .381

Average acres per farm.... 71 61 65 ... 39 60
Average yield per acre
(bbls.) ................63 57 59 ... 60 60
The average acreage dug by a digger was 89 acres. The smallest
number of acres dug by one machine was 12 and the highest 200.
The chief method used in lowering the cost per acre for a digger
was to use each digger on a large number of acres. With yield
remaining the same, the cost per barrel increased as the number
of acres per digger decreased. It cost an average of 6.6c per bar-
rel to dig where diggers were used on less than 75 acres and only
3.2c where they were used on over 100 acres.
Farmers in Florida potato areas are having to study methods
of producing and harvesting potatoes at lowest possible costs.
After two unprofitable years, the prospects for next year seem
little better. There is a greater opportunity to lower costs prior
to harvest than at harvest time, since about two-thirds to three-
fourths of the total cost per barrel comes prior to harvest in the
form of fertilizer, seed, labor, and general farm expenses. At
harvest time, saving in cost of barrels and labor is also possible.
The two most important factors affecting the labor saving as a
whole were size of farm and yield per acre. For farms of like size
and having the same yield per acre, the most important factor was
securing the greatest output per day from crews used for each
operation. A more detailed report is being prepared for distri-
bution before potato harvest season in 1932.

During the year, meetings were held to discuss the results of
four different studies already made by the Agricultural Economics
Departments of the Agricultural College, Experiment Station or
Extension Service. The four studies that were covered were:

$ ..

$ .311

Annual Report, 1931

1. Poultry farm management in commercial areas of Florida.
2. Summary of dairy farms in six producing areas of Florida.
3. Citrus accounts in five counties in Florida.
4. Survey of general farming in Jackson County.

In addition to the "Economist" and radio talks used to dissemi-
nate agricultural economics information, a great deal of material
has been mimeographed. An effort has been made to have some
of the charts presented at each meeting, mimeographed for the
farmers to take home and study over afterwards.

The following projects have received the attention of the Mar-
keting Economist since his appointment on February 1, 1931:
1. Seasonal trend of cucumber prices by grade-Sumter and
Levy counties.
2. Hog prices by grade and seasons-Alachua, Calhoun, Duval,
Escambia, Gadsden, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Levy,
Liberty, Madison, Marion, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Suwannee,
Taylor, Walton, and Washington counties, and Moultrie,
3. New York auction prices of tangerines for the seasons 1927-
28 through 1930-31. Data for this study were obtained from
the files of the Florida Citrus Exchange at Tampa.
4. Potato marketing and containers-Alachua, Escambia and
St. Johns counties.
5. Truck transportation in handling farm products and laws
affecting motor truck transportation-Dade, Duval, Hills-
.borough, Leon, Orange, Palm Beach, and Polk counties.
6. Advisory work with cooperative marketing organizations-
DeSoto, Duval, Hillsborough, Lee, Manatee, Orange, Osce-
ola, Seminole, and Taylor counties.
7. Conferences and meetings on agricultural credit-Alachua,
Escambia, Manatee, and Okaloosa counties, and Andalusia,
Information was secured from two of the most important cu-
cumber areas of the state, Levy and Sumter counties. This study
showed that as the season progressed, the price of cucumbers de-

Florida Cooperative Extension

clined quite rapidly and that as competing areas came into produc-
tion, Florida producers received lower and lower prices until re-
ceipts were not enough to pay freight charges. The seasonal dis-
tribution of Florida's own production is also an important factor
in determining the prices received, as is shown in Table X.

Greenhouse Other
Week Ending Fla. Cucumbers Texas Ala. La. Ga. S. C. States Imports
Mar. 22 ...... 3 4 ....... .. .. .... 3
Mar. 29 ...... 6 2 ... ... .. ...... 2
Apr. 5 ...... 25 5 ... .. .. ...
Apr. 12 ...... 72 8 .. .
Apr. 19 ...... 50 11 ... .. .. ...
Apr. 26 ...... 40 13 10 ... .. .. ...
May 3 ...... 31 20 183 ... .. ...
May 10 ...... 58 26 271 2 2 .. ...
May 17 ...... 242 22 242 71 3 ..... 1
May 24 ...... 203 16 80 201 1 4 4
May 31 ...... 63 23 19 338 14 37 142 11
May 14 ...... 8 11 13 46 21 25 327 97
June 7 ...... 32 17 31 191 33 56 441 34
Totals .........833 178 849 849 73 119 914 147 5

The above table refers only to car-lot shipments from other
states during Florida's shipping season. Taken from the weekly
summary of car-lot shipments, Bureau of Agricultural Economics,
U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Farm prices were obtained from 19 marketing organizations,
15 of which were cooperative. Only three of these organizations
have prices for four seasons, 12 had prices for two or more sea-
sons, while seven had records for only one season. Prices were
also obtained from Swift & Company at Moultrie and National
Stock Yards at Jacksonville. There seems to be a close relation-
ship between the price that Florida producers received for their
hogs and the price paid by packers. The spread between farm
prices and packer prices seems to get narrower until about Christ-
mas time. The apparent narrower spread before Christmas is
partly due to the falling trend of prices during this season. Local
dealers sometimes have to hold hogs four or five days before get-
ting enough to ship. As the season progresses, more hogs are
marketed. This makes it possible to assemble a shipping unit
more quickly, thereby lessening the time required to get these
hogs from farm to packer,

Annual Report, 1931

The spread between farm prices and packer prices does not
seem to be as wide now as it was a few years ago. Better quality
hogs and more accessible market information are important fac-
tors in narrowing this differential.
The prices paid by Southern packers follow the same general
trend as those paid by packers in the corn belt. During the sum-
mer months, Southern packers pay relatively more for their hogs
than do the Chicago packers. During this season, very few hogs
are marketed in the Southeast. Consequently, Southern packers
must bid on the same hogs as Chicago packers and pay freight
over longer distances.

1927-28 THROUGH 1930-31
The study covered the three crop seasons beginning in 1928-29
and ending in 1930-31. We found considerable variation in prices
of different sizes within the season as well as between years.
The spread between the prices of large and small tangerines was
greater during the seasons 1928-29 and 1930-31 than that for the
season 1929-30. The total citrus crop was smaller for 1929-30
than for either of the other years studied.
The average spread between 120's and 250's for the season
1928-29 was 57c per half strap in favor of the 120's. The greatest
difference in prices between these sizes occurred in November and
December, when an average of $1.25 more per half strap was paid
for the 120's. This differential became narrower until about the
middle of March and after that time, the 250's brought a higher
average price than the 120's.
The three-year average showed that 144's brought the highest
price of all sizes, the 250's brought the lowest, the difference
being 47c. The three-year average price of 120's was 34c higher
than that of 250's. The three-year study shows that when Flor-
ida has a large crop the price declines as the season progresses,
but the larger sizes fall faster than the smaller ones. When the
Florida crop is small there is a tendency for the price to rise, the
medium sizes rising fastest.
Our conclusion with reference to thinning is that it will prob-
ably pay when the individual farmer has a heavy crop the same
season that the total crop for the state is large. During seasons
when the state crop is small, thinning does not seem to offer the
same economic advantage.
Prices for all three years indicate that large tangerines bring

Florida Cooperative Extension

better prices when marketed early. This might mean that more
spot picking than is being practiced now is advisable.

Six of the more important potato dealers of the state were in-
terviewed to obtain their opinions and experiences with different
kinds of potato containers. A number of farmers also were in-
terviewed to get the farmer's viewpoint.
The double-head barrel is the principal type of container used
in the Hastings-LaCrosse-Bunnell section. The bushel crate is
quite popular in South Florida, while in West Florida the 100-
pound sack is used almost exclusively. Most of the experiment-
ing with different types of containers has been done in the Has-
tings-LaCrosse-Bunnell section. With but few exceptions, the
dealers of this section agree that the double-head barrel is best
for them. However, some sacks have been used. West Florida
thinks that the barrel would be out of the question for them, while
some sections of South Florida lean toward the use of barrels.
Some points in favor of the barrel are:
1. Trade preference (which may be founded on some funda-
mental basis).
2. Trade is accustomed to think of Hastings potatoes as those
in double-head barrels.
3. Eastern markets prefer barrels.
4. Barrels protect potatoes better.
5. Easier to sell.
Some points against the use of the barrel are:
1. Initial cost comparatively high.
2. Large storage capacity necessary.
3. Additional coopering necessary.
4. Losses from barrels coming apart before being used.
5. Expensive overhead if they have to be carried over.
6. Barrel adds materially to the weight of a car of 600 bushels
of potatoes.
Some points favoring sacks:
1. Initial cost low.
2. Very little storage room required.
Some points against sacks:
1. Potatoes show discoloration.
2. Percentage of rejections greater.
3. Have to sell price arrival in order to dispose of sacks.

Annual Report, 1931

4. Shows up rot easier.
5. Potatoes do not carry well in sacks.
6. Harder to sell.

The motor truck is becoming an important method of transpor-
tation for Florida's farm products. Not only does the farmer use
the motor truck for farm use, but also to deliver his produce to
wholesalers, retailers, and consumers in cities many miles from
his farm.
An attempt was made to ascertain approximately the relative
importance to the farmer of the motor truck as a means of getting
farm produce to market. A number of farmers, cooperatives,
dealers, and motor truckmen have been visited, and figures and
estimates on volume of produce handled by truck have been se-
Estimates indicate that between two and three million boxes
of citrus were sold to truckers during the 1930-31 citrus season.
Polk County dealers estimate that between 6 and 10 percent of
their citrus was sold to truckers. Estimates in Hillsborough
County indicate that, excluding strawberries, 50 percent of all
farm produce was hauled to market by motor truck. The opin-
ions of several wholesale grocers of Jacksonville is that 60,percent
of the fruits and vegetables that came into Jacksonville from
Florida farms was brought in by truck. They estimated that be-
tween 85 and 95 percent of the vegetables brought in from a radius
of 200 miles came by truck.
An attempt was also made to find out how much livestock and
livestock products were hauled to market by motor truck. In
only a few instances did we find specific examples where live hogs
and cattle were carried more than 150 miles by truck-the major-
ity being transported less than 100 miles.
Poultry and eggs seem to be moving greater distances by truck
than cattle and hogs.

It has been the policy of the Agricultural Economist in Market-
ing to place more emphasis on improvement of existing marketing
organizations than on encouraging the formation of new organiza-
tions. Improvement work has consisted mostly of discussing

84 Florida Cooperative Extension

with managers of marketing organizations some of the important
factors of success of the successful organizations.
Work done with prospective organizations consists of making
preliminary study of the efficiency of present organizations and
probable success of prospective organizations.

Other miscellaneous work included conferences, radio talks and
articles for publication. Seven talks were made over the radio
and light articles were written for publication.
Agricultural marketing work has been done in 38 counties of
Florida, and in Moultrie, Georgia, and Andalusia, Alabama.

Annual Report, 1931

CARLYLE CARR, Specialist in Rodent Control
On July 1, 1931, the Agricultural Extension Service and the
U. S. Biological Survey entered into a cooperative arrangement
for rodent control work in the State of Florida. This report covers
from that time until the end of. the year. This is a new phase
of Extension work as far as outlined projects are concerned. The
work being entirely new, it is necessary to limit activities to one
or two special problems until it can be determined to what extent
the work could be adapted to the larger part of the state.
In undertaking this work, the cooperation of the State Game
Commission of Florida was secured so that there might be uni-
formity of action in any problem that seemed important enough
to undertake. As the work has progressed, cooperation has been
received from civic organizations, from agricultural teachers in
high schools, boards of county commissioners, and others vitally
interested in the undertaking.
To date, only one important undertaking has occupied most of
the entire time of the Specialist and this is of sufficient importance
to warrant all the effort that has been made. This has been in
one important agricultural area located in Dade County near
Homestead and known as the East Glade. Farming is largely
devoted to vegetable growing and is conducted over scattered
tracts of 40 or 80 acres, surrounded by wild lands overgrown with
a dense growth of vegetation, which affords an ideal hiding and
breeding place for destructive rodent pests. This East Glade
region, covering an area approximately seven miles long and four
miles wide, is largely used for the growing of winter tomatoes,
and at one time 12,000 acres were planted to this crop. For many
years farmers in this region have complained of damage from
rats and have asked for help from state and federal agencies.
In 1924 the U. S. Biological Survey, in cooperation with the State
Extension Service, inspected the 12,000 acres of tomatoes and
estimated that cotton rats injured the crop to the extent of
$44,000 that year. An average of 10 percent of all crops of the
area was destroyed by rats. No complaint was heard the year
following the 1928 hurricane, as most of the pests were destroyed
in this storm. In 1930, however, these rats had multiplied to
large numbers again. They overran 6,000 acres of tomatoes and
6,000 acres of truck crops, leaving a heavy damage.
Realizing that this great loss meant the difference of profit or

Florida Cooperative Extension

loss to the farming industry in this region, the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service and the Biological Survey, cooperating with the
State Game Commission, tested out poisoned bait combinations
during the past summer to determine an effective, economical,
poisoned bait adaptable for campaign purposes which would not
jeopardize beneficial wild animal life of the area. The sliced,
raw, sweet potato was found by these tests to be craved by rats
but ignored by beneficial animals. This bait was prepared as
Twelve quarts (approximately 12 pounds) of washed, unpeeled,
raw sweet potatoes were sliced 3/32 to 1/8 inch in thickness and
from 1/2 to 1 inch in diameter. One ounce of strychnine alkaloid
and one ounce of soda were mixed together and sifted over the
sliced sweet potatoes, and the poisoned bait was mixed with them
until the strychnine-soda mixture evenly coated the bait. They
were then immediately distributed for the rats.
The poisoned sweet potatoes proved to be such a fine poisoned
bait that one could use them even in a sweet potato patch and
obtain an apparently perfect kill of rats. The cotton rat, a rather
dumb animal as compared to its cousin, the Norway rat, and the
roof rat do not resent the taste of strychnine and readily con-
sume a lethal dose. It likewise appears to be decidedly susceptible
to strychnine poisoning, usually expiring quickly close to the
place it consumes the poisoned bait.
Upon completion of these tests, arrangements were made by
the cooperating institutions to assist the farmers in bringing the
cotton rats in the area under control by poisoning all heavily in-
fested areas at the same time. As these animals are migratory,
it was planned to scatter poisoned baits on both.sides of the high-
ways and ditches, and over or about the cultivated lands, imme-
diately following the equinoxial storms when it was thought the
high waters would drive the rats to the high ground. It was
decided that the latter half of October was best suited for the
The work in South Dade was largely handled by C. H. Steffani,
county agent, (South) Dade County, located at Homestead. Mr.
Steffani secured the interest of the farmers and then presented
the matter to the Board of County Commissioners, inasmuch as
there would be some expense involved in the purchase of supplies.
The Dade County Board responded with an agreement to pay for

Annual Report, 1931

$200 worth of supplies. ,The supplies were 400 ounces of strych-
nine alkaloid at .44 per ounce. Other expenses involved were for
tools, mixing box, knives, etc. To help out, the farmers donated
3,000 pounds of cull sweet potatoes to be used as bait and agreed
to distribute this over their respective farms. This, together
with the cooperation of the county board, farmers and other local
people, made it possible to go ahead with the plans and put on
a campaign for the destruction of the rats in the area.
Before any plans were made an inspection of the territory was
needed and this inspection was made by the Deputy and Assistant
Game Commissioner, the County Agent, and the project leader.
The inspection showed that Marsh hens, raccoons, and a number
of miscellaneous birds of no importance, were observed in the
territory to be worked over.
The campaign was organized in the territory, sweet potatoes
were sliced in a box for the purpose. The farmers donated labor
and the Smith-Hughes teachers cooperated with the County Agent
so that the campaign could be carried out without unnecessary
delay or expense. Consideration was given to the bait used with
some modification that was needed. This was worked over until
a satisfactory bait was agreed upon.
It was first decided that the bait should be distributed by hand.
However, this proved tedious and consumed too much time. Later
it was found that the bait could be distributed from a truck. It
seemed unnecessary to take any particular precaution to place
the baits in the runways of rats and it was found that the rats
came in contact with it from either the bottom or the top of the
rows. In either case the rats readily ate it, although it was pref-
erable to place it where the rats could get at it without being
Seven actual working days were necessary to cover completely
the East Glade. Three thousand pounds of bait, or 450,000 sepa-
rate baits, were distributed. It required 109.5 man days to com-
plete the work. One truck and one auto each were used for seven
400 ounces of strychnine and supplies .................... $200.00
3,000 pounds sweet potatoes at 21/c per pound ............ 75.00
109.5 man days at $2.00 per day ......................... 219.00
1 truck for seven days at $5.00 per day ................... 35.00
1 auto for 7 days at $5.00 per day ....................... 35.00
Total cost to county, farmers and cooperators ........... $564.00

Florida Cooperative Extension

It was difficult even to approximate the number of rats de-
stroyed. However, there was every evidence that large numbers
had been killed by the poison, for in the course of two days buz-
zards made their appearance there to feed on the dead rats. Ob-
servations were made to see if the buzzards were destroyed by
the poison, but in no case did it appear to be effective. A close in-
spection and check was made over the territory by the deputy
Game Commissioner and Rodent Control Specialist to see if val-
uable animal life had been poisoned. While there was evidence
that large numbers of rats had been killed, no animals of impor-
tance had been destroyed.
The cost of this poison was approximately 27c per acre and 9
pounds of bait was used. Results seemed to indicate that by
scattering the bait every 10 feet in every other row, a satisfactory
kill would have been obtained at even a little lower cost.
It was apparent that to make the rat campaign successful it
must be followed up by additional campaigns, so a second cam-
paign was put on from October 15-30. Also it was apparent that
it would require systematic poisoning at regular intervals to bring
these destructive pests under control in this area. The cotton rat
is migratory in its habits and when food becomes scarce, travels
from place to place in search of additional food, so it must be
expected that the rats would come in from wild territory and
again infest the crops. It was evident that there must be sys-
tematic poisoning at regular intervals and that about 30 days
might elapse between the campaigns to be most successful.
This work is being studied and will be followed up as conditions
demand. It is expected that as conditions vary the methods for
poisoning rats also must be modified. Exceeding care must be
taken to see that valuable wild life will not be destroyed. It is
the purpose of the Extension Service and the Biological Survey
to cooperate with the State Game Commission and carry out this
work in a larger way without any destruction of valuable wild
life. It is recognized, too, that any methods adapted must be
carried out at a minimum cost and that there must be concerted
action in any campaign, if the undertaking is to succeed.

Annual Report, 1931


FLAVIA GLEASON, State Home Demonstration Agent
LucY BELLE SETTLE, District Home Demonstration Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, District Home Demonstration Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Home Demonstration Agent
The plan of organization for the development of home demon-
stration work in Florida has been the same in 1931 as in previous
years. The work has been conducted in 35 counties by 32 home
demonstration agents. Eighteen county councils for women's
work and 23 for girls' work with 1,387 local leaders have been of
invaluable assistance to the agents in promotion of home demon-
stration work during 1931.
The work has been cooperatively conducted by the agents and
local people in 548 communities with a membership of 6,959 women
in organized home demonstration clubs and 8,968 girls in organ-
ized 4-H clubs. These clubs have met monthly and in some
instances bi-monthly with the home demonstration agents for
subject matter assistance worked out by the agent, local people
and the state home demonstration staff, according to outstanding
The year closes with 29 county home demonstration agents at
work in 29 counties, showing a loss of three agents. One of these
was from Hernando, a county providing full-time work; Pasco,
Highlands and Charlotte, because of financial conditions, discon-
tinued the appropriations which provided for part-time work in
each county. Because of unsatisfactory financial arrangements
the State Office withdrew the work from St. Lucie and Indian
River counties.
Arrangements have been made for the establishment of home
demonstration work in Taylor County beginning January 1.
Staff members have centered their attention almost entirely on
the work in counties where home demonstration work was already
organized, doing very little to secure additional counties in view of
the present financial situation. However, there is a statewide ap-
preciation for the home demonstration program and work of the
agents. In two instances recently where some type of work was
wanted that would render the greatest assistance to the people

Florida Cooperative Extension

of the counties for money to be expended, home demonstration
work was that decided upon by the local people themselves.
Home demonstration work among Negroes has been conducted
in seven counties throughout the year. Financial arrangements
have been made to establish the work in an additional county
beginning January 1. The Negro District Agent's report carries
information in detail concerning the work as conducted among
Negroes in Florida.
The State Home Demonstration Staff had for their main objec-
tives during 1931 the. development of home demonstration
programs that would meet the greatest needs of those taking
advantage of this service, giving special attention to (1) the
economic situation in relation to the farm home, (2) assistance
home demonstration agents needed, (3) development of rural
leadership, (4) the securing of more usable records and reports
for information on home demonstration accomplishments.
Home demonstration programs in the various counties were
developed, in so far as was possible, according to the needs and
desires of the people to be served. Although programs have varied
in the many counties, a "live-at-home" program was needed gen-
erally and has been followed. It has dealt largely with home
gardening, poultry flock, home dairying, and food conservation for
good nutrition of the family and to increase the family income.
In addition to food and feed production, programs were developed
to bring about more abundant living.
The needs for this type of program, as seen by members of state
staff, were stressed at agents' annual conference. Agents, special-
ists and district agents discussed together varying conditions in
the various counties with information already secured from local
people, usually through county councils, as to assistance desired
during ensuing year.
With obtainable facts at hand the agent and council members
formulate their county programs which are then submitted for
suggestions and approval by district and state workers.
Home Demonstration Agents' programs of work for the year
and plans for development have been checked carefully by State
and District Agents working together with the idea in view of
offering any assistance possible for strengthening the develop-

Annual Report, 1931

ment of the work in the various counties. At the close of the year
results were checked and comparisons made as to goals set and
results obtained. Results in almost all instances exceeded goals
set. However, it is felt that the analysis reveals the clear under-
standing which the agents have of their respective counties.
Reports reveal that there have been greater accomplishments
in such activities as home canning, home gardening, the home
poultry flock, home dairying and beekeeping than during any
other year since the war. The development of home industries
and marketing of home products far surpassed goals set at the
beginning of the year.
That the programs developed this year must have met a need
may be judged by the high attendance at meetings of adults, the
percentage of completions of 4-H club members, and the increas-
ingly large number of older girls remaining in 4-H club work.
Women who have been members of home demonstration clubs for
years and years are very active in their clubs and the establish-
ment of demonstrations in their homes.
That the rural women themselves are more and more looking to
the Home Demonstration Agent for assistance is shown by the
larger number participating in home demonstration activities
under direction of the agent each year. This year there was an
increase of seven clubs and 690 members in work with the women.
There was a decrease of 18 clubs and 319 members in work with
girls. The feeling is that the decrease was due for the most part
to consolidation of schools and perhaps to the elimination of in-
active members. In this connection it is interesting to find 78%
of the 4-H club girls completed their year's work, the highest
which we have had. Last year the percentage of completions was
69%. There is a gratifying increase in the number of older girls
remaining in 4-H club work. This year there were 643 in 4th
year, 344 in 5th and 246 in the 6th year of 4-H club work.
SThere is increasing evidence of responsibility being assumed
by club girls in assisting the agents in making preparations for
meetings, demonstrations, achievement days, and exhibits; assist-
ing the younger club members with various activities and with
community recreation.
Subject Matter Assistance:--I an effort to provide inspiration
and additional subject matter assistance on practical phases of
our work that would encourage conduct of demonstrations which

Florida Cooperative Extension

make possible improvement in standards of living in rural homes,
the state staff secured the assistance of various members of the
School of Home Economics, Florida State College for Women, to
meet with agents and various groups of women and girls for
special work in nutrition, school lunch, weaving, clothing and tex-
tiles. Special assistance was secured from the Bureau of Child
Hygiene and State Board of Health in development of demonstra-
tions in health practices and child care and training. Assistance
has been secured from the University of Florida in development
of various phases of the work.
Material for use by the agents in development of project activi-
ties was revised and brought up to date during the year.
District meetings of the Home Demonstration Agents for par-
ticular assistance in food conservation, nutrition and home im-
provement were held during the month of April.
Commercial demonstrators have been used occasionally if their
subject matter demonstrations, in our judgment, supplemented to
advantage those already under way in the various counties.
More contests with awards in various phases of the work were
inaugurated by way of additional encouragement to those who
work so faithfully under the agents' leadership in putting into
practice methods recommended.
Maintenance and Training of Personnel:-Home demonstration
work has been established for many years in all counties where
it is being financially supported and has come to be considered as
a recognized institution in the county affairs. The losses of
appropriations that occurred were in counties that were not on
the same level of development. None of them had sufficient funds
to support well trained, full-time workers.
There has been no change of agents in any county during the
year except that the agent in Lee County received appointment
as Extension Nutritionist and a new agent with master's degree
from the School of Home Economics, Florida State College for
Women, was appointed to succeed her.
All home demonstration workers have shown their eagerness
for all of the helpful subject matter assistance that they can
secure. Although it was generally felt that this was not a year
for extension workers to be off of the job even for study, seven
agents pursued studies for credit through classes of the General
Extension Division of the University of Florida. One of the dis-
trict agents and two county workers continued their studies for
master's degrees in connection with their regular work.

Annual Report, 1931

The annual conference for Extension workers was held early
in October.
State home demonstration staff conferences were held monthly
in the office of the State Home Demonstration Agent. These were
for the purpose of making plans, discussing methods, studying
needs and progress in development of home demonstration activi-
Use of Time:-All agents report increased requests for their
services. To meet the extra demands, in so far as it is possible,
they have given serious thought to planning their time. Effective
field work must be preceded by well ordered planning accomplished
in office hours. To be equipped for field work, Monday has been
set aside for necessary planning of the week's work. This is not
a day offered to the public but is spent in the private office.
Demonstrations are arranged, materials collected, news items
written, and similar duties performed which will contribute to the
smooth execution of the great volume of work that the week may
bring forth. Saturday is set aside for office day open to callers
who are encouraged to come for conferences of a professional
The monthly itineraries of the agents have been planned with
special care to save both time and travel expense. The agents have
regular schedules for meeting all clubs and plan definitely for any
special events they need to sponsor. Copies of the itineraries are
attached to the annual program of work of the counties submitted
in January for approval by the state and district agents.
The apportionment of the agents' time is approximately one-
third to work with women, one-third to girls' work, and one-third
to special events and miscellaneous demands connected with work
for both girls and women and with general county activities.
That the agents realize the importance of farm home visits in
order to understand conditions and thus render the most worth-
while service is shown by the fact that they made 16,217 such
visits. This is an increase of 4,190 over the number made by them
in 1930. Reports show 93 less method demonstration meetings
held this year but an increase in attendance at these meetings
by 15,220.

County boards provide the agents with good offices, usually in
the county courthouse. They are well lighted, well heated and for
the most part well equipped with the necessities for good office

Florida Cooperative Extension

management. There are 18 demonstration kitchens provided for
the use of the respective agents and their club members. Another
is in the process of completion. With but one exception they are
at the agent's headquarters.
During each year we find an increasing number of club houses
or rooms equipped for the permanent use of the clubs. There were
68 additional ones established this year.
Closely related to good office organization and management is
the securing of usable records and reports. Records from 4-H
club girls are obtained from the record books kept by each girl
on each phase of work she undertakes. In addition to a larger
number of girls submitting records for the year's work there is
noticeably marked improvement in the records themselves.
There is developing among the women a real pride in their home
demonstration accomplishments with far more records being sub-
mitted by them. The agents have largely brought this about by
making use of reports submitted wherever possible and through
the appointment of some one in the club whose duty it is to pro-
mote and secure reports from the club members.
Various report forms have been used in securing reports from
the women.

During the year there were 683 local leaders actively engaged
in forwarding the extension program with the girls and 653 with
the women's work. This is an increase of 190 over last year. Of
the number working with girls' clubs, 365 are older 4-H club mem-
bers. There were 221 training meetings held for local leaders
with an attendance of 2,248 leaders. This was a decrease of 13
leaders' meetings, with an increase of 690 in attendance over last
Bayshore Club in Lee County scored highest for work accom-
plished by a Standard 4-H club for girls in 1930 and was given
recognition for this accomplishment during the 1931 Short Course.
The members of that club have a widespread influence for better
club work in that county.
Demonstration Teams:-Three hundred twenty-nine demon-
stration teams and 67 judging teams of girls showing proficiency
in various phases of 4-H club work have assisted in the presenting
of subject matter to other girls on many occasions.
Councils:-There are 23 county councils for girls' work and 18
for women's work functioning to advantage in development of

Annual Report, 1931

home demonstration work. These councils are composed of the
president and one elected delegate from each club.
The county councils are valuable channels for extending the
spread of home demonstration work. Well informed committee
chairmen or local leaders made responsible for certain phases of
the work have been of greatest assistance to the agents during the
year in extending subject matter information and in work with
special events. Achievement exhibits of both girls and women
have further extended home demonstration information to the
county people. The women are showing more interest than ever
before in the girls' work. Senior councils have as one of their
responsibilities the sponsoring of 4-H club work in their respective
counties. Many senior clubs furnish scholarships to the State
Short Course for 4-H Club Girls.
The president and one other representative from each county
council form the two state councils. The development of women
and girls through their council work is remarkable. These repre-
sentatives themselves feel the value of this training and the
responsibility it entails. The State Council for Girls' Work holds
its annual meeting during the State Short Course for Club Girls,
Florida State College for Women. This organization provides a
scholarship for a girl attending Florida State College for Women.
Each county council has made itself responsible for sending $10
annually to the scholarship fund of their State Council. This
council adopted the following program of work:
1. To assist counties in maintaining 100% record goal.
2. To assist counties in uniform system of reporting and pro-
ducing programs of a high standard.
3. To help conduct contests, camps, and rallies.
4. To assist counties in putting on the sanitation project of the
state home improvement program in rural districts and small
5. To assist in strengthening the requirement that every club
member establish a permanent, ever-enlarging home demonstra-
The State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work
meets annually during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week at the
University of Florida. This council also provides a scholarship
awarded to a 4-H club girl for attendance at the Florida State Col-
lege for Women. Considerable enthusiasm was shown again this
year over the silver loving cup which was presented during the
annual council meeting by the council to the county council scor-

Florida Cooperative Extension

ing highest for the past year's work. Lee County Council again
won this honor and the cup for its permanent property.
Members of the State Home Demonstration Council for
Women's Work adopted the following program:
1. In view of the economic situation of the state, special
emphasis should be given to the development of farm resources by
growing more all-year gardens, producing better poultry, increas-
ing the family milk supply, improving the physical appearance of
the home, using local materials as far as possible, and widening
the outlook of the members of the family by study of better litera-
ture and good music.
2. Each council shall be encouraged to arrange for adequate
publicity on their work through securing the cooperation of the
local press.
College 4-H Club:-The College 4-H Club is composed of former
4-H club girls who present satisfactory records of achievement in
active 4-H club work and of scholarship in college. It has a mem-
bership at present of 80 girls who are in college. Forty-three
members of the freshman class belong to this group. The main
objectives of the club are to encourage other 4-H club girls to enter
college; to develop an appreciative interest in college life; to pro-
mote the program of 4-H club work in Florida.
Scholarships:-Scholarships awarded 4-H club girls for study
at Florida State College for Women during the present college
year follow: To Mabel Williams, Lee County, by State Home
Demonstration Council for Girls' Work; to Beulah Felts, Manatee
County, by Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work; to
Lou Dell Underwood, Holmes County, by Congressman Tom Yon,
for leadership accomplishments.
The County Commissioners of Dade County awarded scholar-
ships to five girls, three of whom are club girls. After this, all of
the five are to go to deserving 4-H club girls, according to a letter
received by the President of Florida State College for Women.
Thirteen of the members of the College 4-H Club hold dining-
room scholarships.
Betty McDaniel, Jackson County, has been selected as one of
the six girls in the South to receive a $500 scholarship offered by
International Harvester Company.

Timely material for the press, news letters, exhibits, radio talks,
and programs, demonstration teams, tours, and lectures have been

Annual Report, 1931

the means largely used in keeping club members and the public
informed as to home demonstration work throughout the year.
With the increasing demands on the agents' time they have used
the news columns for spreading information and assisting new
members in the organization. In this connection the agents report
3,428 news articles published regarding the work in the counties.
The press of the state is very cooperative. In addition to the
articles reported there has been generous use of the material re-
leased for publication through the Associated Press and the Agri-
cultural News Service. Scholarships referred to elsewhere have
afforded excellent news stories.
Achievement exhibits have been displayed in each county with
splendid results that prove they are worth the time and effort
involved. Most of these exhibits have been set up competitively
and carefully judged for place, but the gratifying thing is that
the response of the women and girls was just as fine when no
awards were made (except ribbons) as when money prizes were
available. Club members have a genuine pride in their accom-
plishments and a feeling of responsibility for extending their
knowledge to others. These exhibits have all been staged in con-
nection with a special program conducted by the women and girls
themselves, with special speakers from local business organiza-
tions of the county or from the Extension Service. Most of the
events have been arranged by the County Councils, both Senior
and Junior. Every county had an achievement program for 4-H
Radio talks of accomplishments were given daily by women in
attendance during Farmers' Week and by home demonstration
agents during Agents' Annual Conference.
Members of the State Staff have given a series of talks over
WRUF and occasional talks over other broadcasting stations in
the state throughout the year. Once a month a 4-H club program
given for the most part by 4-H club members goes on the air from
WRUF. The home demonstration staff alternates with the agri-
cultural staff in assuming responsibility for these programs.
One or more of the State Staff have been present to discuss
some phase of home demonstration work at the following state-
wide meetings of cooperating organizations: State Horticultural
Society, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, Florida Council on
Education, Health and Welfare, Florida Parent Teachers' Associa-
tion, Florida Social Workers' Conference, executive meetings of
Home Economic Association, district home economics meetings,

Florida Cooperative Extension

State Beautification Committee of State Chamber of Commerce,
Florida State College for Women Alumnae meetings (the state
agent is a member of the Faculty Committee for cooperation with
the alumnae), State Health Association, and Committee for May
Day Celebration.

Home demonstration workers receive splendid cooperation from
the organizations listed above, civic clubs, the press, the State
Board of Health, and innumerable individuals who have at heart
the welfare of home demonstration work.. Assistance is gener-
ously received from faculty members of the Florida State College
for Women and the University of Florida.
Dr. William G. Dodd, Dean of School of Arts and Science, Flor-
ida State College for Women, in speaking to a group of educators
assembled in Jacksonville, paid high tribute to county home
demonstration agents in speaking of them as "the most effective
influence we have within the state today toward the removal of
offensive and jarring contrasts to the harmonious beauty of the
environment nature has given us."

In the development of project activities emphasis was placed on
a "live-at-home" program. This dealt directly with the home
garden and orchard, the poultry flock and the milk supply first as
a part of good nutrition for the family and second as a means of
increasing the family income. In addition to the food and feed
proposition the "live-at-home" program dealt with more abundant
living for the farm family.
Gardening and Perennial Plantings:-There has been wide-
spread interest in home gardening this year. Agents have given
14% of their time to the promotion of this phase of home demon-
stration work. Reports reveal interesting demonstrations that
have been conducted and used advantageously in convincing oth-
ers that it's a mistaken idea that many farm families can buy their
vegetables cheaper than they can grow them. Of the 3,441 women
and 3,328 girls gardening throughout the year under direction of
the home demonstration agents, many have submitted reports
showing how the home garden supplied fruits and vegetables in
the daily diet, and cash for the purchase of other necessities.
Holmes, Walton and Gadsden counties carry particularly convinc-
ing stories of home gardening in 1931.

Annual Report, 1931

One club member shows a profit of $560 on her garden. Another
says: "I served an average of five vegetables on my table every
day and sold $300 worth, besides canning 350 jars and giving a
great deal to my neighbors. With the money from my garden I
am able to send my two daughters to high school and three others
to grammar school."
One agent states that the 4-H girls in the county who reported
on their work realized a profit of $2,741 on their gardens. The
women demonstrators of the same county realized a profit of
Some idea of the growing interest in this phase of home dem-
onstration work may be obtained from the following table:

Women Market Tree Bush
Demonstrators Gardens Crops Fruits Fruits Grapes
1931 ............3,441 1,088 700 721 190
1930 ...........2,757 737 554 632 129
Gain ........ 684 351 146 89 61
1931 ............3,328 516 741 702 299
1930 ............2,835 230 650 612 126
Gain ....... 493 286 91 90 173

The economist in food conservation has served as leader for
home gardening work. Her report deals with this project in de-
There is considerably more interest in the calendar orchard
than previously. The number of fruit trees planted in the cal-
endar orchards this year exceeded those of last year but the out-
lay of cash in securing desirable plantings keeps the number from
increasing as rapidly as desirable.
Poultry:-Although the' poultry industry is reported to have
decreased during 1931, poultry activities increased among home
demonstration women and 4-H club girls. Reports from 25 coun-
ties show that women worked with 175,388 birds and from 23 of
these counties comes the report that the women realized a profit
of $52,980.39 on their poultry flocks. In learning the poultry busi-
ness 1,175 4-H club girls worked with 49,434 birds during the
year. The poultry demonstrations conducted followed directions
supplied by the home demonstration agents and the Extension
Poultryman in baby chick growing, proper sanitation, housing,
feeding, culling, breeding and all phases of flock management.
The Home Demonstration Agents gave 8% of their time to the de-