<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Credits
 Report of the director
 Publications and news
 County agent work
 Boys' club work
 Dairying
 Animal husbandry
 Citriculture
 Poultry
 Agricultural economics
 County home demonstration work
 Home improvement
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Negro men's work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00014
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1930
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00014
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of the director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Publications and news
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    County agent work
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Boys' club work
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Dairying
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Animal husbandry
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Citriculture
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Poultry
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Agricultural economics
        Page 70
        Page 71
    County home demonstration work
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Home improvement
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Negro men's work
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Index
        Page 117
Full Text









1930

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK
IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director


REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1930
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1930














1930

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director


REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1930
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1930




















CONTENTS

PAGE


BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF .................................. ................... 4

COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS .................................. ....... 5

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR ................. .......... ................................... 7

PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS ............................. ........ .. ......... ......... 15

COUNTY AGENT W ORK ........................... .......... ................ ................ 20

BOYS' CLUB W ORK ................................................. .................................... 40

DAIRYING ............. ..................-.- .--- -.........--........ 48

A NIMAL H USBANDRY ...................... ....... ............ .................... 54

CITRICULTURE .......................................... ........ .......... 56

P OULTRY ......................... .......................................................... 62

A GRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ................... ............. ........................................ 70

COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ........................ ................... 72

H OME IMPROVEMENT ......................................................................................... 93

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION ....................-....--..--............. --- 98

NEGRO MEN'S W ORK ....... --............................................ ...... 103

NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ................................ .................... 112

















Hon. Doyle E. Carlton,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, Univer-
sity of Florida, for the calendar year 1930, including a fiscal
report for the year ending June 30, 1930.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman, Board of Control.

Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report
of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of
Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you trans-
mit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the
Governor of Florida.
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida.







BOARD OF CONTROL


P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Out-
look Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry'
J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist"
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm
Management
W. R. BRIGGS, B.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm
Management
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Specialist
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, B.S., Food and Marketing Agent

'In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
'Part-time.








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*


County County Agents Address Home Demonstration Agents
Alachua ......-.......-F. L. Craft .............Gainesville ........ Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Bradford and Union L. T. Dyer .............Lake Butler; Miss Pearl Jordan (Starke)
Calhoun ..................-- J. G. Kelley ..............Blountstown ............ ......................
Calhoun and Liberty.............................Blountstown .... Miss Josephine Nimmo
Citrus and Sumter..I. R. Nolen ................Inverness ................................
Citrus ........................................ .....Inverness ..... Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Dade (North) .-......... S. Rainey ............Miami ..................... Miss Pansy Norton
Dade (South) ..........C. A. Steffani ..........Homestead ....... .. ...............
DeSoto ......................J. J. Heard ...... ......Arcadia .......................
Dixie .......................D. M. Treadwell ....Cross City ...............................
Duval ........................W. L. Watson ..........Jacksonville .............. Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.) ..........A. S. Lawton ............Jacksonville ...............................
Duval (Asst.) ..........C. H. Magoon ........Jacksonville ........................................
Escambia ..................E. P. Scott ................Pensacola .............. Miss Ethel Atkinson
Gadsden .................................... ....-- Quincy ........................ Miss Elise Laffitte
Hamilton ..................J. J. Sechrest ...........Jasper ........ ......................
Hernando ..................J. H. Logan ...........Brooksville ............ Mrs. Florence Albert
Highlands ................L. H. Alsmeyer ........Sebring .. -----..--
Highlands and
Charlotte ............. ........................-- ----.. Mrs. May W. Hamilton
Hillsborough ............C. P. Wright ............Plant City (E) .... Miss Motelle Madole
Hillsborough ................................ .Tampa (W) .................... Miss Allie Rush
Holmes .......-........... ..............................---- Bonifay ................ Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Indian River ............W. E. Evans ............Vero Beach
Fort Pierce ........... Miss Ethyl Holloway
Jackson ...................Sam Rountree ..........Marianna ................ Miss Eleanor Clark
Jefferson ..................E. H. Finlayson .....Monticello .................... Miss Ruby Brown
Lafayette ........... ....D. C. Geiger ............Mayo ....... .... ............
Lake ......................C. R. Hiatt ..............Tavares ................. Mrs. Mary S. Allen
Lee ..----......................W. P. Hayman ........Fort Myers ............ Miss Anna Mae Sikes
Leon ..........................G. C. Hodge ............Tallahassee ........ Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum
Levy ..........................N J. A lbritton ........Bronson ................................
Liberty .................-....Dewey H. Ward ......Bristol .... .. ........
Madison ..................B. E. Lawton ..........Madison ......... ..........................
Manatee ..................-L. H. Wilson ............Bradenton ......... Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion ......................Clyde H. Norton ....Ocala ......................... Miss Tillie Roesel
M artin ......................C. P. Heuck ............Stuart ......... ..................
Okaloosa ................Joseph W. Malone ..Crestview ................. Miss Bertha Henry
Okeechobee .............C. A. Fulford ..........Okeechobee ............... ..............
Orange ......................K. C. Moore ............Orlando ............. Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola ......................J. R. Gunn ...............Kissimmee .................. Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach ..............M. U. Mounts ..........W. Palm Beach .... Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
Pinellas ..................Wm. Gomme ...........Clearwater ........ Mrs. Joy Belle Hess
Polk ....................... F. L. Holland ............Bartow .................. Miss Lois Godbey
Polk (Asst.) ...........-..........................-....Bartow ...-........ Miss Mosel Preston
St. Johns ..................E. H. Vance ..............St. Augustine ........ Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie ...............A. Warren ................Ft. Pierce ........... Miss Ethyl Holloway
Santa Rosa ..............J. G. Hudson ............Milton .................. Miss Eleanor Barton
Taylor ---....................R. S. Dennis ............Perry ......................
Volusia ...................T. A. Brown ............DeLand ...................... Miss Orpha Cole
Wakulla ....................H. E. Hudson ..........Crawfordville ................. ............-
Walton .....................-Mitchell Wilkins ....DeFuniak Springs .. Miss Eloise McGriff
Washington ..............Gus York ................Chipley ............................

*This list correct to December 31, 1930.
















































Fig. 1.-This display of vegetables, which won first prize at the 1930 South Florida Fair, gives an idea of the variety
of Florida vegetable products.


UTIMEIMIII
r~llrzll16

-1-FMMUMBr








REPORT FOR 1930


PART I-GENERAL

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report
of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1930, and a summary of
the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1930.

Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.


FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Receipts
College of Agriculture Funds-
Smith-Lever, Federal ... ................................... ........$ 77,646.71
Smith-Lever, State ........ ....................................... 48,872.25
Capper-Ketcham, Federal .................. ................................... 25,941.28
U.S.D.A. Appropriation ......................................... 21,000.00
State Appropriations ... ... ... .... ............................ 35,864.37
County Appropriations ........................... ................. 159,562.79
$368,887.40
Expenditures
Administration ................. ........................................................$ 7,082.30
Publications ................... ................ ..... .... .................. 8,157.45
County Agent Work .............................. ......... 168,649.64
Home Demonstration W ork ............................................................. 131,009.65
Boys' Club Work ....................................... 6,119.77
Dairy Husbandry .............................. ................................................ 5,125.83
Negro Extension W ork ......................... ..................................... 25,526.53
Plant Pathology .................................... ............................................. 2,677.17
Poultry Husbandry .................... .............._ .............................. 4,915.47
National Egg Laying Contest ................................... 7,000.00
Extension Schools, Farmers' Week ............................................... 2,623.59
$368,887.40






Florida Cooperative Extension


ORGANIZATION
Agricultural Extension work during 1930 has been conducted
in 53 different counties. At the close of the year 49 counties had
county Extension agents. The supervisory force has been as fol-
lows: Director, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader, three
district agents for men's work, three district agents for women's
work, one State Home Demonstration Agent, one boys' club
agent; and specialists as follows: Citrus Pathologist and Ento-
mologist, Dairyman, Poultryman, Nutritionist, Food and Mar-
keting Agent, Home Improvement Agent, Animal Husbandry
Specialist, and one specialist in Farm Management.

CHANGES DURING YEAR
On July 1 Miss Virginia P. Moore was appointed Home Im-
provement Specialist for the State, and was relieved of the duties
of Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent; July 15 Walter
J. Sheely was appointed Extension Animal Husbandman; on
August 15 Miss Mary A. Stennis resigned as Extension Nutri-
tionist and her successor has not yet been appointed.
The first appointment in the Agricultural Economics project
was made on October 1 with Frank W. Brumley being appointed
Agricultural Economist, Farm Management. At this time A. E.
Mercker was appointed Extension Specialist in Marketing on
part-time basis, to work in cooperation with the Inter-State
Early Potato Committee. On November 1 H. G. Clayton, dis-
trict agent for Southwest Florida, was appointed part-time Ex-
tension Economist to supervise organization and outlook work.
This relieved Mr. Clayton of the supervision of several counties,
the supervision of which was divided between the other district
agents. W. R. Briggs, formerly county agent in Brevard Coun-
ty, was appointed Assistant in Farm Management on November
1; and Dr. J. E. Turlington, Agricultural Economist of the Col-
lege of Agriculture was appointed as Extension Economist to
head the work in agricultural economics in the Extension Serv-
ice. Dr. Turlington will work on a part-time basis.
The revenue supporting Extension work in Florida comes
from three sources: 1, appropriation by the United States De-
partment of Agriculture, 2, appropriations by the Florida Legis-
lature, and 3, county appropriations. Of these sources the coun-
ty appropriations comprise the largest amount. County appro-
priations are authorized by a law permitting counties to levy
one-half mill for agricultural development. This provision






Annual Report, 1930


makes it optional with the County Boards, consequently the work
in the counties is dependent on county appropriations.
Because of a more difficult financial situation over the state
generally, county appropriations for the current year have been
somewhat reduced by county boards, and in three cases the
county work has been discontinued, largely the result of county
financial difficulties. Nevertheless, the number of counties con-
tinuing the work remains practically the same from year to
year. This, however, has required some reorganization with
agents working in more than one county and, in two cases, the
Extension Service paying all the salary and travel of the agent.
This, however, is only a temporary arrangement and will be
modified as soon as conditions warrant the change.
For the most part the finances of the county have been pro-
vided by the county commissioners-with two exceptions, where
either a part or all of the funds were provided by the county
school board.
During the year just passed the average salary, including ex-
penses, paid to county agents was $3,500 per year and to home
agents $3,000 per year. This is a small reduction from 1929.
During the past year, it has been possible to increase the allot-
ment to counties from $960 to $1080 per year and thereby relieve
the counties to the extent of $10 per month on the salary of each
agent. A still larger burden of the salary and expenses should
be carried by the State and Federal governments.
COOPERATION OF STATE INSTITUTIONS
The Agricultural Extension Service, being a part of the Col-
lege of Agriculture of the University of Florida, has had the co-
operation of various departments of the Florida Experiment
Station and .College of Agriculture. Through cooperation with
the agronomist of the Experiment Station the cover crop and
forage crop work has been strengthened by the distribution of
a variety of plants and seeds that have been tested by the Ex-
periment Station.
Cooperation of the veterinary department has resulted in the
promotion of poultry work. This made it possible for the Exten-
sion Service to utilize the knowledge gained in experiments in
the control of diseases affecting poultry.
The Entomology and Plant Pathology departments of the Ex-
periment Station have worked in close cooperation with the
Citrus Specialist in carrying out demonstrations, conducting






Florida Cooperative Extension


meetings, and making recommendations to be used by the grow-
ers. The chemistry department has cooperated by assistance
in recommendations for fertilizer applications, proper utiliza-
tion of cover crops, etc. The horticultural department has
worked closely in cooperation with the Extension Service in its
work with vegetables, fruits, nuts, ornamentals, and landscape
work. The agricultural economics section of the Experiment
Station has considered the interests of the Extension Service
in its plans and has given full cooperation in the laying out of
the agricultural economics program put into effect by the Exten-
sion Service during the past year.
The various departments of the Agricultural College and Ex-
periment Station aided in providing a suitable program for
Farmers' Week, county agent annual conference, boys and girls'
short course, as well as assisted in programs conducted by coun-
ty and home agents in the counties.
On July 1 a cooperative agreement was entered into with the
Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, D. C., providing for an
Animal Husbandry Specialist. The main purpose of this was to
stimulate and improve production of beef cattle, principally in
the area free of cattle ticks. This plan also proposes to intro-
duce animal husbandry work with hogs and sheep in cooperation
with county agents, district agents, and 4-H club work.
COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
During the campaign for the eradication of the Mediterranean
fruit fly, Extension agents cooperated in the eradication work.
Their offices were used as a means of conveying information to
growers on various aspects of the eradication plan. This work,
however, was not as intensively carried out by county agents as
during the year of 1929, but at no time during the active cam-
paign were the county agents in the citrus. area entirely relieved
of the responsibility of working towards the completion of the
clean-up campaign.
The Extension Service has worked in full cooperation with the
State Marketing Bureau, assisting the specialists in assembling
carloads of livestock and poultry for sale. It has also assisted in
the sale of poultry, hogs, dairy products, and various other agri-
cultural commodities. The specialists of the State Marketing Bu-
reau have assisted on programs for Farmers' Week and on other
similar occasions.
There has also existed cooperation with the office of the Com-





Annual Report, 1930


missioner of Agriculture, the Live Stock Sanitary Board, the
office of the State Forester, and the State Board of Health in
programs and plans that deal with the problems of the rural
people.
Private enterprises have contributed liberally to the advance-
ment of Extension work in the way of prizes and scholarships,
mainly to stimulate 4-H club work.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS WORK INAUGURATED
Work in agricultural economics began October 1, 1930, and is
just in the process of organization. Appointments have been
made for specialists in farm management and in marketing.
These agents will carry out enterprise studies beginning with
poultry, citrus, and dairying, and will add to these as the work
progresses. In marketing, plans are made to assist growers in
establishing and perfecting cooperative marketing organizations
in accordance with the plans of the Federal Farm Board. At-
tention will be given to non-cooperative marketing to assist in
a study of market conditions affecting a variety of crops and
farm and home products that enter into demonstrations con-
ducted by county Extension workers.
An agreement has been made for outlook studies for the pur-
pose of directing farmers in marketing methods. Also in or-
ganization in cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau. As


Fig. 2.-Cucumbers ready to go to market. These were shipped by
growers' cooperative association.


".t. "

?





Florida Cooperative Extension


these phases of the work are new, it was necessary to provide
office and equipment. This has been secured in the lease of a
building just off the campus of the University of Florida. Pro-
vision has been made for ample stenographic and clerical help.

FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK
The ninth annual Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was con-
ducted on the University campus August 11 to 15, 1930. The at-
tendance was 1,661. This is an annual event, occurring each
year just after the close of Summer School at the University.
As usual, the program was directed by members of the Col-
lege of Agriculture, Experiment Station, Extension Service, and
State Plant Board, with the assistance of workers from the
State Marketing Bureau, Department of Agriculture, and other
organizations.
- The dormitories and dining room of the University were made
available to visitors at nominal rates.
Sectional programs covering such divisions as horticulture,
farm crops, livestock, poultry, beekeeping, and home economics
were conducted. General sessions of all visitors were held daily
from 11 to 12 a.m. A display of agricultural implements and
other goods of interest to farmers was arranged under a tent
near the College of Agriculture building. Most of the exhibits
were furnished by commercial concerns.
Music and other entertainment were features of the mid-day
programs, while a special entertainment program was held each
night. Wednesday afternoon was given over to the annual
Farmers' Week picnic.
AWARDS TO CLUB MEMBERS
Business organizations, county officials, and individuals con-
tributed prizes and awards to the value of $16,150 to 4-H club
boys and girls and $560.50 to home demonstration club women
during the year. Efficiency in club work and examination de-
termined the winner in each case.
Following is a list of the awards, with some of the winners:
A total of 499 4-H club girls from 35 counties were awarded
free trips to the annual Girls' Club Short Course in June at the
State College for Women. These had a total value of $8,736.50,
and were given by civic organizations and business men, county
commissioners and school boards, federated women's clubs and





Annual Report, 1930


business and professional women's clubs, senior and junior
home demonstration clubs and county councils.
County commissioners, businessmen's organizations, and com-
mercial concerns donated 240 scholarships, valued at $3,100, to
the Boys' Club Short Course at the University of Florida in June.
Twelve of these were given by the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Edu-
cational Bureau and seven by the L. & N. Railway Company.
As state winners, six girls and three boys were sent to the
National Club Congress in Chicago, held in connection with the
International Live Stock Show. The winners and donors were:
Ruth Durrenberger, Orange County, Kerr Glass Company;
Ruth Yates, Osceola County, Montgomery Ward & Co.; Dora
Lee Bryant, Escambia County, Florida Department of Agricul-
ture; Barbara Blasey, Escambia County, Quaker Oats Company;
Lorene Duffy, Manatee County, Chicago Mail Order House; Ot-
tie Lee Bass, Okaloosa County, L. & N. Railway Company; Hugh
Dukes, Union County, Armour & Company; Yutch Lee, Santa
Rosa County, L. & N. Railway Company; Nelson Reeves, Leon
County, 4-H club fund. In addition, the Gainesville Chamber of
Commerce sent Anabel Raulerson and William Clegg as win-
ners in Alachua County, and the Leon County Bankers' Associ-
ation sent Francis Moss, for his excellent dairy club work in
that county.
Two boys and two girls were sent to the National 4-H Club
Camp, Washington, D. C., for two weeks during June. The win-
ners and donors were: Mary Effa Bradley, Leon County, Flor-
ida Federation of Women's Clubs; Guilda Yates, Orange County,
and Hugh Dukes, Union County, Atlantic Coast Line Railway
Company; Wilson Roberts, Washington County, Barnett Nation-
al Bank.
Horace A. -Moses, Eastern paper manufacturer, provided two
scholarships, one for a girl and one for a boy, to the 4-H Leader-
ship Training School at Springfield, Mass. These trips were won
by Beulah Felts of Manatee County and Frederick Barber of
Escambia County.
Frank E. Dennis gave a $250 scholarship to the University of
Florida to Wilma Bassett of Jefferson County for raising and
exhibiting the champion breeding pig. The State Bankers' Asso-
ciation gave $100 scholarships to Jack Platt of Marion, Marable
Love of Leon, and Charles Stearns of Lake. Congressman
Thomas Yon gave a $100 scholarship each to Arlington Henley
of Walton County and Gladys McDuffy of Holmes County.





Florida Cooperative Extension


Thomas E. Wilson gave a $50 gold watch to the club boy hav-
ing the best livestock project in the state. This was won by
Arthur McNeeley of Marion County.
The State Junior Home Demonstration Council awarded a
$200 scholarship to the State College for Women to Viola Yates
of Hillsborough County. The State Senior Home Demonstration
Council provided a $100 loan fund. The Florida Federation of
Women's Clubs gave $50 awards to winners in poultry and gar-
dening club work. Congresswoman Ruth Bryan Owen provided
special awards in home improvement, the Chilean Nitrate of
Soda Educational Bureau in home gardening, and Mrs. Geo. N.
Powell for county gardening winners.
Plantings and seed, garden supplies and equipment, were
awarded to girls and women for excellence in home gardening
and home beautification. These were contributed by Griffing's
Interstate Nurseries, Glen St. Mary Nurseries, Francis C. Stokes
Seed Company, Royal Palm Nurseries, S. L. Allen Company,
Stumpp and Walter Company, and the Chilean Nitrate of Soda
Educational Bureau.
Cash awards for the encouragement of women's home demon-
stration work were made by the Celotex Company, Washburn
Crosby Company, Northwestern Yeast Company, Chilean
Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau, J. C. Penney Company,
American Art Association, American Bemberg Corporation,
Aluminum Cooking Utensil Company, Singer Sewing Machine
Company, Sears, Roebuck & Co., and Thomas A. Edison, Inc.






Annual Report, 1930


PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS
J. FRANCIS COOPER, Editor
R. M. FULGHUM, Assistant Editor

PUBLICATIONS
During the year ending June 30, 1930, three new extension
bulletins were printed, three old ones were reprinted, 10 new
circulars were issued, and one old one reprinted, in addition to
the publication of a yearly calendar and a final report of the
National Egg-Laying Contest, and the weekly publication of the
Agricultural News Service. Exclusive of the News Service, the
material published amounted to 344 printed pages, the largest
amount of printing the Extension Service has done during one
year recently. In all, 135,600 copies of these various publica-
tions were printed.
Following is a list of the publications issued during the year,
with the number of pages contained in each, and the quantity
of each which was printed.
Pages Edition
Bul. 56 Foods, Nutrition and Health ................................ 40 25,000
Bul. 57 Herbaceous Perennials for Florida ........................... 36 10,000
Bul. 58 Vegetable Crops of Florida ..................................... 56 10,000
Bul. 50 Save the Surplus (Reprint) ...................................... 48 10,000
Bul. 54 Vetch and Austrian Peas for Soil Improvement
(Reprint) .......................................... ... .. ..... .............. 20 5,000
Bul. 55 Rejuvenating Furniture (Reprint) .......................... 12 5,000
Circ. 15 How to Organize and Conduct a Boys' 4-H Club.... 8 4,200
Circ. 17 Program Building and Goals for Boys' 4-H Clubs.... 8 3,000
Circ. 18 Boys' 4-H Club Officers and Their Duties ............. 8 5,100
Circ. 19 The Local 4-H Club Leader ...................................... 8 4,200
Circ. 20 The Parents' Place in the Boys' 4-H Club Program 8 10,000
Circ. 21 Music Appreciation for Rural Communities, Clubs
and H om es ................................................................... 20 5,000
Circ. 22 The Succulent Peach .................................................. 4 5,000
Circ. 23 Grape and Grape Products ..................................... 4 5,000
Circ. 24 The Fig ...................................... 4 5,000
Circ. 25 Pear Products ............................................................. 4 5,000
Circ. 972 Home Improvement (Reprint) .................................. 28 8,000
Final Report, Third Florida National Egg-Laying Contest.... 16 1,500
1930 Calendar ... ............... ................................................................ 12 9,600
Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 weeks) ......................... 1 29,000
In addition, a number of miscellaneous supplies were printed.
These included pads for the Home Egg-Laying Contest, certifi-
cates for the National Egg-Laying Contest, mortality chart,
healthy chick chart, crop club record book, individual club mem-
ber's record book, secretary's record book, boys' clubs, all ye
garden record books, Farmers' Week window cards, stuffers
programs.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Twelve monthly reports of the Third Florida National Egg-
Laying Contest at Chipley were printed and distributed, the
material for these being prepared and handled by the contest
supervisor. Nine hundred copies of these were distributed each
month. A mimeographed report of the Home Egg-Laying Con-
test, prepared by the Extension Poultryman and edited and dis-
tributed from this office, was distributed monthly. Poultry hints
were mimeographed and distributed bimonthly.
Distribution of Extension publications and printed supplies is
handled from the mailing room, which is under the supervision
of the Editors. Home demonstration bulletins and circulars are
distributed, usually, from the State Home Demonstration Office
at Tallahassee. Many thousand copies of bulletins and various
classes of supplies were distributed during the year from both
the Tallahassee and Gainesville offices.

NEWS AND FARM PAPER STORIES
The Agricultural News Service, weekly clipsheet, continued to
be the principal means used for the dissemination of extension
information to the newspapers, and through them to their read-
ers, the public. From eight to 12 stories each week were sent
out through this service. The stories were largely clipped and
reprinted by the weekly newspapers in the agricultural counties
of Florida.
Service to the daily papers of the state was provided through
the Associated Press and through special stories and articles sent
direct to the papers. During the year 151 stories were sent to
the Associated Press and distributed by it to its 45 member
papers in Florida. Sixty-one different special stories were sent
to from one to 100 papers during the year. One of the stories,
which went to 25 different papers, was accompanied by a mat
of a two-column picture. The Extension Editor conducts a farm
column in one of the larger state dailies, and contributes to such
a department in another daily. These farm columns are printed
each Sunday during the year. They contain numerous stories
concerning extension activities and hints.
During Farmers' Week a special page was run in one of the
Gainesville dailies from Tuesday through Friday. Stories of
Farmers' Week activities were prepared for this page by the Ex-
tension Editors, and copies of the paper were distributed free to
visitors. Numerous special Farmers' Week stories were sent





Annual Report, 1930


to other papers. Posters, stuffers, programs, and other Farmers'
Week publicity materials were printed and distributed.
During the year 20 stories from this office were used by the
monthly Farm and Grove Section of 50 Florida newspapers. The
20 stories amounted to 365 column inches. Six articles by other
members of the staff, amounting to 105 column inches, were
printed in this section during the year.
The services of this office and other departments of the College
of Agriculture to farm papers of Florida, the South and the
nation, are especially well received and widely used. Fifty-six
stories, amounting to 2,046 column inches of printed material,
which had been written by the Editors, were published in six
different Florida farm papers during the year. Nine different
stories, amounting to 140 column inches, were published in two
different Southern farm papers, and two stories, amounting to
113 inches, were published in two national farm publications.
In addition, various forms of material were sent to the United
State Department of Agriculture for its publications.
Numerous articles by members of the staff, which had been
edited in this office and which amounted to hundreds of column
inches of printed material, were published in Florida farm
papers during the year. For instance, the November, 1930, issue
of one Florida farm publication contained 22 stories from the
College of Agriculture. These amounted to 507 inches or 42
columns-just exactly half of the space inside the paper not de-
voted to advertising.
In addition to material sent especially to farm papers, these
papers clip and use considerable quantities of material from
the weekly clipsheet.
RADIO

Thirty-minute daily farm programs were put on the air over
WRUF during the year. These programs were planned and
supervised by the Assistant Extension Editor. During the year,
312 programs went on the air, and 441 talks were given by staff
members of the College of Agriculture, Experiment Station and
Agricultural Extension Service, farmers, and others. A total
of 220 papers distributed by the Radio Service of the United
State Department of Agriculture was read. Once each week a
period was devoted to reading questions and answers. These
were questions received by Station and Extension workers, and
answered by them. Another weekly period was given to the






Florida Cooperative Extension


reading of farm news, taken largely from the Agricultural News
Service.
Of the 441 talks, the Editors themselves prepared and read
24, Experiment Station staff members, 139, Extension Service
workers, 135, teachers in the College of Agriculture, 39, 4-H club
members, 34, and others, 70. Whenever the person who pre-
pared the talk could give it, he was encouraged to do so. How-
ever, when the author was out of town or unable to be present,
his talk was read by the Assistant Extension Editor. In ad-
dition, the Editors put on 90 humorous interlude features last-
ing about 3 minutes each.
In addition to the regular noon-day farm programs daily over
WRUF, this station gave time to six monthly 4-H club programs
of 30 minutes each, 1 special 4-H achievement program of 30
minutes, and during the Boys' Club Short Course at the Uni-
versity in June, five boys made 3-minute talks. The total num-
ber of club talks during the year was 36.
During Farmers' Week, each noon-day program was broad-
cast direct from the University auditorium, while it was being
given for the benefit of the assembled visitors. One of the even-
ing entertainment programs was put on the air. An extra
period, in the early evening, was given to allow visitors to Farm-
ers' Week to go on the radio. In all, 42 Farmers' Week visitors
made talks over WRUF during the week.
Again during the annual conference of county and home dem-
onstration agents, the first week in October, the station gener-
ously gave an added half hour to the farm program each day.
During the two daily periods for the week, 37 county and home
demonstration agents spoke on subjects relating to their work.
The Assistant Editor made a study of the radio possibilities
of WRUF, and found that about 23,000, or 39' percent of the
59,601 farms in Florida, are within 100 miles of WRUF. About
45,000, or 76 percent, are within 200 miles, and all are in 350
miles of the Station. About 80 percent of the farmers are in
territory allotted to Eastern Standard Time, and the remaining
20 in the Central Standard Time area. Thus it is believed that
the period 12:15 to 12:45, E. S. T., is as satisfactory as any
noon-time period that could be obtained.
On November 8 a national-local 4-H club achievement program
was put on the air over three Florida stations. The first and
last parts of the program came from Washington over the chain.





Annual Report, 1930


with the United States Department of Agriculture as sponsor.
The middle 30 minutes came from each local station. The local
programs for the three Florida stations were arranged and
supervised by the Editors. Each program was approximately
as follows: Opening music, followed by a talk by a 4-H club girl,
then a talk by a home demonstration worker, then music, then
a talk by a 4-H club boy, then a 4-H club leader, county agent,
or business man, and closing music.
Some 10 or 12 different radio farm features were prepared
in this office and sent to two state stations to be read as parts
of their regular farm programs.
MISCELLANEOUS
Training in news writing was given by the Editor to 10 club
boys and 40 club girls at their annual club short courses in June.
The boys and girls were assisted in issuing mimeographed club
papers daily during their separate short courses.
The club girls of one county were helped to start their camp
paper, and later to start their county club mimeographed paper.
Twenty girls and women of another county were given news
training during their camp.
Two county agents were given personal help in their news
writing work. Assistance was given in the preparation of two
series of motion picture slides for one agent. A Southern pub-
lisher was carried on a trip to some of the branch experiment
stations, and was helped to obtain information for three dif-
ferent stories.
A series of weekly ad slogans, to be used in its regular weekly
advertisements, was prepared for one bank. Each slogan be-
gan with the words, "Here is what the College of Agriculture
says for this week:"





Florida Cooperative Extension


PART II-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENT WORK
A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent
W. T. NETTLES, District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
County agents, with few exceptions, have offices located in
county court houses; a few are located with chambers of com-
merce. These offices are, on the whole, very well equipped with
office furniture, typewriters, demonstration material, bulletin
racks, and supplies of bulletins. Only 33% of the agents have
stenographic help; most of the offices have telephone service.
With the exception of stationery and bulletins, the offices are
equipped at the expense of the county.
SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
County agents have devoted considerable time and energy this
year to the fruit fly eradication work by assisting in putting on
the bait spray campaign. A number of county agents issued
shipping permits until the quarantine was raised in the sum-
mer.
County agents had an active part in fair work by assembling
and putting on the county exhibits at the South Florida Fair,
the Central Florida Exposition, the Florida Orange Festival,
and various county fairs. They have also worked with agricul-
tural committees of the chambers of commerce and service clubs
in developing agricultural programs.
The State Pig Club Show was held at Tallahassee, with county
Agent Hodge making all local arrangements. One hundred and
fifty animals were exhibited at this show. The Agricultural
Extension Service also cooperated with the Florida State Hor-
ticultural Society in their meetings in Marianna and Sebring.

PUBLICITY
County Agents have supplied to the press of Florida an aver-
age of 110 agricultural news items each. They have sent out
an average of 18 different circular letters, and have made 113
radio talks.





Annual Report, 1930


CONTESTS
The Jackson County Agent conducted a five-acre corn and a
five-acre cotton contest during the year. Eleven county agents
held 4-H Club contests. Some of these were held in connection
with county fairs. The most outstanding one of the season was
in Escambia County. Here the 4-H boys and girls held their
contest together. Their program included a radio program of
30 minutes. One hundred boys displayed their project exhibits
and records.
EDUCATIONAL TOURS
Twelve agents in the general farming area conducted well-or-
ganized tours of farmers, business men, and bankers. Eight
had a published schedule. Their demonstrations were placarded
and most of them showed demonstrations representing a very
good cross-section of their program of work. Such things as
citrus and vegetable demonstrations, corn after winter cover
crops, different varieties of corn, side-dressing of corn with
nitrate of soda and sulfate of ammonia, cotton varieties and fer-
tilizers, peanut spacing, sugarcane varieties, hogs on early feed,
swine sanitation, pasture development, beef. cattle and dairy
cattle herd improvement, as well as poultry brooders and flocks,
were shown. Seven of the agents had speaking programs at the
noon hour calling attention to the facts learned from the dem-
onstrations. Chambers of commerce and other civic bodies co-
operated in furnishing picnic lunch to some of them. Six hun-
dred and ten farmers and business men went on these 12 tours.
Many others attended the lunches and speaking programs. As
a result of these tours, Extension work was continued in at least
one county. Many farmers will follow the improved practices
shown next year.
EDUCATIONAL TRIPS
Internal parasites of swine are one of the problems in swine
production. Last spring a number of the county agents went
to Moultrie, Georgia, to visit the B. A. I. field laboratory, under
the supervision and direction of Dr. E. M. Neighbert, and to
study the practices in sanitation demonstrations. They saw the
simple equipment, the grazing crops, and the simple method of
handling.
Late in the summer many county agents conducted motor-
cades of farmers to the Cummings Livestock Ranch at Donal-





Florida Cooperative Extension


sonville, Georgia, to see what had been done there in herd and
pasture improvement. As a result, many purebred sires have
been purchased and a few pastures have been planned.
















Fig. 3.-First stop on the educational tour, in which growers see demon-
strations of good practices.

To see how some dairy farmers are growing feeds, improving
their herds, and installing new equipment, dairymen of Escam-
bia County made a trip to Baldwin County, Alabama, dairies.

PROJECT WORK
All projects carried on by the Agricultural Extension Service
are put into effect in the counties through the work of the county
and home demonstration agents. State specialists and super-
visors conduct their work in cooperation with the county agents.
County agent work is supervised by three district agents. One
district comprises the general farming and livestock area of
North and West Florida, a second comprises the counties in
Northeast Florida and on the East Coast, a third comprises those
counties lying from Gainesville south and west.
At the beginning of each year a program covering the year's
activities is mapped out by each district agent, supervisor, and
county worker. These are brought together and make up the
state's program for the year. In some counties all of the special-
ists have actual projects under way, while in other counties only
such projects as are adaptable are put into effect by the county
agent. This definite program provides a working plan suitable
to each county.






Annual Report, 1930


In carrying on projects, all possible assistance is secured from
other divisions of the College of Agriculture.
The county agent work also includes the boys' club work;
such work is a part of the regular duties of county agents. The
club projects also correspond with the best methods in agricul-
ture suited to the section. To illustrate, the corn growing dem-
onstrations with 4-H club boys are on the same basis as the dem-
onstrations with adult farmers. Club work consists of livestock,
poultry, horticulture, farm crops, forestry, and other active 4-H
projects.
County agent work therefore extends into every agricultural
activity of the county and is the representative of the state col-
lege of agriculture in each county where an agent is employed.
A compiled statement of reports submitted by county and dis-
trict agents for the calendar year ending December 31, 1930, fol-
lows.
SOILS

The present definite soil improvement program began in the
fall of 1925. This called for the use of vetch and Austrian
winter peas to be grown on land in winter and early spring,


4n-X
*..
'"<- --


Fig. 4.-This fine crop of Austrian winter peas is being turned under on
April 7, 1930. It made the succeeding crop of corn produce big yields.


_4L V






Florida Cooperative Extension


turned into the land about April 1 each year, and followed by
a summer crop (preferably corn) planted about two weeks later.
In 1925-26 there were 10 demonstrations conducted, involving
10 acres. During 1929-30 there were 91 demonstrations involv-
ing 1,011 acres. Definite demonstrations have been conducted
each year from 1925 to 1930. These demonstrations have pro-
duced 29.2 bushels of corn per acre against 12.4 bushels on the
checks, an increased yield of 135%.
The following table shows how the practice of growing winter
cover crops has increased:
Year No. Pounds Seed Sown Acres Planted
1925-26 200 10
1926-27 600 30
1927-28 6,000 250
1928-29 53,000 2,100
1929-30 110,000 4,500
1930-31 153,000 6,000
In groves it has been the practice to use cowpeas, native vege-
tation, and velvet beans as cover crops in summer. In the coun-
ties of Central Florida, it is the practice of letting one-half of
the cultivatable lands "lie out" each year. This grows a crop
of native vegetation which protects the land during the summer
and is turned into the land next winter. This is apparently
an economic practice with this land. It will produce from three
to five bushels more corn per acre when planted than land that
was cultivated.
For the last few years a few demonstrations of growing Cro-
talaria on land and among corn as a cover crop have been con-
ducted. Most of these are too recent to show much results. One
started in 1926 produced 41.2 bushels of corn as against 25.8
for check during the 1929 season. In 1930 it produced 30 bushels
as against 16.8 bushels on check. This was in the drought-af-
fected area.
The soils in 10 of the Northwest Florida counties are rolling.
Rainfall average in these counties ranges from 55 to 65 inches
per annum. Much of the fields under tenant system of culti-
vation are now washed-off hillsides, depleted of soil. To show
that these fields can be brought back to fertility and others can
be conserved, the county agents in these counties last year con-
ducted 211 demonstrations in terracing and soil conservation, in-
volving 3,875 acres. The Walton County agent says, "I operated
a machine on 12 farms. Many farmers did their own." The
Escambia County agent says, "Fifteen demonstrations were held






Annual Report, 1930


this year. Five terracing drags were built." It is estimated
that terracing of land is worth $5.00 per acre per annum.
In citrus fruit production the fertilizer cost on the average
has been 50 to 60% of the total cost. A soil well supplied with
organic matter is essential if maximum results are to be ob-
tained from fertilizers. Also where the grower can supply this
organic matter he is in position to utilize the cheaper chemical
forms of nitrogen and the higher analysis fertilizers, thereby
reducing the unit cost of plant food.
The work done by county agents with cover crops has been
outstanding. This year, as a rule, cover crops did not yield as
great a tonnage as in past years due to weather conditions in the
spring. Crotalaria striata now ranks as the leading citrus cover
crop among those cover crops which are seeded. County agents
in the citrus and vegetable territory report that growers with
whom they cooperated purchased 111,000 pounds of Crotalaria
seed. An additional tonnage of Crotalaria seed was sown in
other groves.
A limited amount of Crotalaria spectabilis from the Experi-
ment Station was distributed in each county in the citrus district
by the agents. This variety differs from striata in that it is less
susceptible to pumpkin bug infestation, is less woody, and seeds
uniformly late in the season. This is a promising variety and is
looked upon with favor by most of the growers who have tried
it. Seed from these plantings is being harvested and it seems
probable that the future seed supply of this variety will be avail-
able from plantings in the state. This variety of Crotalaria is
also being tried on truck soils and at this time is showing up
well.
The citrus acreage planted to Crotalaria for a cover crop has
been increased as rapidly as seed was available. Approximately
15% of the entire acreage was in Crotalaria in 1930. This per-
centage will vary in different counties, Highlands, Lee, and Os-
ceola counties having the largest percentage of groves in Cro-
talaria.
During the year, L. H. Alsmeyer, agent in Highlands County,
was awarded a gold medal and a trip to the Chicago meeting of
the American Society of Agronomy. These awards were made
by the Soil Improvement Committee of the National Fertilizer
Association and were awarded to six county agents in the South-
ern States for outstanding soil improvement work.
The cover crop work for soil improvement has been some of






Florida Cooperative Extension


the most-valuable work done by the extension agents. Results
are seen in the improved condition of groves using Crotalaria,
better quality of fruit, increased production, and reduced cost
of production.
Fertilizer demonstrations have been conducted on the dif-
ferent soil types in the East Coast District, possibly the most
outstanding of which is the use of manganese sulphate on heavy
marl soils, and on the muck soils of the Everglades. Definite
demonstrations have shown an increase as high as 76 crates of
beans per acre, and with Irish potatoes, an increase from 65
to 285 bushels.
Fertilizer demonstrations involving the use of manganese
sulphate, synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, hardwood ashes, land-
plaster, lime, and stable manure were carried on. Results point
to the fact that manganese sulphate is very desirable on marl
and muck soils for the growing of vegetables; that cheap in-
organic sources of nitrogen are just as efficient as the pure or-
ganic sources; the growing of cover crops to incorporate organic
matter in the soil is not only desirable, but essential to the con-
tinued productivity of the soil.




I














Fig. 5.-This corn, grown without commercial fertilizer, shows what Aus-
trian peas turned under will do. Peas planted on this 30 acres failed
to grow very well the first year. However, the second year they made
good growth, and were followed by this corn crop.






Annual Report, 1930


FARM CROPS
Corn:-In addition to the use of cover crops to increase corn
yields and reduce the cost per bushel, the county agents are dem-
onstrating to the farmers two other improved practices in grow-
ing corn; namely, the improved varieties and the intelligent use
of commercial fertilizer. They are using Whatley's Prolific, Kil-
gore's Red Cob, and Tisdale's one-ear corn, all of which consist-
ently yield about 20% more than other varieties.
The Florida Experiment Station has found that under most
conditions in Florida the use of a top-dressing of some nitrog-
enous fertilizer, such as nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia, or
calcium nitrate, is about the only fertilizer treatment that will
pay on corn. County agents have put this into effect through
demonstrations and corn club boys' demonstrations and now it
is a common practice to apply 100 pounds of nitrate of soda or its
equivalent in other materials to corn when it is about 35 days old.
Oats and Rye:-The demonstrations conducted with these two
crops deal with the better varieties and top-dressing with fer-
tilizers. Twenty-seven demonstrations were conducted for grain
production. There was an average increase of 8 bushels per
acre. The highest yield per acre for this crop for years was se-
cured this year.
These crops are used in Florida very largely for winter and
spring grazing. Because of drought, a short feed crop was pro-
duced this year. In view of this, county agents, by personal
contact, circular letters, and newspaper articles, urged the farm-
ers to increase their acreage this fall. There has been an in-
crease of more than 25%.
Peanuts:-Peanuts are grown for two distinct purposes in
Florida. The Spanish variety for commercial purposes and the
runners for hog feed. It is the main crop used for the produc-
tion of pork. The average yield is about 18 bushels per acre.
One reason for this low yield is because they are planted in wide
rows with wide spacing in the rows. By closer spacing, it has
been proven that the yield per acre can be materially increased.
On 65 demonstrations with closer spacing, the average increase
in yield was 8 bushels. If this practice were followed by the
commercial producers with their Spanish type alone, it would
mean another half million dollars to them.
Planting corn and Spanish peanuts for early hog feed was
more generally practiced this year than in the past.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Soybeans (Hay):-Florida farmers and stockmen need a
legume that will mature hay during the fall months, cure out
easily, and yield well. This has been found in Otootan soybeans.
On 19 demonstrations conducted this year, 7/8 ton more yield per
acre was obtained than from cowpeas. It cured out well, giving
a high quality hay.
Pasture and Forage:-Interest in improved pastures continu-
ed to grow, and with tick eradication in progress in a part of
the districts, this interest should continue. The oldest of the
demonstration pastures is only five years at this time, and pas-
ture development is a type of project that requires a long time.
There were 156 demonstrations on 3,891 acres this year, using
58,365 pounds of seed. The base grass in the pasture mixture is
carpet, with the addition of Dallis, Bahia, lespedeza, or Bermuda
grass, depending on soil types and condition. These pastures,
after getting well sodded, will carry a cow per acre for about
9 months of the year, and will produce the equivalent of 250
pounds of beef per acre. Successfully established, these demon-
strations should be worth $25,000 per annum to their owners
as pastures, in addition to what the spread of their influence will
be worth to the community in causing others to put them in.
Cotton:-Cotton is the main cash crop of the farmers of 10
Northwest Florida counties. Though low in price, it brought
into these counties approximately $3,000,000. The average pro-
duction per acre for the last five years has been 315 pounds seed
cotton per acre. This year it has been 675 pounds. On 219 adult
demonstrations conducted under the supervision of county
agents, the yield was 1,056 pounds seed cotton per acre.
Sugarcane:-Mosaic disease and the nematode affect very
materially the production of the old established varieties of
sugarcane in the general farming area of Florida. The commer-
cial producer has now turned to Cayana 10, a variety resistant
to both mosaic and nematode. The county agents this year
conducted 28 demonstrations to prove the superiority of the
Cayana. It produced 100 gallons more per acre. Considerable
increase of Cayana is expected next year as a result of these
demonstrations.
HORTICULTURE
Citrus and truck are the chief money crops in the counties
of Central and South Florida, the greater part of the agents'
time being devoted to this horticultural work, especially in the






Annual Report, 1930


citrus counties. The agents in this territory have averaged 98
days devoted to horticulture, and have averaged 275 farm visits
each on horticultural matters, and have each had an average of
811 calls for horticultural information. These agents perform a
great amount of personal service work, making inspections at
the request of growers in order to give proper advice on insect
and disease control of truck crops and citrus, and on cultural
practices and fertilization.
In the Voluntary Bait Spray Campaign to combat the Medi-
terranean fruit fly, county agents performed a worth while serv-
ice in getting this spraying done in a complete manner. This
job was done in a thorough manner, all agencies cooperating
to the fullest extent.
The annual spring citrus meetings were held this year, and
the program was devoted largely to reduction in production costs
and improving the quality of the fruit. Twenty-one meetings
were held in 10 counties during April and May and these were
attended by 915 growers. These meetings were the best at-
tended of any so far held where such subjects were discussed.
Six hundred and ninety-three citrus demonstrations were con-
ducted on 13,703 acres of groves. This is an increase of 100%
over last year.
The outstanding features of the citrus work are the increased
use of cover crops, particularly Crotalaria, and the greater use
of inorganic fertilizers, with a tendency to cultivate less. These
shifts are reducing costs and in most cases improving fruit qual-
ity. Fruit from demonstration groves where these shifts are
in practice has topped the auction sales in two large markets
this fall.
Ten agents have conducted tours of groups of growers to in-
spect demonstration groves and the experimental plots at the
Citrus Experiment Station. Twenty-six such tours were con-
ducted and 1,000 growers secured first hand information by see-
ing what was being done. These tours have been an effective
means of getting this work before the growers.
Truck Crops:-A large part of the work with truck crops is
carried on as personal service. Many factors enter into the
growing of truck crops and these vary so widely as to require
personal inspection in order to make correct recommendations.
Insect and disease control, seed treatment, and fertilization are
the main points on which truck growers call on county agents
for aid. This year Crotalaria spectabilis has been grown in dem-






Florida Cooperative Extension


onstration plots on truck farms. The results this far are en-
couraging and this work will be expanded the coming year.
County agents report 390 demonstrations with truck crops, in-
volving 5,049 acres.

















Fig. 6.-High grade disease-free bean seed from Western sources pro-
duced maximum yields in South Florida demonstrations.
Eighty-four demonstrations in home beautification where in-
structions and plans were furnished for beautifying home
grounds, and 88 demonstrations in home gardening were con-
ducted.
Grapes:-The results from demonstration plantings of cover
crops in vineyards have convinced most of the growers of the
value of cover crops, and this year, about two-thirds of the grape
acreage grew cover crops, largely Crotalaria. This is a great
increase over last year, and prospects are for a greater acreage
to be so planted in 1931.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Hogs:-In order for hog production to be profitable, farmers
must produce cheap corn and peanuts, have a good supply of
grazing crops, and the hogs must be marketed when prices are
highest. These highest prices usually occur during September
and October. Demonstrations were conducted with such graz-
ing crops as oats, rye, peas, millet, and followed up with peas
and corn or peanuts and corn, to be hogged down in July, Aug-
ust, and September. There were 30 of these demonstrations
conducted in Northwest Florida this year. Severe drought inter-






Annual Report, 1930


fered with successful completion of these plans in Northwest
Florida. In Central and South Florida there were 56 demonstra-
tions comprising 3,136 hogs. Sixty-two farmers were assisted
by the county agents in securing purebred breeding stock.
In Levy County it is conservatively estimated that the hogs
marketed early netted the farmers over $6,000 more than would
have been the case under usual marketing methods. The co-
operative associations encourage farmers to plan the year's
work well in advance. Cooperative effort in production is an
aid to early marketing. Cooperative hog shipping associations
have been organized by county agents and the State Marketing
Bureau.
In some counties the agents have to vaccinate hogs against
cholera and swine plague. They advise and demonstrate to
farmers methods of control for both external and internal para-
sites. The few agents who vaccinate hogs immuned approxi-
mately 75,000 head this year.
During the year 106 farmers were aided in obtaining purebred
sires and 108 purebred dams were purchased.
Sheep:-The 60,000 sheep in Florida are all in range flocks.
Very few are ever fed. All are of mongrel breed. The numbers
have been decreasing for approximately 20 years, the decrease
largely due to internal parasites. In 1927 demonstrations in the
control of these parasites were conducted. It was found that
the treatment would cost only a few cents per head with the
result that the fleeces would be increased approximately 1/4
pound each, and the lamb crop would show a good increase.
There were 12 method demonstrations to control internal para-
sites where 12,000 sheep were treated in 1930.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND COOPERATIVE SALES
AND PURCHASES
The county agents cooperate closely with farmers' cooperative
organizations and render assistance from time to time, especial-
ly with the newer organizations.
The Extension Service has cooperated with cooperative vege-
table associations, the Federal Farm Board, and the State Mar-
keting Bureau in the formation of a state-wide federation of veg-
etable cooperatives, The Florida Truck Growers, Inc.
This has been a year which has tested the strength of the co-
operative associations and they have met conditions very well.
The cooperation of the Federal Farm Board with organizations











PROGRAM SUMMARY


Cereals .................... ... ........... .......... 191
Legumes and forage crops ..................... 385
Potatoes, I ................................ 123

Tobacco, other special crops .................. 57
Gardens, home beautification ................ 101
Market garden, truck crops .................... 181
F ruits ....................................................... 235
Forestry .......... .............. ....... .. ... 19
Rodents, misc. insects ............................ 119
Agri. engineer., home engineer ............ 177
Poultry ............................ ........... 244
Dairy ............. ........................ .. 174
Other livestock .......... ......... ....... ....... 262
Farm management .................................. 193
Marketing, farm and home ............. 300
Community activities ........................ 40
Build. extension program of work ........ 147
Organization-exten. assoc. and comm. 27
Miscellaneous ................ ................... 54
M miscellaneous .- ....-...-........ 54


126
124
27
73
31
35
99
143
6
32
62
133
84
135
138
169
13
39
41
22


Va V
d \



4a
29 155 130
87 155 190
12 26 39
8 64 35
24 43 38
10 58 53
26 252 315
144 128 282
2 57 39
12 31 60
9 26 47
113 259 203
129 156 169
65 149 172
10 81 62
78 277 201
2 28 28
6 20 15
3 51 16
26 28 70


269
8
16
9
10
I 92
73
S 4
17
7
102
56
53
I 11
76
7
2
5
13


S C






2,840 3,074 768
4,036 3,440 1,042
476 1,108 289
1,175 1,808 474
625 777 289
853 1,352 359
4,131 6,976 1,349
4,486 9,569 1,568
29 97 73
884 1,488 286 /2
1,072 1,495 44612
2,869 6,878 1,153
2,629 3,818 1,283 1/
5,240 6,413 1,982
777 3,001 356
2,530 5840 9391/2
227 221 162
136 133 87
64 122 67
893 2,423 653







Annual Report, 1930


in the state has added strength and encouragement to the co-
operative movement.
The county agents have assisted in the purchase of many tons
of field seeds, hundreds of tons of commercial fertilizers, and
hundreds of head of cattle. These purchases have amounted to
over $130,414. Agents have assisted in sales amounting to
$355,978. The greatest assistance rendered through this service
has been aiding farmers in getting the kind and quality of seed,
fertilizers, and stock they need.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Num ber of County Agents ........................................... ........ .......... 47
Number of months service this year .................... ...................... 553
County extension organizations or associations ................................ 4
Number of members of county organizations or associations ........ 606
Communities in counties where extension work should be conducted 561
Communities where extension program has been worked out by
agents and local committees ...................................................... 383
Voluntary county or community local leaders actively engaged in
forwarding extension program .............................................. ...... 372
Farm visits made in conducting extension work .-...---............... ... 35,878
Different farm s visited ............................................................. ......... 15,099
Home visits made in conducting extension work ................................ 2,593
D different hom es visited ............................... ................ .............. ...... 1,609
Office calls relating to extension work ..................... ................... 59,914
Telephone calls relating to extension work .---............................-...... 32,145
Days agents spent in office .............-.................... ............................. 3,940
Days agents spent in field .........---- ..........................---- .......... 9,735%
News articles or stories published ................--...........- ............. ....... 2,182
Individual letters written ......-............................................ 45,817
Different circular letters prepared .--............................ ...- --........... 751
Bulletins distributed ......................... .......................... ................... 40,029
Radio talks m ade .............................. ... ........ ...................... ........ 138
Events at which extension exhibits were shown ................................ 49

Number Attendance
Training meetings for local leaders ....-...-......---- ...-- .......-.. 29 348
Method demonstration meetings held ................................ 2,385 16,406
Meetings held at result demonstrations ................................ 557 6,498
Tours conducted ...................-.......-. ...........- ....... ............. 76 3,810
Other meetings of an extension nature not reported else-
where ....................................-...........................----------.... 1,233 48,760
Meetings held by leaders not participated -ii by agent
and not reported elsewhere ....................................... 104 1,094
4-H Clubs
Voluntary county or community local leaders ................................... 115
Number of clubs .....................---- .. --------....... ......----..... -.........-- ..... 131
Number of members enrolled ...................... ..... .. ...-..----.....-...... 2,658
Number of members completing .........................-. .--.....- .... ........ 1,215
Number of 4-H club members in school .........-...........-............ ..... 2,496
Achievement days held ....--........... ........------.............-- ........ 15
Total attendance at achievement days .................................................. 2,432
Encam pm ents held ......................... ........... .............................. .... 17
Attendance at encampments ................... ....... ........................... 599
Meetings held not participated in by agent and not reported else-
w here .- ---................. ................................ ...................-....... ---64
Attendance at meetings .................. .............- ...................... 1,338







34 Florida Cooperative Extension

CEREALS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats, Rye, etc.)

'Method demonstration meetings held .................................................... 211
Adult demonstrations completed or carried into next year ............ 534
Acres included in adult result demonstrations ................................. 5,012

-4-H Club
M embers enrolled ........................................ ......................... 628
Members completing ........................... ...... .. ............................. 296
Number of acres grown by club members completing ........................ 3431/2
Total yields of cereals grown by members completing .................. 10,724

LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Vetch, Lespedeza, Peanuts, Crotalaria, etc.)

Demonstration meetings held ...... ....................................... 397
Adult demonstrations completed or carried into next year .......... 1,124
Acres included in adult result demonstrations .............................. 15,348

4-H Club
Members enrolled ........... ...................... ....... ...... ........... 41
Members completing ......................................... ..... ..................... 25
Acres grown by club members completing .......................................... 37

POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS
(Sweet and Irish)

Method demonstration meetings held ....................................... .... 173
Adult demonstrations completed or carried into next year (result) 128
Acres included in result demonstrations ........................................ 764

4-H Club
M embers enrolled .................................. ....................... 152
Members completing ..................... ........... .............. 113
Acres grown by members completing ................................ ..... 52

COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held ................................................... 76
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ............ 275
Acres included in adult result demonstrations .................................. 2,156

4-H Club
M embers enrolled .................. ...... .................................................... 249
Members completing .......................... .... --- ..... 114
Acres grown by club members completing ................................. 159

TOBACCO DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held ........................................... ..... 21
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ........... 36
Acres included in adult result demonstrations .............................. 68

4-H Club
M embers enrolled ......................... ... ........- .. ...... ........................ 3
Members completing .......... ..................... ......... 2
Acres grown by club members completing. .................... ........... 6






Annual Report, 1930 35

OTHER DEMONSTRATIONS, SPECIAL CROPS

Demonstration meetings held .................-................................ 66
Result demonstrations completed or carried into the next year .... 56
Acres included in adult demonstrations (result) ........................... 118

4-H Club
Members enrolled .................1.......................... 1
Members completing .................... ................ ............ 1
Acres grown by club member completing .......... --............ ........ 212

HOME AND MARKET GARDEN DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held ............................................ 761
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ............ 610
Acres included in adult result demonstrations ................................. 5,174

4-H Club
Members enrolled ... ---............................................. ...... 417
Members completing ................. ------------- ............................. 140
Acres grown by club members completing .................................. .. 90

BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS DEMONSTRATION

Method demonstration meetings held .......--- ................................ 341
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ......... 299

4-H Club
Members enrolled ........... ............................... 17
Members completing ............................................. ............ 4

HORTICULTURE DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held ........................................... 517
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ............ 775
Acres included in adult result demonstrations....---...................... 15,186

4-H Club
M em bers enrolled ................................ ................................................... 110
Members completing ....... ........................................................... ........ 55
Acres grown by club members completing ....................... ................ 201/

FORESTRY DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held ....................................... ...... 41
Result demonstrations completed or carried into the next year.... 14
Club m em bers enrolled .... ..................................................... ....... 26
Club members completing .............................................. ................ 23
Acres farm wood lot managed by club members completing ............ 22
Acres involved ................................................ ................... ........ ... .. 35
Farms assisted in forest or wood-lot management ........................ 38
involving acreage of ............ .................................................. 3,349
Farms planting windbreaks according to recommendations ............ 22
Farms assisted in other ways relative to forestry ............................ 10

DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS

Demonstration meetings held .......................... .................. ...... 728
Demonstrations completed or carried into the next year ............ 365
Pounds of poison used ...................................... 7,191






Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL AND HOME ENGINEERING

Method demonstration meetings held ................................................... 160
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ........ 133
Farms following recommendations in installing drainage systems 170
Acres drained by such systems ........................................ 4,264
Farms following recommendations in installing irrigation systems 270
Acres irrigated by such systems .......................................................... 1,189
Farms building terraces and soil-saving dams according to recom-
mendations ..----.. ......... .................. ................. 239
Acres on which soil erosion was prevented by terraces and dams 4,299
Farms clearing land of stumps or boulders according to recom-
mended methods ............................................................... ........... 97
Families assisted with house-planning problems ................................ 44
Dwellings constructed according to plans furnished........................... 7
Dwellings remodeled according to plans furnished ........................... 8
Sewage-disposal systems installed according to recommendations 22
Water systems installed according to recommendations ................ 33
Lighting systems installed according to recommendations ........... 21
Farms on which buildings other than dwellings were constructed
or remodeled this year according to plans furnished ............. 255
Buildings involved in preceding ....................................................... 330
Dairy barns .................. ....... .. ..................... 57
Hog houses -......... ........... ............ .................... 52
Poultry houses .......-.................................... ............... 146
Silos ...................... ..... ............. ................. ........... 13
O their 6.......................... .. .............. 62

POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held ....................--........ 305
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ............ 190
Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations ........... 57,748
Profit or saving on result demonstrations completed ......................$13,048
Farms assisted in obtaining purebred sires ..................................... 110
Farms assisted in obtaining high-grade or purebred females ........ 96
Number of clubs organized ............................................. ................ 12
Flock improvement associations organized or reorganized ............ 7
M embers in these associations ........................................................... 124
Farms not in associations keeping performance records of animals 80

4-H Club
Members enrolled ............................................... 402
Members completing' ............................................... 150
Number of animals involved in work completed .............................. 5,699

DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held ...................................... 201
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year .......... 217
Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations ........ 2,514
Profit or saving on result demonstrations completed .....................$15,899
Farms assisted in obtaining purebred sires ................................. 164
Farms assisted in obtaining high-grade or purebred females .... 128
Number of clubs organized ........................................... ............. ......... 9
M em bers in clubs ........................................................... ....................... 66
Herd improvement associations organized or reorganized............... 6
Members in these associations ................................. 83
Farms not in associations keeping performance records of animals 69






Annual Report, 1930 37

4-H Club
Members enrolled .................... ........ ..... ......... ....... .... .. .. 182
Members completing ....-.............. ................ .......... 94
Number of animals involved in 4-H club work completed ........ 123

BEEF CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held .... .................................... ..... 27
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ............ 34
Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations ........... 1,726
Profit or saving on result demonstrations completed .................... $1,630
Farms assisted in obtaining purebred sires .................................. 116
Farms assisted in obtaining high-grade or purebred females ........ 27
Farms not in associations keeping performance records of animals 3

4-H Club
Members enrolled ................................................................. 13
Members completing ......................................................................... 3
Number of animals involved in 4-H club work completed ................ 14

SHEEP DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held .................................... ............. 51
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ............ 65
Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations ........ 7,393
Profit or saving on result demonstrations completed ..................... $1,871
Farms assisted in obtaining purebred rams ........................................ 5
Farms assisted in obtaining high-grade or purebred females ........ 9
Number of clubs organized .................................... ...... ...... .......... 1
M em bers in club ........................................... ................................... 8

HOG DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held ................................................. 98
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ........... 185
Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations ........ 9,400
Profit or saving on result demonstrations completed ........................$10,380
Farms assisted in obtaining purebred sires ................................ 213
Farms assisted in obtaining high-grade or purebred females ........ 168
Number of clubs organized .................- ............. ................................ 8

4-H Club
Members enrolled .................. ................ .... 582
Members completing ................................................................ 221
Number of animals involved in 4-H club work completed ............. 329

FARM MANAGEMENT, CREDIT, INSURANCE, AND TAXATION
DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held ........................ ................... 83
Adult result demonstrations completed or carried into next year 157
Farms keeping farm accounts throughout the year under super-
vision of agents ............. ................ ................................. 109
Farms keeping cost-of-production records under supervision of
agents .......... ....................................... ................... 138
Farms assisted in summarizing and interpreting their accounts 144
Farms assisted in making inventory or credit statements ............ 383
Farm business or enterprise survey records taken during year .... 150
Farms making recommended changes in their business as result of
keeping accounts or survey records ..................... .......... 120






38 Florida Cooperative Extension

Other farms adopting cropping, livestock, or complete farming
systems according to recommendations ........................................ 416
Farms advised relative to leases ............................................................ 269
Farms assisted in obtaining credit ................................................... 2,475
Different farms assisted in using outlook studies ............................ 939
Farms making readjustments in-
F arm crops .......................................................... .................. 369
Truck crops ................................................................................. 271
Livestock .................................. .................... ............................ 553
Poultry ....- --........................... .......... ..... ............. ................... 228

MARKETING (FARM AND HOME) DEMONSTRATIONS

Grain and Feed

Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during
the year ............................................................................................. 2
Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organ-
ized assisted by extension agents this year ................................ 5
Membership in associations organized and assisted ............................ 463
Value of products marketed by all associations worked with ........$15,350
Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with ........$ 9,973

Cotton

Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organ-
ized assisted by extension agents this year ................................ 4
Membership in associations organized and assisted ............................ 135
Value of products marketed by all associations worked with ............$16,237
Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with ....$19,231

Dairy Products

Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during
the year .........................................-.............. -................................. 5
Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organ-
ized assisted by extension agents this year ................................ 6
Membership in associations organized and assisted ........................ 493
Value of products marketed by all associations worked with ....$800,180
Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with ........$ 20,789

Fruits and Vegetables

Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during
the year ............................................................................................... 14
Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organ-
ized assisted by extension agents this year ................................ 66
Membership in associations organized and assisted .......................... 2,285
Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with ....$695,752
Value of products marketed by all associations worked with ....$1,916,540
Farms or homes not in cooperative associations or groups assist-
ed with problems of-
Standardizing .................-...................... ........ ............... .. 227
Packaging and grading ............................................................. 352
Use of current market information .................................... 790

Poultry and Eggs

Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during
the year ...................................................................... ....................... 16
Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organ-
ized assisted by extension agents this year ................................ 15
Membership in associations organized and assisted ............................ 826






Annual Report, 1930 39

Value of products marketed by all associations worked with ....$138,550
Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with ......$ 7,667
Farms or homes not in cooperative associations or groups assisted
with problems of-
Standardizing .............................................................................. 26
Packaging and grading .............................................. 27
Use of current market information ..................................... 31

Livestock

Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during
the year ............................................................ ................................... 5
Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organ-
ized assisted by extension agents this year............................... 32
Membership in associations organized and assisted ........................ 1,407
Value of products marketed by all associations worked with ....$109,738
Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with ......$ 11,231
Number of farms or homes not in cooperative associations or
groups assisted with problems of-
Standardizing .............................. ............................... 141
Packaging and grading ..................................................... 2
Use of current market information ................................ 107

Home and Other Products

Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during
the year ............................................ .. ........................... 4
Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organ-
ized assisted by extension agents this year .............................. 12
Membership in associations organized and assisted ...................... 797
Value of products marketed by associations worked with ............$ 55,900
Value of supplies purchased by associations worked with ............$169,301
Farms or homes not in cooperative associations or groups assisted
with problems of-
Standardizing ........................... ............................................. .... 30
Packaging and grading .................................... .. ....... ... 19
Use of current market information ........................................ 24

COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES

Communities surveyed or scored ..... ................ ... ..................... 8
Clubhouses, permanent camps, etc., built ......................................... 1
Community or county-wide pageants or plays presented ............. 15
Communities developing recreation according to recommendations 15
School or other community grounds landscaped in accordance with
plans furnished .................................... .. ..... .... ................ 9
Clubs engaging in community activities (landscaping, fairs, etc.) 5
Number of different communities assisted in connection with com-
munity work ................................................. ......... ................ 27

BEES, WEEDS, HANDICRAFT, MISCELLANEOUS

Method demonstration meetings held ................................................... 12
Adult result demonstrations completed or carried into next year .... 13
4-H club members enrolled .................................................. 10
4-H club members completing .............................................. 5






Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' CLUB WORK
R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent
ENROLLMENT
There was a slight decrease in enrollment in boys' clubs during
1930, in part due to increasing demands made upon county
agents by adult farmers. The seed loan work came at the time
when the agents are usually enrolling new members and organ-
izing their work. The demand for assistance in marketing is
increasing, which has a tendency to force the agents to lessen
the amount of time given to other lines of work.
The decrease is most noticeable in the counties where the seed
loan work was the heaviest. The following tables show the gain
and loss in the different projects.



F-42



Gain or Loss



I I I 1 I I : I 1
in 193 0 ............ 690 .-633


in 1930.........-69-3-3315 -1 -139 +6-110 +,361+149 -219

CLUB ORGANIZATIONS
Local Clubs: The number of organized clubs continues to in-
crease. The increased efficiency of organized work is apparent.
Many local clubs are taking charge of securing the enrollment
and collecting reports. The more responsibility which can be
shifted to the club members the better the club work.
County Organizations: The next step after the local club
is the county organization, usually called the county council.
County organizations have been set up in Escambia, Hills-
borough, Walton, Lake, and Union counties. In Leon and Lib-
erty counties all boys are enrolled in one big county club.
Escambia and Walton counties have the best organizations.
The local clubs have federated and formed county councils. This
develops leadership among the club members and enables the
agent to do more and better club work with less personal effort.






Annual Report, 1930


A state organization was formed at the Short Course. This or-
ganization can be made of service in promoting club work
throughout the state.
Chartered Clubs: A 4-H club charter is available for all local
clubs which meet certain requirements. The charter is signed
by the United States Secretary of Agriculture, the State Di-
rector of Extension, and the State Club Agent. The first club
in Florida to secure its charter was the Lake Worth Club of
Palm Beach County. It is hoped that many other clubs will
meet the requirements and secure charters in 1931.

LEADERSHIP
The increased demands upon the county agents are having a
serious effect upon 4-H club work. Unless the older members
can be trained to accept part of the responsibility, the efficiency
of club work will be greatly lessened. The big need today is
leadership training among the older boys. Unless this can be
secured to offset the decreased time which can be given to club
work by the county agents, 4-H club work cannot begin to meet
its opportunities or its responsibilities.
During the last two years, some progress has been made in
leadership training. The results have been encouraging. A
start was made by calling together some of the older boys and
giving them a little training in 4-H leadership. In 1929 a 3-day
leadership camp was held at the West Florida 4-H camp. In
1930 the most promising older boys in 10 counties were called
together for a half day conference. The results secured war-
rant more time being given to this. It is hoped to increase the
number of counties holding leadership meetings.

PROJECT DEMONSTRATIONS
SOIL BUILDING
That Florida soils respond to a well planned improvement
program has been demonstrated by the work done with cover-
crops. If 4-H club work is to accept its full responsibility, it
must induce its members to demonstrate this important prac-
tice in farming. The number of boys using cover crops is in-
creasing. In 1929, 23 boys planted cover crops while in 1930
53 boys demonstrated the possibility of increasing yields through
the use of cover crops.
There are two rather outstanding examples of cover-crop






Florida Cooperative Extension


work by club boys. Paul Thompson of Jefferson County put on a
real cover-crop demonstration. He planted a cover crop of Aus-
trian winter peas on his club acre in the fall of 1928. He planted
this acre to corn in the spring of 1929. In the fall of 1929 he
planted 3/ of this acre to cover crop and left the other 1/ with-
out. Two adjoining acres were planted to Austrian winter peas
in the fall of 1929. The three acres were broken the latter part
of March and well disked. Corn was planted two weeks later
and the same cultivation was given the three acres.
The demonstration consisted of 2 acres with one cover crop,
3 acres with 2 cover crops, A acre with one cover crop but a
year elapsing since it was grown, and a check plot on which
cover crop had never been grown. The results were: no cover
crop 12 bushels, one cover crop but the second crop of corn,
30%. bushels, one cover crop, 39% bushels, and two successive
cover crops, 56 2/5 bushels per acre.
Hugh Dukes of Union County has increased his yield of corn
in 3 years from 24 to 91 bushels. He did this through winter
cover crops plus intelligent fertilization.
FARM CROPS
Corn: The 1930 weather was not favorable for corn produc-
tion. The corn club acres in the southern part of the state were
flooded. Some boys report having planted three times, due to
the land being flooded. In the western part the drought reduced
the yield nearly 30 percent. The largest yields were made in
the counties lying between Alachua and Leon.
The unfavorable weather reduced the number to report. The
yields were so small that the boys would not report them. The
average yield in Santa Rosa County dropped from 38.6 bushels
per acre in 1928 to 29.3 bushels in 1930.
Cotton: While the weather was unfavorable for corn, it suit-
ed cotton. The club acres produced the highest average yield in
the history of club work in Florida. While the weather was
decidedly favorable, the boys used better seed and more fer-
tilizer than in the past. 4-H club boys produced an average of
1,141 pounds seed cotton per acre against an average of 931
pounds per acre for 1929.
It is interesting to note the correlation between yield and
profit in cotton production. With 26 boys reporting an average
yield of 1,723 pounds seed cotton at an average cost per acre of
$36.82 the average profit was $37.57, while for 10 boys report-






Annual Report, 1930


ing an average of 1,027 pounds seed cotton per acre at an average
cost of $27.25 per acre the profit was $15.73 per acre.
Over 70% of the difference in cost per acre was due to cost
of picking the extra 696 pounds seed cotton. The average yield
of the state is much lower than the 1,027 pounds seed cotton of
the low 10 boys. The high yield of the boys was due to better
seed and more fertilizer of the kind most suitable for cotton.
The cotton club boys are putting on real demonstrations in profit-
able cotton production under present conditions of a low price
for cotton.
HORTICULTURE
The excessive rains in Southern Florida ruined most of the
truck projects. One boy in Sumter County reported that his
acre of tomatoes was three feet under water. The county agent
reports that he saw the troughs for cucumbers floating in the
field. The boys in Palm Beach County under the unfavorable
weather conditions made profit ranging up to $91 per 1/8 acre.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
The number of breeding pigs raised by the club members held
its own. The hard times kept the boys from buying good ani-
mals. There were some very good individuals raised but the
average was not quite as good as in the past. The barrow club
was not as popular if judged by the number reporting. A great
many of the boys sold their barrows on the early market and
did not turn in record books. In 1931 the State Pig Club Con-
test will be held much earlier with an idea of inducing the boys
to have their barrows ready for the early market when prices
are higher.
Hugh Dukes of Union County raised the best barrow in the
state. The pig was farrowed on March 11 and on November
25 weighed 342 pounds.
Arthur McNeeley of Marion County did the best pig club
project. Arthur has a herd of purebred Poland Chinas. He
raised and sold 16 head from his two sows and has 16 more
weighing about 40 pounds each.
DAIRY HUSBANDRY
No increase in dairy club work was attempted in 1930.
The principal dairy section was under dipping regulations for
eradication of the cattle tick. When the eradication is complete
an attempt will be made to increase the work in this project.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The results of dairy club work as seen in Madison County are
worth while. Three years ago 155 calves were placed with club
members. These calves with their offspring have changed the
type of milk cows to be found on the farms of that county.
Quite a few calves were placed with boys this fall in Madison
and Marion counties.
Lamar Hartsfield of Leon County has his club cow on test
for Register of Merit. It is certain that she will make a record
entitling her to be named as a gold medal cow in her class.
POULTRY HUSBANDRY
The work with poultry was enlarged to include management
as well as production. It is hoped by this means to iriduce club
members to take over the management of the farm flock. Sev-
eral of these members entered the Home Egg Laying Contest
with most satisfactory results.
To encourage club work with poultry and to offer special in-
ducements, arrangements have been made with the Volusia
County Fair Association to hold a State Poultry Show and Judg-
ing Contest in connection with this fair. The first show will be
held on March 31, 1931.
One poultry club boy in Palm Beach County made a profit of
$214 from his poultry club work. With this money he helped
support his family while his father was out of work for several
weeks.
SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
The carrying out of project demonstrations is but part of
4-H club work. The social side of rural life is of importance as
well as the matter of making a living. The necessary publicity
must have special emphasis. Educational trips for outstanding
achievement have proven of great value in promoting the work.
The above activities take the larger part of the time of the State
Club Agent and are considered of primary importance.
ANNUAL 4-H CLUB SHORT COURSE
This is the big occasion of the club year. The county cham-
pions are brought to the University for a week's visit. The close
association with the college, and a working introduction to the
work being done there, seems to make an enduring impression on
the boys. Many boys have said that their visits to the University
at the Short Course was what gave them the inspiration to work
to return as regular students.






Annual Report, 1930


Fig. 7.-These 4-H club boys staged their annual "fair" alongside the
old county jail.

The 1930 Short Course was the largest one yet, with 237 boys
representing 36 counties. The course was arranged as for the
past three years, a mixture of work and play, with special train-
ing in leadership given to the older boys who had attended a
previous Short Course.

SOCIAL MEETINGS
The 4-H boys and girls in several counties have met together
for social good times. The boys and girls have planned these
little affairs and have had complete charge of the programs. In
nearly all instances a boy and a girl told the story of club work
and what it meant to them. This form of advertising is invalu-
able. The first public speech one boy attempted was in support






Florida Cooperative Extension


of 4-H club work. It was crude and lacked polish but it meant
more to his audience than did that of more polished speakers
who followed him.
The good times and neighborly friendliness of these social
meetings mean much in some rural communities. They are
worth while, and more agents would do well to help their mem-
bers plan for them.
CLUB RALLIES
This means of wholesome publicity is being used in some
counties. In Escambia County an impressive rally was held.
The United States Naval Station at Pensacola sent their band
to lead the parade. Over 250 4-H boys and girls were in line.
Lake County held their first club rally in 1930.

RADIO PROGRAMS
Station WRUF has been used in an effort to acquaint the
general public with 4-H club work. Special club programs are
put on the first Friday night of each month. A half hour pro-
gram, 15 minutes of which is music, is given. Usually three boys
or girls make short talks on the work they have done. Three
of the boys attending the International Live Stock Show and
Club Congress told of their trip on one of the programs. One
night's program at the Short Course was broadcast.

CLUB CAMPS
The camp continues to grow in popularity. To help in the
camp work Leland Hiatt was employed for three months during
the summer. Mr. Hiatt is an expert swimmer as well as an
experienced leader in boys' work.
A total of 530 boys from 18 counties attended camps during
June, July, and August. The 4-H Camp in West Florida was
Enlarged and improved. More cottages were built, equipment
for the kitchen and dining room added, and a 31/ acre play-
ground cleared and sowed to grass.

CORN EXHIBIT
An exhibit of corn produced and selected by the corn club boys
was shown at the South Florida Fair. Nearly 10,000 ears were
exhibited. Obie Hattaway of Walton County won $35 offered
for the best bushel of corn.





Annual Report, 1930


STATE PIG CLUB SHOW
The Leon County Chamber of Commerce sponsored a State
Pig Club Show. The contest was set for November 18 but a
storm washing out several of the roads leading to Tallahassee
forced the postponement for a week.
In all, 124 pigs were exhibited by boys from Marion, Union,
Madison, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Wakulla, and Jackson coun-
ties.
Champion barrow went to Hugh Dukes of Union County on
a Poland China. Champion in breeding class went to Wilma
Bassett of Jefferson County on a Poland China senior gilt.
EDUCATIONAL TRIPS
As 4-H club work's boast is that club work broadens the vision,
several educational trips are offered to give some of the outstand-
ing club boys an opportunity to see something of club work in
its nation-wide scope.
Two boys represented Florida 4-H club boys at the National
4-H Club Camp at Washington. One boy attended the Moses
Leadership Training School for old club boys at Springfield,
Massachusetts. Five boys won trips to the International Live
Stock Show and 4-H Club Congress at Chicago.
These trips are much sought after by the boys. Having such
an attraction, they help to hold the older boys in club work and
to secure a large percentage of records.





Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRYING
HAMLIN L. BROWN, Dairyman
The dairy work has succeeded in the counties almost in direct
proportion to the cooperation of the local dairymen and farm-
ers in helping to formulate the plan of work. There has been
an accumulation of interest in dairy organizations that has been
building for the past four to five years. The fruits of this co-
operative effort have yielded a much greater harvest in 1930
than in any previous year because dairymen now realize that the
dairying business must be developed largely by the producers.
Counties that have reported substantial progress in dairy
work this year are Escambia, Okaloosa, Walton, Washington,
Jackson, Leon, Jefferson, Madison, Alachua, Duval, Marion,
Flagler, Volusia, Lake, Orange, Hernando, Brevard, Hills-
borough, Manatee, Lee, Osceola, Okeechobee, Indian River, Mar-
tin, Palm Beach, and Dade.

PERMANENT PASTURES AND FEED GROWING
County Agent reports show that the dairymen of Florida are
giving unusual attention to the establishment of pastures and
providing home grown feeds. This is in line with the Extension
dairy program looking forward to an expansion of the dairy in-
dustry and greater competition.
The increased production, coupled with general business con-
ditions, has brought a change in marketing conditions. There
has been a considerable increase in the number of milk cows
near the market centers.
The results of importations of purebred breeding stock, both
male and female, are now in evidence in many sections of the
state, particularly in Marion county where dairying is on a
good, sound basis. There is an increase in the number of dem-
onstrations of various kinds, dealing with method of feeding,
pastures, and dairy cow testing.
Demonstrations in pastures, forage crops, and dairy manage-
ment will be an important part of the county agent work during
the coming year, largely due to the increased supply of milk and
to the general interest in profitable dairying in this state.
FARM DAIRYING
Twenty counties have increased their farm dairying during
the past year. Those who started by shipping cream without





Annual Report, 1930


providing good cows and a supply of home-grown feeds have not
progressed very far, and in most instances have given up dairy-
ing more or less disgusted. Butterfat prices have been unusual-
ly low, and when the cream was collected once or twice a week
at cream stations in small quantities and shipped long distances
the quality was poor and the returns too low to get feed cost
from the sale of cream. However, those few farmers who pro-
duce most of the feed are getting fair returns and enlarging
their herds. Okaloosa and Walton county farmers have pur-
chased a carload of high grade bred heifers and some registered
bulls and have made provision to produce most of the feed.
The purchases were financed by the banks and purchased co-
operatively with the help of county agents. Plans are under
way for purchasing more heifers, while the prices for dairy
animals are low. There is a surplus of market milk in the larger
cities and towns, resulting in lower prices for whole milk, there-
by making it necessary to reduce the cost of production. City
dairymen are moving onto farms where pastures are available.
SWEET, CREAM MARKET
Reports from the State Milk Inspection Department show
that approximately 150,000 gallons of sweet cream were
shipped into the state from October 1, 1929 to October 1, 1930.
Plans are under way another year to work in cooperation with
the State Inspection Department to get some farm dairy com-
munities to producing sweet cream that will meet inspection re-
quirements. Marion County is especially equipped to do this
now.
DEMONSTRATIONS RAISING DAIRY CALVES
Improper management of calves has been a handicap to many
dairymen. The general practice of killing off young calves
causes dairymen to have to purchase cows at high expense.
Raising the calves with nurse cows often proves unsatisfactory.
Six farmers in Duval County put on demonstrations with 36
calves in cooperation with the Extension Dairyman and the
county dairy agent. Part of these calves were fed fresh whole
milk, the others were fed milk made from skimmilk powders.
The fresh milk calves made good growth, while the calves on
powdered milk made less growth but were in a healthy condition
as long as they were fed fresh dry skimmilk powders of good
quality.





Florida Cooperative Extension


It cost an average of $67 to raise a calf to 4 months of age
when fed fresh whole milk. While with the lot fed on powdered
milk the cost was $33 each. The market price of skimmilk pow-
ders was 9 cents a pound.
There has been a heavy loss with calves as a result of turning
young calves on sod pasture grasses, where they become in-
fested with intestinal worms. Many die, and many that live are
under size and never develop properly as dairy cows. Nine dem-
onstrations were conducted in Duval County to prevent parasite
infestation by keeping the calves away from infested pastures
until six to eight months of age, and giving proper feeding and
management otherwise.
PRODUCTION RECORDS
Eighty-seven dairymen kept individual production records on
1,868 cows. These records are producing valuable information
to stimulate interest in a feed growing program and production
costs.
DISTRIBUTION OF DAIRY ANIMALS
There has been a widespread interest in improving the class
of dairy bulls. A sale of registered dairy animals was put on
under the auspices of the State Dairymen's Association. Low
prices of good breeding animals make this an opportune time
for Florida dairymen to import some good dairy animals. One
hundred seventeen registered bulls have been placed on farms
this year. Duval County with an all-time man doing dairy work,
and an active county dairy association, has led all other counties
this year with 39 placed in the county. From 1926 to 1930 the
number of registered bulls in Madison County increased from 3
to 98, as a direct result of extension work.
At the instance of the North Marion Dairy Association, and
in cooperation with representatives of this association and other
representatives from Alachua, Duval, Walton, Madison, and
Okaloosa counties, the Extension Dairyman made a trip into
Tennessee for the purpose of selecting good dairy animals for
bringing to Florida. Excellent Jersey heifers were obtainable,
due to the shortage of feed resulting from the drought in Ten-
nessee. These heifers had been grown under farm conditions,
were good grazers, and were easily acclimated to conditions in
Florida.
Twelve carloads, 485 Jerseys, were selected and brought to
Florida. As a result of this work, other counties became inter-






Annual Report, 1930


ested, and 2,250 dairy cows and heifers were brought in to all
parts of the state. The Agent in Hillsborough estimates that
735 of them went to that county.
SILOS, DAIRY BARNS, AND MILK HOUSES
There have been 17 new silos built with a capacity of 2,250
tons of silage. Practically every silo in the state was filled.
Farmers have found it practical to seed sorghum in the summer
for fall silage. Special demonstrations were also carried on in
methods of filling silos. It has been a common practice to cut
silage in too long pieces, which caused spoiled silage and pro-
duced digestion troubles in the dairy herds.
Some pit and trench silos were built where farmers are sell-
ing cream and growing out dairy cows.
County agents helped farmers in remodeling 32 milk houses
and six sleeping sheds and dairy barns. These sheds are needed
in the winter to protect the cows from the cold rains, and in the
summer are used for shade.
STIMULATING THE SALE OF FLUID MILK
There has been a surplus of fluid milk in practically every
consuming center in the state. An educational booth was put on
at the State Fair, by County Agent A. S. Lawton in cooperation
with the Duval County Dairymen's Association. This exhibit
demonstrated the cleanly methods practiced by members of this
association in producing milk. From 50 to 75 gallons of milk
was distributed free each day in 2-ounce bottles with educational
literature telling about the dairy industry in the county. This
developed a cooperative spirit among dairymen, and the direct
advertising contributed greatly to keeping down the surplus
of fluid milk in Jacksonville during the summer.
In cooperation with Miss Mary Stennis, State Nutrition Agent,
J. M. Scott, State Milk Inspector, J. M. Burgess, Department of
Agriculture, a special milk week campaign was conducted. At
that time articles were published in state publications and a
series of radio talks were broadcast over Station WRUF. Milk
and its various products were discussed. This all contributed
to helping increase milk consumption.
QUALITY MILK DEMONSTRATION
An educational meeting was held in Ocala in the spring in co-
operation with the U. S. Dairy Bureau. J. H. McClain, Extension






Florida Cooperative Extension


Dairy Specialist, helped in putting on a quality milk demonstra-
tion. Stress was placed on quality milk by freedom from con-
taminating surroundings, ample equipment to thoroughly cleanse
and sterilize dairy utensils.
DUVAL COUNTY BETTER MILK LEAGUE
A major step in milk marketing was the formation of a league
patterned after the Baltimore Bargaining League to take charge
of the marketing of milk in Jacksonville. This work was accom-
plished through the Duval County Dairymen's Association, a
producers' association that has been operating in Jacksonville
for five years. Members of this association attended a gather-
ing in Tallahassee for a conference with members of the Federal
Farm Board. They later called in a special representative of
the Farm Board to help in formulating contracts. They also
sent delegates to Baltimore and Washington to get direct in-
formation from producers and others connected with the Balti-
more Milk League. This league has 64 members and is market-
ing 85% of the market milk in Jacksonville. They are working
in direct harmony with the city milk inspection department in
bringing up the quality of milk in the dairies that are members
of the association. A one cent tax on each gallon of milk pro-
duced by members of the league is used for the upbuilding of the
association and as a sinking fund for future emergencies.
The league has multiplied the efforts of the county agents in
conducting demonstrations in feed growing and herd improve-
ment.
4-H DAIRY CLUBS
Counties doing 4-H dairy club work have been Leon, Madison,
Okaloosa, Citrus, Orange, Hillsborough, Walton, Jackson, Alach-
ua, and Jefferson. The class of work has been gradually im-
proving each year. With tick eradication completed in a large
area of the state and with price of young animals low, dairy
club enrollment is being pushed, especially in the farm dairy
centers.
ORGANIZATIONS
Dairy organizations have proven themselves valuable to ex-
tension work. In counties where the farmers are associated
together the extension work is more permanent. Some of the
county organizations that are helping very materially in doing
extension work are Escambia County Dairymen's Association,






Annual Report, 1930


Okaloosa County Producers' Association, Leon County Dairy-
men's Association, Duval County Dairymen's Association, Du-
val County Better Milk League, The Flagler-Volusia County
Dairymen's Association, Pinellas County Dairymen's Associa-
tion, Orange County Dairymen's Association, Hillsborough Coun-
ty Dairymen's Association, Polk County Dairymen's Association,
Manatee County Dairymen's Association, Palm Beach County
Dairymen's Association, and the Miami Home Milk League.
The State Dairymen's Association has given valuable aid in
putting on the dairy program during Farmers' Week. Some
250 dairymen were present at the annual meeting held in Gaines-
ville during Farmers' Week. The state president called a meet-
ing of the board of directors and the chairmen of all the various
committees in Gainesville. There was 100% attendance. This
is evidence of the interest being manifested by the dairymen in
helping to carry on the business of dairying in the state.
The State Dairymen's Association rendered valuable service
in helping with a registered dairy cattle sale at Monticello, Oc-
tober 28. Thirty registered animals, mostly bulls, were sold at
that time. The Monticello Kiwanis Club, under the leadership
of County Agent Finlayson, was host and provided sale barn,
feed, and a special sales ring for the sale. In addition they serv-
ed a free barbecue dinner to 450 people.
There was a State Guernsey Breeder's Association formed at
the Farmers' Week meeting in Gainesville last summer. There
are plans to organize a State Jersey Association soon.






Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
W. J. SHEELY, Agent in Animal Husbandry
Animal husbandry Extension work in Florida is being con-
ducted by a cooperative plan between the Bureau of Animal In-
dustry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, and the Agricultural Exten-
sion Service of Florida, beginning July 22, 1930.
It is the policy of the Extension Agent in Animal Husbandry
to work in cooperation with the representative livestock pro-
ducers in working out plans for improving and developing the
beef cattle and other livestock possibilities in Florida. This
method will not only secure better cooperation, but will mean a
better understanding of local problems in production and mar-
keting.
As a basis, certain projects and plans of livestock development
are submitted with an idea of working out a method of economi-
cal beef cattle, hog, and sheep production suitable to Florida
conditions.
A conference of persons interested in livestock development
was held during Farmers' Week for the purpose of developing
a cooperative plan of work. Those attending were county and
district agents, Dr. J. R. Ricks, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S.
Dept. of Agriculture, Dr. J. V. Knapp, State Veterinarian, and
representative livestock owners. This was followed by personal
visits to farmers, range cattle owners, and others who were
financially interested in the best development of Florida's live-
stock interests.
In the tick-free area, interests and efforts are being centered
on replacing scrub bulls with good bulls, growing feed and pas-
ture, securing and developing a maximum, uniform good quality
CALF CROP, good quality beef animals, fat calves, and one and
two year old stockers.
There is a healthy interest in beef cattle development in Flor-
ida, as shown by requests for information on pasture, feed, and
livestock development.
A survey of the calf crop in the tick-free area where good bulls
have been used indicates that owners are well pleased with the
growth and development of the calves. Returns from the sale
of grade calves as compared with others of the same age show
2 cents more per pound in favor of the grade calves. Three men
report grade calves sold for $20 each, while common calves the





Annual Report, 1930


same age sold for $12 to $15 each. One county agent reports
300 grade calves from purebred bulls worth $5 per head more
than common calves of the same age.
Since July 23, reports show purebred bulls placed in the fol-
lowing counties: seven Herefords in Marion, six Red Polls in
Baker, seven Angus in Sarasota, two Herefords in Clay, two
Herefords in Dixie, three Herefords in Alachua, three Herefords
in Levy, one Hereford in Leon, three Angus in Jefferson, and
four Herefords in Taylor.
The tendency of growers in the tick-free area is to get pure-
bred beef bulls, and to increase their herds, but funds are short
and good range cows are scarce. Some of the land owners and
cattlemen are making efforts to secure breeding cattle from the
area soon to begin tick eradication.
Since July the writer has assisted in programs at 14 meetings,
discussing livestock, meats, marketing, and transportation, at
farmers meetings, Kiwanis Clubs, Rotary Clubs, and Women's
Clubs, and has made contacts with many farmers and business
interests in behalf of livestock improvement.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRICULTURE
E. F. DEBUSK, Citriculturist
Existing conditions during the year have resulted in many
calls for information in the economic field of the citrus indus-
try. More than ever before, growers are thinking of each grove
operation as having a direct and important bearing on the ef-
ficiency of the grove as a paying business enterprise.
It is generally recognized that profitable citrus fruit produc-
tion in Florida is dependent on these four factors: Quality fruit,
low production cost per box, high yield per acre, and efficient
marketing.
Our program of work is built around the first three factors
above mentioned. We have not, as yet, taken up directly the
marketing phases of the industry.
In the effort to produce quality fruit, judged by present stand-
ard, there are many factors with which to contend. In an effort
to find out why fruit grades low, and thus get at a real basis
for building a constructive program for the improvement of
quality, a study of the lower grades of fruit in the packinghouses
is being made from year to year. Twenty-eight blemishes have
been noted as the causes of fruit going into the low grades or
cull pile. Of the 28 blemishes noted, five are being controlled
economically by spraying; six may be controlled by proper
handling of the fruit from the tree to the packinghouse; the
control of seven depends upon proper cultural practices and
grove management; while the grower has no control over the re-
maining 10. The relative economic importance of the 28 blem-
ishes, as they affect fruit quality, is being determined by counties
or communities and by individual growers. Thus by a thorough
analysis of conditions we find that the grove practices that pro-
duce the most satisfactory results in the improvement of fruit
quality vary with the local conditions. For example, in a certain
grove we found that the problem in producing quality was mel-
anose control, and that the most effective and most economical
control of melanose was by reducing the amount of oil spraying
that was being done. Too much oil was being applied for scale
control, with the result that many young twigs were being
killed, leaving a source of infection for melanose. Under an-
other condition it was found that instead of spraying to kill
thrips and prevent a blemish which was thought to be thrips
marks, by leaving a strip of high cover crop growing between






Annual Report, 1930


the tree rows the so called thrips mark blemishes were greatly
reduced. The strips of cover crop protected the young fruit
against the scarring effect of the sand carried by the wind and
thus corrected the trouble satisfactorily and left no demand for
the expensive spraying.
In practical citrus fruit production, the most economical con-
trol of melanose, for example, may call for any operation from
opening a drainage ditch or spooling a disc to prevent root
pruning, to better fertilization or spraying with bordeaux-oil.
A still wider range of operations is involved in reducing the box
cost of production, which is closely tied up with yield per acre.
Our program of work adapts itself to conditions in any citrus
producing section of the state. A certain amount of work has
been done on one or more of the following projects in each and
every county in which citrus is grown commercially: Melanose
control, blue mold decay control, treatment of tree trunk and
root diseases, scale and whitefly control, irrigation and drainage,
citrus scab control, rust mite control, fertilizing and cover crops,
and special service work.
MELANOSE CONTROL
The method of controlling melanose by spraying with 3-3-50
bordeaux mixture plus one percent oil in emulsion, when the
fruit is about one-fourth inch in diameter is so generally prac-
ticed by growers, that except in a few backward communities,
the time of our fieldmen can be spent more profitably by improv-
ing the grower's methods of control than by actually putting on
result demonstrations. Therefore, much time has been devoted
this year to improving methods of control by contact through
field meetings, by visits to individual growers, by special letters,
press articles, and radio talks. The results have been very satis-
factory.
While the trees were blooming and setting fruit last spring,
weather conditions favorable for the development of melanose
prevailed, resulting in a heavy early infection and consequently
much dropping. Fortunately there was a heavy bloom and the
dropping served only to thin the crop, and took with it much of
what otherwise would have been a heavy melanose infected crop.
The result is a heavy crop of fruit fairly free of melanose in
spite of the fact that spraying as a rule was rendered ineffective
because of the unusually frequent rains during spraying time.
Throughout the year much time has been devoted to indirect






Florida Cooperative Extension


control of melanose in years to come by correcting grove prac-
tices and conditions that result in the production of dead wood.
This procedure is proving very effective.
CITRUS SCAB CONTROL
Our scab control work has been handled very much like that
of our melanose control program. Since the effectiveness of
spraying for scab control depends upon weather conditions, the
grower's guess is about as good as ours. What has been said
about the effect of weather conditions last spring on melanose
control may be said with reference to its relation to scab control.
The worst scab-infected young fruit dropped early, but there
was plenty of fruit left. The scabby fruit is going to the can-
neries and the fruit that is being shipped out is fairly free of
scab. In many cases very little was accomplished by spraying
because of unfavorable weather conditions.
BLUE MOLD DECAY CONTROL
Through our educational program, growers and packers quite
generally understand that blue mold decay losses are very largely
the result of improper handling of fruit from the tree to the
car. It has been carefully estimated that about 70 percent of
the fruit abrasions, caused by rough or improper handling,
result in decay before the fruit is consumed.
In an effort to reduce the losses resulting from improper
handling of fruit, demonstrations in the proper use of picking
equipment have been given in seven of the leading citrus produc-
ing communities. Six meetings, with picking foremen, pickers,
and growers, were held, at which time the reduction of blue
mold decay by better picking and more careful handling of fruit
was the chief subject discussed. Splendid cooperation has been
received from growers, packinghouse managers, and officials
of marketing organizations.
A recent checking up on conditions as they relate to the pick-
ing and handling of fruit four years ago showed that the growers
suffered a loss of 60 cents per box because of decay resulting
from picking defects. Similar inspections made this year show-
ed a loss of only 28 cents per box, figured on the same basis, or
a saving of 32 cents per box under average market conditions.
This improvement has been brought about largely by more
efficient packing supervision, more favorable labor conditions,
and by the adoption of the "nipper type" fruit clipper.





Annual Report, 1930


TREE TRUNK AND ROOT DISEASE TREATMENT
Owing to the very favorable growing season of the spring
and summer, the demand for assistance in the control of such
diseases as gummosis, psorosis, and foot rot has been rather
light. Here again the relation between the vitality of a tree, as
affected by freeze, drought, and favorable growing conditions,
and the development of these trunk and root diseases cannot be
overlooked in their economic control. Efforts directed along
lines of providing more favorable growing conditions for a
tree supplying organic matter, proper fertilization, and
more adequate moisture control-are usually found to be more
effective in the control of gummosis and psorosis, and a more
economical practice over a period of years, than scraping the
diseased area and applying a disinfectant. A combination of the
two gives best results.
RUST MITE CONTROL
Rust mite control is almost universally practiced in Florida
citrus groves because it offers greater opportunity for profitable
returns on the investment than the control of any other insect
pest or disease. The Extension Service renders its greatest
service by informing growers as to the proper time to spray
or dust, by teaching growers to recognize the insect and to know
at what stage in its development in his particular grove the
spraying should begin.
SCALE AND WHITEFLY CONTROL
It has been observed that the entomogenous fungi keep the
whitefly and scale under satisfactory control in many old groves,
especially those in the hammocks. We have been studying these
conditions with the hopes of finding factors that contribute to
this natural control and that might possibly be introduced and
developed in other groves and under other conditions less fav-
orable to the development of entomogenous fungi, and thereby
make possible natural control of pests under a wider range of
conditions. We have had wonderful success in controlling white-
fly by the use of the red aschersonia. Demonstrations have
shown a saving of as high as $7.50 per acre over control by
spraying with oil. But our greatest handicap in developing scale
control by the use of entomogenous fungi lies in our inability,
so far, to culture the scale fungi for general distribution.





Florida Cooperative Extension


Encouraging progress has been made in developing the con-
ditions or factors that enter into natural scale control, even
in the ridge section of the citrus belt. In one demonstration
grove we find that, by reducing cultivation to about one-fourth
that of the former practice, and growing a heavy cover-crop, and
by not pruning out the center of the trees to "let the sunlight in",
a condition has been brought about which favors the develop-
ment of the scale fungi to the extent that it has not been neces-
sary to spray the grove for scale control for the last three years.
This demonstration affects directly more than 1,000 acres of
grove.
We have had an unusual peppering of Florida red scale over
the state this year, but in many cases it has been satisfactorily
controlled by one of the scale fungi. Climatic conditions during
the year as a whole have been unusually favorable to natural
control of grove parasites with the result that less than the
usual amount of spraying has been necessary to give satisfactory
control. We have devoted much time to increasing the'efficiency
of spraying by improving equipment and better timing of ap-
plications.
FERTILIZING AND COVER CROPS
Demonstrations have been conducted in every part of the
citrus belt showing that by the proper use of suitable cover crops
the expensive organic fertilizers may be replaced by the cheaper
chemical sources of plant food and by higher concentrates of both
simple materials and mixtures. No project has given more pro-
ductive results than the cover crop fertilizer project, especially
where Crotalaria striata has been used as the cover crop. Cro-
talaria was generally introduced to growers only about five
years ago, and today it is by far the leading cover crop for citrus
groves. More than 250,000 pounds of seed were planted in the
citrus belt in addition to the large acreage reseeding itself
from previous plantings.
The crying need of our sandy citrus soils is organic matter,
produced by the growing of cover crops. It has been demon-
strated that the cost of producing citrus fruits can be reduced
25 to 40 percent by the proper use of a good cover crop of Crota-
laria, thereby growing an organic nitrogen at 10 to 12 cents
a pound that will produce equally as satisfactory results in tree
growth and quality fruit production as other forms of nitrogen
that cost two or three times as much. The cost of fertilizer





Annual Report, 1930


represents 30 to 60 percent of the cost of producing citrus
fruits, and approximately 56 percent of this cost is nitrogen
when largely organic are used. This method points the way to
reducing the cost of fruit production. In demonstration groves
the results obtained indicate that proper cover cropping gives
higher quality fruit, higher yield, lower cost of cultivation and
control of disease and insect pests. In one demonstration grove
of 165 acres the owner reports a labor and material production
cost of 17 cents per box. His fruit is running 60 percent first
grade.
Several growers are hauling into their groves old hay and
other vegetable matter to supply additional humus.
IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
During the season of light rainfall-October to June-there
is an accumulation of nitrate nitrogen (the form trees use) in
the soils of Florida citrus groves, but a poor utilization, due to
low soil moisture. On the other hand, during periods of heavy
rainfall only traces of nitrate nitrogen are found in the soil
because it is either taken up by the trees and cover crop as it is
formed, or lost by leaching. This presents a problem in soil
moisture control, the importance of which varies with the
amount of rainfall during the dry seasons. Fortunately the rain-
.fall during the year has been very favorably distributed through
the months of usual low rainfall so that the need for grove ir-
rigation has not been as apparent as usual, and consequently
only limited opportunity for the development of the irrigation
project has presented itself. Considerable assistance has been
rendered growers in putting their irrigation plants in a con-
dition for higher efficiency for the time when they are needed,
and in providing more adequate drainage facilities for their
groves. Growers recognize more than ever the important rela-
tionship between moisture control and such diseases as melanose,
wilt, withertip, gum diseases, and the so-called "tree decline".





Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY
N. R. MEHRHOF, Poultryman
Extension work in poultry is reaching a greater number of
people each year, through the cooperation of the county and
home demonstration agents. Considerably more interest has
been manifested in the fundamentals of poultry production.
County and home demonstration agents in 43 counties have con-
ducted the poultry work in a much better way than ever before.
Conditions have arisen which make it necessary for the pro-
ducer to analyze his business more closely. Lower egg prices
have tended to help encourage such practices as efficient culling,
efficient feeding, and securing quality birds to raise the level
of egg production to a higher plane.
More interest has been shown in the Home Egg-Laying Con-
test. Producers are keeping records and are beginning to realize
their value in improving the efficiency of their flocks.

THE PLAN OF WORK
During the year 1930 the same phases of work were empha-
sized as in 1929. Briefly, the phases were: Grow healthy
chicks, grow green feed, practice culling, home egg-laying con-
test, and junior poultry work.

GROW HEALTHY CHICKS
This work is of great value, for if chick mortality is reduced,
the cost of rearing a pullet is automatically lowered. Records
show that if the young chicks can be kept free of diseases and
parasites a higher quality pullet can be placed in the laying
house. The quality of pullet that goes into the laying house will
influence egg production and returns.
The Grow Healthy Chick program was centered around six
fundamental factors, as follows: (1) Hatch early; (2) clean
eggs and chicks; (3) clean brooder houses; (4) clean land; (5)
balanced ration; (6) separation of pullets from cockerels.
This plan was effective in reducing chick mortality. The fol-
lowing data have been assembled from the records submitted:

No. of No. of chicks put Average
Records Under Brooder Mortality
1928 35 30,000 24.26
1929 38 22,000 13.87
1930 28 28,500 14.25






Annual Report, 1930


All of the producers fed a commercial feed; on about 50%
of the farms the feed was supplemented with milk, either dry or
liquid. Green feed was fed from the first to fourth week. Grow-
ing mash was fed at 5 to 8 weeks. Pullets and cockerels were
separated at approximately 6 weeks of age, one week earlier
than last year.
Only one producer hatched the chicks in May.
The average mortality for the 1930 Grow Healthy Chick Cam-
paign was 14.25%. The 20 producers who adopted the six fac-
tors had a chick mortality of 9.49%. Five producers reported
their losses due to the poor quality of the chicks. Their chick
mortality averaged 36.35%. Three producers reported their
losses due to sanitation as far as land was concerned. Their
chick mortality averaged 42.04%.
Some of the heavy mortality was due to chilling, fire in
brooder house, and coccidiosis.
It is evident that it is a paying proposition to adopt the six
fundamentals. At the end of the eight weeks' period those pro-
ducers who adopted the six factors had 91 chicks left out of
each 100, while those who failed to adopt either quality chicks
or clean land had only 64 or 58 chicks left. This gives a sav-
ing of approximately 27 and 33% of chick losses, without con-
sidering the feed cost and the poorer quality pullets that would
be put in the laying house.
This is one of the most important phases of successful poultry
production.
GROW GREEN FEEDS

Although the feeding of green feed to poultry is relatively
universal, yet it is essential to make plans and assist the pro-
ducer in working out a green feed program. All agents have
advocated the planting of various greens, and have given help
as to kind, time, etc.
The following results from a farm management study by
Frank Brumley, Extension Economist, Farm Management, show
the value of such a program.






Florida Cooperative Extension


RELATION OF GREEN FEED TO EGGS PER BIRD
| Kind of Green Feed
Sprouted Oats I
__ and Cut Feed Only in Range No Green Feed
Number of farms ........ 42 6 15
Eggs per bird .............160 149 134
Eggs-Nov. to Jan. ... 28 26 22
Pounds of feed |
per bird .................... 78 79 75
Val. of eggs over feed $2.35 $1.91 $1.70

CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS
Maintaining a high producing flock is the aim of all success-
ful poultry producers. There are many ways in which this can
be accomplished. Very often a number of factors are so closely
correlated that it is difficult to separate them. Proper feed-
ing, housing, adopting a good sanitary program, and having
quality birds all play their part.
No matter how well bred, how well managed a flock may be
there are individuals in that flock which tend to lower the aver-
age egg yield. It is the task of the producer to segregate the
heavy producers from the poor producers. The elimination of the
poor producers will not only increase the average egg yield of the
flock but will decrease the feed cost and increase the returns.
Culling demonstrations have been held for a good many years.
The producers have learned to distinguish the difference be-
tween a high egg machine and a low egg machine. The Exten-
sion Poultryman has assisted the agents in conducting 20 cull-
ing demonstrations.
HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST
Five years ago a simple, yet rather complete, set of records
was started under the name of the Home Egg-Laying Contest.
This phase of the work was undertaken to have the poultry pro-
ducers keep records of their endeavor. The records cover a
period of one year. In the first five contests the records started
November 1 and ended October 31, while in the sixth contest
the opening date is October 1 and the closing date September 30.
These records which have been kept by backyard producers,
farm flock producers, and commercial poultrymen, have been
of great value in helping them analyze their business and help-
ing them solve some of their problems. Each year a larger num-
ber of records are being kept, which indicates their importance.
Some interesting results are noted in the five contests already
held.







Annual Report, 1930


TABLE I
Year Number of Farms Number of Birds
1925 40 9,990
1926 74 20,959
1927 53 14,025
1928 55 15,804
1929 107 34,969
1930 170 48,323

Table I shows the number of records submitted the first month
of each year, together with the number of birds involved.
Note the increase in the number of farms from the first year
and also the increase in the number of birds involved.
In the 1929 contest, which just closed, 41 records were com-
plete for the year.
In the 1930 contest which started October 1, there are more
than four times as many farms as compared to the number in
1925 and practically five times as many birds.

TABLE II.-YEARLY PRODUCTION FOR FIVE YEARS. HOME
EGG-LAYING CONTEST.
Number Number Eggs
Year of Farms of Birds per Bird
1926 25 5,515 161.07
1927 29 6,620 160.04
1928 18 4,275 156.60
1929 38 7,893 158.46
1930 41 14,915 159.87
The yearly egg production per bird has varied very little dur-
ing the five years. However, it is interesting to note that the
last record of 159.87 was made with an average number of 14,-
915 birds, while the best record in 1925, 161.07 eggs, was made
with few farms and about one-third the number of birds.

TABLE III.-MONTHLY EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD IN THE FIFTH FLORIDA
HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST.
Month Backyard Farm Commercial Average
November ..................................... 8.77 7.80 7.64 7.68
December ...................................... 8.42 9.48 8.87 8.94
January .......................................... 12.17 12.84 13.03 12.98
February ...................................... 15.55 15.28 16.05 15.91
March .............................................. 17.08 16.72 19.00 18.57
April ................................................ 15.87 17.36 18.84 18.53
May .................................................. 14.28 16.65 17.45 17.27
June ................................................ 11.23 14.55 15.19 15.06
July .............................................. 11.84 14.68 13.75 14.26
August .......................................... 10.78 11.68 12.22 12.09
September ...................................... 9.40 7.32 9.44 9.03
October ................................ ...... 5.18 6.71 6.58 6.59
TOTAL ...................................... 161.95 151.72 153.44 159.87






Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE IV.-WINTER EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD (NOVEMBER
THROUGH JANUARY).
Backyard Farm Commercial Average
1929-1930 :..................................... 26.37 31.17 28.92 28.95
1928-1929 ............. ........ ....... 31.91 29.26 28.66 28.96
1927-1928 ....................................... 40.70 23.30 26.30 25.80
1926-1927 .............. ............. 33.10 28.80 25.90 28.20
1925-1926 ................................. .... 22.10 17.70 25.70 24.00
In analyzing the monthly egg production it is of interest to
note the winter egg production (months of November, December,
and January) for the five contests for the different groups and
the average. In both the farm and commercial groups it is found
that the winter egg production is greater than in previous con-
tests, only the backyard group is below the other two groups.
This means that as winter egg production per bird increases,
total egg production increases and returns per bird increase.
From the records tabulated pertinent information relative
to the various phases of poultry management will be worked
out. These facts given to the producer should result in greater
efficiency.
JUNIOR POULTRY WORK
More interest has been shown in the junior poultry work this
year. Fourteen meetings were attended, at which time the jun-
ior work was explained and poultry management discussed.
The 4-H Boys' and Girls' Short Course poultry programs have
been a means of instructing the juniors in poultry management.
A state poultry club show at DeLand is planned, together with
a judging contest. The Volusia County Fair Association has
been very kind in helping the Extension Service make these two
new features possible.
POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS
Local, county, and state poultry associations have assisted
materially in carrying out the extension poultry program.
The American Poultry Association of Florida has helped in
various ways in furthering the extension program, and has made
it possible for club members to secure higher quality standard-
bred poultry. They have also fostered the junior poultry club
show and judging contest.
The Florida Baby Chick Association has as its motto "Better
Quality Chicks". Accreditation work is handled under the super-
vision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee.
Community and county poultry associations have been active






Annual Report, 1930


in holding meetings with educational discussions as the main
features. Demonstrations and field meetings were held in con-
nection with the regular organized poultry associations.
Cooperative Poultry Associations have been more active this
year. The Central Florida, The North Florida, The Gulf Coast,
The West Coast and The East Coast associations are marketing
eggs for the producers in their respective localities.
The State Marketing Bureau with its poultry marketing
specialist has worked in close cooperation with the agents and
the state office in an educational way.


Fig. 8.-The home-made brick brooder has given good results in raising
healthy chicks. It is cheap and efficient.

HOME-MADE BRICK BROODERS
During the past year, the county agents and home demonstra-
station agents in West Florida have fostered a new type
of brooder for their section of Florida. The plans were secured
from the Extension Service. There was a need for better brood-
ing equipment on the farm, cheap and efficient. This brick






Florida Cooperative Extension


brooder seemed to fill the need. Sixty brooders were installed
in West Florida counties with good results.
CHICKENPOX VACCINATION
Each year there occur outbreaks of chickenpox in pullets as
they come into production. The result is a loss in egg produc-
tion, a tendency for an increase in the number of colds and roup,
an increase in mortality, and a substantial decrease in returns.
Considerable interest has been taken in preventing chickenpox
by vaccination in nine counties. It is generally done when the
birds are from 12 to 16 weeks of age. There has been practically
no chickenpox in flocks which were vaccinated. The cost has
been from 1 cent to 2 cents per bird.
One commercial producer in Marion County did not vaccinate
in 1929 and said the chickenpox outbreak cost him $600. In
1930 he vaccinated and has had no trouble with any of the allied
diseases and secured satisfactory production during the winter.
The county agent reports 14,000 pullets vaccinated this past
summer.
Records are being taken now which will show the economic
value of chickenpox vaccination.
POULTRY MEETINGS
The number of meetings attended by the Extension Poultry-
man was 37 and there were 931 people present. At these meet-
ings timely poultry information 'was presented, together with
those phases of poultry production which were included in the
plan of work.
FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK
An intensive poultry program is presented during Farmers'
and Fruit Growers' Week. The daily attendance in the poultry
section ranged from 40 to 125 people, and was the largest in five
years.
PARASITE AND DISEASE CONTROL
Dr. E. F. Thomas, Assistant Veterinarian, has cooperated with
the Extension Service in this program by attending meetings,
making farm visits, studying parasites and diseases, and making
post mortem examinations.
An experiment on worm control is now under way. The Vet-
erinary Department of the Experiment Station and the Exten-






Annual Report, 1930


sion Service are cooperating in this. Details of this work will
be given at the end of the year.
NATIONAL EGG LAYING CONTEST
The Fourth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest came to a
successful close September 30, 1930. This contest ran from No-
vember 1, 1929 to September 30, 1930. There were 95 pens en-
tered. The average egg production per bird for the 11 months'
period was 188.7 eggs. The contest is located at Chipley and
managed by E. F. Stanton. A complete report of the contest
is available on request.
MISCELLANEOUS AND EMERGENCY WORK
Judging was done at four county fairs last year, the Extension
Poultryman handling the junior poultry exhibits and in some
cases the open classes. The work was made educational as far
as possible.
Thirty-four conferences were held with feed men, fair man-
agers, and secretaries of chambers of commerce, relative to
poultry problems in their localities.






Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, Economist, Farm Management

Extension work in farm management and agricultural eco-
nomics in Florida began October 1, 1930. Since that time the
activities of the work have been along three main lines, namely:
farm management, outlook, and marketing.
FARM MANAGEMENT
The main purpose of Farm Management Extension is to teach
farmers the fundamental principles that deal with the successful
management of their farm business. In doing this an effort is
made to study the methods used and the profits secured on a large
number of farms to determine how the more successful ones
differ from the less successful. During the months of October
and November, the specialist attended the annual meeting of
County Agents, made individual calls on County Agents, and
had the following projects in progress:
1. Enterprise accounts: (a) Poultry Account Book prepared
and 150 poultrymen started keeping accounts. (b) Citrus Ac-
count Book prepared and 200 citrus growers started keeping
enterprise accounts.
2. Farm management meetings in counties where research
studies have been made to return the results of these studies.
Eleven meetings have been held in six counties with a total at-
tendance of about 200 farmers. Results of poultry and dairy
farm management studies previously made by the College of
Agriculture and Experiment Station were discussed.
OUTLOOK
Three members of the staff were in Atlanta at the Southern
Regional Outlook Conference, November 11-14. They carried
with them the Florida outlook reports by commodities, prepared
by the Extension commodity specialists. Following the Con-
ference, an outlook report for Florida was prepared by those
in attendance and the other extension specialists. It was pub-
lished early in December and distributed to about 800 farmers,
County Agents, bankers, and agricultural workers.
MARKETING
While there is no full-time marketing specialist in the Exten-
sion Service, several of its members have been working with the





Annual Report, 1930


Fig. 9.-Tomatoes being packed in a grower-owned house.


State Marketing Bureau and the Federal Farm Board towards
organizing cooperatively the vegetable growers of Florida into
the Florida Vegetable Growers, Inc. At present, there are 50
or more large and small local vegetable cooperatives shipping
vegetables out of Florida. Large enough volume of business has
been secured for the state organization to operate on a low
selling charge basis and much progress made towards combining
more of the locals into the state organization.





Florida Cooperative Extension


PART III--WOMEN'S WORK

COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, District Agent
LucY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent
ORGANIZATION
Organization for the development of home demonstration
work in Florida consists of a state home demonstration agent,
three district agents, specialists in nutrition, home improvement,
food conservation, part time assistance from poultry specialist,
and 33 county home demonstration agents.
Home demonstration work for negroes has been conducted in
seven counties throughout the year with a local district super-
visor, who will report the work in detail.

FINANCES
Broward was the only county in the state to discontinue home
demonstration work during the year 1930. Decreases were
realized in Santa Rosa, Palm Beach, Highlands, and Citrus coun-
ties. Increases were realized in Escambia, Lee, Hernando,
Duval, and Orange counties. New appropriations were secured
in St. Lucie and Indian River counties for one agent to work
both counties, and in Pasco for the agent in Citrus County to give
half time to work in Pasco.
The county finances in Bradford and Union counties would not
permit the continuance of appropriations for both farm and
home agents in each county, so an arrangement was made with
the Board of County Commissioners in Union County to support
the work of the farm agent and with Bradford County to finance
the home agent, with the understanding that each agent should
work in both counties. This plan works fairly satisfactorily.
Boards of county commissioners supply the larger proportions
of the local appropriations. An exception to this is found in Lee
and Highlands Counties where the school board supplies the
county funds for the present appropriations.
School boards cooperate in 12 and commissioners in 28 coun-
ties in the budget for home demonstration work. Financial ar-






Annual Report, 1930


rangements with the counties vary almost as much as the coun-
ties, and unfortunately the variation in amounts appropriated
seems to be based on the counties' willingness or ability to pay in-
stead of the agents' qualifications, length of service, or necessary
expenses of conducting the work.
Four counties report definite appropriations for special home
demonstration activities such as camps, 4-H club short courses,
and Farmers' Week scholarships. Eleven counties include in
their budget a definite amount for demonstration materials and
supplies. Six counties supply the agents with county-owned
cars.
All counties furnish offices for the agents. Nineteen counties
provide laboratory-kitchens.

OFFICE ORGANIZATION
With three exceptions, agents' offices are in the county court-
houses. These offices vary widely in completeness from the
ideally equipped to the simplest. Dade county furnishes a splen-
did office in the new county courthouse consisting of a spacious
general office with adequate display cases, wall space, bulletin
racks and file cases; a private office for the agent; a lecture and
demonstration room with seats for 300 people; a laboratory-
kitchen, fully equipped; a supply room adjoining the kitchen;
a storage room in the basement and indoor parking space for
the agent's car, adjacent to the store room. In addition to this
equipment, a full time office assistant is employed.
All of the offices are accessible, well lighted and heated and
cared for by janitor service. They are equipped with desk,
chairs, filing cabinets, bulletin racks, and some smaller equip-
ment. Twenty-two have telephones. Twenty-seven have type-
writers and 21 have mimeographs.
In keeping with plans made at the beginning of the year,
special attention has been given to improved filing systems with
marked effect on the accessibility of reference material and per-
manent office records.

CLERICAL ASSISTANCE
There is full time secretarial assistance provided in 12 coun-
ties and part-time in four others. In most of these counties
secretarial assistance is shared with the county agricultural
agent.






Florida Cooperative Extension


LABORATORY KITCHENS AND WORK ROOMS
In Lee, Manatee, and Polk counties there is space enough in
the kitchen for a large group to work and excellent equipment
at hand for their convenience. Polk and Manatee counties have
in the same suite a large work room for sewing and handcraft.
Eastern Hillsborough County is establishing demonstration
quarters at this time. Hernando County is remodeling an entire
house with an acre of garden ground which will be used for club
meetings, demonstrations, a center for market and exchange, as
well as being in itself a result demonstration in cooperative in-
terior and exterior beautification. The house has been cleaned
and redecorated, the grounds landscaped and flower and vege-
table gardens planted. The club members plan to open this to
the service of the county in January. In Citrus, Lake, and Osce-
ola there are fairly well equipped kitchens in which a great deal
of work is carried on but these are not spacious enough to fill
the same purpose as the ones mentioned previously. Highlands
and Pinellas counties have large quarters but the equipment is
yet inadequate for extensive community service.


Fig. 10.-This demonstration kitchen is being used for a demonstration
in crystallizing citrus fruits.


,





Annual Report, 1930


Escambia, St. Lucie, Volusia, Duval, Union, Broward, Palm
Beach and Dade provide laboratory kitchens or work rooms.
Three of these rooms have been equipped this year. These cen-
ters are of great value to the agents, providing convenient places
which can be used as working centers, as a place to give public
demonstrations, to train leaders, or to allow the agent to famil-
iarize herself with uses of local products.
LOCAL WORKING CENTERS
It is gratifying to see the decided increase in the number of
local and community work centers established for home demon-
stration clubs, both junior and senior. Alachua County has three
club houses owned by home demonstration clubs, and two other
clubs own land on which they will erect buildings later. In
Orange County two clubs own club houses, built and equipped
by the women; two clubs own lots and have cash on hand to start
buildings soon. In Duval County at least three clubs own their
own buildings. Two clubs in St. Johns own their club houses
and two additional clubs have part ownership in community
buildings. Three clubs in Volusia own their buildings. In Dade
County 10 junior clubs have furnished their own club rooms.
In the northwest district there is a senior home demonstra-
tion club house in a rural community of Escambia, one in
Holmes, and another in Leon. Club rooms are fitted up for use
of women's home demonstration clubs in one rural community
in Gadsden and another in Jefferson. In Leon County three
junior clubs have their own club rooms.
In Central and Southwest Florida there are several club houses
and many club rooms. These local work centers assist the agent
in presenting her work to the people of the county and are good
indications of the real stability of home demonstration work in
the community.
METHODS USED TO INCREASE EFFICIENCY OF WORKERS
CONFERENCES
State Home Demonstration Staff conferences are held once
a month or bi-monthly as seems advisable, at which time reports
of progress in development of the work are given and definite
plans made for special events and further development of work
in general.
An annual conference of all extension workers was held in





Florida Cooperative Extension


the early part of October. The county and home demonstration
workers' program dealt for the main part with ways and means
of home demonstration work meeting economic needs in the vari-
ous counties of the state. Programs of work outlined by the
specialists and methods of adapting to county needs and develop-
ing them received considerable attention.
SUBJECT MATTER ASSISTANCE
Specialists in home improvement, nutrition, food conserva-
tion including gardening; and poultry work keep the agents in-
formed as to the best methods to employ in development of those
phases of the work, provide them with usable, helpful material,
assist with meetings, give lectures and demonstrations, and assist
in training project leaders. District agents interpret and clarify
some of the material on their supervisory visits. They also give
spread to all worked out ideas and principles that are proving of
value in other counties.

SPECIAL STUDY
The agents themselves feel keenly the need of keeping abreast
of newer developments in the fields of agriculture and home eco-
nomics. Eight took advantage of the opportunity afforded them
through a special course of one month given for them in the
School of Home Economics, Florida State College for Women,
during the summer school session. One agent took a month's
course in the Ambler School of Horticulture. Six agents are
carrying extension courses offered by the General Extension
Division of the University of Florida. Another is pursuing
graduate study at the University during the year.

USE OF TIME
It is as important for an agent to thoughtfully plan her time
as to do any other part of her work. In most of the counties
home demonstration work has been established for a good many
years. Increasing demands on the agents for assistance cannot
be met without careful plans.
Agents use Saturday to check up week's work and as a general
office day, when people of the county know that they can be
found for personal conferences. Agents are advised and, as
far as possible, they use Monday to plan the details of the week's
work, assemble demonstration material, prepare material for
newspaper, and such.






Annual Report, 1930


Although the year falls into rather natural divisions of time
according to seasonal activities due to wide differences in seasons
and consequent development of crops, it is not practicable to have
all counties on the same general schedule. Achievement days
are appropriately held in the spring of the year in South Florida
and in the fall of the year in North Florida. This is also true
of community and county fairs.

CLUBS AND COUNCILS
CLUBS
Thirty-one counties report 515 4-H clubs with a membership
of 9,287. Four agents are also working with 182 boys. There
are 266 adult home demonstration clubs with a membership of
6,269.
County home demonstration agents work with both the women
and the girls. In order to render their best services to as many
people as possible there are regularly organized senior and jun-
ior home demonstration clubs in each county. Monthly or bi-
monthly meetings are held with the agent present to instruct
the club members in the demonstrations which they are con-
ducting. Each club member actively engages in carrying on
some definite demonstration in her home, although many people
besides those in regularly organized clubs secure help and ad-
vice from the agents, through special leaflets, timely articles
on seasonal activities appearing in magazines, local papers,
mimeographed letters, and 'bulletins.
Agents find that home visits are the best means to form in-
valuable contacts with individual club members and others and
to keep in close touch with demonstrations in the home. Thirty-
one agents report 11,735 such visits into homes for a definite
purpose and in addition 11 report 992 farm visits.
During the year there were 612 local leaders actively engaged
in forwarding the extension program with the girls and 534
with the women's work. This is an increase of 293 over last
year. Of the number working with girls' clubs, 325 are older
4-H club members. There were 234 training meetings held for
local leaders, with an attendance of 1,558 leaders.
Certificates of Standardization are given to the various local
clubs as soon as they reach and maintain the necessary require-
ments. There are at present 217 of these standard clubs among
the girls. Enthusiasm has continued to grow in this connec-






Florida Cooperative Extension


tion, due to the fact that for the past two years recognition has
been given during the State Short Course to the standard club
making the best score for work accomplished. Buckingham
Club in Lee County was the recipient of this honor in 1930 for
work accomplished in 1929. The members of that club have a
widespread influence for better club work in that county. One
hundred and twenty-four girls have received certificates this
year for the satisfactory completion of four years' club work.
There are 600 girls who are carrying 4-H club work for their
fourth year; 250 for the fifth; and 196 for six or more years.
COUNCILS
Following the organization of home demonstration clubs in
the community is the formation of county councils composed of
the president and one elected representative from each home
demonstration club. There are 29 county councils for girls'
work and 24 for women's work. They work with the agents in
making and executing plans for the year's work. They decide
on the local chairmen for the various projects; they are respon-
sible for staging special events, such as achievement day pro-
grams, fair exhibits, etc.; they assist in the completion and col-
lection of individual reports; the senior councils sponsor the
girls' work, and help in securing local leaders, providing short
course scholarships, etc.; they assist with publicity plans. In
short, they lend a hand with all the many phases of work de-
veloping in a progressive county and back up in every way pos-
sible the efforts of the agent.
The president and one representative from each county coun-
cil form the two state councils. The development of women and
girls through their council work is remarkable. These repre-
sentatives themselves feel the value of this training and the
responsibility it entails. The State Council for Girls' Work holds
its annual meeting during the State Short Course for Club Girls,
Florida State College for Women. This organization provides
scholarship for attendance at Florida State College for Women.
Each county council has made itself responsible for sending
$10 annually to the scholarship fund of the State Council.
The State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work
meets annually during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week at
the University of Florida. Splendid council reports were made
this year. This council also provides a scholarship awarded to
a College 4-H club girl for attendance at the Florida State Col-





Annual Report, 1930


lege for Women. Considerable enthusiasm was shown again
this year over the silver loving cup which was presented during
the annual council meeting by the council to the county council
scoring highest for the past year's work. Lee and Lake county
councils tied for this honor. Lee, having won the previous year,
was presented the cup for the first six months.

PROGRAMS OF WORK

State and county programs of work were made with the pur-
pose of meeting the greatest needs of those taking advantage
of home demonstration work. State and county councils gave
special consideration to the economic background of the farm
home in developing programs with the agents' help. Instruc-
tion and supervision has been directed to practical phases of the
work that encourage conduct of demonstrations which make
possible improvements in standards of living in the rural homes.
More attention than ever before has been given to increasing
the family cash income.
Programs are presented for discussion and understanding
during the agents' annual conference. The district agent, coun-
ty agent, and specialist in joint conference decide what part or
if the whole is applicable in the county specified. Available
material is provided and needed assistance, so far as possible,
is furnished the agent by the state office. All county programs
of work have been followed up by the district agents this year.
State and district agents have studied programs of work and
reports very carefully. Comparisons of goals set and accom-
plishments achieved have been made.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked
out ........................................ ............................................................ 524
Adult work-women ........................................ .......... .... 534
Voluntary county, community and local leaders-4-H Club Work-
W om en .............................................................................................. 287
Older girls ........................................................................... 3 325
Clubs carrying on extension work with juniors ............................... 515
Membership .......................... ................. 9,469
Clubs carrying on extension work with adults ............................... 266
Membership ............................................. 6,269
Home visits made by agents .................... ................... .......... 11,735
Different homes visited .................. ...............................5.... ,717
Farm visits made by agents ........................... ................ 992
Telephone and office calls on agents relative to extension work.... 44,971
Average number days spent in office ............ .......................... 77
Average number days spent in field ..................................................... 223
Official letters written ....................................... 54,152
Events at which exhibits were held .......... .................. ............ 35. 357






80 Florida Cooperative Extension

Meetings held ..................... .......... ... .... .................. 12,165
Attendance ........................ ........ ..............- ................... 263,285
Tours conducted .....................--- .......... ............................. 58
A attendance ...................... ...-- ............ ... ....-............ ................... 8,451
Achievement days held ..................................-...--- .........--- ........... .... 161
A attendance ........ ........ ................ .......... ......... ............................ 19,681
Encam pm ents held ............................. ..... ............- ...... .. ............... 34
Attendance ........................................ ............................... 1,961

PROGRAM SUMMARY Days
Number agents
communities devoted to
participating projects
Home gardens ............................. ..........---..... 478 999
Market garden and truck crops ..................................... 142 85
Fruits ......................................................................... 135 101
Rodents and miscellaneous insects .......................... 14 20
Home engineering .............................. ...................... 99 117
Poultry ............................................................................... 312 465
D airy ........................................................ ................ 33 57
Farm management ...................................... ................ 4 14
M marketing ................................................................... 87 116
Foods and nutrition ..................................... 447 1,133
Child training and care ................................................. 98 160
Clothing ............................................................................. 531 1,266%
Home management .............................................. ..... 209 273
House furnishings ............................................................ 439 574
Home health and sanitation .......................................... 449 356
Community activities ................................... ...... 345 2771/2
Miscellaneous ................. ................ ............... .. .... ... 243 353
Building extension program of work ...................... 341 226
Organization-extension association and committee .... 361 267

PROJECT ACTIVITIES
GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS

Home gardens and orchards are essential in every well bal-
anced home demonstration program. Through gardening and
perennial plantings we are working toward an all year supply of
fresh fruits and vegetables for the family; to improve and
beautify grounds by decorative plantings of economic orna-
mentals, native shrubs and flowers; to furnish means to increase
income.
Reports show that the need for growing home gardens and
fruits for family use has been felt generally and that there has
been statewide interest along this line. Probably the greatest
progress in meeting economic needs has been made through the
home gardening program. The economist in food conservation
who serves as leader for this phase of the work has secured
splendid cooperation from seed dealers, nurseries, fertilizer
concerns, federations of women's clubs, and individuals in pro-
moting better gardens and more perennial plantings. Interest





Annual Report, 1930


has been stimulated through monthly letters carrying timely in-
formation; utilization score card; garden scores; suggestive
canning budget for the family; exhibits; posters; lectures; dem-
onstrations; all-year garden contests; and awards.
During the year 29 agents devoted 14.4% of their time; held
1,531 meetings; published 419 news stories; made 2,717 home
visits, and had 5,544 office calls in connection with this project.
Women report 2,757 demonstrations carried in home garden-
ing and 1,315 with the home orchard. There were 4,235 4-H
club girls who carried demonstrations in home gardening and
1,942 who followed definite plans in planting perennials as part
of the home garden program.
POULTRY
Development of the home poultry flock is a part of the home
demonstration program mainly for two reasons (1) for family
nutrition, (2) to increase the family income.
There were 1,017 women who managed and reported on flocks
with a total of 85,052 birds. They report a profit for their work
of $47,241. Eight hundred and eleven girls raised 34,006 birds.
Agents report increasing interest in management of the farm
flock. There seems to be far more understanding and practice
in keeping accurate records and general improvement of the
flock accordingly.
Enthusiasm for the home poultry flock has been stimulated by
the Home Egg-Laying Contest, tours to flocks and hatcheries,
and cooperation in marketing received from the State Marketing
Bureau in addition to the regular work of the agents under
leadership of the Extension Poultryman.
DAIRYING
It is our aim to improve the quality of milk for home con-
sumption and to increase the use of milk products in the diet
with the view to better nutrition, using the surplus to increase
the family income. "Milk for Health" has been a slogan de-
veloped along with the nutrition program. In one county, where
an intensive nutrition program has been carried, 16 women re-
port having each bought a family cow during the year. Thirteen
women in another county report having bought cows this year
so that their families could have more milk to drink. Reports
show that 18 families in other places have done likewise. Forty-
seven women working with 141 cows report a profit of $3,415.





Florida Cooperative Extension


NUTRITION
The general plan and purpose of the nutrition work this year,
as last, has been to put into operation a constructive and com-
prehensive food program including food selection, food prep-
aration and meal planning for family, school lunch, group or
community meals. This program has been closely related to the
productive program of poultry raising, home dairying, and gar-
dening. Results have been determined by the improvement
shown in food selection and health scores of women club mem-
bers, by increased use of milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables in
the family diet; by improvement of school lunches; by increased
enrollment of girls in food and nutrition and by better records
in the health contests. The fact that in December, 1929, first
place in the National Health Contest was won by Florida's rep-
resentative, Florence Smock, increased enthusiasm in this phase
of home demonstration work. Dora Lee Bryant, the 1930 rep-
resentative, was in the group scoring second highest.

















Fig. 11.-A mid-morning lunch of milk served to the smaller children in
a Walton County school by the girls of the 4-H clubs.

A total of 5,557 girls and 2,550 women were reported as adopt-
ing improved practices in nutrition work as conducted by home
demonstration agents. There were 2,586 homes reported as
balancing meals for the year and 1,903 improved home packed
lunches according to recommendations.






Annual Report, 1930


FOODS
Food selection and food preparation in the home demonstra-
tion program deal with serving well balanced meals, satisfying
and attractive foods, and the importance of an all-year garden,
a home poultry flock, and a sufficient milk supply. A total of
2,552 women and 3,918 girls carried definite programs through-
out the year along these lines.
Food conservation assures a more varied diet in the home,
eliminates waste of fruit and vegetables in the garden, fields,
groves, citrus packinghouses and canneries by utilization of the
surplus. It promotes the use of Florida products and furnishes
another means for increasing the family income. There were
2,552 women and 2,892 girls reported as carrying definite can-
ning programs this year. The girls canned 142,428 containers
of products. The number is not available for the women. There
were 1,445 homes assisted in planning a family food budget for
a year, and 403 budgeted for expenditures for the year.
An exhibit of canned meats sent from Gadsden County to
the National 4-H Club Congress in Chicago won first place, while
a canned fruit exhibit from Orange County won fourth place.
CLOTHING
In developing the clothing work with the women and girls
the agents have made it fill a real need. Information received
can always be applied immediately. There were 3,705 women
and 9,173 girls who made garments under the agents' instruc-
tion. This means that they studied selection of the most prac-
tical materials, most suitable colors, combination of materials,
patterns and how to use them. There were 2,336 women and
2,852 girls who reported definitely following recommendations
in improving care, renovation, and remodeling of clothing. One
agent is effectively developing a program along this line which
she and her women term a "clothing conservation" program.
Interest in color, design, good workmanship, accessories, and
personal grooming has very much increased through short
courses culminating in dress revues held in the communities,
at county-wide meetings, at the State Short Course for 4-H Club
Girls, and Farmers' Week.
At the State Short Course in June Lorene Duffy was adjudged
the winner in a clothing contest for girls who have been carry-
ing a clothing program for three or more years. She was given






Florida Cooperative Extension


a trip to the National 4-H Club Congress where she won third
place in a national clothing contest for 4-H club girls.
HOME IMPROVEMENT
Successful home gardening, poultry production, home dairy-
ing, and the marketing of the surpluses of these products make
home improvement work more easily accomplished. When the
agent can help to increase the family income she is in a better
position to discuss methods for home improvement. The home
improvement work under the leadership of the specialist in
home improvement has continued to see a splendid growth
through the year.
Beautification of Home Grounds: It seems that there is more
interest than ever before in improving the home grounds.
Throughout the year special attention has been given to open
lawns, the use of native shrubbery, foundation plantings, plant-
ing yards according to a plan, and the physical appearance of
dwellings and the entire premises.
Many clubs have made definitely planned trips into the woods
for native shrubbery. More of them have placed large orders
with seedsmen and nurseries for seeds, plants, and shrubs. Seeds-
men and nurseries have given splendid cooperation in furnish-
ing supplies to be used for awards. Arrangements were made
with seedsmen in some of the counties to buy good flower seed
in quantity. These seed were portioned out in penny packages
by the junior and senior councils and were sold to club mem-
bers. One county reports having sold 2,500 of these packages
and another over a thousand. In this way club members secured
a variety of good seed at small cost.
As part of the home gardening and perennial plantings pro-
gram the various counties have adopted a county flower to be
grown by all club members. Some have adopted an annual and
a perennial. It is felt that the general interest which prevails.
in the growing of these flowers has had considerable to do with
the fact that 2,322 women and 4,235 girls have carried definite
demonstrations in improving the home grounds during the year.
Flower shows have been added in most of the counties.
Home furnishings, home management, home engineering,.
home sanitation and thrift will be reported in detail by the home
improvement specialist.
Tours, educational trips and home improvement contests have
helped to increase improvements along definite lines. Gratifying:






Annual Report, 1930


are the splendid individual reports of home improvement that
have come to the state office during the year. Ruth Yates of
Osceola County was awarded a trip to the National 4-H Club
Congress because of her excellent accomplishments in home im-
provement.
CHILD TRAINING AND CARE
Ten counties have had a series of demonstrations and lectures
on this subject and report splendid response from the mothers.
It is planned to follow this up in cooperation with the Bureau
of Child Hygiene, State Board of Health.
MARKETING
Amazing are the splendid reports given by women in con-
nection with the marketing of home products. Those products
that have been marketed during the year consisted chiefly of
poultry, and poultry products, canned goods, dairy products,
fruits and vegetables; plants; baskets of native materials, Christ-
mas wreaths of native materials, and home baked goods. Records
were kept in four counties of sales of dairy products amounting
to $1,420.98; in four counties of poultry products amounting
to $17,298.91; in three counties of home canned and other pro-
ducts amounting to $8,503.45, making a total of $31,862.05 worth
of home products sales of which records were kept. Interesting
home marketing reports are made by Alachua, Palm Beach,
Lake, Gadsden, Holmes, Volusia, and Dade counties.
The district agent for East Florida and the economist in food
conservation have included reports of the work in various coun-
ties and interesting statements along this line from individuals.
COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Securing of club houses for club and community meetings be-
came a realization in 28 counties during the year. The school
lunch continues to command community interest. Ninety-two
schools in 18 counties followed the agents' recommendations in
serving hot lunch to 29,491 children. There were 191 pageants
or plays presented by club members. Recreation programs were
developed in 269 communities. There were 171 communities
assisted in definitely improving hygienic practices. There were
53 school or other community grounds landscaped according to
recommendations from home demonstration agents. A total of
345 communities were assisted in developing various community
activities according to particular needs.





Florida Cooperative Extension


SPECIAL EVENTS
EXHIBITS
Although fairs are decreasing in number there were 357
events where home demonstration exhibits were shown during
the year. Club members have taken charge of many of these ex-
hibits and through them have assisted considerably in present-
ing developments in home demonstration work through com-
munity and county displays. Exhibits demand a lot of time in
planning and arranging and attention while on display, but it is
usually felt that this time may be justified by the generous prem-
ium awards made to local women and girls by the fair manage-
ment. Most of the prize money is spent for purchasing equip-
ment for the home, for home beautification or other needs for
a more satisfying home life.
ACHIEVEMENT DAYS
Community and county achievement days are observed at the
culmination of the year's work. Although methods of handling
achievement day programs vary somewhat, the purpose in hold-
ing them is to give recognition to the club members for worthy
endeavor and generally to diffuse knowledge relating to club
work. Features of the program for the day include exhibits,
reports from club members, demonstrations in improved prac-
tices by club members, talks by members of state staff and
by local persons as county superintendent of education, county
agents, council meetings, recreation, awarding of certificates
and pins in recognition for work accomplished as individuals,
and in some way honoring those who have accomplished most as
a club. The work is strengthened through the coming together
of the people in the communities and from over the county for
these occasions.
During the year there were 161 achievement days held, 60 for
adults and 101 for 4-H club members. There was a total at-
tendance of 19,681.
CAMPS
Camps are popular with 4-H club members and with an in-
creasing number of adults.
There were 34 camps held during the summer of 1930. Eleven
of these were for women, six for boys and girls, and 17 for girls
only. There were 561 women, 1,140 girls, 110 boys, and 311
others, including instructors and leaders, who enjoyed the rec-





































Fig. 12.-This exhibit of flowers attracted no little attention at the South Florida Fair.
-1






Florida Cooperative Extension


reaction, instruction, fellowship, and leadership development of
the camps conducted by the home demonstration agents. Two
trained camp workers and three former 4-H club girls, one a
junior in college and the other two recent graduates, and local
leaders assisted agents with the camps.
EDUCATIONAL TOURS
One of the most effective ways of giving and receiving bene-
fits from result demonstrations is by means of educational tours.
Projects are often planned with a tour at the beginning for the
purpose of making a survey and a preliminary scoring and one
at the end to observe results and evidences of methods followed
in obtaining these. Fifty-eight tours with an attendance of
11,218 were made during the year. The significance of these
may be obtained from the following statements: In Marion
County exterior beautification was the major project agreed
upon. Tours were made in five of the six communities having
women's clubs and 59 homes were scored and photographed. At
the close of the year a final scoring was made by the same com-
mittee and a tour made to observe the progress. The Citrus
County agent arranged for a group of people from her county to
visit tung oil plots around Gainesville and her report shows 200
acres planted as a result. Western Hillsborough County had a
tour of 62 club members to visit Pinellas County to gain infor-
mation in home improvement.
The home demonstration agent of Gadsden County invited
all her senior club members and their husbands to visit the Flor-
ida State College for Women at Tallahassee in April. The de-
partment heads greeted the club members and conducted them
over the institution. The visitors were guests of the College for
lunch. Every department of the College was visited. One of
the most interesting places visited by the women was the kitchen
showing the many pieces of electrical equipment.
While the girls of Liberty and Calhoun counties were in camp
in July at Flastacowo, the College camp near Tallahassee, they
visited the Capitol. The Governor greeted them and they were
then conducted over the Capitol building. They also visited the
hydro-electric plant several miles out of Tallahassee.
In December the agent in Gadsden County held a two-day
poultry school for interested poultrymen. Each day there was
a tour made to some of the nearby poultry farms in the county






Annual Report, 1930


to study good points in the housing, breeding, and selection of
poultry.
Dade County has held repeated tours to their demonstration
thrift houses in different parts of the county. Alachua has con-
ducted several home improvement tours; Volusia County con-
ducted two tours to promote interest in a community cannery,
one to Citrus County to a small community cannery and one to
Bushnell to a potato canning factory. A small cannery was
built at Samsula, a vegetable trucking section, as a result of
these tours. Bradford County women arranged a tour to a large
nursery in an adjoining county to study plantings and plants;
Palm Beach County women visited two hatcheries to learn about
battery brooders. The women of Duval County held a tour to
yard beautification demonstrations in the east side of the county.
Orange County women visited Alachua County to study their
council work.
Volusia and St. Johns counties have regularly planned tours
to nearby counties to become acquainted with historical spots in
the state.
Four counties participated in an educational tour of the Jack-
sonville stores to learn what was available in household furnish-
ings and to develop standards for purchasing such equipment
for the home.
OUT-OF-STATE TRIPS
Club girls were awarded trips to the National Club Congress,
the National Club Camp, and International Leadership Train-
ing School. Winners of these trips are listed in the Director's
report, under the subject, "Awards to Club Members".
These trips have served to increase the enthusiasm and leader-
ship ability of the members attending.
SHORT COURSE FOR 4-H CLUB GIRLS
Each year the State Short Course increases in attendance in
spite of the individual requirements and restrictions placed on
the counties. The morale, type of programs, and results seen in
counties are improvements brought about to some extent by the
fact that those in attendance must be county winners, awarded
scholarships, and 12 years of age or over. The average age is
14 to 15. There were 499 girls, 35 local leaders, and 28 agents in
attendance.
The course consisted of instruction and demonstrations by
extension workers and club members in various phases of home






Florida Cooperative Extension


demonstration work. Outstanding features were project dem-
onstrations, health contest, afternoon program for recognition
of accomplishments, state council meeting, recreation, entertain-
ment, special dinner the last evening with distinguished guests.
The climax of the Short Course was the last evening's pro-
gram when Mrs. Ruth Bryan Owen, introduced by Governor
Doyle Carlton, gave an excellent talk. It was followed by a
candle lighting service with Mrs. Carlton representing the spirit
of home.
Girls who attend the Short Course usually develop into the
best leaders and realize a desire to go to college. Many of them
as a result find a way to become students and graduates of the
Florida State College for Women.
The State College for Women set aside one week between the
spring and summer terms for the extension department to hold
the Short Course without interruption. Dormitories, labora-
tories, and classrooms were available. The college nurses ren-
dered valuable assistance by keeping the infirmary open and
giving the girls necessary medical care during the week. The
dietitian rendered a service that is outstanding in the minds of
the girls because of the good food served.
FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS WEEK
The women enjoyed Farmers' Week at the University of Flor-
ida as much as the girls did the Short Course. Demonstrations
and instruction were given in various phases of work by state
and county extension workers, club members, University pro-
fessors, and home economics workers in business firms. Out-
standing features were exhibits, group work with women ac-
tually working where they felt they could be best benefitted, and
meetings of the State Home Demonstration Council for Women's
Work. Mention of council activities was made elsewhere in
this report. Music appreciation was a new feature that the
women enjoyed.
Most of the women paid their own way. However, more
women were present with expenses paid due to the work of the
county councils and support of county federation of women's
clubs.
4-H COLLEGE CLUB
Former club girls who are in attendance at Florida State
College for Women are banded together in an organization for
promotion of club work. This club continues to attract the at-






Annual Report, 1930


tention and interest of other students to home demonstration
work and encourage club girls to go to College as soon as they
have finished high school. Among the membership of this group
are some of the most outstanding girls in College. Members of
the club are most enthusiastic over the program that they are
developing this year.
PUBLICITY
NEWSPAPER ARTICLES
Excellent cooperation is received from newspapers of the
state. Thirty counties report 3,171 news articles or stories pub-
lished. News articles are contributed regularly from all county
home demonstration offices. In 14 counties a home demonstra-
tion column is maintained in the local papers. The Pinellas
County agent reports the editing of a newspaper column which
is published in seven county papers. Another splendid example
of cooperation with the press is found in Eastern Hillsborough
County. A report is given to the effect that because of the col-
umn the people of the rural communities have increased sub-
scriptions until every home that has membership in home dem-
onstration work is a subscriber to the paper and because of in-
creased subscriptions the paper has divided the price of sub-
scription between itself and the club member bringing in the
subscription, with the result that a county club fund was estab-
lished last year to aid in supplying scholarships to the State
Short Course and to the County Local Leaders' Camp. Some
of the councils are beginning to successfully edit a news column
in the local papers.
The editor of the Agricultural News Service has for the past
three years given definite instructions in writing newspaper
stories to two girls from each county in attendance at the State
Short Course. Club members are enthusiastic over the work
given them and as an outgrowth of it a good many of the girls'
councils edit and publish their own news sheets. Several
women's councils have similar publications which have created
considerable interest among the club members. They are also
keeping a scrapbook of the publicity received in the local papers.
RADIO
Twenty agents report 31 talks given over the radio. The
agent in Pinellas County is now broadcasting every two weeks
over WSUN in St. Petersburg. These talks, her news columns






92 Florida Cooperative Extension

and news sheets are adjudged the credit for stimulating the or-
ganization of two additional women's clubs during the year.
In November the 4-H club members in Escambia County be-
gan a series of programs to be given over the broadcasting
station in Pensacola. Monthly 4-H club programs have been
given over WRUF during the year with the home demonstra-
tion members taking alternate months. We participated in the
National 4-H Club Achievement program by having programs
given over WJAX, WSUN, and WIOD. Agents and nine suc-
cessful demonstrators in home demonstration activities gave
valuable talks over WRUF during Farmers' Week. Ten home
demonstration agents gave splendid talks on accomplishments in
various phases of the work during agents' conference. These
were preceded by splendid news articles in the local papers.
Members of the state staff have given talks over WRUF at
various times during the year.






Annual Report, 1930


HOME IMPROVEMENT
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Specialist in Home Improvement

Home improvement in the rural sections of Florida is making
progress. Interest in this project has increased greatly in the
last few years; however, our goal for the rural homes of Florida
is yet far in the field of endeavor.
In spite of adverse financial conditions, a desire for better and
more attractive homes and home surroundings is apparent. En-
tire families are awakening to the needs and possibilities of the
rural home.
The home improvement project is coordinated with the pro-
ductive and conservation projects in a definite way. All mem-
bers of the family are encouraged to produce and conserve with
an objective in a home improvement accomplishment in mind
such as water, lights, bathroom, a new house, remodeled
house, or paint. Facts and figures for the accomplishment of
the things to be done are thoroughly gone into, then suggestions
made as to how the money for same may be obtained.
The plan of work for home improvement in the state includes
the following: Beautification of home grounds, home engineer-
ing, home management, home furnishing, home sanitation, thrift,
and electrification.
LEADERS
County and community leaders assist the home agent in bring-
ing to the attention of all club members the importance of the
home improvement project; they distribute literature; they visit
the demonstrations that are being developed in the home, giving
suggestions and advice. They are usually members of the county
home demonstration council, or they may be appointed by the
county home demonstration agent.
The county home demonstration agent always directs the
work with the assistance of the state office which assists with
plans, meetings, and subject matter material, and assists in
preparing exhibits, tours, fairs, achievement days, contests, and
working bees.
DEMONSTRATIONS
The lessons in home improvement are taught by demonstra-
tions in the homes of the community. Demonstrations of good
practices as found in rural homes are made use of whether these
are in the homes of demonstration club members or not, so a






Florida Cooperatzve Extension


leveling up of the community is noticeable. This arouses local
interest and pride on the part of the people. Public demonstra-
tions in house furnishings, thrift, conveniences, and electric labor
savers are given from time to time to arouse interest of all home
demonstration club members in the home improvement phase of
work so that definite projects may be undertaken.
TOURS
Tours to completed demonstrations awaken a healthful com-
petition in the communities. An educational tour of inspection
properly arranged with merchants before purchases were to be
made was conducted in Jacksonville; 22 women desiring to make
purchases took advantage of it. High grade and cheap furni-
ture were compared; the good and poor types of rugs, with
analysis of the weave, design and color of each, the comparison
of the "American made" with the imported rugs by a rug ex-
pert; the study of linens; pyrofax or bottled gas, kerosene, and
electric stoves, washing machines, mangles, lighting systems,
and home appliances were demonstrated.
FAIRS AND CONTESTS
Outstanding exhibits in home improvement were displayed at
county fairs and contests in Dade, Palm Beach, Alachua, Es-
cambia, Leon, Walton, Holmes, Liberty, Calhoun and Volusia
counties.
WORKING BEES
One of the most effective methods employed to bring about the
accomplishment of home improvement projects in the commun-
ity, is the working bee,.where all the women meet at the home
of a neighbor to help "fix up" the new house or the old house
which has been remodeled. House furnishing via the thrift
route is practiced. Groups work on rejuvenating furniture,
rug making, window draperies, passe partouting pictures, chair
bottoming, upholstering, and construction of furniture from
boxes. These working bees may last two or even three days if
the entire house is to be "fixed up". A one-room working bee
is usually done in one day. All work for the various groups
is planned in advance with the various leaders by the county
home demonstration agent and state specialist. The assembling
and arrangement of the room to present an artistic and satisfy-
ing result is most convincing to all the neighbors who knew it






Annual Report, 1930


"before", and it is also convincing that much beauty may be
had at small cost. These working bees may safely be called
schools of instruction and inspiration; even the men become
interested. All have learned while they worked.
RESULTS ACCOMPLISHED
In spite of the depression, investments in home improvement
have gone steadily forward. One requirement the past year has
been for the entire family to work and plan together. First
they are required to read the "Questions to Make You Think"
and the reference subject matter. In this way they get into
their thinking the need of more home improvement and a higher
standard of living is built up. The budget of the family income
is studied and wise spending is encouraged. The entire physical
home, interior and exterior, is studied and all members of a
family are encouraged to pool their savings and spend it for
an improvement to be enjoyed by all.
Beautification of Home Grounds: Grass in grassless yards,
foundation plantings, group plantings, whitewash on fences and
out-buildings, paint on houses, are in growing evidence. The
picture of the entire home, with its well planned house, a green
lawn, foundation plantings, group plantings, trees, the poultry
yard, the garden, the grazing lot for the cow and a brood sow,
are the standards set for the thrifty farm families, and many
thousand are working toward this end; 6,557 demonstrations
were started and are being continued.
Home Engineering: This is a part of the home improvement
program that goes more slowly than most of it, due to expenses
involved. However, reports show that during the year agents
assisted 549 families with house planning problems. There were
22 houses constructed and 133 remodeled according to plans fur-
nished by the agents. It is the aim to furnish information that
will be beneficial in building or remodeling after a plan that will
save time and energy; protect health of the occupants; and to
have well built and attractive buildings of all kinds. Eleven
counties report 159 sewage disposal systems installed; 16 report
107 water systems and 23 heating systems installed. Eight re-
port 71 lighting systems installed. There were 166 poultry
houses and 128 other buildings remodeled according to plans
furnished.
Home Management: It is gratifying to see the interest that
women and girls are taking in programs dealing with every day






Florida Cooperative Extension


housekeeping activities. These programs deal with keeping
home accounts, budgeting expenditures, buying, use of time,
obtaining right kind of labor-saving equipment, recommended
methods for home laundering, and care of the house. There were
1,026 women and 1,707 girls who worked definitely with some
of these problems during the year. The use of pedometers
convinced many women of the need for rearranging or securing
new equipment. There were 1,568 homes that reported assist-
ance in adjustments in home-making to gain more satisfactory
standards of living.


Fig. 13.-The members of one home demonstration club met at their club
house and made hooked rugs.

Home Furnishings: During the year 2,219 women and 2,310
girls carried demonstrations in house furnishings and thereby
added materially to the attractiveness of the inside of their
homes. It has been truthfully said that "the living room in hun-
dreds of Florida homes is now an attractive gathering place for
the family, and a place conducive to the development of a 'higher
life' within the home."
While kitchens and living rooms have probably received more
attention, other rooms and the house in its entirety come in for






Annual Report, 1930


a study. Special attention has been given to walls, floors, wood-
work, repairing and remodeling of furnishings, selection and ar-
rangement of furnishings.
Home Sanitation: In programs brought before all home dem-
onstration club members, junior and adults, emphasis is given to
the necessity for "good every day housekeeping", cleanliness
in interior and exterior of homes, with the result that 3,158
homes followed recommendations of controlling flies, mosquitoes
and other insects; 1,285 homes screened for the first time; 583
homes built sanitary toilets.






Florida Cooperative Extension


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
ALL-YEAR GARDEN CONTEST
November of this year saw the close of the third all-year
garden contest. Thirty counties participated and 20 counties
submitted completed material. As in the past the "Kitchen
Card" to show the daily serving of at least two fresh vegetables,
the canning budget to show what is needed to supplement the
yield of the garden and grove, the complete story of the garden-
er's activities and photographs of same, were asked of every
contestant, both demonstrators for the county and individual
demonstrators as before.
The purpose of this contest is to teach the value of the fresh
fruits and vegetables in the family diet and to point out the
fact that farm women by their gardens assist in the maintenance
of their homes. Through the records made, club members have
emphasized the garden as a worth while factor in the upkeep of
the home.
The number of all-year county demonstrators increased from
eight in 1929 with finished records to 20 counties reporting in
1930. These records show unusual interest in the garden project
and mainly are detailed and accurate.
The following is a summary of six senior all-year garden
records from Gadsden County:
SUMMARY OF PROFIT FOR SIX ALL-YEAR GARDENS,
GADSDEN COUNTY, 1930
Value of
Vegs. used
Name of in home Value
All-Year Garden Fresh- Vegs. Total Total Net
Demonstrator Canned Sold Receipt Cost Profit
Mrs. Bowen ......... $ 289.80 $103.90 $ 393.70 $ 81.85 $ 311.85
Mrs. Fletcher .......... 346.75 74.65 421.40 83.45 337.95
Mrs. C. E. Blount 166.80 9.29 176.09 39.45 136.64
Mrs. C. Edwards .... 186.15 128.02 314.17 82.46 231.71
Mrs. J. J. Rowan .... 132.10 14.31 146.41 20.00 126.41
Mrs. Henry Todd .. 447.30 121.90 569.20 83.45 485.75
TOTAL ........... $1,568.90 1 $452.07 [ $2.020.97 | $390.66 I $1,630.31
AWARDS
Seeds:-Gadsden County, because of the general excellence
of the records, wins sweepstakes-garden seeds to the amount of
$25; Holmes County, a close second because of the large all-year
garden enrollment and the splendid stories of accomplishment,






Annual Report, 1930


wins second sweepstakes-seeds to the value of $15; and Oka-
loosa, third sweepstakes-seeds to the value of $10, awarded by
Francis C. Stokes Seed Company.
Other Awards:-The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs
gave $50 to be used for educational purposes, to the 4-H club
girl making the best record in gardening and canning. The
Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau awarded $100 in
cash for the best four gardens in the state.
Fruit Trees and Ornamentals:-Besides these cash awards,
fruit trees and ornamentals to the value of $75 donated by in-
terested nurserymen of the state, $10 in flower seeds or bulbs
from a northern nurseryman, Stumpp and Walter, and a garden
plow from S. L. Allen Company, Inc., are further awards dis-
tributed to the senior garden members.

JUNIOR GARDEN WORK
There are 4235 girls enrolled in gardening who grow vege-
tables and flowers and who have perennial plantings started as
required in their productive program. In addition, there are
gardens among the junior club members that are easily com-
parable to the senior all-year gardens, as none of the juniors en-
rolled has stopped with the minimum requirements. These re-
quirements are the same as in 1929.
Awards:-In each of the three home demonstration districts,
three prizes were offered by the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Edu-
cational Bureau to winners in the junior garden contest.
The following is a summary of the cash value of seven junior
gardens taken from six of the county records:


Name of Club Girl | | "J I.


Louise Rooks-
Gadsden .............. $ 105.50 $ 26.00 $ 131.50 $ 25.35 $ 96.15
Eunice Nixon--
Alachua .................. 218.07 32.67 250.74 16.20 234.54
Annabel Raulerson-
Alachua ................... 452.83 28.42 481.25 10.81 470.44
Ione Summers-
Calhoun .................. 79.78 50.10 129.88 40.55 89.33
Edna Burgess-
Holmes .................. 85.00 18.23 103.23 6.53 96.70
Leone Arnold-
Okaloosa ................ 121.30 .35 121.65 11.25 110.40
Mae Gavins-Walton 89.15 5.32 94.47 23.40 71.07
TOTAL ...... ..............I $1,151.63 1 $161.09 I $1,312.72 $134.09 $1,168.63