Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Report of the director
 Publications and news
 Men's work
 Boys' club work
 Women's work
 Home improvement
 Home gardening, food conservation...
 Food, nutrition and health
 Negro work
 Negro men's work
 Negro home demonstration work

Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00013
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1929
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00013
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of the director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Publications and news
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Men's work
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Boys' club work
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Women's work
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Home improvement
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Home gardening, food conservation and marketing
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Food, nutrition and health
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Negro work
        Page 92
    Negro men's work
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
Full Text
pL -0~6, ~J

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Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture

JUNE 30, 1929

OF g, APP (,!F pl~iNC -



Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture

JUNE 30, 1929

BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF....................................... 4

COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS ......................... 5

REPORT OF THE DIRECTORS.......................................... 7
Financial Statement, 7; Organization, 8; Lines of Work, 9; Farmers'
Week, 11; Work With Mediterranean Fruit Fly, 12; Awards to 4-H
Club Members, 13.

PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS .......................................... 18
Bulletins, 18; News and Farm Paper Stories, 19; Radio, 20; Train-
ing in News Writing, 20.

COUNTY AGENT W ORK ......................... ..... ............ 21
Publicity, 21; Community Program Building, 22; Soils, 23; Farm
Crops, 23; Pastures, 28; Horticulture, 29; Truck Crops, 30; Insect
Control, 31; Animal Husbandry, 32; Poultry Husbandry, 34; Rural
Engineering, 34; Agricultural Economics, 35.

BOYS' CLUB W ORK ................. .......... ........ ............. 37
Enrollment, 37; Organizations, 37; Leadership, 38; Special Occa-
sions, 39; Club Camp, 39; Short Course, 39; Project Demonstrations,
40; Summary, 42.

D AIRYING ................... ................ .............. 43
Production Problems First, 43; Economic Changes Affecting Work,
43; Costs Reduced, 44; Production of Feed, 44; Farm Dairying in
West Florida, 44; Distribution and Exchange of Sires, 45; Raising
Calves, 46; Production Records, 46; Organizations, 46.

CITRICULTURE .................................. .......... 48
Melanose, 48; Scab, 49; Blue Mold, 49; Tree Trunk and Root Dis-
eases, 49; Rust Mites, 50; Aphis, 50; Scale, 51; Cover Crops, 51;
Fertilizing, 52.

POULTRY ................... .......... ... ...... ............. 53
Situation, 53; Methods, 53; Projects, 54; Development by Projects,
54; Poultry Associations, 60; Junior Poultry Work, 60; National
Egg-Laying Contest, 61.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ................................... 63
Changes, 63; Assistance from State Staff, 63; Community Pro-
grams, 64; County Project Committees, 64; Program Development,
65; Supervisory Program, 66; Training of Personnel, 69; Publicity,
69; Program Development and Analysis, 70; Project Activities and
Results, 71; Strengthening the Organization, 75.

HOME IMPROVEMENT WORK................. ................... 78
Program, 78; Goals and Accomplishments, 78.

All-Year Garden Contest, 82; Perennial Planting, 82; Junior Garden
Contest, 82; County Flower, 83; Conservation, 84; Marketing, 84.

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH ..................................... 86
Goals, 86; Methods, 87; Results, 89.

NEGRO WORK ................... ............................... 92
Men's Work, 93; Women's Work, 98.

Hon. Doyle E. Carlton,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, Univer-
sity of Florida, for the calendar year 1929, including a fiscal
report for the year ending June 30, 1929.
Chairman, Board of Control.

Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report
of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of
Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit
the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor
of Florida.
President, University of Florida.

P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest

W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Specialist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman

VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent
MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Extension Nutritionist

Home Demonstration
County County Agents Address Agents
Alachua ........... F. L. Craft........ Gainesville ... Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Bradford .......... T. D. Rickenbaker... Starke ....... Miss Pearl Jordan
Brevard .......... W. R. Briggs...... Cocoa .........................
Broward ............ C. E. Matthews.... Ft. Lauderdale Miss Ethyl Holloway
Calhoun ............John G. Kelly....... Blountstown.. ...................
Calhoun and Liberty ....................Blountstown.. Miss Josephine Nimmo
Charlotte and
Highlands ..........................Punta Gorda.. Miss May Winfield
Citrus ..............................Inverness .... Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Citrus and Sumter... I. R. Nolen ........ Inverness ......................
Dade (North) ...... J. S. Rainey....... Miami ....... Miss Pansy Norton
Dade (South) ....... C. H. Steffani ..... .-Homestead ........................
Dade (Asst.).......................... Miami........ Miss Carrie Torbert
DeSoto ............ J. J. Heard ....... Arcadia ........................
Duval .............. W. L. Watson......Jacksonville... Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.) ....... A. S. Lawton....... Jacksonville... ....................
Duval (Asst.) ....... C. H. Magoon......Jacksonville......................
Escambia ........... E. P. Scott......... Pensacola .... Miss Ethel Atkinson
Flagler ............. TNieland....... Bunnell ....... ........ ........
Gadsden ............................... Quincy....... Miss Elise Laffitte
Hamilton ........... J. J. Sechrest....... Jasper ........................
Hernando .......... .J. H. Logan ....... Brooksville ... Mrs. Florence Albert
Highlands .......... L. H. Alsmeyer..... Sebring ..... Miss May Winfield
Hillsborough ........ C. P. Wright ......Plant City (E) Miss Motelle Madole
.................. ...................Tampa (W).. Miss Allie Rush
Holmes ........ ..................... Bonifay ..... Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Indian River ........ W. E. Evans.......Vero Beach ... .....................
Jackson ........... Sam Rountree ..... Marianna .... Miss Mary Sue Wigley
Jefferson ........... E. H. Finlayson..... Monticello ... Miss Ruby Brown
Lafayette .......... D. C. Geiger........ Mayo ...... .....................
Lake .............. C. R. Hiatt......... Tavares ..... Mrs. Mary Allen
Lee ................ W. P. Hayman...... Fort Myers... Miss Anna Mae Sikes
Leon ............... G. C. Hodge........Tallahassee .. Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum
Levy .............. N. J. Albritton..... Bronson ..... ......................
Liberty ............Dewey H. W ard.... Bristol .............................
Madison ............ B. E. Lawton....... Madison ..... ....................
Manatee ............ L. H. Wilson....... Bradenton ... Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion .........'.... Clyde H. Norton ... Ocala ........ Miss Tillie Roesel
Martin ............. C. P. Heuck........ Stuart ..............................
Okaloosa ........... Joseph W. Malone.. Crestview .... Miss Bertha Henry
Okeechobee ........ C. A. Fulford...... Okeechobee .........................
Orange ............. K. C. Moore........ Orlando ..... Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola .......... J. R. Gunn........ Kissimmee ... Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach ........ M. U. Mounts....... W. Palm Beach Mrs..Edith Y. Barrus
Pinellas ............ William Gomme.... Clearwater ... Mrs. Joy Belle Hess
Polk .............. F. L. Holland ...... Bartow ...... Miss Lois Godbey
.......................................Bartow (Asst.) Miss Mosel Preston
St. Johns .......... E. H. Vance ....... St. Augustine. Miss Anna Heist
St. Lucie ...........Alfred Warren ... Ft. Pierce...........................
Santa Rosa ......... John G. Hudson.... Milton ....... Miss Eleanor Barton
Taylor ............. R. S. Dennis ....... Perry ...... .....................
Union .............. L. T. Dyer ........ Lake Butler... Miss Pearl Jordan
Volusia ............. T. A. Brown .......DeLand ...... Miss Orpha Cole
Wakulla ........... D. M. Treadwell.... Crawfordville .......................
Walton ............. Mitchell Wilkins ... DeFuniak
Springs .... Miss Eloise McGriff
Washington ........ Gus York ......... Chipley ............................

*This list correct to December 31, 1929.

C Ic r i

Fig. 1.-Home demonstration agents help club women to save the surplus by canning.



Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report
of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1929, and a summary of
the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1929.

College of Agriculture Funds-
Smith-Lever, Federal ....................... $ 58,872.25
Smith-Lever, State .......................... 48,872.25
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal.......... 18,774.46
Capper-Ketcham, Federal .................... 20,000.00
U. S. D. A. Appropriation.................... 21,475.00
State Appropriations ........................ 50,837.37
County Appropriations ...................... 144,108.96

Administration ............................... $ 7,687.64
Publications .................................... 7,311.69
County Agent Work ..................... ..... 171,620.36
Home Demonstration Work .................... 121,684.60
Boys' Club Work ............................. 6,784.87
Dairy Husbandry ............................... 5,193.36
Negro Extension Work .......................... 22,517.47
Plant Pathology ............................... 5,337.05
Poultry Husbandry ............................. 4,687.43
Extension Schools, Farmers' Week................ 2,579.48
National Egg-Laying Contest ..................... 4,537.00
Balance .................................... .. 2,999.34

Florida Cooperative Extension

The Agricultural Extension Service organization consists of
supervisors as follows: director, vice-director and county agent
leader, three district agents, one state home demonstration agent,
one assistant state agent, three district home demonstration
agents; specialists: boys' club agent, citrus pathologist and ento-
mologist, dairyman, poultryman, extension nutritionist, food and
marketing agent, and two district agents for the Negro work.
The revenue supporting extension work is provided from the
following sources: (1) appropriations by the United States De-
partment of Agriculture, (2) appropriations by the legislature
of the State of Florida, and (3) county appropriations. These
appropriations are governed by Acts of Congress and the State
Legislature and are administered by the Agricultural Extension
Service. The authority for making county appropriations is
provided in a clause permitting county boards to make a levy for
agriculture and home economics purposes, thereby permitting
county boards to enter into agreement with the Extension Service
for the employment of county and home demonstration agents.
All appointments for extension work are approved by the State
Board of Control and by the Extension Service of the United-
States Department of Agriculture before they become effective.
The cooperation in counties has remained about the same as in
1928, but with some interruption on account of reduced values
and reduced business. Extension work in Florida is dependent
on county appropriations, the average appropriation by counties
being about 300 percent of the amount applied by the federal and
state governments for the employment of county workers. Be-
cause of the more difficult financial situation generally over the
state, more trouble has been experienced the past year in securing
county funds.
Extension work during the past year has been-conducted in 52
Florida counties. In these counties agents are confronted with
agricultural and home economics problems of practically every
nature. In order that everyone shall be well informed and in a
position to take a leading part in the counties, it is the plan to
provide every facility so that the efficiency of these agents can
be increased. This is done by conferences with the Agricultural
College and Experiment Station and Florida State College for
Women staffs during annual meeting. These agents are supplied
with the latest information as published by the Florida Experi-
ment Station and the United States Department of Agriculture,

Annual Report, 1929

in addition to the help that. can be given by the extension special-
ists and subject matter workers in the colleges.

Special emphasis has been placed on soil improvement crops.
The acreage of winter legumes has been increased in. every county
where county agents were employed, followed by corn with in-
creased yields. In the southern part of the state a soil improve-
ment program, especially in citrus groves, using Crotalaria as a
summer cover crop, was carried out. This required the securing
of several tons of seed. These crops were handled according to
the recommendations of the agronomy department of the Experi-
ment Station.
In the fertilization of crops, county agents conducted work in
cooperation with the agronomy department of the Experiment
Station with corn, cotton, and peanuts. Demonstrations were
conducted to establish pastures and this has met with ready re-
sponse, due to an increased interest in livestock production in
the farming area.
In livestock, the county agents have given the greatest atten-
tion to fattening hogs for the high markets. This has resulted in
a large number of carloads of hogs being sold early in the season.
For the most part they were sold cooperatively with the help of
the State Marketing Bureau. More attention has been given to
beef cattle than in past years and this has been stimulated by the
eradication of the cattle tick. In the past five years a large num-
ber of range cattle has been sold off, thereby reducing the number
of beef cattle in the state. In order to improve the quality and
re-stock the ranges, special attention has been given to the man-
agement of beef cattle, and the introduction of high grade and
purebred breeding stock.
The ranges of West Florida support large flocks of range sheep.
These sheep are kept mainly for wool production, very little atten-
tion being paid to the production of mutton. Each year there is a
loss from parasites and an effort has been made in two counties
to give treatment under the supervision of the county agents.

The poultry and dairy extension work has been carried along
as usual and reports show an increase in production. In the
poultry work it has been largely with farm flocks, although some

Florida Cooperative Extension

assistance has been given to the commercial flocks. This work
has been a part of the home demonstration agents' programs and
applies to practically every county.
In dairy work some manufacturing plants have been estab-
lished in North Florida counties. These handle whole milk, also
sour cream. They have made speedy progress under good man-
agement and have had a fairly prosperous year.

As our most important horticultural crop is citrus, the grove
problems have been the most important. Fertilization, irrigation,
insect and disease control have been a large part of the agents'
programs in the citrus counties. Due to the presence of the Med-
iterranean fruit fly the county agents were pressed into service
in handling permits throughout central Florida, thereby reducing
the amount of usual extension work with the groves in that sec-
tion. Two district agents and one specialist were assigned to fruit
fly work during the summer months. Furthermore, the greatest
interest has centered around the fruit fly activities, making it
difficult for the county agents to carry out their work in the usual
The 4-H club work was conducted as usual under the direction
of the Boys' Club Agent. Emphasis was given to the establish-
ment of a 4-H camp for West Florida club work. This club site
has been greatly improved by the addition of buildings paid for
partly by the counties of West Florida.
It is planned to use this camp for club rallies and boys' and
girls' 4-H club camps. The annual short courses for 4-H club
members were held at the University and the State College for
Women during the month of June.
The extension program covered all projects and had the usual
response from the citizens of Florida. There is apparently need
for greater emphasis to improve the ranges and increase the num-
ber of good beef cattle. There is also a demand for extension
work in agricultural economics and for assistance in improving
the standards and grades of vegetables and fruit, and for coop-
erative marketing.

The Home Demonstration Work has its office at the State Col-
lege for Women, Tallahassee. The financing of this work is

Annual Report, 1929

similar to that of county agent work, that is the central office
contributes the same amount to the salaries of home demonstra-
tion agents as county agents. The state is divided into three
districts, each supervised by a district agent. Two specialists
are employed, in nutrition and in gardening and marketing, in
addition to the assistant state home demonstration agent, who is
responsible for a home improvement project. Each specialist
conducts her work over the entire area where home agents are
employed and conducts her work in cooperation with the plans
of the district agents.
A short course for winners in girls' 4-H club work is held
annually at the state College for Women, Tallahassee, where they
are accommodated in the dormitories and dining hall at a nominal
charge for meals and lodging. As far as possible county con-
tests and state meetings are conducted jointly with club members
and the supervisory staff in charge of men's work.

Negro extension work has its office at the Florida A. and M.
College for Negroes at Tallahassee. It is conducted in two divi-
sions, namely Farm Makers' Clubs and Home Makers' Clubs.
The direct supervision of each of these is under a district agent
who is supervised by the state leader and state home demonstra-
tion agent. The work is conducted in 14 counties with one agent
in each, either a man or a woman.
The lines of work deal principally with crop production, live-
stock, boys' and girls' clubs, marketing, short courses and organ-
izations. These Negro agents look to the subject matter special-
ists in the white district to guide them in their programs.
The annual short course is held at the Florida A. and M. Col-
lege, where the faculty offers its cooperation, including board and
lodging at actual cost, together with assistance from the faculty
in conducting programs.

The eighth annual Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was con-
ducted on the University campus August 13, to 18, 1929, with
an attendance of 935.
The usual program covering many subjects of interest to farm-
ing people was given by members of the Agricultural College,
Experiment Station, Extension Service and State Plant Board
staffs, with assistance from the Florida State Marketing Bureau,

Florida Cooperative Extension

Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, and speakers from other
Due to the presence of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Central
Florida the attendance from that section of the state was reduced.
However, the usual interest was apparent from other sections
of the state.
Farmers' Week opened at 11 a. m. Monday and continued until
Friday noon. The dormitories and dining room of the college were
made available to the visitors at a cost of $1.50 per day. Com-
mercial firms were permitted to display agricultural implements
and other goods that would be of interest to farmers. These were
placed in a separate tent where electric lights and ample seating
capacity were provided.
Sectional programs covering such divisions as horticulture,
farm crops, livestock, poultry, bee-keeping and home economics
were conducted. Each day at 11 a. m. the sectional programs
closed so that visitors might assemble in the auditorium to hear
Musical entertainment was provided throughout the program
with a special entertainment feature for each night. One after-
noon was devoted to a farmers' picnic at Hampton Beach, where
lunch and entertainment was provided free of cost to visitors.
Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week is an annual event occurring
each year immediately following the summer school session.
On receipt of the announcement that the Mediterranean Fruit
Fly had been found in Florida in April, 1929, all county and
supervisory agents were summoned to Orlando for information
on the appearance and plans that would be undertaken to eradicate
the fly. During this visit agents had an opportunity to see the
grove where the infestation was very general and where a large
amount of the fruit had dropped on account of the presence of
the fly. It was possible to see the fly at all stages of development
and get an insight as to its prevalence, appearance and its effect
on fruit and vegetable hosts.
Following this, practically all county agents were pressed into
emergency service in various ways. Many county agents were
given charge of clean-up squads for the purpose of getting rid
of fruit and vegetable hosts. District agents and specialists were
assigned to special territories and carried on educational work
in regard to presence and eradication of the Mediterranen fruit fly.

Annual Report, 1929

Two district agents were taken from their respective districts
from May until September. The Citrus Specialist was placed in
charge of all work in one county, having supervision over a number
of men engaged in fruit fly eradication work. On September 1
all county agents were released from issuing permits and super-
visory agents were permitted to return to their regular duties.
This work, together with unusual anxiety on the part of the grow-
ers, interfered with and changed many plans in county agents'
programs that had been made prior to finding the fly.
The request for these special services from the county agents
came from the counties in which they were working, due to the
fact that the county boards were not only appropriating funds to
apply on the county agents' salaries but were supplying additional
funds to help in eradication methods and preventing the spread
of the fly to a much larger territory. The value of the county
agents' services and the importance of having men and county
workers in full sympathy and touch with the situation had the
effect of bringing to the attention of many people the value of
the services that could be quickly used in any case of emergency.
In most of the counties where the fly was prevalent, this addi-
tional duty thrown on the agent in most cases doubled their duties
and increased their traveling expenses to the same extent. The
Extension Service is ready at all times to render such services or
in any other department when the farmers' interests are involved.

Prizes and awards to a total value of 18,563 dollars were given
to 4-H club boys and girls during the year for proficiency in their
work. This is encouraging to both members and workers, indi-
cating the high esteem in which club work is held by the business
world. In each case the winner of an award was selected by an
examination and the consideration of the member's efficiency in
club work.
Following is a list of the awards, with some of the winners:
The Florida Bankers' Association contributed three scholar-
ships valued at $100 each. The winners were as follows: Fred-
erick Barber, Escambia, Gray Miley, Hillsboro, Hugh Dukes,
Union County, for proficiency as determined by examination.
F. E. Dennis, Inc., appropriated $250 awarded to Hugh Dukes
as a prize for the state champion in breeding pig club work.
Armour and Company gave a trip to the National Club Con-
gress in Chicago, value $135, won by Dilworth Carter, Jefferson
County, awarded for the state champion in the fat barrow club.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Leon County bankers and business men donated trip to Chicago,
value $125, won by O. C. Brown, dairy club champion, also donated
Chicago trip, value $150, won by Mary Effa Bradley, Leon County,
for proficiency in club work.
Marion County Board of Trade gave a trip to the National Dairy
Show, value $125, won by John Williams, Marion County,
awarded for dairy club champion.
Farm and Live Stock Record donated trip to Chicago, value $135,
won by Cleveland Armstrong, for the reserve champion barrow
which was the progeny of a pig club sow.
The Synthetic Nitrogen Products Corporation donated trip to
Chicago, value $135, won by Vernon Simmons, Hillsboro County,
for producing the most corn on a club acre on which calcium nitrate
was used as a side-dressing.
The L. & N. Railway Company contributed a trip to Chicago,
value $135, won by Ralph Arant, Santa Rosa County, for the
champion 4-H club boy in their district. They also gave a similar
trip valued at $150 to Pearl Barber of Escambia County for pro-
ficiency in club work. They also contributed scholarships, value
$115, to 4-H girls' club members from Jackson, Holmes, Walton,
Santa Rosa and Escambia counties.
Congressman Tom Yon awarded two scholarships, value $100
each, won by Frederick Barber, Escambia County, and Evelyn
Labbe, Walton County, for the 4-H club boy and club girl in the
Third Congressional district who did the best leadership work.
The Atlantic Coast Line Railway Company awarded two trips
to the National 4-H club camp, Washington, D. C., value $100
each. These were won by William Platt, Marion County, and
Louise Owen, Nassau County, for state champion 4-H club boy
and girl. Interested citizens contributed $100 to defray the ex-
penses of Clifford Boyles of Nassau County to this camp.
The Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau gave a schol-
arship, value $100, won by Paul Simmons, Hillsboro County, for
4-H corn champion using nitrate of soda. This bureau also paid
the expenses of attending the boys' 4-H Short Course (total value
$70) for two boys in each of the following counties: Escambia,
Santa Rosa, Walton, Washington, Calhoun, Union and Citrus.
Also awarded prizes to a total value of $150 for the best three
girls' club gardens fertilized with Chilean nitrate of soda in each
of the three districts, and a prize of $50 to Mrs. H. M. Burgess,
Holmes County, for best woman's garden in state; also a prize of
$50 to the three communities in Gadsden County which had the
largest percentage of their members completing garden work.

Annual Report, 1929

Fig. 2.-Club boys and girls and state leaders at the National 4-H Club
Camp in Washington. Left to right: Miss Flavia Gleason, state home dem-
onstration agent; Clifford Boyles, Nassau County; Thelma Hood, Santa Rosa
County; William Platt, Marion County; Louise Owen, Nassau County; and
R. W. Blacklock, state boys' club agent.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The county commissioners and school boards of 40 counties
provided expenses to the short courses at Gainesville and Talla-
hassee for 4-H club members, value for boys $2,500 and for girls
$3,790. These club members were selected according to their
proficiency in 4-H club work.
Bankers, civic organizations, fairs and individuals contributed
$2,165 to defray expenses to short courses for 4-H club members
to attend short courses at Tallahassee. The selection was made
on proficiency in 4-H club work.
Southern Cotton Oil Company donated expenses of a trip to
Chicago, value $125, awarded to Lela Mae Duke, Walton County,
for proficiency in nutrition work. They also gave miscellaneous
articles to the value of $50 for salad demonstration winners from
four counties.
S. L. Allen Company donated prizes valued at $108, awarded to
4-H club members in 12 counties for proficiency in garden work.
Horace A. Moses donated two trips to leadership training
school, Springfield, Mass., to one boy and one girl formerly mem-
bers of 4-H clubs who had demonstrated outstanding ability in
leadership, value $200 each and awarded to Russell Henderson,
Madison County, and Mary LaFuse, Lake County.
Montgomery Ward & Company gave a trip to Chicago, value
$150, awarded to Uceba Jones, Palm Beach County, for proficiency
in 4-H club work.
The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs awarded two scholar-
ships, value $50 each, for best poultry and gardening records in
girls' 4-H club work, won by Anabel Raulerson, Alachua County,
and Lena Bennett, Union County; also trip to National 4-H Club
camp, value $100, won by Thelma Hood, Santa Rosa County.
State Senator W. C. Hodges gave one scholarship, value $200,
to F. S. C. W. for proficiency in girls' 4-H club work, won by
Rosalie Hawthorn.
Scholarships for training club girls in home economics at the
State College for Women were given by Dade, Hillsborough, Palm
Beach and Orange counties. They had a total value of $2,599.
The Florida legislature awarded expenses to Chicago, value
$300, for two 4-H club girls, Florence Smock, Lake County, and
Mildred Hilliard, Hernando County, to compete in the National
Health Contest.
The Soft Wheat Millers' Association provided $100 to be used
for prizes to seven club women of five counties who won in the
better baking contest at Farmers' Week.

Annual Report, 1929

The State Home Demonstration Council for Girls' Work pro-
vided one scholarship valued at $200, won by Hattie Fletcher,
Gadsden County, for proficiency in club work. This scholarship
was supplemented by a dining room scholarship awarded by the
State College for Women, Tallahassee, valued at $200.
The Florida Power Corporation provided prizes to the value of
$76.50 for some of the winners in the state home improvement
contest. Other prizes to the value of $62.50 were donated to
winners in this contest by interested individuals, the American
Wallpaper Company, Corning Glass Works, and the Iglehart
The Dixie Canner Company gave prizes to a total value of
$121.80 to the home demonstration agent in each district having
the highest average in canning. These prizes are being used in
canning work in the counties.
In the all-year garden contest prizes worth $160 were awarded
by the Francis C. Stokes Seed Company, Kilgore Seed Company,
Glen St. Mary Nursery, Royal Palm Nurseries, Stumpp and Walter
Nursery, and Reasoner Seed Company.
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., gave $50 to the State Home Demonstra-
tion Council for Girls' work to be used' in their scholarship fund,
and a silver loving cup, valued at $25, to the standard girls' 4-H
club in the state making highest score. This was awarded to the
Glendale Club in Walton County. This firm also presented a sil-
ver loving cup, valued at $25, to the senior home demonstration
council making the highest score. This was awarded to Lee
The Florida State College for Women contributed dining-room
scholarships valued at $5,200 to 26 former club girls now attend-
ing the college.
The Extension Service gratefully acknowledges these contri-
butions by interested citizens and business firms. They have
contributed very much to the interest and value of extension work
throughout the state.

Florida Cooperative Extension

R. M. FULGHUM, Assistant Editor

During the year 85,966 copies of 13 bulletins, circulars, calen-
dars, and other extension material were published. These amount-
ed to 302 printed pages. Also 28,560 copies of 42 issues of the
Weekly Agricultural News Service were printed by the Extension
Service. Following is a list of the publications issued during the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1929.
Title Pages Edition
Bul. 49-Food, Nutrition and Health for School Children... 56 5,000
Bul. 50-Save the Surplus (by Canning) .................. 48 10,218
Bul. 51-Home Canning of Meat ........................ 24 10,000
Bul. 52-Lessons for Pig Club Members ................... 44 10,000
Bul. 53-Feeding the Dairy Cow ........................ 40 7,500
Bul. 54-Vetch and Austrian Peas for Soil Improvement .... 16 5,142
Bul. 55-Rejuvenating Furniture ........................ 12 5,000
Circ. 16-Agricultural Extension News and How to Write It.. 12 1,000
Circ. 974-First Year Sewing Program for Girls' Clubs
(Reprinted Twice) ........................... 16 20,000
Circ. 976-Third Year Sewing Program for Girls' Clubs
(Reprint) ................................. 8 5,000
Circ. 982-Standards and Score Cards for Home-Canned
Products (Reprint) .......................... 12 1,500
Final Report Second Florida National Egg-Laying Contest ... 16 1,200
1929 Calendar ......................................... 12 9,406
Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 weeks) ...........:. 1 28,560

In addition, a number of record books, charts, pads, and other
miscellaneous supplies were printed during the year. These in-
cluded daily summary sheets and record cards, all-year garden
contest, nutrition record book, chart for meal planning, sewing
book, chart for food, nutrition and health, home egg-laying contest
pads, club diplomas, and cards advertising demonstrations.
Fifty-one weekly and 12 monthly reports of the third Florida
National Egg-Laying Contest were issued and distributed from
Chipley, the material for these being prepared and handled by
the contest supervisor. Seven hundred copies of each were dis-
tributed. The first four weekly and eight monthly reports were
printed, and the remaining 47 weekly and four monthly reports
were mimeographed.
Distribution of Extension publications and printed supplies is
handled from the mailing room, which is under the supervision of
the Editors. Home demonstration bulletins and circulars are
distributed, usually, from the State Home Demonstration office

Annual Report, 1929

at Tallahassee. Thousands of copies of bulletins and various
classes of supplies were distributed during the year.

As usual, the Agricultural News Service, weekly clipsheet, was
the principal means used to carry extension information to the
people of Florida through the newspapers. Nine to 10 stories a
week are sent out through this service, and are largely clipped and
reprinted by weekly newspapers in the agricultural counties of
Service to daily papers of the state is provided through the
mail service of the Associated Press. During the year ending
November 30, 1929, 129 stories were sent to the state mail service
of the Associated Press and were distributed by it to its 45 mem-
ber papers.
From time to time special stories are sent directly to daily
papers from this office. During the year 23 special stories were
sent to dailies direct, and were used by these papers.
The Extension Editor conducts a farm page in one of the state
dailies and contributes to such a page in another. Both farm
pages appear each Sunday, and numerous stories concerning ex-
tension activities and hints are printed.
During Farmers' Week a special page was run in one of the
Gainesville dailies from Tuesday through Friday. The stories
for this page were prepared by the Extension Editors, and copies
of the paper were distributed free to visitors. Numerous special
Farmers' Week stories were sent to other dailies. Posters, stuff-
ers, programs and other Farmers' Week publicity material were
prepared and distributed.
A plan which was tried this year for the first time, and which
was fairly successful, was the preparation of special stories about
demonstrations and tours. Three different stories of this type
were prepared and sent to 16 county agents to be turned over by
them to their local papers. These were used by about three-
fourths of the papers in the 16 counties.
During the year 20 stories were used by the farm and grove
section of 50 Florida papers. This section appears monthly, and
the stories from this office used in it amounted to 479 column
The service of this office to farm papers is especially well re-
ceived and widely used. A total of 44 stories were sent to six dif-
ferent Southern and state farm papers during the year. These

Florida Cooperative Extension

amounted to 1,656 column inches of printed material. Three
stories, amounting to 50 inches of printed material, were sent to
two national farm magazines during the year. In addition, many
stories from the Agricultural News Service were clipped and
printed by Florida farm papers.
Material was supplied at infrequent intervals to publications
of the United States Department of Agriculture.

Since the opening of state and University radio station WRUF
on November 11, 1928, regular farm programs have been put on
the air. For the first few weeks these occupied 15 minutes daily,
later being changed to 30 minutes three times a week, and still
later being changed to 30 minutes daily except Sunday. These
programs were supervised by the Assistant Editor. Extension
specialists, Experiment Station staff members, the faculty of the
College of Agriculture, and others wrote and delivered papers.
Releases of the United States Department of Agriculture were
read. The Extension Editor prepared and read 11 talks during
the year ending November 30, 1929.

Two girls from each county were trained in news writing at the
Girls' Club Short Course, as were 10 outstanding boys at the Boys'
Club Short Course. These club members evidenced considerable
interest in their courses, and many of them are now helping to
issue county club news sheets and to send in club news to the
Three girls in the eastern part of Hillsborough County were
trained to assist their home demonstration agent with publicity
in the two Plant City papers. Each club secretary sends in a
report, and the girls take the reports and work them into news-
paper shape.
SSome special training and help was given to one county agent
at his office during the year, and talks on news writing were
made at the annual conference of county and home demonstra-
tion agents.

Annual Report, 1929


A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent
W. T. NETTLES, District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent

The regular work has been seriously interfered with by the
Mediterranean fruit fly appearing in Florida. The federal quar-
antine went into effect upon three days' notice and all county
agents were drafted as permit men in order to move the fruit and
vegetable crop without delay. The county agents handled the
situation in a creditable manner. Their efforts in getting a vol-
untary clean-up of fruits and vegetables by the growers were
very effective. In an emergency of this kind the value of the
Extension Service was clearly demonstrated, both to the growers
and to the regulatory forces. Taking the whole year's work into
consideration, the work accomplished has been satisfactory, al-
though much of the work was not of the exact nature as planned
at the beginning of the year.
Storms during 1928 and early spring of 1929 virtually destroyed
crops and credit of many farmers of the North and Northwest
Florida territory. A Federal Farm Seed Loan Act was passed by
Congress. The district and county agents assisted 561 farmers
of 16 counties to secure loans amounting to nearly $250,000, of
which $123,823.43 was from the Farmers' Seed Loan Office.

Special effort was made during 1929 to get the extension pro-
gram and improved practices and results of demonstrations be-
fore the people. The county agents published numerous news
articles in local newspapers pertaining to their demonstrations
and projects. Pictures of demonstrations and county agents in
action have been published in daily papers. Photographs of
groups of farmers on demonstration tours have been in print.
Thousands of circular letters were mailed to farmers. The Dis-
trict Agents and the Agricultural News Editor have prepared
and published in the Agricultural News sheet, at opportune times,
news articles pertaining to projects. This paper goes to all coun-

Florida Cooperative Extension

ty newspapers in the state who in turn copy many of these ar-
ticles. Tours of farmers were conducted by the county agents
of their respective counties assisted by the District Agent to the
crop demonstrations. From 15 to 300 farmers were on each of
these tours. Eighteen addresses were made by District Agents
before civic organizations. A total of 212 project meetings were
attended by 17,241 people in the interest of extension programs
and projects. Eleven radio talks were made.

The agents of nine counties, namely: Escambia, Santa Rosa,
Okaloosa, Walton, Washington, Jackson, Calhoun, Jefferson and
Madison, attended community meetings and, assisted by the Dis-
trict Agent, helped the people outline extension programs for the
year. Twenty-four communities were assisted in such a way.
Special features were considered, such as soil improvement, ferti-
lizer, corn, cotton, and hogs. It was arranged that definite, con-
crete demonstrations be arranged for and conducted in the com-
munities. The demonstrations were outlined and in many cases
demonstrators secured. In virtually every one of these communi-
ties these demonstrations were successful and the composite re-
sults will be found on the following pages.

Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 409
Voluntary county, community and local leaders ..................... 599
Clubs carrying on extension work ............................... 293
Memberships ................. ....................3 ,... 3,237
Farm visits made by county agents.............................. 34,407
Different farms visited ................................ ..... 13,596
Average number days spent in office ............................. 91
Average number days spent in field .............................. 221
Official letters witten ................ .................. ... 53,408
Exhibits at fairs ................................... ............. 65
Community ................... .............. 29
County .......................... ......... .. 36
State ............... ............... ......... 2

Number Attendance
Farmers' meetings held ........................... 2,178 31,151
Extension schools and short courses held ............. 29 3,028
Total attendance club members, junior encampments
and rallies .................... .... .. .................. 598

Annual Report, 1929

Of Outlined Projects by County Agents
Number Days agents
communities devoted to
participating projects
Soils ............................. .......... 314 969
Farm crops ................................ 372 1,877
Horticulture .................................. 336 2,2131/2
Forestry ................................... 37 93%
Rodents, predatory animals and birds ............ 106 416
Animal husbandry .......................... 289 1,624/2
Dairy husbandry ............................ 178 610
Poultry husbandry ........................... 245 7481/2
Rural engineering .......................... 167 2931/2
Agricultural economics ........................ 280 6991/2
Miscellaneous work .......................... 117 915
Community activities .......................... 26 1351/
Total ...................................2,467 10,5951/2

The care of the soil is a basic problem in Florida, due to climatic
conditions, which are conducive to a quick burning out of the
organic matter and a leaching of the available plant food elements.
It is necessary to maintain the humus content of the soil in order
to grow maximum crops and secure the greatest benefits from
commercial fertilizers. This is especially true in commercial
citrus production where the land is growing the same crop through
a period of years. Where organic matter is returned to the soil
in large quantities, citrus growers can use to advantage more of
the cheaper forms of nitrogen.
Truck crops are rotated more or less and natural cover crops
of the grasses and beggarweed follow these crops, which cover
crops enable continued cropping of the same land. A cover crop
which exactly fits into the system of growing truck crop has not
been found yet and, for the present, cowpeas, beggarweed and
-velvet beans best supplement the natural cover crops.
The efforts of county agents in Central and South Florida in
soil improvement by the increased use of cover crops has been
successful. Crotalaria has been the crop most used. Approxi-
mately 70,000 pounds of this seed was imported, being handled
direct from the producers to the growers through the county
agents' efforts. Crotalaria will produce more tonnage on light
citrus soils than any other cover crop we grow. The results of
this work is very evident and already the total seed available for
1930 has been arranged for by growers.
In the fall of 1925 an effort was started by the county agent of
Bay County and the District Agent to grow hairy vetch during

Florida Cooperative Extension

the winter to turn into the land to add humus and nitrogen to
the soil. Two hundred twenty pounds of seed were planted on
about ten one-acre plots. Some of these were successful, others
failed. But how the interest and success has grown is shown by
amount of seed sown each year.
It is as follows:
1926- 600 pounds of vetch.
1927- 6,000 pounds of Austrian Peas and Vetch
1928- 50,000 "
1929-105,760 "

About April 1 the Agronomist of the Experiment Station and
District Agent visited 70 fields of Austrian peas and vetch, and

Fig. 3.-L. H. Alsmeyer, agent, Highlands County, in Crotalaria. County
Agent Alsmeyer was one of six winners in a soil improvement conducted in
the Southern States by a fertilizer association. His winning was the result
of the work he had done in encouraging citrus growers of Highlands County
to plant Crotalaria.

in the presence of groups of farmers assembled, cut the green
material from an area and computed growth per acre. The growth
ranged from 1,500 pounds to 24,000 pounds and averaged 9,763
pounds. This crop was then turned under and followed by other
crops, principally corn. From reports obtained the crops grown

Annual Report, 1929

following this manure crop were from 100 to 200 per cent larger
than in check plots.
Some of the land is too poor to grow these winter cover crops.
During the spring, 1,000 pounds of Crotalaria striata was sown
and our initial demonstrations in North and West Florida were
started with it. This is a legume that grows in summer. There
were as high as 48,000 pounds of green matter produced per acre
on some of the plots.
Four seasons ago Mr. Newsome of Blountstown secured a small
package of Crotalaria seed and sowed it in a corn field. It has
reseeded each year and during 1927 and 1928 the land was not
farmed but the Crotalaria grew. The field was planted to corn
this year. Where Crotalaria grew and where it didn't was fer-
tilized alike with commercial fertilizer. The -area on which
the Crotalaria had grown produced 41.2 bushels per acre and the
rest produced 25.4 bushels per acre.
During the year 325 manure and cover crop demonstrations
consisting of 2,128 acres have been conducted by the county
agents, and now they have started under way 459 demonstrations
consisting of,4,230 acres.
It has been the practice of our farmers to use only 233 pounds
of a low grade fertilizer per acre to cotton and none or only a
small amount of a low grade or poor fertilizer for corn. This
year, 459 demonstrations in fertilizing cotton with 400 pounds
of acid phosphate, 100 pounds muriate of potash and 200 pounds
nitrate of soda or 100 or more pounds of a nitrogen-carrying
element applied to corn as a side-dressing, have been conducted.
These have given gratifying results. This is a culmination of a
four-year campaign to educate the people to a better understand-
ing of their fertilizer need. It has been stated by interested ob-
servers that considerable progress has been made in getting
farmers to intelligently use commercial fertilizer.
Reports from agents in the southern district show that the use
of manganese and copper sulphate on marshland has made marked
improvement in the production of vegetables. Incrcease in the
production of beans around Homestead, Dade County, are report-
ed by the growers as high as 100% and other vegetables from
25% to 50% by the use of manganese. Other items do not show
as high increase.
Demonstrations given ............................... .. ... 1,562
Acres involved in completed demonstrations ...................... 5,920
Farmers influenced to change methods soil management ............ 2,582

Florida Cooperative Extension

Farmers following advice in use of commercial fertilizers ........... 1,554
Tons commercial fertilizer involved ............................... 18,788
Farmers taking better care of farm manures ...................... 301
Farmers using lime or limestone ................................ 124
Tons of lime or limestone so used ............. ............. 1,022
Farmers who plowed under cover crops for soil improvements ...... 631
Acres of cover and green manure so plowed under .................. 12,745

Corn.-The land in North and West Florida grown to corn
equals 61.7% of the whole in cultivation. The average yield is
a little less than 14 bushels per acre. The average cost is better
than one dollar per bushel. Corn can usually be bought on the
market for less than that. It cannot be sold on the market for

Fig. 4.-Five club boys in Hillsborough County produced over 100 bushels
of corn on each of their acres.

a profit and it is too expensive to be converted into livestock
which in turn would be placed on the market.
The farmers are small operators, farming only a small acreage.
Therefore the cost of production must be reduced by increasing
the production per acre. The county and district agents planned
to do this by a more intelligent use of commercial fertilizer, by
growing Austrian peas and vetch and turning them into the land,
and by the use of better seed. Following the findings of the
Alabama Experiment Station, 100 to 200 pounds per acre as a
side-dressing of a fertilizing element carrying a quickly available
nitrogen is being recommended.

Annual Report, 1929

In line with these plans there have been 339 corn production
demonstrations conducted with an average increased yield of 22
bushels of corn per acre at a cost of 66 cents per bushel. Ap-
proximately twice the acreage will be planted to corn following
a winter cover crop in 1930 as was in 1929. There will be a con-
siderable increase in amount of corn side-dressed with nitrogen.
In Hillsborough County 54 boys finished corn club work with
an average yield of 67 bushels per acre. These boys planted corn
after spring truck crops, used good seed and fertilized with nitrate
of soda and calcium nitrate as a side-dressing.
In the southern section corn and sorghum are used extensively
for silage on dairy farms. Demonstrations this year have shown
the value of good silage with plenty of grain in it over poor silage.

(Corn, Oats, etc.)
Number demonstrations given .................................. 684
Acreage grown under demonstrations ............................ 1,736
Boys' and girls' clubs ................ ......................... 21
Acreage grown by club members ................................. 357
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) ................. 15,824
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ...................... 850
Farmers who planted selected and improved seed .................. 463
Farmers who treated seed grain for smut, first time ................ 25
Cotton.-During the last six years the average Florida cotton
grower has produced 374 pounds of seed cotton per acre per year
and sustained a loss of approximately $10.00 per acre. During
that time he has used nondescript seed and 233 pounds of low
grade commercial fertilizer valued only at $3.44. During the same
period there were conducted in North and West Florida 218
demonstrations using good seed of improved varieties, $9.26 worth
of high grade commercial fertilizer. These demonstrations re-
turned a net income of $32.92 per acre. Following this lead and
the recommendation of Experiment Stations there were 288 dem-
onstrations conducted that produced an average of 362 pounds
seed cotton per acre more than the check by it, or a larger net
income approximating $15.00 per acre.
In the Central Florida district three 5-acre cotton demonstra-
tions gave an average increase of 209 pounds seed cotton.

Number demonstrations given ............................... 151
Acreage grown under improved methods ....................... 7581/2
Farms influenced to adopt better practice ...................... 383
Boys' and girls' clubs ........................................ 32
Members enrolled .......................................... 269
Acreage grown by club members ............................. 137
Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) .................... 127,667
Farmers who planted improved seed first time .................. 257

Florida Cooperative Extension

Peanuts.-It has been determined by research workers that
the yield of Spanish peanuts can be increased more by thick
spacing-closer rows and closer in the drill-than by any other
means. There were conducted during the year 66 demonstra-
tions to show the value of this close spacing. On one demonstra-
tion in Jackson County 90 bushels were produced as against 53
bushels on the check. This shows the ratio of increase on these
66 demonstrations.
Sugar Cane.-In virtually every farming county the ordinary
varieties of sugar cane are affected with mosaic and root-knot.
Cayana-10 has proven to be resistant to both and yields consider-
ably more syrup. The county agents of every county have con-
ducted demonstrations this year to show this superiority. Some
of them have conducted fertilizer demonstrations. The difference
in yield is shown by one demonstration in Jefferson County con-
Sducted on the place of W. J. Hatchett. The common sugar cane
yielded 76% gallons per acre and the Cayana-10 right by it pro-
duced 307 gallons per acre. As a result of these demonstrations
there will be hundreds of acres planted to Cayana-10 next season.

(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)
Number method demonstrations given ........................... 390
Number result demonstrations under way .......................... 462
Number result demonstrations completed ......................... 383
Acres in completed demonstrations ............................. 4,566

The native range in West Florida is poor, producing very little
beef and it is practically no good for dairy cattle. In grazing
experiments conducted by the Animal Husbandry and Agronomy
departments of the Experiment Station it has been seen that an
acre of improved pasture will produce approximately 250 pounds
of beef, furnishing about 9 months grazing, an abundance of
cheap feed. The county agents have started during the year 43
pasture demonstrations involving 484 acres. A few successful
pastures have been established. Many more will be established
during 1930.
In Central Florida interest in improvement of pastures is
gradually increasing. The first of the demonstration pastures
are now four years old. Pasture work is a long-time type of
project and several years yet will be required to get this going
on a big scale. This year 23 demonstrations were completed on

Annual Report, 1929

396 acres. These demonstration pastures are of small size but
are effective in showing the value of improved grasses. Carpet,
Bahia, Dallis and lespedeza are the grasses being seeded in most
of the demonstrations.
One demonstration in Martin County reports a planting of five
acres in mixed grasses in May and this fall was supporting 15
to 20 cows. The dairyman on whose farm this demonstration
was carried on estimated a yearly saving on his feed bill alone of
Citrus and truck crops are the chief money crops in most of
the Central and South Florida territory. The greater part of the
county agents' time is devoted to work in horticulture. A great
amount of personal service work is required, such as inspections
of groves and truck crops for insects and diseases in order to
give advice on control measures and on methods of cultivation and
fertilization. Each grove and truck crop is a unit in itself and
requires this personal inspection by the agent in order to make
proper and timely recommendations.
A series of citrus field meetings had been planned and ar-
ranged for in the spring. The purpose was to stress cover crops,
insect and disease control, fertilization and irrigation. The fruit
fly was discovered just prior to the dates for beginning these meet-
ings, so the program was changed to permit a thorough discus-
sion of the fruit fly and give growers first-hand information on
this pest and the proposed control measures. Fifteen such meet-
ings were held in eight citrus counties during April with an at-
tendance of 870 growers. In such small meetings conducted
largely as round table discussions growers had an opportunity to
take an active part in the discussions.
Ninety-two demonstrations were carried to completion on 2,755
acres of citrus; 264 growers adopted improved practices in some
phase of citrus production.
The three phases of citrus culture where the most outstanding
work of the year has been done are (1) assistance rendered in
fruit fly eradication work, (2) increased acreage in legume cover
crops, (3) changes in fertilizer practices ih conjunction with
cover crop work where costs of production were lowered by (a)
reducing fertilizer per application made possible by growing
legume cover crops and (b) use of cheaper forms of nitrogen
where organic matter had been added to the soil by cover crops
turned in.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Six agents have conducted groups of growers from their coun-
ties to inspect fertilizer experimental plots at the citrus station
at Lake Alfred. These experiments have been running for eight
years now and results are becoming apparent.
The commercial production of satsumas, blueberries, grapes and
pears in West Florida is a relatively new industry. County agents
have demonstrated to the growers the proper methods of setting,
spraying, pruning and cultivating. They have this year conducted
cover crop demonstrations, using Crotalaria. Picking bags and
clippers where shown and proper methods of using them demon-
strated. Packinghouses and sales organizations have been or-
ganized and established.

Number method demonstrations given ......................... 2,305
Number result demonstrations ............................. 1,870
Result demonstrations completed during year .................. 1,272
Acres involved in demonstrations ............................. 9,224%
Number of boys' clubs ....................................... 78
Membership ............................................... 470
Number planting improved stock or seed first time .............. 1,258
Number pruning first time ................................... 436
Trees involved .............................................. 33,141
Acres involved ............................................. 475
Number spraying or treating for diseases and insect pests ....... 5,803
Acres treated ............................................. 3,707
Number farms adopting improved practices .................... 2,059

A large part of the work in connection with growing truck crops
such as beans, cabbage, celery, cucumbers, eggplant, lettuce,
peppers, tomatoes and watermelons is carried on as personal
service work similar to much of the citrus work. Soil types and
conditions vary so widely that personal inspection is required to
make correct recommendations. Seed treatment, fertilization,
insect and disease control, spraying and spray mixing are major
lines of truck crop work.
During the year 54 demonstrations involving 347 acres of truck
crops were reported by the agents in this territory. One hundred
and forty-four farmers sprayed or dusted truck crops who had not
previously sprayed or dusted these crops, and 259 farmers adopt-
ed improved practices with truck crops.
Number of demonstrations given ............................... 428
Acreage grown under improved methods .......................... 1,317
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ...................... 436
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed .................... 255

Annual Report, 1929

Farmers who treated seed for disease ............................. 115
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects ....... 204
Grapes.-The growing of grapes in Florida is a relatively new
industry which has been making good progress. Many of the
problems have been worked out, in part, at least. At this time
enough demonstrations have been made to prove the value of
Crolataria as a cover crop in vineyards. This work is being
pushed, especially in Lake County, which county has the largest
acreage in grapes. Results this year were so evident that plans
are already under way to seed several of the largest vineyards
in the county to Crotalaria next spring. The grape is a heavy
feeder and our best adapted soils for this fruit cannot produce
the best crops unless quantities of organic matter are added to
the soil.
A few definite corn weevil control demonstrations were con-
ducted during the year. More cribs were fixed and more corn
treated with carbon disulphide this fall than ever before. Eighteen
cribs have been built and several thousand bushels of corn fumi-
gated, using four pounds of carbon disulphide to one thousand
cubic feet of space. Farmers' meetings will be held at these next
Thirty-eight boll weevil control demonstrations were conducted.
Demonstrations given ................ ...................... 2,654
Acres in completed demonstrations ............................. 4,227
Farmers adopting control measures ............................. 5,695
Acres involved ............................................. 18,604
Swine.-Swine is one of the most consistent revenue-producing
crops the North Florida farmer has. Many farmers yet grow
them for home or local consumption. These hogs are permitted
to run on the range, resulting in losses during the spring and
summer from starvation. Others are small and under-nourished
when placed on feed. Many are of scrub stock. These conditions
prevented the farmers from placing the hogs on the market when
prices were highest, in August, September and October.
Extension agents planned in 1926 to improve this situation.
That year on October 28 the first car was sold cooperatively.
By getting farmers to put in grazing crops such as rye and oats,
peas and rape, and supplementing this with sweet potatoes and

Florida Cooperative Extension

corn, the hogs were larger when fattening feeds were ready.
Farmers have planted early corn, peas, and Spanish peanuts to be
pastured in July. As a result of this 314 farmers marketed 2,458
head during August and September. Better than 100 cars were
shipped cooperatively by October 28, 1929, in addition to many
trucked to market. This gave an increased income from these
hogs of approximately $25,000.
There have been 116 purebred sires and 98 dams placed on the
farms this year as a result of county agent activity.
In Central Florida the Cooperative Hog Marketing Association
in Levy County has had the best year since it was organized.
This association has grown to such an extent that the member-
ship has more than doubled during the current year. The asso-
ciation at Newberry is functioning and is in position to go through
the year much better than last year. These two associations
have marketed 18 cars of hogs to date.
Only two agents in this territory inoculate hogs. The State
Live Stock Sanitary Board takes care of this work in other coun-
Fifty-one farmers were assisted in securing purebred boars and
58 in securing high grade or purebred females. One hundred
and forty-two farmers were influenced to inoculate as a preventive
against hog cholera and 359 were assisted in adopting improved
practices with hogs.
The two counties in the district with the best pig clubs were
Marion and Sumter.
Demonstrations given ..................................... 1,342
Animals in completed demonstrations ......................... 9,183
Savings resulting from better practices ....................... $12,317.64
Farmers who secured purebred sires ...'....................... 209
Farmers assisted in obtaining purebred females ................ 182
Farmers who fed better balanced rations ....................... 208
Farmers culling breeding stock ................................ 86
Number of animals culled out ................ .... ....... 2,669
Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests ................ 214
Farmers who vaccinated for cholera ......................... 2,057
Number farms adopting improved practices ................... 2,170
Beef Cattle.-In Central and South Florida dipping to eradi-
cate the cattle tick was begun by state and federal forces in one
county (Levy) of the district this year. The coming spring two
other counties (Marion and Alachua) are prepared to begin this
work. Beef cattle appear likely to command a good market
price for several years. Interest is good for bringing in improved
bulls as soon as ticks have been eradicated. Pasture work will

Annual Report, 1929

be pushed in these counties during the coming year. Farmers
were assisted in the purchase of three purebred bulls and one
feeding demonstration is now in progress.
The tick has now been eradicated from North and West Flor-
ida counties. Beef cattle production is now assuming a more
important role. Heretofore it has been strictly a "range scrub"
proposition. The State Live Stock Sanitary Board has introduced
many Aberdeen-Angus bulls and a few cows. The county agents
have assisted farmers in getting 82 bulls and 29 cows during the
recent year. They are influencing farmers in some instances to
care for them better. They have assisted in assembling and
marketing a few carloads of beef cattle.
Sheep.-There are approximately 43,000 sheep in North and
Northwest Florida. The number has been decreasing for years.
These sheep are on the range. Wild animals and dogs kill some
each year. But internal parasites-worms-are responsible for
the largest mortality. By drenching with a solution of nicotine
sulphate and copper sulphate these can be removed. Demonstra-
tions on three flocks have been conducted during the last two sea-
sons. The results show stronger sheep, less mortality among
them, 25% increase in the lamb crop and 1/-pound heavier fleeces.
The influence of these demonstrations is spreading and next sea-
son the county agents will carry the message to all sheep owners
and many more flocks will be treated.
Dairy Cattle.-The dairy situation has made substantial prog-
ress. More home-grown feed is being produced and more atten-
tion being given to improved pastures than ever before. Marion,
Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, and Madison counties are conduct-
ing dairying on a sound basis and are beginning to secure the bene-
fits from the calves and heifers imported since 1927. The ex-
hibits of dairy cattle at the Marion County fair this fall were the
best ever shown at this fair.
County agents conducted 28 demonstrations with dairymen,
1,247 head of cattle being involved in these demonstrations. They
assisted in the purchase of 4 purebred bulls, 70 purebred heifers
and in culling 10 herds, 436 head were culled and 98 culls taken
from the herds. They assisted 204 dairymen in adopting im-
proved practices.
Number demonstrations given .................................... 419
Animals in completed demonstrations ............................. 3,008
Saving resulting from better practices...........................$5,678
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices....................... 800
Farmers assisted in securing purebred sires ........................ 62

Florida Cooperative Extension

Farmers assisted in securing high grade or purebred females ........ 121
Farmers who culled their herds .................................. 61
Animals in these herds ........................... .......... .... 1,958
Animals discarded ............................................. 484
Farmers' associations who tested cows for production............... 37
Cows tested for production ...................................... 2,067
Farmers who fed better balanced rations ......................... 264
Farmers who controlled insect pests .............................. 67
Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis ...................... 69
Number of farms adopting more sanitary production methods ..... 186


The program of the Extension Poultryman in "growing healthy
chicks" was stressed by practically every agent in the district.
Sanitation and the control of parasites has been a feature of the
work also this year. The agents have backed the "Home Egg-
Lying Contest" as part of the extension poultry program, some
very gratifying results having been obtained through the feed-
ing of home-grown feed for egg production.
County agents conducted 119 demonstrations with 17,452 birds
during the year, and 193 culling demonstrations were conducted
where 24,811 birds were culled, over 5,000 culls being removed;
336 poultrymen were influenced to adopt improved practices with
some phase of their poultry work.

Demonstrations given ..................................... 770
Birds in these demonstrations ................................ 49,813
Saving resulting from better practices ........................$ 8,685.53
Number of farms assisted in securing purebred breeding stock .... 342
Poultrymen who culled their flocks ............................ 1,920
Number of birds in these flocks ............................... 57,312
Number of birds discarded ................................... 14,040


There are rolling lands in Jackson, Escambia, Hamilton, Jeffer-
son, Leon, Okaloosa, Washington, Walton, Santa Rosa, and Mad-
ison counties. There is an average rainfall of from 55 to 67 inches
per year in those counties. The county agents of these counties
conducted during the year 151 terracing demonstrations affecting
3,857 acres of land.
Forty-nine farmers and growers were assisted in installing or
improving the drainage systems where 1,832 acres were drained.
Thirty-five farmers and growers were assisted in installing irri-
gation systems on 757 acres. They have been advised on and
furnished plans for constructing 62 farm houses, 32 barns, 6 hog

Annual Report, 1929

houses, 40 poultry houses, 5 silos, and 42 miscellaneous farm
Irrigation systems in citrus groves and trucking sections have
been installed on a number of farms this year. In one county
more than 40 water-control systems were put in the past year.
Water control in the vegetable area is developing very fast. These
control systems consist in a series of dykes and pumps by which
in case of excessive rains water can be pumped off or in the
case of dry weather pumped in on the crops.

(Things Done with Agents' Assistance and Advice)
Acres Number
Demonstrations given ............................... 502
Drainage systems installed...................... 44,227 224
Irrigation systems installed ...................... 5,125 290
Terraces or soil dams constructed.................... 3,902 155
W ater systems installed ............................ 34
Heating systems installed ...................... .. 1
Lighting systems installed ......................... 12
Farms on which buildings other than dwellings were
constructed or remodeled ...................... 162
Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled.... 295
Number sewage-disposal systems installed........... 17
Farmers who cleared land ......................... 309
Acres cleared .................................... 5,710
Number of farms adopting above practices for first
tim e ......................................... 838


In north and west Florida counties there were at the beginning
of the year 21 small cooperatives existing in the territory and
during the year 8 have been added. The county agents have
assisted in the organization of these and advised their manage-
In central and south Florida counties there are a number of
good strong farmers' cooperative organizations that have been
in existence for several years. The county agents cooperate with
these organizations and render any assistance they can, and work
in close contact with these organizations. During the year county
agents report assisting in forming 16 new farmers' organizations.
These organizations purchased $433,893 worth of supplies, and
sold $735,169 worth of products.
In addition to the above there were four satsuma marketing
organizations perfected, two of which in cooperation with the
Gulf Coast Citrus Exchange built packing plants and marketed
approximately 40 cars of fruit.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Last year through the cooperation of the county agent in St.
Johns County there was organized a Live-at-Home program con-
test. Many farmers signed up for the contest but due to the
quarantine regulations which necessitated the destruction of a
large number of fruits and vegetables, only a few finished the
contest. There were more than 25 varieties of fruits and vege-
tables preserved and canned during the year by the contestants
and in addition to the milk, butter, eggs, and poultry and meats
killed for home consumption the average food produced by each
contestant averaged up to $300. Value of hay, pasture, feeds
grown for livestock and fresh vegetables were not estimated in
the above figures.
Number method demonstrations given ............................. 183
Farm account books distributed ................................. 196
Farmers who kept records ....................................... 110
Farmers assisted in keeping accounts ............................. 97
Farmers who changed methods as result of keeping accounts.......... 62
Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming systems
according to recommendations .............................. 315
Farmers advised relative to leases............................... 442
Number of junior farm account clubs............................... 10
Farmers assisted in keeping cost of production records.............. 243
Number of farms adopting improved farm management practices..... 161

Annual Report, 1929

R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent

The enrollment in boys' clubs as reported on September 15
showed a gain of practically 20 percent over that of 1928. This
gain is encouraging. The increased enrollment was not confined
to one or two clubs but was general in all projects. The calf club
was the only one to show any appreciable loss in membership and
this was caused by the fact that at the time the boys should have
been getting their animals, the county agents were engaged in
the fruit fly work.
The following figures show the enrollment in different projects,
the first figures being for 1928 enrollment and the second, in each
case, being for 1929-Corn, 442 and 655; cotton, 285 and 282;
potato, 150 and 209; truck, 276 and 391; citrus, 26 and 114; poul-
try, 472 and 562; pig, 366 and 456; barrow, 332 and 334; calf, 206
and 160; miscellaneous, 124 and 48; total 2,679 and 3,211.

There has been a gradual increase in the number of organized
clubs. The county agents are discovering that organizing the
boys of the community into a club increases the percentage of
reports as well as secures a larger enrollment. The thinly popu-
lated sections offer a difficulty for successful organization in some
counties. This difficulty is being overcome through the consoli-
dated schools in some cases.
In 1929 there were 212 local clubs with 2,702 members. These
club organizations are from 21 counties.

The work of organizing the local clubs into a county organiza-
tion has not been carried out in many counties. There are county
4-H club councils in Escambia, Hillsboro, Walton, Suwannee, and
Hamilton counties. More work needs to be done in perfecting
county organizations.
The most efficiently organized county is Union County with
L. T. Dyer as County Agent. Boys' club work has been conducted
in this county for three years. In this time, the organizations have
been built up until three good local clubs are functioning. It is a
small county and does not have many farms. At first there was
little enthusiasm for club work, but each year it has increased

Florida Cooperative Extension

through the efforts of the three local clubs until now club work
is the most popular phase of extension work.
The enrollment was increased 70 percent over that of 1928 and
every project was reported excepting one. In this case, hogs got
into the boy's corn acre and destroyed the crop. This is the best
record of reports ever received in the State.
The largest organization is in Escambia County where the boys
are organized into 19 clubs with a total enrollment of 325. This
county was the first to form a county council for Boys' 4-H work.
An example of what a good local club can accomplish is that of
the Allentown club in Santa Rosa County. This local club under
its president, Ralph Arant, not only secured reports from all its
members but one, but also took complete charge of the county club
contest program.
The need for efficient local leaders and the seeming impossibility
of securing adults, has forced us to turn to developing leaders from
among the members. We were encouraged to attempt this by the
fact that our few good adult leaders were former club members
who had an understanding of the real- aims and purposes of the
4-H program.
In some counties work in leadership was started by bringing
some of the older boys to the county seat when an all-day meeting
was held. The results were so satisfactory that a 3-day leader-
ship school was held in October at the 4-H camp in West Florida.
At this time, four older boys and four older girls from each of the
eight counties having county or home demonstration agents in
that territory together with their agents were invited. A pro-
gram of leadership was developed with especial reference to
leadership in recreation and to training for holding county con-
tests. The results were beyond expectation. The agents attend-
ing have reported that it was the best help they have received
in their club work.
In 1930 we will attempt to hold 1-day training schools in every
county where the agents are interested and at least three joint
schools will be held in the state.
Among the best member leaders in the State are Frederick
Barber of Escambia County, Arlington Henley of Walton County,
and Hugh Dukes of Union County. These boys have been active
in helping in all phases of the work. They have been leaders not
only of the work in their communities but have visited other
communities and helped arouse enthusiasm.

Annual Report, 1929

The need for a better understanding of 4-H club aims and ideals
is one of the great problems in promoting club work. To make
the public realize that we have an organization worthy of com-
mendation and support is but a part of our work. We must secure
a better understanding of what we are attempting among the
people most concerned-the farmer and his family. Publicity is
the best means of doing this. Not only through the press but
by means of public appearances of the boys and girls themselves.
We are using rally days, camps, picnics, contest days, demonstra-
tion teams and public club meetings to let the world know what
we are doing. Six rally days, which were attended by 1,100 boys,
19 county camps attended by 875 boys, eight picnics attended by
600 boys and 25 contests attended by over 3,000 people were held
during the year. Demonstrations were put on in 12 counties and
many public meetings of the local clubs added to the attempts
made to let the public know what we are attempting.
The 4-H club initiation ceremony has proven a popular means
of explaining the purpose of the work. Walton County used this
ceremony as a large part of a meeting at the county seat. It was
necessary to rent a big hall and charge admission. The town's
people came out as well as many farmers and their families. The
result was that the 4-H's and their meaning were understood and
appreciated by everyone who attended.
The regional camp in the Choctawhatchee National Forest is
growing in size. One cottage was added this year. Dining room
equipment was improved and a sanitary sewerage system for the
control cottage was added.
A total of 355 boys and girls from seven counties attended the
camp during July and August. A leadership training school was
held at the camp in October. The capacity of the camp is but 60
at the present time. More cottages are needed.
The 1929 short course was conducted along the same lines as
for the past three years. Thirty-four counties were represented
by 202 boys. The inspiration received from this trip is illustrated
by the boy who said that he won a thousand and two dollars in
club work last year-two dollars in cash and a trip to the short

Florida Cooperative Extension

If 4-H club work is to be of real service in improving agricultural
conditions it must do its part in increasing the fertility of the soil.
An attempt is being made to interest the crop club members in
planting their club acres to a winter cover crop. Twenty-three
boys planted their club plots to a winter cover crop of Austrian
winter peas and vetch.
Yutch Lee of Santa Rosa County gives a good example of a
successful demonstration of the value of a winter cover crop in
its effect on the following crop. He planted his acre to Austrian
peas, using 300 pounds of acid phosphate. The crop was planted
in the fall of 1928. He planted the acre to corn in the spring of
1929 and produced 67 bushels without the use of commercial fer-
tilizer. Using no fertilizer the cost was reduced to 18c per bushel.

(1) Corn.-The average yield of club acres for 1929 was 43.4
bushels per acre. The state average is around 14 bushels, which
shows that the club boys are demonstrating better methods of
corn production. The largest yields at the lowest cost were pro-
duced in Hillsborough County when the corn was grown as a
catch crop after the ground had been highly fertilized for winter
vegetables. In this county 54 boys reported an average yield of
67.6 bushels per acre. Five boys produced over 100 bushels each,
or an average of 107.5 bushels per acre.
(2) Cotton.-The work of cotton club boys has given the best
illustration of how club work can be used to demonstrate in a
practical way better methods of production. The 137 boys re-
ported produced 127,677 pounds of seed cotton, or an average of
931 pounds per acre. This is an average increase of 359 pounds
per acre over that for the state. Better seed and improved ferti-
lization were responsible for the increase.
In Santa Rosa County 26 boys reported average yields of 814
pounds. The year 1929 was unfavorable for cotton, as nearly all
boys had to replant and the stand was poor. Twenty-two of these
boys made an average profit of $27.70. Four of them had an
average loss of $8.44. It is interesting to note that of those report-
ing a loss, the yields were under 400 pounds seed cotton per acre.
In Walton County 12 boys produced an average of 660 pounds
seed cotton per acre. Eleven of them made an average profit of
$22.09. One boy produced 206 pounds and suffered a loss of $9.90.

Annual Report, 1929

This covers citrus, truck, and garden clubs. The storms in
South Florida destroyed the gardens one time but the boys re-
planted. The profits varied from a slight loss to over $200 profit.
Six boys in Hillsborough County produced 9,850 quarts of straw-
berries at a profit of $890.50. In the same county 5 boys in the
truck club produced 1,150 hampers of vegetables at a profit of
The pig club continues to grow. The enrollment was increased
about 15 percent. In the fat barrow work a new plan was begun.
Under the new plan the club member plants two acres to feed
crops; one to early corn and Spanish peanuts, the other to field
corn and runner peanuts. The first one should be ready for hog-
ging off by July 1, at which time three barrows weighing about
70 pounds each are turned into this acre. By August 1 to 15 the
second acre is'ready and the pigs are taken from first acre and
put on the second. The pigs are ready for market by October 1.
The results were satisfactory and we hope to increase the enroll-
ment in this club for 1930.
Hugh Dukes of Union County is an example of a wide-awake
pig club boy. Hugh grew out three barrows and one gilt in 1928.
He sold these and bought a fine registered Poland China sow from
a breeder who exhibited at the Florida State Fair. The sow pre-
sented him with 10 pigs of which he raised eight. Hugh took
exceptional care of these. He sold three and kept five. He planted
feed crops and grew out three nice barrows. He saved two gilts
and made them weigh over 200 pounds at 6 months. He showed
his gilt at the State Pig Club contest and won the Frank Dennis
$250 scholarship to the College of Agriculture.
Dillworth Carter of Jefferson County took three barrows from
a litter raised by his 1928 pig club pig. He raised them and won
Grand Champion Club barrow at the State Pig Club show.
With a gradual eradication of the cattle tick, interest is increas-
ing in the dairy club. Madison County is getting well supplied
with purebred Jerseys, due to the 200 head of calves imported
for the dairy club members.
Leon County had 22 members in the dairy club who exhibited
27 animals. This club has studied feeding and showing their
animals. The Leon County Dairy Club exihibt is the best in the
State. The banks and business men of the County are behind
this project. The first prize dairy club boy is awarded a trip to

Florida Cooperative Extension

the National Club Congress at Chicago, the second prize boy is
awarded a purebred calf. O. C. Brown won the Chicago trip on
a bred heifer which he raised in 1928 club work.
John Williams of Marion County is starting a little herd. He
has two cows and two heifers which he has raised in his club work.
This project has not come up to our hopes and expectations.
A new plan has been worked out for 1930. Under this plan the
member can either manage the present farm flock or start in
with enough pullets or baby chicks to make it worth his efforts.
The smallness of the possible profits under the old plan of one
setting of eggs seemed to be the big drawback.
Jack Platt of Marion County has a record which is exceptional.
He began his third year in the poultry club with 100 laying pullets
and hens. He put 400 eggs in a hatchery and got 370 chicks of
which he raised 325. During the year he spent $158.50 for feed,
sold $385.30 worth of eggs, and $97.00 worth of fryers. He
ended the year with 275 purebred pullets and hens. His profit
for the year was $518.40.
Lena Bennett of Union County did a good job of trapnesting.
Lena started the year with 34 pullets. She culled and lost down
to 24. Of these one laid 298 eggs in one year and six laid over
275 eggs each. In addition to her pullets she bought 100 more
chicks and raised 91 of them. Her profit for the year is $187.13.

Of the 2,774 boys enrolled carrying 3,211 projects, 1,159 re-
ported, with five South Florida counties out as they will not hold
contests until January. There were over 2,000 farms touched by
club work and $88,981.16 worth of animals and products produced
by members reporting. This left the members reporting with
approximately $33.75 average profit.
Four boys entered the College of Agriculture in September,
1929, on scholarships won for excellent club work. Forty-seven
others were influenced to attend college this year. One county
agent reported that one boy had saved enough from his club work
to pay his college expenses for two years. The influence of 4-H
club work on its members in inducing them to secure a better
education is one of the strongest reasons why club work is grow-
ing in strength and in the good will of the public.

Anmual Report, 1929

HAMLIN L. BROWN, Extension Dairyman
The expansion of the dairy industry in Florida is possible only
when production costs are reduced sufficiently to permit the profit-
able manufacture of milk into butter, cheese, condensed and
powdered milk.
There is an adequate supply of fluid milk for domestic consump-
tion produced in the state except during the tourist seasons. This
extra supply had best be shipped in rather than produced at home
until Florida dairymen produce milk for manufacturing purposes
that may be used as fluid milk for a few months during the tourist
Production problems that seemed most important were the
growing of forage and pasture, with better practices in feeding.
A system of records that would supply information to the dairy-
man will help in improving present conditions.
The introduction of purebred sires and systematic culling of
low producing herds are items in the 1929 dairy program that
have received attention this year.
In farm dairying the production problems have been featured
as most important. During 1929 nine counties have opened cream-
Plans are being laid to have more feed grown in the future, to
stress better methods of handling milk to improve quality, to have
dairy organizations to look after the interests of dairying in legis-
lation, and to protect the dairy interests of the state against unfair
competition of off-grade milk being imported into Florida. The
Florida milk law was passed during the 1929 session of the State
Methods to improve the class of dairy cows by systematic cull-
ing, by the importation of purebred sires, and by the keeping of
individual farm production records have been practiced to the
improvement of the dairy herds of Florida. The 1919 United
States Census gives Florida 71,641 cows with an annual produc-
tion of 1,307 pounds of milk per cow. The 1928 census gives Flor-
ida 62,940 cows with an annual production of 2,614 pounds of milk
per cow. The Experiment Station, in a survey of 250 dairy farms
with 12,550 cows, gives an average production of 4,327 pounds
per cow.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Production costs can be reduced; first, by better feeding prac-
tices; second, by having all pasture and forage crops home-grown
with an abundance for each animal; third, by having dairy herd
improvement association in every dairy center of the state; fourth,
by having individual herd records to serve as guides for proper
feeding practices and as a basis for constructive breeding and
It is hoped, by improving the methods of production in the state,
to be able to extend the dairy industry into every agricultural
county where feed crops can be grown profitably.
Information from dairy records and economic surveys show
production costs are high because there is a shortage of pasture
and grazing crops. Too much roughage is bought instead of being
grown on Florida diary farms. This in illustrated in the dairy
survey made in the Tampa and the Ocala areas. Fifty-eight
farms around Tampa fed the average cow 4,745.5 pounds of grain
a year costing $110.00. On 29 farms in the Ocala area the average
cow consumed 2,400.2 pounds of grain at a cost of $55.63, and pro-
duced more milk.
In the Tampa area the milk production cost was $2.82 a hundred
pounds. In the Ocala area it was $1.52 a hundred pounds. Pas-
ture, silage and other home-grown roughage represent the dif-
There has been encouraging progress made along this line dur-
ing 1929. Ninety-one farmers seeded 1,081 acres to permanent
pastures in the state, with the advice of the county agents. Dairy-
men are learning the value of fertilizing the permanent pastures
and keeping them mowed.
The county agent of Marion County reports that dairymen of
the North Marion County Dairymens' Association reduced by
50 percent the amount of grain feed purchased over 1928 by hav-
ing good pastures.
Fourteen new silos with a capacity of 2,600 tons were built and
most of the silos formerly constructed were used.
There has been increased interest in the production of sour
cream. Progress in some counties has been very pronounced.

Annual Report, 1929

Foundation work was done in Okaloosa and Santa Rosa several
years ago.
Two farmer-owned and operated cream stations at Laurel Hill
and Baker were established in January, 1929. The county agent
reports that $18,000 worth of cream was marketed from these
two stations this year. Mrs. C. S. Howell of Baker purchased
two calves in 1924. Mrs. Howell sold $161 worth of cream
from these two cows from January 1 to October 15, 1929. She
spent $11 for concentrates. The home-grown feed consisted of
5 acres of Bermuda, lespedeza, and carpet grass pasture, 1/2 acre
of cat-tail millet fed as a soiling crop, and velvet beans. Mrs.
Howell raised two heifer calves also which were valued at $35
each and in addition had milk and butter for a family of three.
J. W. Malone, county agent, has arranged for people of the
county to purchase a carload of bred heifers early in 1930. He
also plans to enlarge the home-grown feed program another year,
and organize a cooperative bull club association.
Two very successful all-day farm demonstration schools were
held at Baker and Laurel Hill in September to enlarge the dairy
work. Three hundred and sixty people attended these schools.
Santa Rosa County farmers bought a carload of bred Jersey
heifers in 1928, and these animals are showing up in a good way
now. In the Allentown community farmers are raising the calves
on separator skimmed milk. .They have a cooperative bull club
of four blocks and are securing more registered bulls.
Jefferson and Madison counties each has a creamery. Four
hundred and forty high grade Jersey cows and heifers and some
registered bulls have been bought by farmers. The Jefferson
County Creamery buys cream from West Florida counties some
200 miles distant, also from Georgia.
The extension workers placed 67 purebred bulls with farmers.
There are three cooperative bull clubs, with two to be organized
early in 1930. There is much to be done in proven sire work and
the building of proper quarters for bulls out on the farms if dairy-
men are to make substantial progress in improving their farm
herds. A large percentage of the farm bulls are being killed be-
fore the farmer has a chance to know whether they possess the
power to improve the herd.
The counties making most progress with cooperative bull club
associations are Marion, Santa Rosa, and Madison. Walton and
Okaloosa counties are to organize cooperative clubs in 1930.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The demonstrations in raising dairy calves are causing an
improvement in the quality of calves. There were 121 4-H calf
club members enrolled this year, with 91 completing the work.
This represents a few members in a large number of counties.
The outstanding results with registered calves is being done prin-
cipally in Leon, Madison and Marion counties. G. C. Hodge,
county agent in Leon County, has featured the purebred calf club
and has grown out some well developed calves. A noticeable im-
provement indicates a genuine interest in the development of the
heifers the second year.
The state club leader has agreed to change the name from the
4-H calf club to the 4-H dairy club another year, with the view
to placing the high awards on the completed dairy demonstration
which is the mature milking cow. The dairy club work to take the
boy through four years' training.
in Madison County B. E. Lawton, county agent, estimates that
the $3,000 invested in 155 heifer calves in 1927 has increased to
over $20,000 in value. Proper feeding practices have done much
to remove that erroneous idea that calves cannot be grown suc-
cessfully in the state.

The increased number of dairy production records in the state
is giving good material for organizing demonstrations for dairy
work. County agents report 59 dairies keeping records on 1,327
cows, 78 farms with 1,727 cows culled 456 cows in 1929.
Through the county agents the practice of feeding grain mix-
tures rather low in protein to the poor producers in the winter
months with a view of butchering low producers has been encour-
aged. This puts them in beef condition with enough milk to pay
the feed bills.
With the 15-year cycle for low price for dairy products ap-
proaching in 1930 dairymen are being urged to cull closely.

There are local dairy organizations in 13 counties: Duval,
Marion, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Manatee, Palm Beach, Dade,
Orange, Polk, Leon, Escambia, and Okaloosa. They are working
principally on production and marketing problems.
The Leon County milk producers' association is also assisting
in the 4-H dairy club. They contributed $78 for this year's prize

Annual Report, 1929 47

money. The meetings are held in the farm homes and the 4-H
club members hold joint meetings with them.
The North Marion Dairy Association orders the grain feeds
cooperatively in carloads. At the county fair this association
collected the dairy animals exhibited with an association truck.
This association also collects the milk from the farms, grinds feed
and fills silos cooperatively.
The Duval County association has paid for the equipment for
a testing laboratory costing $260. They are now spending ap-
proximately $1,500 in advertising the dairy work in their county.
Flagler County and Volusia County dairymen hold their meet-
ings jointly, at the farms of the members. These meetings are
held at the noon hour in the form of a luncheon and after lunch
they have a field meeting to discuss dairy problems.
The Florida State Dairymen's Association held its annual
meeting at Farmers' Week in Gainesville in August with a large

Florida Cooperative Extension

E. F. DeBusk, Extension Citrus Pathologist-Entomologist
The two fundamental problems in the production and market-
ing of Florida citrus fruits are (a) improving the quality of the
fruit and (b) reducing the cost of production. All extension
activities in citriculture have centered around these two problems.
The main factors affecting the quality and cost of production
may be summed up as disease and pest control, soil fertility, and
soil moisture control. Our program of work in disease control,
therefore, provides for definite projects in the control of (a)
melanose, (b) citrus scab, (c) blue mold decay, and (d) tree
trunk and root diseases. The projects in pest control include (a)
rust mites, (b) citrus aphis, (c) scale, and (d) whitefly. The
soil fertility work consists of projects with cover-crops and fer-
tilizers. Soil moisture control work has had to do with improving
methods of irrigations and providing better drainage.
In addition to the above regular projects, considerable time has
been devoted to special service work; so that every phase of citri-
culture has received attention. Citrus meetings or schools were
held in practically every commercial citrus producing county.
On April 6, just when our extension program for the year was
getting well under way, the Mediterranean fruit fly was discov-
ered in Orange County and later found in 20 of the leading citrus
producing counties of the state. Growers all over the citrus belt
were thrown into such confusion and fear as to the outcome that
many of the regular grove operations were either greatly modified
or abandoned to reduce maintenance costs to the minimum. For
months every extension man in the eradication area devoted prac-
tically all of his time directly or indirectly to eradication of the
pest; consequently our extension citrus program could not be
carried out as planned at the beginning of the year.
The program for melanose control was perhaps affected more
than any other project, since the spraying season for the control
of this disease April 15 to May 10, came while the confusion and
excitement over the outbreak of the Mediterranean fruit fly was
most intense. There was considerable spraying done, however,
with satisfactory results. More attention than usual had been
given to the matter of soil moisture control and to correcting other
conditions in the grove that so often result in the production of
much dead wood in the trees during late fall, winter, and early

Annual Report, 1929

spring, followed by a heavy melanose infection. Improper oil
spraying in the fall, especially when followed by low temperature,
often results in numerous dead small twigs, perhaps the most
fertile source of melanose infection the following spring. Heavy
dropping of fruit in the fall or winter caused directly or indirectly
by a deficiency of soil moisture, is usually accompanied by a heavy
melanose infection the following spring, coming from the numer-
ous "buttons" and dead ends of twigs from which the fruit
dropped. Perhaps the most economical melanose control has re-
sulted from correcting cultural practices and grove conditions
productive of dead wood in the trees. The old adage is still true:
"An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure". Fortunately
it has not been a "bad melanose year", owing largely to the dry
spring following a warm winter, and the loss from melanose has
been below the average.
Scab control is not a serious problem. Control measures have
been very definitely established and are fairly economical. Of
course there is room for improvement. It is largely from this
standpoint that the project is presented. Except in a few cases
where conditions seemed to warrant the use of 1 to 25 or 1 to 40
lime-sulphur solution, homemade 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus
1/2 to 1 percent oil emulsion has been used. In some cases spraying
with 1 to 25 or 1 to 30 lime-sulphur solution immediately before
the first flush of growth was found to be the most economical
practice. In all but extreme cases successful efforts have been
made to work out a spray schedule by which the grower can attain
satisfactory scab control with one application of the spray ma-
terial. The cost of scab control should not exceed 7 cents per box.
Under the conditions it was not possible in any way to measure
results of our educational efforts in reducing the losses from blue
mold decay this year. However, outstanding improvements in
the methods of handling citrus fruits, which are bound to result in
less blue mold decay, have come about during the last two years
through the efforts of the large marketing organizations.
Through demonstrations a number of growers have adopted
the "machine method" of treating foot rot and are saving 75 per-

Florida Cooperative Extension

cent of the cost of the old hand method. The regular grove power
spraying outfit is used, with one hose, open nozzle and high pres-
sure, to wash the dirt away from the roots. The same outfit ad-
justed for spraying is used to spray a strong Bordeaux mixture
on to the crown roots. Many trees in advanced stages of foot rot
are being saved by building a mound of soil or clay 18 to 30 inches
high and 12 to 16 feet in diameter around the trunk of the diseased
tree. Trees treated in this manner develop new root systems and
again become profitable producers.
Gummosis and psorosis have not been as prevalent during the
year as during previous years. Fairly satisfactory results have
been attained in the treatment of these diseases by scraping off
the outer bark only, of the diseased areas, scraping back a few
inches beyond the edge of the affected area, and applying a disin-
fectant in the form of lime-sulphur, Bordeaux paste or some other
mild tree wash or paste. It seems that any shock that lowers the
vitality of a citrus tree may result in renewed development of
cases of these diseases of old standing as well as in new outbreaks.
The most important thing, therefore, in the control of these dis-
eases is to keep the trees vigorous.

A special rust mite control campaign was planned at the begin-
ning of the year, to reach the principal citrus producing counties,
but had to be abandoned upon the advent of the Mediterranean
fruit fly. However, several dusting and spraying demonstrations
were carried through, and many growers were instructed in more
economical rust mite control. The demonstrations were designed
to teach growers how to attain more economical rust mite control
by more timely and more thorough dusting and spraying, thereby
reducing the number of necessary applications. Several organi-
zations have been induced to purchase more efficient equipment
and do their rust mite-control cooperatively, thus greatly reducing
the per box cost. With proper equipment and timely applications
the average cost of rust mite control should not exceed 4 cents
per box with a normal crop of fruit. In many groves it is being
done at a total cost of 2 cents per box.

Owing to weather conditions and natural control the citrus
aphis did not develop into a serious pest during the year, except

Annual Report, 1929

in a few small areas. Consequently very little artificial control of
this pest was practiced.
In scale control our efforts have been directed toward improving
the method so as to obviate much of the injury resulting from oil
spraying and to increase the efficiency of scale control measures.
In many cases the efficiency of oil emulsion spraying for scale
control is so low, because of improper application or low tempera-
ture, that the loss through oil injury to the trees is greater than
that which might have resulted from leaving the trees unsprayed.
Demonstrations are proving that too much oil spraying is being
done in many of the groves. An oil spray should be applied only
when conditions warrant its use, and then it should be applied in
a manner that will give the highest percentage of kill practicable.
In an increasing percentage of the old groves of the State scale
control is admirably taken care of by the scale fungi, while in
these groves the problem of whitefly control is largely solved by
the brown fungus and occasional reintroduction of the red ascher-
sonia. The use of this natural control of scale and whitefly is
increasing and is being taken into consideration more and more
in planning the scale and whitefly control program.

Instead of being handicapped by the presence of the Mediter-
ranean fruit fly, as was the case with most of the projects in our
program of work this year, the cover crop work received a great
stimulus. This is accounted for by the fact that growers, having
no assurance that they would be permitted to sell their 1929-30
crop of fruit, or even the next crop, began to think and plan for
maintaining their groves through an indefinite period of no re-
turns. It was then that our Crotalaria cover-crop demonstra-
tions of the previous year became extremely popular and the
demand for Crotalaria seed began to increase very rapidly. On
the strength of one visit to a Crotalaria cover-crop demonstration
in a bearing grove, where the grower's records showed that by
making use of the leguminous cover crop the cost of fertilizing
the grove had been reduced about 50 percent, and at the same
time his grove was kept in a most excellent condition, an order
for 20,000 pounds of Crotalaria seed was placed for planting in
the spring of 1930.
Our cover-crop work during the coming year promises to be
extremely popular and very productive of results. Already more

Florida Cooperative Extension

than 100 tons of Crotalaria seed have been ordered for planting
this coming spring.
A great saving in the cost of fertilizing citrus groves is resulting
from the use of inorganic nitrogen compounds in connection with
cover crops, and through the use of higher analysis and cooper-
ative purchasing.

Fig. 5.-County agents and group of farmers visiting the Citrus Experi-
ment Station at Lake Alfred to study fertilizer experiments.

It has been clearly demonstrated that an inorganic nitrogen at
15 cents a pound will give the same results in tree growth and
fruit production as an organic nitrogen at 40 cents a pound. Since
the cost of fertilizer represents 30 to 60 percent of the total cost
of producing citrus fruits and approximately 58 percent of this
cost is nitrogen, a great opportunity for reducing the cost of pro-
duction is presented to the grower who has been using largely the
organic forms of nitrogen.

Annual Report, 1929

N. R. MEHRHOF, Extension Poultryman
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest

The poultry industry in Florida apparently is now on a much
.sounder basis than it has been for some time. As stated in pre-
vious reports, there has been quite a fluctuation in this industry.
That is, there was a so-called "chicken boom" which naturally
increased the number very rapidly and at the same time resulted
in a great many people entering the poultry business who had no
conception of it. Naturally a certain length of time was necessary
for the inefficient and inexperienced either to change methods of
management or get out of the poultry business.
This change of conditions has brought about a healthy state for
the poultry enterprise. The producers are now really analyzing
their business more closely and are adopting those fundamentals
which are conducive to success.
During the early part of the year, there apparently was a de-
crease in the sale of chicks, but as the season advanced and con-
ditions improved, the demnd for baby chicks exceeded the output.
This resulted in securing fewer early pullets for winter egg pro-
duction. Even after the baby chick season was at a close, the
demand for pullets of various ages increased as the summer and
fall months made their appearance. It is conservative to say that
this demand far exceeded the supply. Apparently this alone
would justify the statement that the poultry industry is on the
Egg prices held up better in the spring than the preceding year
and with the formation of marketing agencies, the producers ap-
pear to be more optimistic over this industry.
The breeders and hatcheries have been able to supply a better
chick to the producer, thus demonstrating the improvement of
quality poultry on the farms.
Interest in all of these phases of poultry management which
are essential for success has increased.
Such fundamentals as chick production, culling, disease control,
and record keeping were more popular than in preceding years.
The dissemination of poultry information was accomplished by
employing various methods. In some cases all of the methods
suggested were used.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Meetings arranged by the county or home demonstration agent
made it possible to bring to the producers that information which
was timely and pertinent. At these meetings the latest authentic
information available was presented and discussed. Meetings
made it possible to reach a greater number of people and to
acquaint them with the desired information. Poultry meetings
were held in most sections of the state. Demonstrations were
conducted to illustrate better methods and practices.
Poultry information was presented to the junior poultry club
members at their short courses. "Poultry Hints" were prepared
every two months and distributed to the agents throughout the
state. The agent in turn distributed them to poultry producers.
Each month a report of the Home Egg-Laying Contest is sent to
each contestant and to all agents. This report shows the results
of the contest and gives poultry suggestions. Articles for publi-
cation were prepared.
An intensive poultry program was presented during Farmers'
Week. This is an opportunity for all poultry enthusiasts to get
together and discuss their problems.
Personal visits during the year to the various poultry farms
offered a splendid method of being of assistance to the producer.

The special projects during the year were:
1. Grow healthy chicks.
2. Grow green feed.
3. Practice culling.
4. Home Egg-Laying Contest.
5. Junior poultry clubs.
Successful poultry production is dependent to a great extent
upon the rearing of chicks. It is from these chicks that the pullet
crop is to be developed, and unless the pullets are reared without
any serious handicaps, such as diseases and parasites, a quality
pullet cannot be put in the laying house.
The grow healthy chick campaign was put on through the
cooperation of county agents and home demonstration agents and
poultry producers. The first campaign was conducted in 1928
with some very interesting results which will be compared with
the results secured in 1929.

Annual Report, 1929

Fundamentally, the grow healthy chick campaign was started
to reduce chick mortality which would influence the quality of
pullets produced.
Briefly, the workings of this campaign were as follows:
1. Enrollment of producers by means of postcards, letters,
newspaper publicity and personal visits.
2. News articles distributed by -agents to producers discussing
the six factors involved. These sent at intervals of 7 to 10 days.
Disease cards, mortality cards likewise distributed to producers.
3. At the end of season record cards were collected by the agents
and sent to Gainesville for tabulation.
The 1929 grow healthy chick campaign involved these six fun-
damental factors:
1. Hatch early
2. Clean eggs and chicks.
3. Clean brooder houses.
4. Clean land.
5. Balanced ration.
6. Separation of pullets and cockrels.
The following data have been assembled from the records sub-
mitted: There were 38 poultry raisers who kept records on chick
mortality. This number is three more than last year, but only
22,000 chicks were put under the brooder in the 1929 campaign
as compared to 30,000 in the 1928 campaign.
The number of chicks per producer ranged from 26 to 4,000, the
average being 579, as compared with 845 in the first campaign.
Twenty producers reported feeding milk in addition to what
may have been already in the mash; 14 feeding liquid milk and
6 dry milk.
All producers except one used some brand of commercial feed.
All fed scratch feed.
All fed some type of green feed except four, who did not report
one way or the other. The time of feeding the green feed ranged
from the start to four weeks, the average being two weeks.
Pullets and cockrels were separated at approximately the 7th
week, one week later than in the first campaign.
Growing mash was fed at the 5th and 6th weeks.
Only five producers hatched part of their chicks after the first
of May. The great percentage of chicks were hatched during
February, March and April.
A total of 21,985 chicks on 38 farms were placed under the
brooder and at the end of eight weeks 3,049 chicks had been lost.

Florida Cooperative Extension

This represents a mortality of 13.87 percent, or 10.39 percent less
than in the first campaign.

FARMS IN 1928.


1 ................
2 .. ........ ..
34 .................
5 .................
6 .................
7 ................ .
8 ............... .
Weekly Averages.

1928 1929
3.63 1.00
.20 .15
.12 1.50
.12 .47
.09 .06
.05 .19
.02 .04
.01 .03
4.23 3.45

1928 1929
3.90 2.06
3.90 1.73
2.82 1.48
2.34 .37
1.16 .15
.57 .24
.48 .18
.48 .43
15.65 6.66

1928 1929
7.52 3.06
4.10 1.88
2.94 2.98
2.46 .84
1.25 .21
.62 .43
.50 .22
.49 .46
*19.88 *10.11

*The difference between the two average mortalities given here and quoted
in the preceding paragraph is due to the fact that six producers did not
report weekly mortality.

It is of interest to see in 1929 a reduction of 9 percent in losses
due to diseases.
The average mortality per farm ranged from 1 percent to 47
Twenty producers had a chick mortality of less than 10 percent.
Ten producers had a chick mortality of from 10 to 20 percent.
Eight producers had a chick mortality of over 20 percent.

Number of Factors Number of Mortality
Adopted Farms in percent Factors n
6 17 1.00-10.21 .......
5 5 3.84-13.32 Hatch e;
5 5 11.44-37.25 Clean la
5 1 36.91 Clean eg

ot Adopted
.... ......
ges and

16.03 Sep. pullets and
11.94-23.95 Balanced ration

Four farms reported mortality due to chilling.
Two farms were omitted, due to insufficient records.
These results are much better than those obtained in the first
campaign, which tends to show that the producers are studying
their conditions much more closely and apparently are adopting
those practices which are fundamental for successful chick pro-
duction. Clean land is one of the factors to which more consid-
eration should be given.
No doubt some of the high mortality was due to some manage-
ment practice not included in the campaign, such as chilling and

Annual Report, 1929

overheating. These factors will be overcome as the producer
secures more experience in the poultry business.

This particular phase of work was advocated at all times during
the year. All extension agents have stressed the value of green
feed in the daily diet of poultry. Apparent sickness, lower pro-
duction, etc., can be traced to a great extent to a lack of this
important part of a feeding program.
It has been rather difficult to secure definite results which would
materially assist in furthering this project.
Publicity data discussing the importance of green feed and also
the various types of greens to be planted with instructions as to
when, how, where, etc., were distributed to producers. No doubt
this material has brought about some improved conditions rela-
tive to green feed.
Observations of poultry farms have emphasized more and more
the importance of green feed, and there is no doubt that efficiency
in growth or in production would be increased if a suitable green
feed program were worked out on each farm.

The maintenance of a high producing flock is the goal of all
successful poultry producers. This is accomplished by adopting
a few management practices, such as feeding, housing, sanitation,
and quality birds.
Even though these factors are practiced it is necessary to be
able to eliminate those individuals which for some reason or other
do not prove to be profitable producers. The elimination of the
poorer egg producers will not only increase the average egg yield
but will also reduce the feed cost and increase the returns.
A systematic procedure of culling should be practiced and the
producers throughout the state are realizing this and endeavoring
to carry it to completion. During the past year the Extension
Poultryman gave 25 culling demonstrations. At the culling dem-
onstrations, the various characters of a high and low producer
were discussed, after which the people present handled a number
of birds, they themselves decididg the merits of the individual.
These demonstrations offered a splendid opportunity to discuss
other management practices such as feeding, disease and parasite
control, and other factors pertaining to economical poultry pro-

Florida Cooperative Extension

Every poultry producer in the state of Florida should keep a
record on his or her poultry business. A simple yet complete
record enables the producer to learn more about the business and
make the necessary improvements.
The Home Egg-Laying Contest was started four years ago.
Records for the four years are now complete. The fifth contest
started the first of November. The main purpose of the contest
was to stimulate better methods in poultry production, first, by
having the producers keep records, second, by analyzing the
results obtained and then attempting to find a way of improving
the efficiency of the poultry farm.
The rules and regulations of the Home Egg-Laying Contest are
as follows:
Entrant must keep record for one year on entire poultry flock.
Entrant must have standard-bred poultry.
Entrant must send reports to agent's office monthly.
The flocks are divided into three groups, depending on the num-
ber of birds as follows: Backyard flock, 1-50 birds; farm flock,
51-250 birds; and commercial flock, over 250 birds.
Monthly reports showing the results for the month and to date,
together with timely poultry information, are sent to the con-
testants and to farm papers. At the end of the year a summary
is sent to each contestant.
The results of the Fourth Home Egg-Laying Contest are in-
cluded in this report, showing the monthly egg production, aver-
age total production for the year, percent culling, and percent
Table IV shows the average monthly egg production for the
backyard flocks, farm flocks and commercial flocks, together with
the total egg production per bird for the year.
The average egg production per bird in the four contests is
worthy of comment. In the first contest the production per bird
was 149.1 eggs, while in the second it was 153.9 eggs, an increase
of 4.8 per bird. The average for the third contest was 156.6 eggs,
an increase of 2.7 over the production in the second contest. The
average egg production in the fourth contest was 160.30, an in-
crease of 3.70 eggs above the production in the third contest. The
production over the four years shows an increase of 11.22 eggs
per bird. Evidently this increase would tend to indicate greater
efficiency in poultry production.

Annual Report, 1929


Month Backyard
November ................... 7.38
December ................... 10.27
January ..................... 14.26
February .................... 16.18
March ....................... 18.84
April ........................ 18.69
May ......................... 17.61
June ........................ 13.79
July ......................... 15.20
August ...................... 12.64
September ................... 10.31
October ...................... 6.89
Total ................. .198.60

Farm Commercial
7.63 6.49
8.49 8.63
13.14 13.55
16.26 15.41
19.44 20.10
18.32 19.59
16.68 19.13
15.48 16.36
12.61 14.54
9.95 11.32
7.51 7.37
4.87 4.60
149.88 161.16

Backyard Farm
1928-1929 ................. .. 31.91 29.26
1927-1928 .................... 40.70 23.30
1926-1927 .................... 33.10 28.80
1925-1926 .................... 22.10 17.70





In analyzing the monthly egg production it is of interest to
note the winter egg production (months of November, December
and January) during the four contests for the three different
groups and the average for the entire contest. It will be seen in
Table IV that in every case except with the backyard flocks the
winter egg production is higher in the fourth contest than in any
other. This would tend to indicate that the producers are hatch-
ing earlier and thus bringing their pullets into production in the
early fall so as to secure a greater gross return per bird.
The percent of culling during the year was heaviest during
August, September, and October. The average for the year was
The average culling percentage for the different classes of flocks
for the entire year were:
Backyard group ................ 76.45
Farm group .................. 76.64
Commercial group .............. 41.88
The mortality was 2 percent higher in the fourth contest than
in the third.
The average mortality for the entire contest was 11.66 percent.
In the different flocks the mortality percentages were as follows:
Backyard group ................ 16.66
Farm group .................. 15.42
Commercial group .............. 10.11

Florida Cooperative Extension

Greater interest is being manifested by the producers through-
out the state in the Fifth Florida Home Egg-Laying Contest, and
indications point toward a greater number of contestants than
ever before.
The various poultry associations have been a means of extend-
ing poultry information, and improving poultry conditions in
The two state organizations known as the American Poultry
Association of Florida and the Florida Baby Chick Association
have assisted the Extension Service in developing greater effi-
ciency among the producers. The former organization with head-
quarters at DeLand has fostered standard-bred poultry and as-
sisted materially in helping the juniors secure high quality stock.
The members have been of great help in educational programs.
The latter organization with headquarters at Plant City has for
its motto BETTER QUALITY CHICKS. The members have
cooperated with the local agents and with the Gainesville office
in attempting to deliver better chicks each year. Accreditation
work is under way and handled under the supervision of the State
Livestock Sanitary Board.
The community and county poultry associations have been a
means of stimulating interest and enthusiasm in the producer.
Much educational work was accomplished through meetings.
During the past year interest in cooperative marketing has
increased and two regional organizations have been formed which
from all reports are operating successfully.
The State Marketing Bureau has employed a Poultry Marketing
Specialist who has worked in close cooperation with the local
agents and the Gainesville office. When this work is developed
sufficiently, the poultry industry will as a result develop.
Demonstrations and field meetings were held in connection with
the regular organized poultry associations.


Each year at Gainesville and Tallahassee a short course is held,
at which time the outstanding club members assemble. At these
short courses intensive poultry instructions are given. This has
been of material help in the junior poultry work.
Club contests were held in various communities and counties
at which the members exhibited their poultry. The number of

Annual Report, 1929

poultry club members has been reduced during the past year due
primarily to the change in requirements which were made more

The Third Florida National Egg-Laying Contest came to a
very successful close October 23, 1929. A brief summary of the
Third Contest as compared to the others is as follows:
The high individual was a Single Comb White Leghorn which
laid 309 eggs during the 51 weeks.
In comparing the egg production we find that the average egg
yield has increased each year. In the first contest it was 186.5,
in the second 190.9, and in the third 200.7 eggs per bird.
The feed consumption per bird for the three contests is shown
in Table V. The total feed consumption is about the same for
the three years but in the last contest there was quite a marked
difference in the mash and scratch consumption. In the first two
contests the mash consumption was greater than the scratch while
in the third the reverse was true.

Heavy Breeds Light Breeds I1 Average
1926-1 1927-1 1928- 1926-1 1927- 1928-/I 1926-I 1927- 1928-
FEED 271 281 29 27 28 29|1 27 28 29
Mash ......... 38.39 40.42 26.35 67.66 36.71 27.56 37.861 37.54 27.31
Scratch ....... 34.35 39.33 50.87 29.15 33.08 38.84 30.61 34.42 41.25
Oats ......... 7.91 5.65 4.77 7.94 5.65 4.79 7.93 5.65 4.79
Buttermilk .. 9.37 12.18 13.80 9.42 12.18 13.88 9.40 12.18 13.86
Grit .......... 2.76 2.28 2.62 2.65 1.83 2.47 2.68 1.93 2.50
Shell ......... 4.24 3.50 3.62 4.60 3.37 3.61 4.50 3.41 3.61
Charcoal ..... .61 .51 .47 .60 .42 .46 .60 .44 .46
Total ....... 97.631103.871102.50 92.021 93.241 91.6111 93.58] 95.631 93.47
Total without
grit, shell
and charcoal 90.02 97.56 95.79 84.171 87.59 85.07 85.80 89.85 87.22

Table VI shows the amount of feed required to produce one
dozen eggs for the light and heavy breeds for the three contests.
It also shows the relative feed cost per dozen eggs for the heavy
and light breeds and the average of the two for the three contests.
In the third contest the feed cost per dozen eggs was consider-
ably lower than in either of the other two contests. Both the
increase in production and the lower cost of feed brought this
condition about.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The number of pounds to produce a dozen eggs has been low-
ered each year, due primarily to an increase in total average egg
production, for the total feed consumption is practically the same
for each contest for the light and heavy breeds. The efficiency
of the hen is increased when feed consumption per dozen'eggs is

Breed Total Feed Con- Feeld Consumption Total feed cost
gumption and charcoal per dozen eggs
1926-11927- 1928-1 1926- 1927- 1928- '1926- 1927- 1928-
927| 28 29 27 28 29 27 28 29
Heavy .......... 7.83 7.92 6.71 7.21 7.44 6.27 .236 .264 .200
Light ......... 6.10 5.56 5.36 5.58 5.22 4.98 .186 .187 .161
Average ........ 6.52 6.01 5.59 5.98 5.64 5.20 .198 .201 .168

The feed cost per bird per year for the heavy and light breeds
and the average is as follows:
SHeavy Breeds 1 Light Breeds Average
1926-11927- 1928- |1926- 1927- 1928- 1926- 1927- 1928-
276 28 29 27 28 29 27 28 29
I 3.211 3.471 3.0211 3.041 3.121 2.7211 3.091 3.201 2.78

The feed cost for the heavy breeds is 30 cents higher than the
light breeds in the third contest.
The average price of feed per 100 pounds delivered at Chipley
was: Mash, $3.21; Scratch, $2.85; Oats, $2.48; Semi-solid Butter-
milk, $4.06; Grit, $1.10; Shell, $1.10; Charcoal, $3.00. The price
of mash, scratch, and semi-solid buttermilk were lower than in
the second contest.
During the third contest the total number of birds lost was 159
or 14.98 percent. The percent mortality in the third contest was
slightly lower than in the second contest.

Annual Report, 1929

MARY E. KEOWN, District Agent
LucY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent

This report covers the work of 34 county home demonstration
agents and three assistant agents working in 35 counties. Home
demonstration agents at the close of the year are working in 33
counties in Florida. Three of these workers have two counties
each. Four of these six counties are making appropriations for
the support of the work. The other two counties do not have
sufficient funds for the employment of both a county agricultural
and a county home demonstration agent. The entire salary of
the agent in these two counties is, therefore, paid from State and
Federal funds, this year.
There were some reductions but increases in other instances
make the county appropriations remain about the same regardless
of bank failures, Mediterranean fruit fly, and other reverses that
made retrenchment in county budgets necessary. It seems that
home demonstration work has held its place because of the well-
developed program that is meeting the needs of the people whom
it serves. Programs are flexible enough to be readjusted to most
emergency situations.
There has been no change in the personnel of the state staff.
Among the county workers there have been six resignations,
including three where the work was discontinued, two transfers
and four new appointments. Counties in which home demonstra-
tion work has been dropped during the year include Columbia,
Nassau, Putnam and Taylor.

State and district supervisors study the conditions in each
county and discuss these with the agent and representatives from
various communities in the county. Publicity is given to the pur-
pose and methods of developing home demonstration activities
through public talks by the supervisors, newspaper articles and
reports before the appropriating bodies. Supervisors help to

Florida Cooperative Extension

determine the best time for club enrollment, program development
and necessary changes in programs because of unexpected con-
ditions. They assist in organization of local clubs, county councils
and development of leaders to assist in carrying out the year's
program of work. They assist in providing material and equip-
ment needed.

Community programs with which home demonstration agents
work are almost altogether with women and girls. Community
exhibits with educational and recreational programs are helping
to bring the entire communities together socially and with a better
understanding of home demonstration work. However, the num-
ber of communities is increasing in which monthly joint programs
are developing. One of the district agents makes the following
statement: "With the year just closed, there is to be noted an
enlargement of the community home demonstration clubs for
women into an organization, separate from but supplementary to
them, in which there is a membership of men, women, and children
brought together for a larger social life. One such club is on Pine
Island and was formed by a club woman who attended Farmers'
Week and received there the idea on which her group was formed,
this idea being that good and pleasure can come from the enjoy-
ment that the majority have in meeting together for community
music. This same interest, stimulated by the home demonstra-
tion agent, resulted with benefit in the observance of Music Week.
In Marion County the women's club of the Shady Community has
a similar organization by the name of the Sing and Smile Club
which includes the men in its membership and has evening meet-
ings of the nature suggested by its name."
Organized home demonstration clubs are functioning in 595
communities in Florida. They have a membership of 10,280 girls
and 6,312 women. The work has been extended into 54 more com-
munities than last year.

Project committees were appointed by the county home demon-
stration councils for work in the home demonstration clubs. Their
duties have been to help in the promotion of the projects such as
home gardening, and marketing of products; to secure records; to
be responsible for exhibits; to give demonstrations when advis-
able; and to serve as leaders in helping the home demonstration
agents develop the plans for continued growth of interest and

Annual Report, 1929

results through gardening or whatever the project might be.
Instructional meetings for local leaders are being held regularly
under the direction of county home demonstration agents, in coun-
ties having a good many voluntary leaders. In this way the
project leaders understand the limitation of their duties and
become acquainted with the standards and general purposes of
home demonstration work.
County home demonstration programs are based upon (1) indi-
vidual, community and county needs as seen by the agent, those
taking advantage of home demonstration work and state super-
visors; (2) upon available assistance from county and state officers.
Our plan for developing programs of work is to work through
county councils consisting of the president and one other delegate
from each home demonstration club.
Some of the factors considered in developing a county program
and a statement regarding results are found in the following
extract from the report submitted by the home demonstration
agent in Gadsden County: "Since all other phases of club work
are more or less dependent upon the production of fruits, vege-
tables, poultry, eggs and dairy products, all club members in the
county are required to have something living and growing and to
keep records of results. The aim has been to have more and
better balanced meals, better health, better clothing and some of
the little comforts and conveniences which should be in every
home. It isn't such a hard task to persuade people to adopt higher
standards of living if they have the money necessary for main-
taining these higher standards. The task is to show the people
with whom you are working how to add to the family income. In
an attempt to carry out this thought the 1929 motto is 'Produce
more and sell more.'
"As a result of the effort put into assisting and encouraging
club members to grow more vegetables and poultry for home use
and some for sale, they have in the county, pantries filled with a
variety of canned fruits and vegetables, new bank accounts, new
pieces of furniture, more shrubs, roses and other plants, better
poultry yards and houses, several homes screened, some new
coats, dresses and hats that would never have been bought except
for the few chickens, vegetables or canned products sold. Four
women have been so successful with poultry this year as to show
their husbands in dollars and cents that all cash needs of the
family were met with money from the sale of chickens and eggs."

Florida Cooperative Extension

For the general development of home demonstration work
throughout the state we had the same five main objectives in 1929
as in 1928. These are outlined in the following paragraphs:
First, development of the type of programs that would fill the
greatest need of those taking advantage of home demonstration
work. A study of the county reports will reveal the fact that the
economic aspect formed a background for programs developed.
The agents gave more of their time to the development of home
gardening, foods and nutrition, clothing and home improvement
than to any other project activities. Consequently there, is a
noticeable increase in the number of homesadopting improved
practices along these lines over those of last year. Among the
increases it is interesting to observe the growth in marketing of
home products. Emphasis given to the live-at-home program
including gardening, home dairying and poultry work has con-
tributed to better foods and nutrition practices, through the mar-
keting of surplus products girls and boys have been assisted in
furthering their education, and effective improvements have been
secured in many homes.
Second, leadership development to assist agents in executing
plans for the year. Although local leaders can be held respon-
sible for only a small part of the development of home demonstra-
tion programs, they can be of considerable assistance to the agents
when properly chosen and instructed. It is the policy of the state
staff to urge only the selection of real leaders, women who are
understanding, well trained, who because of their accomplish-
ments in their own home are capable leaders in a particular phase
of work, and are so recognized by other women in the neighbor-
hood. Older club girls are developing into good leaders among the
younger girls' clubs. A successful 4-H leadership training camp
was held for older boys and girls at the West Florida Camp prior
to county contest days this fall. Each county in the camp terri-
tory was permitted to send four girls and four boys for special
instruction in the making and carrying out of constructive pro-
grams presented on contest day. Conducting the camp were the
two District Agents, Boys' Club Agent and State Home Demon-
stration Agent, assisted by the county and home demonstration
agents from the counties represented and Mr. H. P. Jackson of
the American Playground and Recreation Association. This camp
resulted in general improvement in the management of exhibits
and educational programs in connection with them.

Annual Report, 1929

During the year there were 455 local leaders actively engaged
in forwarding the extension program with the girls and 408 with
the women's work. This is an increase of 298 over last year.
There were 162 training meetings held for local leaders with an
attendance of 4,631 leaders. The attendance is an indication of
the increasing interest among the volunteer leaders.
Certificates of Standardization are given to the various local
clubs as soon as they reach and maintain the necessary require-
ments. There are at present 217 of these standard clubs among
the girls' organization. Enthusiasm has soared in this connection
this year due to the'fact that a silver loving cup was presented at
this year's State Short Course to the standard club- making the
best score for work accomplished in 1928. Glendale Club in Wal-
ton County was the recipient of this honor. The members of that
club have a widespread influence for better club work in that
county. One hundred and twenty-four girls have received cer-
tificates this year for the satisfactory completion of four years'
club work. There are 560 girls who have carried 4-H club work
for four or more years. One hundred and eight club girls entered
college this year. It is encouraging to see the figures in the last
two items increase annually.
Third, to further develop community and county organizations,
especially the local home demonstration clubs and county councils.
There are 807 active home demonstration clubs in the state;
561 of these are girls' 4-H clubs and 240 for women's work, an
increase of 17 clubs in girls' work and 39 clubs in women's work.
Following the organization of home demonstration clubs in the
community is the formation of county councils composed of the
president and one elected representative from each home demon-
stration club. There are 29 councils for girls' work and 24 for
women's work. They help to plan and execute plans for the year's
work. They are promoters and boosters of home demonstration
work. The president and one representative from each county
council form the two state councils. The development of women
and girls through their council work is remarkable. These repre-
sentatives themselves feel the value of this training and the
responsibility it entails. The State Council for Girls' Work holds
its annual meeting during the State Short Course for Club Girls,
Florida State College for Women. This organization is providing
a former club girl with a scholarship for attendance at Florida
State College for Women. Each county council has made itself
responsible for sending $10 annually to the Scholarship Fund of
their State Council.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work
meets annually during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week at the
University of Florida. Splendid reports were made at the council
meeting this year. This council is providing a scholarship fund
to be awarded to a 4-H club girl for attendance at the Florida State
'College for Women. Considerable enthusiasm is shown over the
silver loving cup which was presented during the annual meeting
by the state council to the county council scoring highest for the
past year's work. Lee County Council was the recipient but will
have to retain it for three years to become the owner.
Fourth, to reach more adults with home demonstration work
and to form a closer contact with the rural homes.
A total of 6,312 women are enrolled in home demonstration
work; 5,580 of these women carried definite programs throughout
the year, adopting improved practices and establishing demon-
strations in their homes. A total of 13,181 visits were made into
6,363 homes, which was a gain of 2,022 home visits over 1928. It
is believed that contacts formed through home visits with a pur-
pose are invaluable in home demonstration work.
Fifth, to extend home demonstration work into a larger number
of counties.
As explained earlier in this report, increases this year offset
the loss in number of counties financially supporting home demon-
stration work. An effort is made to make the programs in home
demonstration work so desirable that an extension into other
counties just as soon as finances will permit will be demanded.
Agents file in their offices daily, monthly and annual records and
reports of their work; individual and club records and usable
material for advancement of the work. They are supplied with
the necessary record books and report blanks by the State Exten-
sion office. Demonstration and office equipment is furnished
usually by the board of county commissioners.
Outstanding among demonstration equipment is that found
in the new splendidly equipped kitchen in Lee County. A small but
well equipped kitchen has also been provided this year in Escam-
bia County. Broward and Duval counties have provided and
equipped demonstration kitchens for the agents this year. These
new additions bring the number of well-equipped demonstration
kitchens for the agents' use up to 17. Special rooms in communi-
ties for holding club meetings are growing in number and demon-
stration equipment furnished.

Annual Report, 1929

Twelve counties provide stenographic assistance. The stenog-
raphers take care of office calls in so far as they can in the agent's
absence, and render general clerical assistance to the agents. Six-
teen agents have typewriters provided, 16 have telephones; 10
agents are furnished cars from county funds.

Home demonstration work has been considerably strengthened
during the year because of the fact that the agents remained "on
the job". New positions have been filled with well-trained, com-
petent women. They are either college graduates with teaching
experience and a good background for home demonstration work
or successful, experienced agents. Inexperienced agents, before
assuming the responsibility of county work, spend as much time
as can be arranged with experienced agents and in the state office
familiarizing themselves with requirements, plans of work and
available literature. They are given special duties at State Short
Course for Club Girls and Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week and
special attention during district and state conferences. The dis-
trict agent assists in forming contacts in the county.
Because of shortage of state funds, district meetings usually
held at the beginning of the year were dispensed with. Staff con-
ferences were held once every two months instead of once a month
to avoid duplication of travel.
The annual meeting of home demonstration agents was held in
joint conference with all extension workers in Florida at the
University of Florida, September 30 to October 4. For the most
part the program consisted of lectures and conferences on devel-
oping the work throughout the year.

Newspapers and farm papers are generous in the use of home
demonstration material furnished. Some of the agents maintain
columns in the weekly papers. One agent interested an editor in
her county in sending the paper at one-half the subscription price
to families where there is a club member. Club secretaries or
club reporters in turn must supply the paper with club news.
The editor of the Agricultural News Service has for the last
two years given definite instructions in writing newspaper stories
to two girls from each county in attendance at the State Short
Course. Club members are enthusiastic over the work he gives
them. As a result many of the girls' councils edit and publish
their own county club papers. Home demonstration work received

Florida Cooperative Extension

publicity during the year through fairs, Farmers' Week, State
Short Course for Club Girls, county contests, window displays,
camps, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, Business and Pro-
fessional Women's Clubs, men's organizations and other cooper-
ating agencies and the use of radios. The agents and women in
two counties have been giving a series of radio talks on home
demonstration work. Occasional.programs have been given via
the radio in other counties. Delegations of club girls from four
counties have broadcasted over state radio station WRUF. Home
demonstration talks were given over WRUF during Better Homes
Week, just prior to Farmers' Week, agents' annual conference and
Christmas Day.

State-wide programs, including those of specialists, are made
with the purpose in view of developing the work in a way that will
best serve the people. These programs are presented for discus-
sion and understanding during the agents' annual conference.
The district agent, county agent and specialist in joint conference
decide what part or if the whole is applicable in the county speci-
fied. Available material is provided and needed assistance, so
far as possible, is furnished the agent by the state office. All
county programs of work have been followed up by the district
agents this year. State and district agents have studied programs
of work and reports very carefully. Comparisons of goals set and
accomplishments achieved have been made.

Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 595
Voluntary county, community and local leaders................... 863
Clubs carrying on extension work with juniors..................... 561
Membership .............................. ................. 10,280
Clubs carrying on extension work with adults ...................... 246
Membership .................. ................................. 6,312
Home visits made by agents ..................................... 13,181
Different homes visited ......................................... 6,363
Farm visits made by agents..................................... 1,169
Telephone and office calls on agents relative to extension work...... 50,064
Average number days spent in office.............................. 80
Average number of days spent in field............................ 213
Official letters written ........................ ............ ...... 83,002
Exhibits at fairs ................................................. 91
Community ............................... 51
County ................................... 28
State ....................................... 12
M meetings held ................................................. 1,404
Attendance ................................................ 80,052
Extension schools and short courses held .......................... 22
Attendance ........... ......................................... 2,686

Annual Report, 1929

Home gardens ............................ 455
Beautification of home grounds .............. 23
Home dairy ............... ......... ...... 57
Home poultry ............................ 343
Rural engineering ......................... 165
Home marketing .......................... 150
Foods ..................................... 491
Nutrition ............................ .. 412
Clothing .................................. 549
Home management .......................... 268
House furnishings ....................... .. 388
Home health and sanitation.................. 397
Community activities ....................... 328
Miscellaneous .............................. 274

Days agents
devoted to
123 /2
1,406 /2

Other members of the state home demonstration staff have
dealt in detail with the home demonstration project activities,
including outstanding stories of the work. Therefore, this report
will be confined to brief statements of the developments in the
state as a whole.
The objectives in project activities are the same as last year.
Goals were higher and in most cases accomplishments exceeded
goals set and surpassed those of last year.

With the gardening and perennial plantings we are continually
working toward an all-year supply of fresh fruits and vegetables
for the home; to improve and beautify grounds by decorative plant-
ings of economic ornamentals, native shrubs and flowers; to fur-
nish means to increase income. The foods and marketing agent
who serves as leader for this phase of the work has secured splen-
did cooperation from seed dealers, nurseries, fertilizer concerns,
Federation of Women's Clubs and individuals in promoting better
gardens and more perennial plantings. In all 13,353 women and
5,272 girls have worked definitely along this line. A total of
5,999 homes are reported as having adopted improved practices
in home garden work, which means an increase of 1,861 individuals
and an increase in more than a thousand homes adopting improved
practices in gardening over last year. Interest has been stimu-
lated through monthly letters carrying timely information; utili-
zation score card; garden scores; suggestive canning budget for
the family; exhibits; posters; lectures; demonstrations; all-year
garden contests; and awards. Excellent individual records have
come to the state office as a result of these contests. The agents

Florida Cooperative Extension

report 1,017 demonstrations and 928 days devoted to this phase
of work.
Home demonstration agents working under the leadership of
the Extension Poultryman stressed growing healthy chicks, grow-
ing green feed, culling, and home egg-laying contest. Fifteen
counties report a profit of $51,823.24 on result demonstrations
conducted under the supervision of home demonstration agents
and the Extension Poultryman.
There seems to be an increasing interest in home dairying and
use of milk and milk products in the diet. This is believed to be
due to some extent to the information obtained through nutrition
programs. Seventeen counties report 877 homes as having
adopted improved practices in home dairy work this year, an in-
crease of 311 homes over those reported in this project for 1928.
The general plan and purpose of the nutrition work this year
has been to put into operation a constructive and comprehensive
food program, including food selection and preparation and meal
planning for family, school lunch, group or community meals.
This program has been closely related to the productive program
of poultry raising, home dairying and gardening. Results have
been determined by the improvement shown in food selection and
health scores of women club members, by increased use of milk,
eggs, fruits and vegetables in the family diet; by improvement of
school lunches; by increased enrollment of girls in food and nu-
trition and by better records in the health contests.
The fact that the National Health Contest was won by Florida's
representative, Florence Smock, will create far more enthusiasm
in this phase of home demonstration work. A total of 6,554 homes
were reported as adopting improved practices in nutrition work
as conducted by home demonstration agents. Thirty-five schools
were induced for the first time to serve a hot dish or lunch at noon.
A trip to the National Club Congress was awarded to Lela Mae
Duke of Walton County for showing the greatest improvement
as a result of her nutrition work.
The preparation of foods has a place on various club programs,
is a part of the work outlined for club members carrying garden-
ing, dairying, home poultry and nutrition. Reports show that
3,526 women and 4,954 girls completed food preparation demon-

Annual Report, 1929

stations outlined for the year, an increase of 2,592 individuals
over last year. Thirty-four counties report 5,865 homes adopting
improved practices in food preparation. The nutrition and foods
and marketing agents are leaders in this phase of home dem-
onstration work.
Food preservation work under the leadership of the foods and
marketing agent has been encouraged so as to preserve food for
home use, thus protecting health, reducing cost of transporting
food from a distance, encouraging the live-at-home idea, insuring
varied diet all through the year, and putting surplus home prod-
ucts into marketable shape. Reports show that 5,379 homes
adopted improved practices in food preservation this year. Fruits,
vegetables, meat and fish were canned; jelly, preserves and pickles
were made; fruit juices were extracted and preserved. The in-
crease of 1,372 homes following instruction given by home demon-
stration agents this year has been brought about largely as a
result of the Mediterranean fruit fly.

Girls often become club members and conduct the required liv-
ing and growing demonstrations in order to have advantage of
the clothing work. This includes proper selection of materials,
construction, renovation and remodeling of garments; millinery,
costume designing, making of a clothing budget and wardrobe
planning. A total of 2,652 women and 5,357 girls completed
clothing programs as outlined for the year. Thirty-one county
reports show that 7,917 homes adopted improved practices in this
phase of home demonstration work. There is no leader for this
phase of the work, it is supervised by the district agents.

Home products standardized and marketed consisted chiefly of
poultry and poultry products, canned goods, dairy products, fruits,
vegetables, baskets made of pine needles, wiregrass and palmetto,
and rag rugs. Four curb markets and two home demonstration
shops functioned to the advantage of club members throughout
the year. These have been established and managed mainly
through women's home demonstration councils. Walton, Volusia,
Palm Beach, Gadsden, Holmes and Dade counties carry interesting
reports of marketing home products. Reports on home market-
ing for the year are not complete. Those submitted thus far show
that in three counties records have been kept of home products
sold valued at $47,027.91 with a profit of $20,492.80.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Successful home gardening, poultry production, home dairying
and the marketing of the surpluses of these products make home
improvement work more easily accomplished. When the agent
can help to increase the family income she is in a better position
to discuss methods for home improvement. The home improve-
ment work under the leadership of the assistant state home dem-
onstration agent has seen a splendid growth through the year.
Emphasis has been given to the importance of sanitation,
screening homes, controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects
to the extent that 26 counties report 3,650 homes as having im-
proved sanitary practices.
According to the reports from 20 counties, 586 homes followed
instructions and adopted improved practices in rural engineering
in the homes. This means that more people each year are con-
structing and remodeling dwellings according to plans furnished;
installing sewerage systems, water systems, heating systems and
especially lighting systems, since big power lines are beginning
to serve the rural districts. Special instruction was given the
agents during the annual meeting on buying standards and use of
electrical equipment.
More demonstrations and time have been given by the agents
this year to the beautification of home grounds, with the result
that 4,813 homes have done definite work in beautifying the home
grounds, and 561 of these have beautified their grounds according
to a landscape plan. Club girls and women in some of the counties
adopted county flowers and held a flower contest and flower show.
This aided materially in the beautification program.
That women and girls are learning to plan household work sys-
tematically; the importance of using labor-saving devices; to
arrange furniture for convenience; to use improved laundry prac-
tices; and to keep accounts and budgets is seen by the fact that
2,677 homes improved practices in home management work during
the year.
A total of 1,831 women and 1,705 girls have completed the
year's work in house furnishing, which included selection, ar-
rangement, repairing and remodeling of furnishings. In all, 1,321
women and 704 girls worked over walls, woodwork, and floors and
3,984 homes in 33 counties have been reported as adopting im-
proved practices relative to the house furnishings work conducted
by the home demonstration agents.

Annual Report, 1929

Interest in securing of club houses for club and community
meetings and kitchens for demonstration purposes has increased
considerably this year. The school lunch continues to command
community interest. This year 13 counties report 35 communities
induced to serve a hot dish or school lunch for the first time. These
lunches were served to 4,845 children. Club members assisted
with 51 community fairs. Ninety-eight school and community
grounds were planted this year according to landscape plans fur-
nished by the home demonstration agents. There were 408 com-
munities that carried some definite community work as a part of
the year's program.
A total of 1,065 women and girls in five counties did definite
work in rug-making and 1,060 women and girls are reported as
having learned the art of turning such native materials as pine
needles and wire grass into baskets, trays and other articles.
There were 2,180 women and girls who did definite work in crafts.
Many of these articles have been marketed individually and in
home demonstration shops.

In addition to individual visits, club meetings, agents' meetings,
county and state councils mentioned elsewhere in this report, home
demonstration work has been strengthened through the following
Each year the State Short Course increases in attendance in
spite of the individual requirements and restrictions placed on the
counties. The morale, type of programs, and results seen in
counties are improvements brought about to some extent by the
fact that those in attendance must be county winners, awarded
scholarships, and 12 years of age or over. The average age is 14
or 15 years. There were 461 girls, 37 local leaders and 31 agents in
attendance. Scholarships for club girls and leaders were provided
by club members, county commissioners, school boards, women's
clubs, men's clubs, banks, merchants and interested individuals.
The course consisted of instruction and demonstrations by
extension workers and club members in various phases of home
demonstration work. Outstanding features were project demon-
strations in the afternoon, health contest, afternoon program for
recognition of accomplishment.

Florida Cooperative Extension

A special period of instruction once a day was given over to work
with the leaders. At other times they observed work with the
Girls who attend the Short Course usually develop into the best
leaders and realize a desire to go to college. Many of them as a
result find a way to become students and graduates of the Florida
State College for Women.
The Florida State College for Women set aside a week between
the spring and summer terms for the extension department to
hold the Short Course without interruption. Dormitories, labora-
tories, and class rooms were available. The college nurses rendered
valuable assistance by keeping the infirmary open and giving the
girls necessary medical care during the week. The dietitian
rendered a service that is outstanding in the minds of the girls
because of the good food served.

The women enjoyed Farmers' Week at the University of Florida
as much as the girls did the Short Course. Demonstrations and
instruction were given in various phases of work by state and
county extension workers, club members, University professors,
and home economics workers in business firms. Outstanding fea-
tures were exhibits, group work with women actually working
where they felt they could be best benefited and meetings of the
State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work. Mention
of council activities was made elsewhere in this report. Music
appreciation was a new feature that the women enjoyed.
Most of the women paid their own way. However, more women
were present with expenses paid due to the work of the county
councils and support of county federations of women's club.

There were 43 camps held during the spring and summer. Thir-
teen of these camps were for women, four for boys and girls, and
26 for girls only. Local leaders and two special camp workers
attended and assisted home demonstration agents with the camps.
There were 412 women, 1,315 girls and 65 boys who enjoyed the
recreation, instruction, fellowship, and leadership development of
the camps conducted by the home demonstration agents.
Through county contests, club exhibits were displayed, demon-
strations were given by club members, and the agents and super-

Annual Report, 1929

visors had a means of observing the county-wide response to the
work; analyze the work for improvement; get the work before the
public; and create a better community and club spirit. The part
taken by local people and contest day programs rendered by club
members themselves have been invaluable in selling the impor-
tance of club work to the public.

Varied plans are followed regarding rallies. Counties holding
them usually have one a year featuring work with juniors. Hills-
borough County has continued to hold a rally for the women's
clubs once each two months with an average attendance of about
250 women. That same county had a community rally or picnic
once a year in each community with good attendance. The pleas-
ure of getting together and hearing and giving club reports has
inspired club members, women and girls, to better their individual
work and that of the community and the county. The plan of
having rallies for seniors and community picnics at least once a
year has extended with good results into most of the other coun-
In order to train leaders, develop efficiency, and encourage club
members in giving public demonstrations, teams of two girls each
were trained in giving public demonstrations in various phases of
home demonstration work. These girls were chosen in the local
clubs and counties because of their efficiency, success as club
members, and ability to interest others in home demonstration
methods. Home demonstration agents trained 190 such teams,
more than twice the number trained in 1928. These girls were
invaluable in interesting other girls and as demonstrations to the
public of the value of club work.

Former club girls who are in attendance at Florida State College
for Women are banded together in an organization for promotion
of club work. This club continues to attract the attention and
interest of other students to home demonstration work and en-
courage club girls to go to College as soon as they have finished
high school. Among the membership of this group are some of
the most outstanding girls in College. Members of the club are
enthusiastic over the program they are developing this year.

Florida Cooperative Extension

VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
Home improvement has made good progress and is responsible
for a greater awakening in the improvement of the rural homes.
The 1929 program of work has included the following projects:
1. Home management.
2. Rural engineering.
3. House furnishings.
4. Thrift.
5. Home sanitation.
6. Beautification of home grounds.
7. Electrification.
Too many homes have the "temporary" atmosphere; the big
problem is to make "homes" instead of "temporary places", and
to arouse interest in the belief that it is possible to have better
and more substantial homes in rural sections that are properly
planned for beauty, convenience, and comfort, within and without.
All counties in which there were home improvement projects or
phases of work for one or more years were requested to have 24 or
more completed demonstrations. Any one of eight projects could
be selected (kitchen, dining room, living room or bedroom im-
provement, sanitary premises, exterior beautification, old house
remodeled or new house built). The selection was determined
according to the immediate needs in the county.
It has been found best to approach the home management
project in connection with a kitchen improvement demonstration.
This concrete demonstration is linked with other projects in home
improvement. There were 904 kitchens in 24 counties planned
and re-arranged for convenience in saving time, labor, and energy
and for improved appearance. There were 465 women in 13 coun-
ties following a systematized plan of household work; 2,139 women
obtained labor-saving equipment; 593 women in 22 counties fol-
lowed improved laundry practices; in nine counties 433 women
made budgets and kept accounts; 122 washing machines and 397
kitchen sinks were installed; 2,677 women improved their prac-
tices in every day housekeeping. A number of women wore pedom-
eters before and after improvement to really prove that they did
save steps because of the re-arrangement of the kitchens, and
because of better planning of the daily duties in the home.

Annual Report, 1929

The definite kitchen improvement work has created much en-
thusiasm for all home work.
Rural Home Engineering: Eighty-eight sewerage systems and
114 water systems have been installed in 16 counties; 153 lighting
systems in 11 counties; 64 heating systems in 5 counties; 43 new
homes in 9 counties have been completed where plans and personal
help have been supplied by extension agents; and a few women
drew their own house plans, taking ideas from plans sent from
the state office. There are many marked improvements in a com-
munity after the successful remodeling of a home is shown. In
all, 586 homes did something on the subject of rural engineering
the past year by installing lights, water systems, and by building
new homes and remodeling old ones.
Special demonstrations in house furnishings were given at
group meetings of the home demonstration club members in a
special room improvement project. Curtains, shades, rugs, dra-
peries, etc., are considered and shown or made in connection with
the study of wall and floor improvement work. The repairing and
remodeling of furniture, walls, floors and woodwork and the mak-
ing of artistic accessories and pictures were considered in the
"entire room" demonstrations. There were 2,272 bedrooms, 1,306
living rooms, 901 dining rooms, and 1,698 kitchens improved in
35 counties having home demonstration work.
Thrift work is stressed in connection with the house furnishing
problem. Women vie with each other to make the most artistic
furnishings out of discarded materials. Thrift work has made
use of used burlap and cotton sacks that contained fertilizer, feed,
cotton, flour and sugar, making these into artistic house furnish-
ings. These sacks are cleaned, bleached and trimmed with a
stenciled design, or an embroidered motif in wool or with dyed
stockings which have been cut into strips for embroidery, or with
the application of felt and cretonne designs.
Attractive curtains, draperies, runners for tables, couch covers,
bedspreads, soft pillows, footstool covers, etc., are made from
these sacks. Mrs. Bettie Caudle, home demonstration agent of
Holmes County, was the first person to make use of these burlap
sacks in this way. After seeing one home improved in this way
many women have taken up living room improvement. In Dade
County after the storm of 1926 women were eager to make their
storm-worn homes look better; there was little money. Because
of this dire distress, the home demonstration agent and women
listened to any plan that would be a "dollar extender." The Dade

Florida Cooperative Extension

County home demonstration agent and club members have been
enthusiastic workers in making artistic draperies and even cloth-
ing from discarded feed and fertilizer sacks. Others have made
artistic articles for sale. Other home demonstration agents have
popularized this work.
Home Sanitation: People have been indifferent to the mosquito
and taken it as a matter of course. When people study home san-
itation they realize that the mosquito breeding places, the poorly
constructed outdoor toilet or no toilet, and unscreened houses are
causing sickness and retarding their progress physically and
financially. There were 370 sanitary toilets built; 481 homes
screened; there were 3,650 homes in 28 counties where sanitary
practices have been adopted.
Exterior Beautification: The "tying the house to the ground"
by lattice and foundation plantings, the open, green, grassy lawns,
and group plantings for screenings have been stressed, hoping to
overcome the indifference to the appearance of the houses that are
hoisted high on pillars which look as if they are ready to jump,
grassless yard, and to improve the unkept and neglected sur-
Definite demonstrations in exterior beautification were made
in 561 homes; there were 235 demonstrations in painting and
whitewashing of the homes in 18 counties; 4,813 different homes
were beautified by planting grass in yards, etc. Many of the
houses once beautified but which had become drab and paintless,
have been improved because of the exterior beautification project
undertaken by home demonstration club members.
People are becoming more electrically minded. The power com-
panies have given splendid cooperation. Two county kitchens
which were electrified will help in teaching just how electricity
can be utilized in labor-saving. Special instructions on reading
meters and electric appliances for the home-maker have been pre-
sented in lectures at the state meeting and at Farmers' Week.
The subject matter in home improvement work is taught by
lecture demonstrations illustrated by pictures showing the "be-
fore" and "after" improvements; articles displayed, and tours to
special finished demonstrations in the homes.
Subject matter material is studied by club members who have
signed up for home improvement work. Lecture demonstrations
were given at regular meetings at the State Short Course, at Far-
mers' Week, and at other important gatherings of club members.

Annual Report, 1929

All home demonstration club members enrolled in home im-
provement are requested to cut from magazines good picture sug-
gestions on each project; this awakens the interest of the entire
membership on this particular project. The girls usually make
the improvement in their own rooms; also they do creditable
work in exterior beautification, home sanitation and better prac-
tices in dishwashing, table setting, cleaning of rooms, etc., and
often encourage their family in having the house remodeled, or a
new one built and appropriately furnished or painted.

Special attention is directed to a long-time demonstration con-
ducted by Mrs. Pattie Mills of Alachua County, assisted by Mrs.
Grace Warren, home demonstration agent. Mrs. Mills improved
her kitchen and dining room three years ago. She then undertook
a long-time demonstration which continued an additional 18
months; this included exterior and interior beautification of the
entire house, sanitation, and beautification of the home grounds.
Mrs. Mills was also a demonstrator in poultry, rabbit, and dairy,
and gardening as the productive phases of her home demonstra-
tion club work.
She planted 300 bulbs, a variety of vines and shrubs, St. Augus-
tine grass for her lawn; removed rickety fences and gates and
rusting farm machinery from under the beautiful live oak trees.
The barn and stock pens were placed in the rear lot. The front
entrance to the house was shifted for convenience and appearance
to a different side of the house. The utilization of the rooms was
changed. A modern kitchen was made on the back porch, several
windows were added, the old kitchen was made into a charming
dining room, the dining room into a lovely living room. The old
parlor was made into a sewing room and spare bedroom. The hall,
living room, bedroom, and dining room were papered; the wood-
work was painted white, the floors were painted or waxed, and
rugs were made or purchased. The house was painted, the out-
buildings were whitewashed, and the stock and poultry were
"fenced in."
In recognition of this outstanding demonstration Mrs. Mills
was awarded third prize ($200) in a contest offered by the South-
ern Ruralist for home improvement in the South in 1929. Mrs.
Mills paid for these improvements from the sale of her poultry,
dairy products, garden and prize money. A tour to this home,
conducted during Farmers' Week, aroused much interest in this
excellent demonstration.

Florida Cooperative Extension

ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Foods and Marketing Agent

The purpose of the gardening project is to establish demon-
strations for a year-round supply of fresh vegetables and a con-
stant supply of fruit maturing each month-for better health,
for improvement and beautification of the home acres, and to
increase the family income through the sale of surplus garden
and orchard products.
The second all-year-garden contest closed November 1.
The kitchen card showing daily serving of vegetables, (checked
as fresh or as canned from the garden surplus), was required of
each contestant. At least two fresh vegetables were served daily
from the garden. A budget of the canned vegetables and fruits
needed to supplement the yield of the garden, a complete story of
the gardener's activities and photographs also were required of
each contestant.
Holmes County reports 265 all-year home gardeners with rec-
ords-showing a profit of $2,683.00, besides feeding large families,
from these gardens. Twice during the year floods swept this
county, and gardens had to be replanted each time.
Osceola has this encouraging report to make: "Our campaign
'a garden for every home' has gone over almost 100 percent. In
almost every case some new vegetables are being grown."
It is possible to have fresh fruit from the Florida orchard or
grove each month in the year. Florida produces a wide range of
fruit, including strawberries, blueberries, peaches, pears, persim-
mons, pecans, bunch and muscadine grapes, and a wealth of trop-
ical fruits-avocadoes, coconuts, guavas, loquats, pineapple,
banana, tamarind, and citrus.
Two garden contests were conducted among club girls during
the year.
The Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau offered for
the 4-H club girls enrolled in gardening $150.00 in prizes-$50.00
in each district. The donors were willing to accept the plan of
work as already outlined for gardening requirements for Florida
4-H club girls.

Annual Report, 1929

The S. L. Allen Company offered a garden plow, valued at $7.50
for the outstanding garden club girl in each home demonstration
county. Also a plow valued at $18.00 to the girl having the most
outstanding garden in the state. Miss Annabel Raulerson,
Alachua County, qualified as the state garden champion. Annabel
had a net profit of $282.13 from sales of fruits and vegetables from
her garden.- Fifteen counties qualified for the S. L. Allen Com-
pany award, and in time received the award.
How well the gardening program has been carried out by the
junior club members may be understood from the following ex-
tracts from a few of the reports:
Duval: "Every one of the 176 girls had a garden and planted
seven or more varieties of vegetables, including 7,775 Marglobe
tomato plants. The gardening extended beyond foodstuffs. Girls
planted flowers for beautification, but as the Marigold had been
selected as the County Flower, special attention was devoted to
this. Seventeen varieties were tried out."
Walton: "Junior club members enrolled in gardening have
shown some good results. Eighty-nine girls grew 22,199 pounds
of vegetables. They received for vegetables sold $691.50. One
girl sold $105.50 worth of strawberries besides those used at home.
The variety of vegetables grown has increased. Among those
recently added are endive, celery, parsley, spinach and chayote."

The program of beautification has been further extended by
the selecting of a County Flower. The selection of one flower and
cooperating to make that outstanding has been undertaken by all
but three counties. An annual is usually chosen first. This year
many counties selected both an annual and a perennial.
The flower idea is giving zest and color to the vegetable program.
From Nassau: "It seems that this year there has been not only
a greater increase in the interest in home beautification than ever
before, but gardening as well has doubled over previous years in
the county. When the program was made up last fall by the coun-
cil, it was decided to continue our work with the chrysanthemum,
our county home demonstration flower, and retain it as the annual
county flower and add the rose as our perennial."

It was suggested that during the height of the bloom of the
county flower, a flower show be held and original flower songs,
playlets, etc., be given as part of an educational program. This

Florida Cooperative Extension

phase of gardening work has been carried on and has added much
interest and color to the gardening program. Many counties have
been encouraged to hold their first flower show. From indications
it seems that the flower show will be a county event for which
every home demonstration woman and girl will work. The foods
and marketing agent has been told that the friendly competition
and amiable rivalry has done much to promote the flower-growing
Just as the flower show is becoming a social event in the larger
cities, and visitors are attracted from remote sections to them at
flower show time, so do we in Florida home demonstration circles
believe that from our beginnings, visitors who attend our shows
will become interested in the horticultural and agricultural possi-
bilities of the section, and will naturally be attracted to the advan-
tages of the section as a place to establish their homes.
Thirteen home demonstration flower shows have been held dur-
ing the year.
Food Conservation has as its purpose to secure a more balanced
and healthful diet in the home by conserving surplus fruits and
vegetables from the home garden, trucking fields, groves and
packinghouses; canning surplus meats at butchering time; culled
chickens in the seasons of low market price; fish and game in order
to distribute a supply throughout the year, and to provide the use
of Florida products and furnish means of increasing incomes of
girls and women in the home.

Kind of Food Women Girls
Foods and vegetables canned..................... 341,458 67,4701/2
Meats and fish ........................ ........ 25,621%/ 2,628
Jelly and preserves made ........................ 33,610% 20,283
Pickles made .................................... 27,949 6,920
Fruits and vegetables, dried....................... 4,453 975
Meats cured ........................ ........ 185,700 1,779
Crystallized fruit ......... ...................... 1,063 ..
The purpose of the marketing project is to enlarge sources of
revenue from the sale of surplus crops, to establish curb, roadside,
and home industry markets and to encourage buying necessary
equipment and materials cooperatively.
Garden work has not only provided the families with the neces-
sary vegetables and a means for making a little extra spending
money, but it represents an open window through which the home

Annual Report, 1929

demonstration women and girls can see and acquire many of the
beautiful things needed and desired, in providing the added com-
forts and conveniences for "more abundant living."
Polk County: "The Lakeland curb market continues to fill a
long-felt need, providing a market for vegetables for the farm.
Many small truckers are growing summer vegetables, since they
have this outlet for them. There are a number of people who are
developing good business, marketing products, from information
from this office. The Lewises have more orders than they can fill
for their weaving, Mrs. Norris' pewter shop is gaining a reputa-
tion, Mr. Brown's candied fruit brings him a very satisfactory
income. Mrs. Bizzell, Mrs. Baugh and Mrs. Flood have developed
a good trade for their marmalades and jellies. Mrs. Stearns and
Mrs. Devineaux are gaining quite a reputation for their rugs and
there is a constant demand for the Bennett's brooms and cross
stitch. Mrs. Norton, Mrs. Belcher and Mrs. Lampp have marketed
a number of leather articles. The market in the craft shop has
slowly become known and we dispose of a goodly number of
Another county reports that: "Eight individuals sold $178.30
worth of canned products. Seventeen women and girls sold
$1,213.50 worth of fruits and vegetables."

Florida Cooperative Extension

MARY A. STENNIS, Extension Nutritionist

"The Optimal Child" is the theme of the continuous educational
program for girls, women, and all the family. To overcome the
health handicap due to undernourishment or mal-nourishment is
the special aim of the extension nutrition program. Repeated
studies for three years showed the outstanding needs to be as
follows: (1) Increased use in families of fresh whole milk, fresh
fruits, vegetables and eggs. (2) Better understanding of the
natural health advantages offered in Florida, such as sunshine,
out-door living, all-year swimming. (3) Prevention of certain
defects by proper food and health habits and the correction of
defects already acquired.
The plan for the solution of the problem has included both adult
and child health education programs, definite and practical, and,
at the same time, fundamental in the teaching of the principles
of nutrition involved in the feeding of the family.
The adult program covers "Food, Nutrition and Health for
Women's Clubs", "Food, Nutrition and Health for School Chil-
dren", and "Food, Nutrition and Health for Young Children." The
girl's program includes the following: "Watch-Us-Grow Demon-
stration" (girls 10 to 12 years of age), "Food, Nutrition and
Health for Girls", "Food, Nutrition and Health for School Chil-
dren", and a special year's training (for girls 15 or more years
of age) in team or single demonstrations in salads, baking, and in
other food preparation; in participation in the state health or
health improvement achievement features.

The following goals were set for 1929:
Women's Clubs: To complete the material for the second pro-
gram entitled "Food, Nutrition and Health for School Children;"
to continue, in the counties, the first program "Food, Nutrition
and Health for Women;" to make plans for writing the third pro-
gram for women entitled "Food, Nutrition and Health for Young
Children;" to continue community activities in cooperation with
girls' clubs; to revise the material in use in "Food, Nutrition and
Health for Women."

Annual Report, 1929

Girls' Clubs: To prepare and put into use a simplified "Watch-
Us-Grow" program, as preliminary to the more advanced pro-
gram; to continue the program, "Food, Nutrition and Health for
Girls," and to revise the program material; to put into use more
thoroughly the material in Bulletin 49, "Food, Nutrition and
Health for School Children;" stressing improvement of school
lunches prepared at home and at school; to outline course for fifth
and sixth year club girls; to continue activities in the following
community, county and state features:
1. Milk-for-health movements.
2. Lunchroom menus.
3. Health and nutrition achievement.

Every nutrition program includes fundamentals of principle
and of practice for the good of individuals, families, and com-
munities. ILLUSTRATIVE MATERIAL such as photographs,
slides, charts, food and food equipment, posters, animals, and
children have been used to interpret the idea to the public.
Women's clubs and girls' clubs, adopting nutrition as a major
problem, have carried out PRACTICAL DEMONSTRATIONS as
follows: Nine counties, better baking and nutrition; 17 counties,
salad making demonstration (community and county), using
Florida fruits and vegetables; 24 counties, posture demonstra-
tions in every community; five counties, assistance with county-
wide milk-for-health programs; 20 counties, assistance with coun-
ty health achievement days and with county and state nutrition
achievement programs. Other community problems have been
PUBLICITY has been an important feature in the methods of
presenting the program. Four state nutrition news letters (five
page editions) were written. Occasions of awards for best
records in nutrition and health have been used to feature nutrition
material in the newspapers. Every news item has carried at least
a few lines of program or subject matter. Health contests,
achievement day programs, and milk-for-health programs have
been occasions of popular, public, county-wide interest. The pub-
lications of the Department of Public Instruction, the Parent-
Teachers' Association Magazine, the Home Economics State News
Letter, and The Florida Review of the State Department of Agri-
culture have carried many articles relating to the extension nutri-

Florida Cooperative Extension

tion program and newspaper clippings, relating to Florida's 4-H
health program, have been made from almost every state. Five
out-of-state magazines have carried articles. Exhibits of material
were made at the State Short Course for club girls, state agents'
meeting, and Farmers' Week. Material was supplied for seven
county fairs, and slides were used by eight counties. Radio was
used in December. Special timely articles for holidays and par-
ticular occasions were written. The nutritionist served, in 1929,
as editor of the State Home Economics News. Other publications
in 1929 have been (1) revised women's nutrition circular 979,
(2) revised girls' circular 978, (3) -revised watch-us-grow cards,
(4) revised girls' record book, (5) completed Bulletin 49, "Food
Nutrition and Health for Young Children."
the nutrition and health program better known this year. The
following relationships have been effected: (a). Service of physi-
cians of the State Board of Health in the county and state health
contests. (b).'Nutrition material supplied State Board of Child
Welfare for use in state institutions. (c). Service on the execu-
tive committee of the State Health Council. (d). Service as chair-
man of home economics and school lunch committee of the State
Parent-Teachers' Association. Assistance has been generously
given by the State Department of Agriculture in sending the 4-H
club health contestants to attend the Boys' and Girls' Club Con-
gress in Chicago and in the publication of nutrition articles with
Awards for Achievement have helped to stimulate and maintain
effort in producing a number of definite demonstrations to be used
as much needed illustrative material.
Appropriate small awards of glassware or silver for highest
achievement in using Florida fruits and vegetables in practical,
everyday salads have been very happy endings each year for a
plan of from 10 to 15 county-wide programs in salad demonstra-
Five to seven trips to Farmers' Week for women ranking high-
est in the nutrition program and in better home baking has
resulted in a collection of a number of well organized reports of
work accomplished.
Three trips to the National Boys' and Girls' Club Congress for
girls making best records in health and in health improvement,
have very definitely caught and held the interest of advanced club
members in planning and carrying out the year's program in a
complete, finished form.

Annual Report, 1929

Very small awards for achievement in posture have wrought
splendid improvement and have glorified the effort.
The award of entrance in the national health contest by the
state 4-H health winner has gained the intense interest not only
of every club girl but of almost every Florida girl.
All awards are reserved strictly for club members who have
thoroughly completed the educational program of work. No con-
test, as such, exists. The award is for highest achievement in
the educational program and its practical application to oneself,
to the home, to the club and to the community.

Girls in 24 counties have carried a constructive long-time pro-
gram in food, nutrition and health, including a preliminary pro-
gram of growth work followed by the program of food value,
selection, use, preparation and care. Evidences of good results
have been noted particularly in the "health girls" selected in the
counties each year. The state winner in health has, each year,
raised the health score of Florida in the national health contest
from thirteenth to seventh to second to first. Health improve-
ment has been noted by physicians who throughout the state have
made physical and medical examinations. It is estimated that
in four years milk consumption has increased by 25 percent. The
National Health Champion of 4-H girls in 1929 is a Lake County
Women's clubs each year, for three, have gradually majored in
food, nutrition and health, about 10 counties annually adopting
this major project and the following year making it a minor
project. Always the agents have reported increased interest in
gardening, in the use of milk and fruit, in the care and correction
of children, as well as in the improvement in food and health
Miss Matilda Roesel, Marion County home demonstration
agent, in giving results which have come to her county and clubs
following a major nutrition program, says:
"There is a decided interest in better school lunches. A survey
is being made and later the state score will be used to raise the
standard of lunches.
"Gardening (vegetables) has become more interesting to the
women. A year ago they showed very little interest and now they
are ready to make plantings a project for 1930 and will also
increase vegetable plantings.

Florida Cooperative Extension

"The selection of a major program and project and the carrying
of a consecutive educational program throughout the year has
now become an established fact. The women will never again be
willing to do otherwise. They are working out a similar plan for
next year on another subject.

Fig. 6.-Florence Smock, a Lake County club girl (right),
was declared to be the healthiest club girl in the United
States in 1929, winning this honor at the National Club
Congress in Chicago.

"Gain, in number of clubs and club members, has been evident
all the year. Not only have the original clubs gained in strength
but two new clubs have come in and will carry the major nutrition
program this year. The type of program has gained the interest."
Lee County reports every club (women's) completing the Unit
I program this year and good results showing in "better garden-
ing, more dairy cows for milk supply, more canning of vegetables
and fruits, three new school lunchrooms and decided improvement
in others. Achievement Day programs were carried out by every

Annual Report, 1929

community." Following the year's program in nutrition the
women have adopted "canning and food conservation" for a major
Miss Eloise McGriff, home demonstration agent in Walton
County, says, "As a result of our major project in food, nutrition
and health the interest in gardening has greatly increased. Club
girls have come to look on the garden as a most important factor
in maintaining good health. Garden records of a number of vege-
tables served became more interesting. Salad making, practically
new to most farm homes in this county, has become a popular way
of using the garden."
Other results which may be counted are as follows:
Milk-for-health has become a state-wide slogan among girls'
and women's clubs. Child feeding demonstrations of 80 children
and animal feeding demonstrations in 15 counties have resulted
in at least an increase in milk consumption of 25 percent. As a
result of the past three years' milk work, the State Milk Inspec-
tion Bureau, the State Department of Agriculture, the State Mar-
keting Bureau, the State Parent-Teachers' Association have vol-
unteered to cooperate in making April, 1930, Milk-for-Health
month in Florida.
Salads in Florida have become more than style; they are now
the habit.
School lunch improvement has made a small but sure beginning.
Better posture among club girls at least is observed.
Achievement Day programs in the nutrition program have
shown better planning, better records, better understanding of a
constructive program with a worthwhile goal.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The headquarters for the Negro Extension work is at the Flor-
ida A. and M. College, Tallahassee. There are two district agents,
namely A. A. Turner, district agent for men and boys' work, and
Julia A. Miller, district agent for women and girls' work. The
College has cooperated since 1915 in supplying office space, heat
and lights and has made available such other facilities of the
college as may be useful in carrying on the work. During the
periods when short courses are held or when the local agents
assemble there the president and college faculty have extended
all possible cooperation. Stenographic service is employed by the
Extension service with one person to serve both district agents.
The Negro work has the same supervision as the other exten-
sion work. These district agents report to the state leader and
state home demonstration agent for subject matter and super-
vision. Appointments are made on the recommendation of the
district agents when workers are assigned to counties.
During the past year Gadsden County ha; been supplied with
a local agent. In order to do this the work was discontinued in
Bradford. This change was made due to the large number of
Negro farmers in Gadsden County and the evident greater useful-
ness of the service under such conditions.
Negro extension work has been conducted in eight counties for
men's work as follows: Jackson, Jefferson, Suwannee, Columbia,
Gadsden, Bradford, Alachua and Marion; and for women's work
in seven counties, namely in Duval, Leon, Madison, Marion,
Orange, St. Johns and Sumter.
These counties are selected because of the relatively large agri-
cultural negro population, for statistics show that a large percent
of the farmers in these counties are negroes than any other coun-
ties-the total of which show that 40 percent of the farmers in
these counties operating farms are negroes and 60 percent are
white farmers. This includes both tenants and owners.
This, however, does not include all the Negro farmers in Florida,
but with limits on the funds that can be spent for this work, the
counties named represent the number that can be profitably served
by the agricultural Extension Division.

Annual Report, 1929

(Farm Makers' Clubs)

A. A. Turner, Local District Agent
County Local Agent Address
Alachua ................ William Stockton .......... Gainesville
Bradford ...............J. W. Keller ............... Starke
(resigned June 30, '29)
Columbia ...............E. S. Belvin ............... Lake City
Gadsden ................A. W. Bowls ............... Quincy
Jackson ................ J. E. Granberry ............ Marianna
Jefferson ............... M. E. Groover ............. Monticello
Marion ................. W. B. Young ............... Ocala
Suwannee ..............C. T. Evans ............... Live Oak

Programs of work are required January 1 to guide the county
workers through the year. Recommendations are made from the
supervising office, Gainesville, as to type of work and subject
matter. This program conforms in each case to the type of agri-
culture and the crops grown by the farmers in each county. The
program includes organization work, club work, sanitation and
exhibits. A summary of the agents' work shows as follows:
In 1929 the agents have worked in 88 communities of eight
counties. They had the assistance of 151 voluntary leaders of the
rural section in the organization of 129 junior clubs and 122 adult
clubs to promote 4-H club work and such community activities as
social betterment, sanitation and rural improvement. These
efforts were responsible for a membership of 643 boys and 214
girls in the 4-H club. They also enrolled 704 men and 119 women
in demonstration clubs. In each case about 50 percent of these
members completed their project work.
In the junior work there were 164 boys and 94 girls who had
continued their 4-H club work through a period of four or more
There were 2,431 visits made to 685 different farms and there
were also 1,453 visits to 565 different homes. The agents had
1,928 requests for services at their office. They spent one day
each week at office headquarters and the remainder of the time
with farmers throughout the counties.
The agents assisted in the management of 8 community fairs,
four county fairs and two state fairs. They held 570 demonstra-
tion meetings with a total attendance of 3,397. They also helped
in the programs with 22 farmers' meetings where there was an
attendance of 1,377.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Corn. The Negro men completed 81 demonstrations of corn on
an acreage of 10,950. These demonstrations produced an increase
of 31/2 bushels per acre over adjoining fields.
Oats. There were 31 demonstrations with oats conducted on
576 acres. Inasmuch as these oats were grazed off or cut for hay
the crop could not be measured and the results could be determined
only by the condition of the crop.
Rye. There were 17 demonstrations with an acreage of 385.
This was also grazed off so no record of this is available.
Legumes. The legume crops were soybeans, Austrian winter
peas and winter vetch. There were 327 demonstrations on 23,968
acres. These crops were either plowed under or grazed off.
Cotton. There were 43 demonstrations conducted with cotton
with an acreage of 619. This resulted in an increase of 80 pounds
of seed cotton per acre.
Tobacco. Work with tobacco was of a general nature, and con-
cerned seedbeds, harvesting and curing, inasmuch as most crops
of tobacco are supervised by a tobacco demonstrator whose ser-
vices are paid for by the growers on a percentage basis.
Horticultural Crops. The horticultural crops consisted primar-
ily of vegetables for market and canning, with home gardens and
home tree fruits.
Some work was done with strawberries and grapes. A total of
90 demonstrations were carried through the year on approximate-
ly 30 acres. This work concerned fertilizer, cultural methods and
control of insects and diseases, and applied principally to the home
gardens, as most of the Negro men's work is outside the commer-
cial horticultural area of Florida.
Livestock. The demonstrations with dairy cattle totaled 20,
involving 194 animals; beef cattle 3, involving 191; hogs 94, in-
volving 1,575; and with poultry 88, involving 1,690 individuals.
With the exception of hogs, these demonstrations were with the
small farmer, having only a few animals and requesting help to
make improvement in securing animals of a greater production
and in better feeding methods. In the case of hogs, the work was
largely with the control of hog cholera by vaccination and better
sanitary conditions. The estimated saving in the case of hogs
amounted to $8,065 in disease control alone.
In the hog program the agents have been directed by county
agents and district agents in the preparation of feeds. They have
bought their feeds cooperatively under the direction of county
agents, obtaining thereby the benefits of cooperative marketing.

Annual Report, 1929

Through cooperative purchase and sales three local associations
with 113 members purchased supplies amounting to $5,538 and
sold cooperatively farm products valuing $34,495.
Reference is made to some outstanding accomplishments as
J. E. Granberry, local agent, Jackson County, reports 74 soil
building demonstrations using Austrian winter peas and vetch.
Through the use of winter peas on 20 acres of land the winter
crop was not turned under. These plantings were made accord-
ing to the recommendations of the white county and district
One farmer sold $600 worth of hogs at a feed cost of $275. A
second farmer sold $890 worth of hogs at a feed cost of $240,
These hogs were sold cooperatively and netted the farmers $153
above the price they would have received without the cooperative
A farmers' cooperative association with 105 members bought
$935 worth of fertilizer, also stored 60 tons of peanuts in a co-
operative storage house.
M. E. Groover, Jefferson County, reports demonstrations with
soybeans, 26 of these were completed with an increase of 10 bush-
els per acre on 600 acres. With peanuts 29 demonstrations were
completed with an increase of 10 bushels per acre on 500 acres.
One demonstrator sold $100 worth of okra off one-half acre of
garden and put up 200 quarts of canned okra. Also sold $78 worth
of other vegetables. Other farmers sold their garden crops on
local markets. In one case the total sales amounted to $350.
The district agents had numerous requests for organizations of
colored farmers in 18 counties for the purpose of organization in
order that they might benefit from the federal marketing act.
These requests came from individual Negro farmers, teachers and
Negro leaders. A series of meetings were held at convenient
places where representatives from the leading Negro agricultural
communities of Florida were present. Those appearing on the
program were representatives of the Extension service, State
Marketing Bureau, State Department of Agriculture and from
United States Bureau of Agricultural Economics. These organ-
izations proposed to combine their credit, assist farmers in secur-
ing loans from the Intermediate Credit bank. A state organiza-
tion was tentatively arranged. The state expects to proceed with
the organization as fast as the locals can organize themselves.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The local district agents with the cooperation of the county
workers placed creditable exhibits on display at the South Florida
Fair, Tampa, and the State Fair, Jacksonville. These exhibits
were representative of the products grown by farmers cooperating
with the agents. The fair association cooperated liberally, pro-
viding lights and accommodations so as to make a creditable dis-
play. These exhibits aroused much interest and favorable com-
ment and showed an improvement over exhibits of former years.
The short course was provided by the Florida A. and M. College,
Tallahassee, for 4-H Negro club members. The college cooperated
in accommodating the club members and provided meeting places.
The expense of transporting club members to the college was
taken care of from local sources in the counties where the club
members carried out their work. These club members were ac-
companied by local county agents.
The annual meeting of Negro agents was held at Tallahassee
under the supervision of the local district agent where the agents
gathered for instruction.
Other meetings for Negro extension work. These were ar-
ranged under the direction of the state leader and the state home
demonstration agent.
December 1, 1928-November 30, 1929
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 88
Voluntary county, community and local leaders ...................... 151
Clubs carrying on extension work ................................. 251
Memberships .......... ............................... 1,680
Farm visits made by local agents ... ....... .......... ........... 2,431
Different farms visited ................ ......................... 685
Office calls on agents relating to extension work ....................1,928
Exhibits at fairs ............................................... 12
County .......................................... 8
State ............................................ 4
Number Attendance
Farmers' meetings held ......................... 7 1,032
Of Outlined Projects for Local Agents
Number Days Agents
Communities Devoted to
Participating Projects
Soils ............................ ......... 69 222
Farm Crops ............................. 71 296
Dairy Husbandry ........................... 61 70
Poultry Husbandry ........................ 52 70
Total ............................ 273 658

Annual Report, 1929 97

(Corn, Oats, etc.)
Acreage grown under demonstration methods...................... 11,917
Boys' and girls' clubs .......................................... 51
Acreage grown by club members .............................. 457
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels).................. 3,584
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ...................... 421
Farmers who planted selected or improved seed .................. 241

Acreage grown under improved methods......................... 619
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices..................... 149
Boys' and girls' clubs .......................................... 11
Members enrolled .............................................. 117
Acreage grown by club members ................................. 121
Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) ..................... 35,466
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed .................. 44
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases...... 47

(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)
Number method demonstrations given........................... 569
Number result demonstrations under way ........................ 579
Number result demonstrations completed ........................ 182
Acres in completed demonstrations ............................. 887

Demonstrations given ....................................... 319
Demonstrations completed ................. ................... 205
Animals in completed demonstrations .......................... 3,758
Farmers who secured purebred sires and breeding stock............ 48
Farmers culling breeding stock ................................. 68
Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests ................... 40

Building on farms constructed or remodeled ....................... 62
Farmers who cleared land ..................................... 25
Acres cleared .................................................. 284
Number of farms adopting other practices for the first time........ 90

Demonstrations ............................................... 278
Farmers adopting control measures .............................. 292
Acres involved ................................................ 976

Florida Cooperative Extension

(Home Makers' Clubs)
Julia A. Miller, Local Dist. Home Dem. Agent
County Local Home Dem. Agent Address
Duval ............... Olive L. Smith ................ Jacksonville,
1005 W. 12th St.
Leon ................ Alice W. Poole ................ Tallahassee
Madison ............Althea Ayer .................. Madison
Marion .............. Idella Ransom ................ Reddick
Orange ............... Mamie E. Wright ............. Orlando
St. Johns............. Mary A. Caldwell ............ St. Augustine
Sumter .............. Diana H. Finlayson ........... Webster
The survey made in the seven counties served by home agents
in January, 1929, showed that the most outstanding needs for
Negro home demonstration work were: Organization, definite
programs to fit local home needs, systematic planning on part of
the local home agents, and more contact with the general public
and organizations working in the same field.
In making plans for year 1929, organization was an important
factor. A junior and senior home demonstration club in each
community with a needful and practical program, and a county
council for every county was the goal set. The plans ultimately
resulted in the organizing of 96 junior clubs and 75 adult clubs
in 97 different communities out of the 171 available in the terri-
tory for organization.
Home demonstration work now being conducted in seven coun-
ties among Negro citizens is wielding a very good influence toward
the comfort and efficiency of the "home maker". The desire for
and interest in better farm and home practices were demonstrated
during 1929 by 1,028 women and 1,565 girls living in 97 different
communities and sections of the State. A total of 2,593 demon-
strations in gardening, food preparation, clothing, food preserva-
tion, sanitation, home improvement, poultry and other miscel-
laneous projects affecting the home life were undertaken. Of the
2,593 demonstrations there were 1,128 completed at a profit.
County councils of home demonstration clubs have been organ-
ized in six different counties. These county councils have helped
the agent in reaching more people and helping with many hard
Nothing is needed more among rural colored people of Florida
than an increase in production of home-grown foods and an ade-
quate supply for the family meals. In teaching the selection of
foods to farm women, 29 extension schools were held by agents.

Annual Report, 1929

Exhibits were made of five groups of needed foods that could be
provided from home sources: 1, vegetables and fruits; 2, milk,
meat, eggs and cheese; 3, cereal foods; 4, sugar or sugar foods as
honey, jelly, etc., and 5, fats and fatty foods, as meat, butter and
lard. Using this method of demonstrating growing food supply,
gardens, poultry, dairy products, hogs, and improved production
in quality and quantity were subjects discussed and emphasized.
A total of 3,006 people attended these schools.
One agent says: "A two-day extension school was held at
Edisto. Four counties were reached. A total of 150 people at-
tended these schools regularly. At the close of the two-day ses-
sion a home makers' club was organized at Edisto with an enroll-
ment of 15. The first community demonstration garden was
planted by this club."
As result of the extension schools one agent writes: "February
was a busy month for club work. There were 15 vegetable and
flower gardens planted this month by club members. This num-
ber exceeded previous years. Our aim is a garden for each home.
On Arbor Day 100 fruit trees suited to this climate were planted
by club boys."
There are 782 women and 1,004 girls carrying demonstrations,
in gardening, 513 women and 661 girls in poultry, and 122 women
and 441 girls in dairying.
Proper food preparation, together with selection and produc-
tion, have had their place in our program. The preparation of
vegetables for the table and the making of palatable and whole-
some breads have been undertaken by 794 women and 1,314 girls
representing 794 different homes.
Five bread contests were held by home demonstration club
members. The preparation of foods is appealing to the club
people and results can readily be seen in counties served by
To encourage a year-round, adequate food supply for the family
meals, demonstrations have been conducted by 565 women and
1,209 girls in food preservation. At certain seasons of the year
the truck growers, after gathering produce of market quality,
open fields to citizens. The home demonstration agents have
played a large part in encouraging the preservation of vegetables
and fruits which would otherwise be wasted.
As result of demonstrations conducted this year, 5,797 quarts
of fruits were canned for home use by women and 6,751 quarts by