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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal to gover...
 Credits
 Report of director
 County agent work
 Boys' club work
 Dairying
 Citrus pathology and entomolog...
 Poultry
 Home demonstration work
 Negro extension work
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00012
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1928
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00012
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal to governor
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    County agent work
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Boys' club work
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Dairying
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Citrus pathology and entomology
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Poultry
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Home demonstration work
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Negro extension work
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Index
        Page 88
        Page 89
Full Text





1928


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1928
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1928













1928


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN

AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1928
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1928










CONTENTS
PAGE
BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF.................................. ..................... 4
COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS .......................................... 5
REPORT OF DIRECTOR ............................................. ........ 7
Financial Statement, 7; Organization, 8; Lines of Work, 10; 4-H
Club Work, 12; Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week, 13.
PUBLICATIONS ..................................................................................... 14
Bulletins, 14; National Egg-Laying Contest Reports, 15; News and
Farm Paper Stories, 15; Training in News Writing, 16.
COUNTY AGENT W ORK ................................................................. .. ......... 17
County Programs, 17; Specialists' Work with County Agents, 19;
Boys' Club Work, 19; Extension Meetings, 20; State Meetings, 20;
Outside Activities, 20; County Agent Programs of Work, 21.
BoYs' CLUB W ORK .......................................................................................... 32
Crop Clubs, 32; Livestock Clubs, 33; The State Fair, 35; Annual
Short Course, 35; Club Camps, 36; Educational Trips, 36; Agricul-
tural Scholarships, 38; A Boys' and Girls' Flower Show, 39; A
Leader Developed by Club Work, 39.
DAIRYING .......................................- ...................... ....................................... 40
Reducing Production Costs, 40; Feeding Demonstrations, 41;
Dairy Tours, 42; Distribution and Exchange of Dairy Breeding
Stock, 42; Dairy Production Records, 43; Dairy Herd Improvement
Association, 43; Better Balanced Rations, 43; Fair Exhibits, 44;
Dairymen's Organizations, 44
'CITRUS PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY .................................................. .. 45
Melanose and Stem-end Rot Control, 45; Blue Mold Decay Con-
trol, 46; Citrus Scab Control, 46; Psorosis and Gummosis Control,
47; Rust Mite Control, 47; Citrus Aphid Control, 48; Whitefly and
Scale Control, 48; Fertilizer Demonstrations, 49; Irrigation, 49.
POULTRY .............................. ................. .................... ............................... 53
Program of Work, 53; Methods, 53; Projects, 54; Poultry Develop-
ment by Projects, 54; Poultry Associations, 59; Junior Poultry
Clubs, 61; Miscellaneous, 62.
HOME DEMONSTRATION W ORK ................................................................... .... 64
Organization in the Counties, 64; Supervisory Program, 65; Office
Organization, Records and Reports, 67; Maintenance and Training
of Personnel, 67; Program Development and Analysis, 68; Pub-
licity, 68; Project Activities and Results, 69; Strengthening the Or-
ganization, 77.
NEGRO EXTENSION WORK ...................................................................... 81
Negro Extension Meetings, 81; County Meetings, 82; Fair Exhibits,
82; Results of Year's Work, 83; Negro Women's Work, 85.



















Hon. Doyle E. Carlton,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agri-
culture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1928, in-
cluding a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1928.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman, Board of Control.










BOARD OF CONTROL


P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.SC.. Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, B.S.A., Editor
ERNEST G. MOORE, M.S., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Specialist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent
MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Home Dairy and Nutrition Agent







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
Home Demonstration
County County Agents Address Agents
Alachua ........F. L. Craft ..............Gainesville ...........Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Baker ............W H. Rumff ..........Macclenny ........................................
Bradford ........T. D. Rickenbaker..Starke .......................
Brevard ..........W R. Briggs ..........Cocoa ......................................
Broward ........C. E. Matthews ......Ft. Lauderdale........Miss Ethyl Holloway
Calhoun ..........John G. Kelley ......Blountstown .......................................
Calhoun and Liberty ........................Blountstown........Miss Josephine Nimmo
Charlotte and Highlands ..............Punta Gorda................Miss May Winfield
Citrus ........................................ Inverness.........Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Citrus and
Sumter ........I. R. Nolen ..............Inverness ...........................
Columbia ...............----...............................Lake City ....................Mrs. Lassie Black
Dade ............J. S. Rainey ............Miami ........................Miss Pansy Norton
Dade (Asst.)..C. H. Steffani ........Homestead Miss Carrie Torbert (Miami)
Duval ..............W. L. Watson .........Jacksonville ................Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.) J. O. Traxler ..........Jacksonville ........................................
Duval (Asst.) C. H. Magoon ........Jacksonville --------- -- -----
Escambia ........E. P. Scott ............. Pensacola .............-..... Miss Della Stroud
Flagler ..........L. T. Nieland ..........Bunnell -----......------...
Gadsden ............................................ in ..........................M iss Elise Laffitte
Hamilton ........J. J. Sechrest ..........Jasper ........------ --------
Hernando ......John H. Logan ........Brooksville .---......Mrs. Florence Albert
Highlands ......L. H. Alsmeyer ......Sebring ..........................
Hillsborough ..C. P. Wright ............Plant City- (E)........Miss Motelle Madole
Tampa (W)................Mrs. Mary S. Allen
Holmes ................................................Bonifay .................Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Indian River..W. E. Evans ...........Vero Beach ----- -----------..
Jackson ..........S. H. Rountree ........Marianna-.............Miss Mary Sue Wigley
Jefferson ........E. H. Finlayson ......Monticello ...............-------... ------
Lafayette ......D. C. Geiger ............Mayo .------......... ....----
Lake ................C. R. Hiatt ..............Tavares ...........Miss Christine McFerron
Lee ..................W. P. Hayman ........Ft. Myers ..............Miss Anna Mae Sikes
Leon ................G. C. Hodge ............Tallahassee..............Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum
Levy .............N. J. Allbritton ......Bronson ................----------------
Liberty ..........A. W. Turner ..........Bristol ......--------------
Madison .......B. E. Lawton ........Madison ...........................
Manatee ........L. H. Wilson ............Bradenton ................Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion ............Clyde H. Norton ....Ocala.............................Miss Tillie Roesel
Martin ............C. P. Heuck ............Stuart ------ ------. ------
Nassau ........A. S. Lawton ..........Fernandina ..................---- Miss Pearl Jordan
Okaloosa ........R. J. Hart ................Crestview -...........-.....Miss Bertha Henry
Okeechobee ....C. A. Fulford ..........Okeechobee ........................................
Orange ............K. C. Moore ............Orlando..................Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola ..........J. R. Gunn .............Kissimmee ....-....----Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach ..S. W. Hiatt ............W. Palm Beach....Mrs. Edith Y. Morgan
Palm Beach
(Asst.) ........M. U. Mounts .......W. Palm Beach............Miss Bernice Lyle
Pinellas ..........William Gomme ....Clearwater................Mrs. Joy Belle Hess
Polk ................F. L. Holland ..........Bartow.........-----..............Miss Lois Godbey
Bartow (Asst.) .......Miss Mosel Preston
St. Johns ......E. H. Vance ...........St. Augustine.................Miss Anna Heist
St. Lucie ........Alfred W arren ........Ft. Pierce ........................................ ..
Santa Rosa ....John G. Hudson ......Milton ........................Miss Martha Moore
Sarasota ........P. M. Childers ........Sarasota ...................
Suwannee and
Hamilton ....W. W. Green ..........Live Oak .... --. .............
Taylor ............R. S. Dennis ..-......Perry ................-.........Mrs. Anabel Powell
Union ............L. T. Dyer ..............Lake Butler ...............--------------.
Volusia ............T. A. Brown ..........DeLand ................--..........Miss Orpha Cole
Wakulla ..........D. M. Treadwell ....Crawfordville ..........................
Walton ..........Mitchell Wilkins ....DeFuniak Springs....Miss Eloise McGriff
Washington ....Gus York ................Chipley ...--------------

*This list correct to December 31, 1928.








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Fig. 1.-Working for a better Florida agriculture--Florida's county and home demonstration agents.


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REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES

FOR 1928

With
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30, 1928



Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report
of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1928, and a summary
of the activities of the Division for the calendar year 1928. I
respectfully request that you transmit the same in accordance
with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Receipts
College of Agriculture Funds-
Smith-Lever, Federal ........ ..........................$ 58,872.25
Smith-Lever, State ................-............ 48,872.25
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal ..........-- 15,496.08
Supplementary Smith-Lever, State .................. 15,496.08
U. S. D. A. Appropriation ................................ 21,475.00
State Appropriations .............................. ... 43,058.92
County Appropriations ................................... ... 186,696.08
$389,966.66
Expenditures
Administration ................... ...... ........... 8,803.31
Printing and Publications ...........- ....................... 6,010.67
County Agent Work ................................................ 184,406.02
Home Demonstration Work ...................................... 124,376.72
Foods and Marketing ...... ................ .............. 4,271.30
Dairy and Nutrition ................................................. 4,100.00
Boys' Club W ork ....................................................... 7,664.41
Dairy Husbandry ...................................................... 4,795.95
Negro Agents' Club Work ................................. .. 20,304.15
Plant Pathology and Entomology ........................... 5,410.42
Poultry Husbandry ........ ................. ............................. 4,757.97
Extension Schools and Farmers' Week .................. 2,565.74
Florida National Egg Laying Contest .................. 12,500.00
$389,966.66






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

The Agricultural Extension Division of the University of
Florida is conducted as one of the three divisions of the College
of Agriculture and according to cooperative terms contained in
the Smith-Lever Act of 1914. During the past year, no changes
of importance have taken place. The relationship of the Uni-
versity of Florida in cooperation with the county boards has
been the same since the beginning of Extension work in this
state.
While the headquarters for all Extension work is at the Uni-
versity, the offices of the State Home Demonstration Agent are
located at the State College for Women, and the office of the
Negro agents is located at the Florida A. & M. College for Negroes
at Tallahassee.
Extension work in Florida may be divided under three main
headings: (a) Agricultural work for men and boys, (b) home
demonstration work for women and girls, and (c) Negro work in
agriculture and home economics.

ORGANIZATION
The organization consists of supervisors as follows: director,
vice-director and county agent leader, three district agents, one
state home demonstration, one assistant state agent, three dis-
trict home demonstration agents; specialists: boys' club agent,
citrus pathologist and entomologist, dairyman, poultryman, home
dairy and nutrition agent, food and marketing agent, and one
district agent for the Negro work.
The revenue supporting Extension work is provided from the
following sources: (1) appropriations by the United States De-
partment of Agriculture, (2) appropriations by the legislature
of the State of Florida, and (3) county appropriations. These
appropriations are governed by Acts of Congress and the State
Legislature and are administered by the Agricultural Extension
Division. The authority for making county appropriations is
provided in a clause permitting county boards to make a levy
for agriculture and home economics purposes, thereby permitting
county boards to enter into agreement with the Extension Di-
vision for the employment of county and home demonstration
agents. All appointments for extension work are approved by







Annual Report, 1928


the State Board of Control and by the Extension Service of the
United States Department of Agriculture before they become
effective.
Agricultural Extension work in Florida has not materially
changed since 1927. The legislature of 1927 made increased ap-
propriations to conduct Extension work, during the biennium,
but the amounts were still not sufficient to carry out all the
work for which there is a steady demand. The cooperation in
counties has remained about the same as in 1927, but with some
interruption on account of reduced values and reduced business.
Extension work in Florida is dependent on county appropriations
-the average appropriation by counties is about 300 percent of
the amount applied by the federal and state governments for
the employment of county workers. Because of the more
difficult financial situation generally over the state, more trouble
has been experienced the past year in securing county funds.
There has been no increase in the number of county agents;
however, there has been a slight increase in the number of home
demonstration agents employed.
Extension work during the past year has been conducted in
52 Florida counties. In these counties agents are confronted
with agricultural and home economics problems of practically
every nature. In order that everyone shall be well informed and
in a position to take a leading part in the counties, it is the plan
to provide every facility so that the efficiency of these agents
can be increased. This is done by conferences with the Agricul-
tural College and Experiment Station and Florida's State College
for Women staffs during annual meeting. These agents are sup-
plied with the latest information as published by the Florida
Experiment Station and the United States Department of Agri-
culture, in addition to the help that can be given by the Extension
Specialists and subject matter workers in the colleges.
All extension agents submit programs of work at the beginning
of the year, and as a basis for this, the extension specialists make
recommendations governing the entire area, and the county
agents, in cooperation with district agents, apply the specialists'
plans as far as conditions will permit. The purpose is to sys-
tematize the projects undertaken by the Extension Service and
have them carried out cooperatively between extension specialist
and the county workers.






Florida Cooperative Extension


LINES OF WORK

There is a decided demand for Extension work in Agricultural
Economics. Requests are coming for costs of production and
for help in establishing new cash crops. There has been a demand
for assistance for
improving the
standards and
grades of vege-
tables and fruits,
and for cooperative
marketing.
I There is an in-
creased interest in
the production of
beef cattle in coun-
ties where tick
eradication has
made progress.
Several carloads of
purebred and
g grade breeding
stock have been
placed on the
h- e ranges for the im-
provement of the
Pig. 2.-Tick eradication is followed by the intro- native stock. At
duction of more purebred beef cattle into Florida
the same time,
there has been a general reduction in the number of native
cattle, leaving these open ranges almost free of livestock. An
effort is being made to re-stock these with better animals and
to introduce better pastures so that this large area will begin
to bring in large revenues.
The elimination of the cattle tick has made it possible to make
better progress in dairying. Through the efforts of the county
agents and dairy specialist a number of high grade and purebred
dairy animals have been shipped into Florida to improve the dairy
herds. Much of this has been done through club work, and
where the ticks have been held in check these importations have
been satisfactory and profitable. In addition to this, stock







Annual Report, 1928


raisers have made a decided attempt to improve pastures, and
during the spring of 1928 the Agricultural Extension Division
distributed through extension agents' efforts about four tons of
carpet grass seed.
There has been some interest in the erection of silos and in
the more economical feeding of dairy cattle. Some progress
has been made to interest dairymen in the keeping of records
and in the elimination of unprofitable cattle. The dairy calf
club work has made progress in counties where the cattle tick is
under control.
There was a decided increase in the number of poultry flocks
and hatcheries during 1927; however, there has been some re-
trenchment since March of 1928, as the large hatcheries were
unable to find sale for their baby chicks, and the number of
commercial poultry plants is slightly reduced. The entries in
the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest were reduced from 96
to 81. The number of improved birds on farms, however, has
increased, and the improvement of the farm flock is decidedly
greater than at any previous time. The Extension Poultryman
is unable to meet the demands, and county agents who take a
special interest in farm poultry are finding their work profitable
and more appreciated.
The number of counties cooperating with the Extension
Division in the employment of county workers is largely de-
pendent on the abilities of the respective counties to finance the
work. With larger allotments from state and federal sources,
it is evident there would be a demand for work in both agricul-
ture and home economics in practically every Florida county.
It is evident that county and home demonstration agents must
render personal service as well as carry out cooperative county
projects. The demand for trained men continues to increase,
and this is particularly true in sections of Florida where the
agriculture is specialized. County agents are called upon to
serve in many capacities that in some cases are somewhat aside
from the real agricultural problems. A small part of the agents
have as a part of their duties the vaccination of hogs, and assist
in a personal way in many such undertakings. Many others
work in cooperation with the State Livestock Sanitary Board in
the vaccination of hogs against cholera.






Florida Cooperative Extension


4-H CLUB WORK
The railroads have expressed their appreciation for extension
work by offering trips and scholarships to club members. The
State Bankers' Association has made contributions and indicated
support of organized 4-H club work. County boards and in-
dividuals have contributed to funds to provide scholarships for
the attendance of girls and boys at short courses at the State
College for Women and at the College of Agriculture. Scholar-
ships have been provided so that successful club members can
take a course of study in agriculture at the University of Florida.
The citizens and business men of West Florida have made pos-
sible, at a cost of several thousand dollars, the erection and
operation of a boys' club camp located on the Choctawhatchee
Bay. On the whole, the boys and girls 4-H clubs are receiving
recognition from leading interests.
The club work in Central and South Florida, due to the
character of crops produced, has been more difficult to establish.
As yet the character of club work offered to the boys of that
section has not been easy to handle, due to the speculative nature
of the crops and the absence of typical farm conditions. The
girls' club work in these sections, however, has made substantial
progress and is being generally recognized as an important part
of extension work.







Annual Report, 1928


FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK

The Seventh Annual Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was
conducted on the University campus August 13-18, 1928, with
an attendance of 1,200 people from all parts of Florida.
Board and room was furnished to visitors by the University of
Florida at the actual cost of $1.50 per day. Provision was made
for visitors to occupy dormitory rooms.
The program was divided into sections covering subjects re-
lated to farm life, such as, farm crops, livestock and dairying,
vegetable crops, citrus and subtropical fruits, pecans, small fruits,
and ornamentals, bee-keeping, poultry, home economics and
agricultural economics. Each section was further divided by
subjects, furnishing a variety of topics suitable to the wishes of
those who attended.
The program committee secured speakers from the various
departments of the College' of Agriculture, Agricultural Exten-
sion Division, Experiment Station, State College for Women and
State Plant Board and other institutions. Growers also took
part in the programs. Assistance was furnished by the State
Department of Agriculture, State Marketing Bureau, Live Stock
Sanitary Board and other departments of the state government.
Each day at 11 A. M. all sectional programs closed, so that
visitors might assemble in the auditorium to hear a popular
lecture. The night programs were entirely entertainment con-
sisting of music, plays, etc. One afternoon was devoted to a
farmers' picnic where lunch and entertainment was provided
free of cost to the visitors.
The home economics section had special programs for women.
This was carried out under the direction of the State Home
Demonstration staff.
Throughout the week a total of 200 programs were carried on
consisting of laboratory studies, agricultural and home economics
lectures, inspirational and entertainment periods.








Florida Cooperative Extension


PUBLICATIONS

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Ernest G. Moore, Assistant Editor

The following publications were issued by the Agricultural
Extension Division during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1928.
All of these were edited and proof-read by the Extension Editors.


Title Pages
Poultry Houses and Equipment
(Reprint) .......................................-.. 20
Culling for Egg Production............ 12
Flowering Bulb Culture in Florida 36
Second Year Sewing (Reprint).... 12
Third Year Sewing (Reprint)...... 8
Fourth Year Sewing (Reprint)...... 12
Why Grow Tomatoes ...................... 22
Florida Club Songs .......................... 56
First Florida National Egg-Laying
Contest ...................----.............. ...... 12
Agricultural News Service ..-.......- 1
Calendar -----.............................-------..-- 12
Florida Pepper (Club Paper)........ 2
Ten Lessons for Poultry Club
Members .........-- ----..---.............--- 16


Copies

10,333
10,000
13,000
10,000
10,000
5,000
10,050
5,000

1,250
28,560 (42 wks.)
8,819
81,600

8,255


Extension publications are distributed from the mailing room,
which is under the Editors' supervision. Formerly, classified
mailing lists were maintained, and whenever a bulletin was
issued, it was sent to all names of a certain classification. For
instance, a bulletin on horticulture was sent to all mailing list
names of those who were interested in horticulture. However,
this practice has been changed in an effort to avoid wasting
bulletins and to see that they reach only people who are really
interested in the individual bulletin. The mailing list now main-
tained is general. When a new bulletin is issued, a card giving
its title and a short resume of its contents is mailed to the entire
list. Those who are interested in the particular bulletin can re-
turn the card and a copy of the bulletin will be sent them. Thus,
only those particularly interested in the bulletin at hand receive
a copy of it.
Of course, copies of any bulletins are sent free on special re-
quest at any time.


Bul. 45

Bul. 47
Bul. 48
Circ. 975
Circ. 976
Circ. 977
Circ. 980
H.D. Bul. 45
Final Report,

Weekly
1928
9 issues






Annual Report, 1928


NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST REPORTS

Fifty-one weekly progress reports of the Florida National
Egg-Laying Contest were printed during the fiscal year. Each
of these was of four pages. They were sent to 750 people each
week. A final report, 12 pages in length, was printed and dis-
tributed.
NEWS AND FARM PAPER STORIES

The weekly Agricultural News Service was the principal
means used to carry extension information to the people through
the newspapers. An average of about nine stories each week,
some relating to extension work and others to the Experiment
Station, the College of Agriculture, and the State Plant Board,
were sent out through this service.
That the papers used these stories is indicated by a check
and compilation made by the Assistant Editor. During the year
the Editors received on their exchange desk copies of 90 weekly
papers. This is approximately three-fourths of the weeklies
published in Florida, and should give a fairly accurate indica-
tion of the use the Florida papers made of material contained
in the clip-sheet.
Actual measurement of Agricultural News Service stories re-
printed in the 90 weeklies received in the editorial office showed
that a total of 38,980 column inches were used during the year.
Since the 90 weeklies represent only three-fourths of those pub-
lished in the state, and it seems fair to believe that the 90 re-
ceived were representative, it is estimated that a total of 51,970
column inches of Agricultural News Service material was re-
printed by Florida weekly papers during the year. This is equiv-
alent to approximately 1,000 column inches or 50 columns each
week.
A total of 121 stories were sent to the Associated Press during
the year. These were distributed by the Associated Press to its
48 member papers in Florida.
The Extension Editor conducts a farm page in one Florida
daily paper. This page runs each Sunday, and contains stories
of Extension work.
During Farmers' Week, a Farmers' Week page was run in one
of the Gainesville dailies from Tuesday through Friday. The
stories for this page were prepared by the Extension Editors, and
copies of the paper were distributed free to visitors.







Florida Cooperative Extension


About 12 special news stories were prepared and distributed
directly to one or more Florida newspapers during the year. Six
special stories, amounting to 45 inches of printed matter, were
prepared for two different national farm news publications during
the year.
A total of 50 different stories were prepared by the Editors and
published in eight different Florida and Southern farm papers
during the year. These amounted to 1,495 inches of printed
matter. In addition, these farm papers reprinted many stories
from the Agricultural News Service.
Copies of press bulletins, circulars, etc., were sent to farm
paper editors as they became timely during the year, and were
published.
It should be remembered that the Editors devote a considerable
portion of their time to work for the Experiment Station.

TRAINING IN NEWS WRITING
The Editor conducted a two-day news writing training school
in which 14 club boys and girls of Gadsden County were given
training, and two one-day schools in which 25 club girls of
Volusia County were instructed.
The Assistant Editor gave short lessons in news writing to 11
boys attending the annual club short course, and assisted them in
issuing a daily mimeographed club short course newspaper.
The Editor attended the Girls' Club Short Course at Tallahassee
and trained two girls from each county in news writing. Two
short course newspapers were issued and read at assembly.
During the fiscal year, the Extension Editor made a trip to
Chipley to advise with the supervisor of the National Egg-Laying
Contest concerning the monthly reports of the contest. As a
result, the supervisor has since that time issued monthly press
bulletins dealing with the progress of the contest. These press
bulletins are used in many of the papers, and are copied almost
exactly as they are each month by the Associated Press and
sent to its members.







Annual Report, 1928


COUNTY AGENT WORK

A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader
H. G. Clayton, District Agent
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent

Forty-eight counties are represented in the report for 1923
as employing county agents in conducting agricultural extension
work. The counties are divided into three districts each super-
vised by a district agent. During the calendar year there were
13 changes in the personnel of county agents, including transfers
and new appointments. This is about the usual number and
less than that in 1927. There were four more counties in the
work in 1928 than in 1927.
The work in the counties has been carried along with about the
usual program; however, there has been some reduction in county
finances that has interfered with the progress and caused un-
certainty in the minds of agents as to the continuation of their
work. A reduction in the amount paid to county agents was
made in Madison, Palm Beach, and Broward counties, while an
increase was given in Nassau, Okaloosa, Liberty, and Washington
counties. Some reduction was made by county boards in miscel-
laneous expenditures. This was principally for clerical help and
fair expenses.
Two county agents were appointed to work in two counties
each. These were paid entirely from funds secured through
the passage of the Capper-Ketcham Act by Congress. The work
of agents in these four counties is confined largely to boys' club
work. The county in each case provides an office but does not
contribute to the salary and expenses of the agent. This, how-
ever, is considered a temporary arrangement and it is hoped that
the work can be enlarged and the counties affected to such an
extent that the county boards would favor the advisability of
cooperating in a financial way.

COUNTY PROGRAMS

Each county agent has a program of work made at the be-
ginning of the year to be used as a basis for conducting extension
work, and while these programs conform to very definite projects,
there are still many instances where the county agent's time is
taken up with things secondary to his program, due largely to







18 Florida Cooperative Extension

the demand made on his services for conducting contests, fairs,
and various assistance called for by business men, farmers, and
newcomers.
The recommendations of committees made during the regular
annual meeting of county and home demonstration agents are
used as a guide in making up county programs.
Owing to the variation in agriculture and demands, a program
that is flexible must be adopted in practically every county. This
is particularly true in Central and South Florida counties where
there have been large expenditures made for advertising and a
general developing situation that is responsible for the incoming
of many people not accustomed to agriculture. In this section,
on the whole, the programs throughout the year have more
nearly conformed to the original plans than in any previous year.
This is due to a better understanding of the taxpayers and the
greater appreciation of the public generally for improved agri-
culture by systematic plans and methods.
It is gratifying to know that extension work has been carried
on in 48 counties in 1928 as against 44 in 1927 in spite of the
fact that there has been general retrenchment in all lines of
business and many phases of county work aside from extension
have been dropped because of the lack of funds.
In most of the counties the agents are supplied with convenient
offices with telephones and other necessary equipment. In about
30 percent of the offices the agents are supplied with clerical
services for either part or all of the time, and this expense is
borne by the county; usually such clerical help is divided by the
county and home demonstration agent, whose offices are usually
together or adjoining.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked
out .................. .............. ----------.............................................................. 451
Voluntary county, community and local leaders.................................. 595
Clubs carrying on extension work .---..................... ............................ 237
M em berships ......... .... ............................................................ 3,855
Farm visits made by county agents .- ........................................37,189
Different farms visited -- ------.....----..........................13,082
Average number days spent in office ................................................. 79
Average number days spent in field .......................... .................... 224
Official letters written .--.. .......................................47,858
Exhibits at fairs ............................................................. .... .................... 63
Community ------..... ............ .--.-----------............. 21
County ..................................................... ........... ............ 40
State .................................. ...................... ..... ..... 2








Annual Report, 1928 19

Number Attendance
Farmers' meetings held ...................-................... .... 1,972 28,057
Extension schools and short courses held.................... 25 717
Total attendance club members, junior encampments
and rallies -.............................................................. ........ ........... 782

PROGRAM SUMMARY
Of Outlined Projects by County Agents
Number Days agents
communities devoted to
participating projects
Soils ................................-.....--......---. ........... ..... 301 904
Farm crops ----- --------......... ----..-.. ...................... 349 1,886%
Horticulture ....................................- -.......-................ 274 1,9981
Forestry --..........................................----------- -........... 18 76
Rodents, predatory animals and birds..................... 91 193
Animal husbandry ............................................ ........ 288 1,820
Dairy husbandry ................................--............... ..... 153 6011
Poultry husbandry .....................- ..........--................... 237 1,058
Rural engineering ................................. ......-............ 176 426
Agricultural economics ..........------........................... .. 268 650
M miscellaneous work: ..................................................... 113 839%
Community activities .....................--------...... ............. 20 213
Total ......-- --........... ------............... ................ -2,288 10,666%/

SPECIALISTS' WORK WITH COUNTY AGENTS

The Extension Division has three specialists for men's work
and their programs are submitted to county agents at the be-
ginning of the year, who in turn incorporate them in the county
plans. The specialists' work is confined to citrus culture, dairy-
ing, and poultry. It enables the county agents to have the as-
sistance of experts in the direction of their programs. Since
these specialists have offices at the College of Agriculture, they
in turn work in cooperation with workers in the Experiment
Station who are constantly making investigations.
(A report of the specialists' work is included in this report
in a later chapter).

BOYS' CLUB WORK

County agents conduct boys' club work as a part of their
regular duties, with the assistance of the boys' club agent located
at the state headquarters. Boys' club work is an important part
of the county agent's work, particularly in the general farming
area. It applies best in the sections adapted to the growing of
corn, cotton, peanuts, and general farm crops. It has been more
difficult to secure the best results in the horticultural section
of Florida, except in the organization of the boys' club for






Florida Cooperative Extension


poultry. The county agents are responsible for the enrollment
and membership of clubs and for making local arrangements for
club boys to continue their work. They also assume responsibility
for securing finances for special prize trips and scholarships. In
some counties club work constitutes 75 percent of the. county
agent's work.
EXTENSION MEETINGS

Extension meetings are conducted largely at the request of
local leaders and county agents. The number and character of
these vary. There were 1,740 meetings of a general nature with
an attendance of 23,366 held during the year. In addition there
were 25 extension schools and short courses with an attendance
of 717. In these meetings, assistance was rendered by the county
agents, and in most cases with the additional help of district
agents and specialists. These meetings were held for the pur-
pose of instruction, cooperative purchases and sales, for social
purposes, and for the planning of programs. Most of these meet-
ings were held in counties having county agents.

STATE MEETINGS

The annual meeting of county and home demonstration agents
was conducted in October, lasting one week. The program
called for a series of conferences where the agents were divided
according to the type of agriculture that engaged their attention
in their home counties. Those taking part in the program are
not confined to the extension organization, as assistance was
drawn from the College of Agriculture, Experiment Station,
State Plant Board, United States Department of Agriculture, and
State College for Women. A part of the home demonstration
agents' meeting was held at the State College for Women, Talla-
hassee, and their program while there was confined to strictly
home economics subjects. During the time the home demonstra-
tion agents were in session with the county agents, the program
was so arranged that agricultural matters affecting both sides
of the work were discussed.

OUTSIDE ACTIVITIES

Due to the financial arrangements and the general interest
in agriculture by people only indirectly connected with it, county







Annual Report, 1928


agents are called upon to perform a variety of duties. Perhaps
the largest of these is the management of county fairs and
exhibits at state fairs. The fair organizations have relied very
heavily on the extension organization for the success of their
fairs. County boards, after having made appropriations for
state fairs, feel that it is the responsibility of the county agent to
see that the exhibit is secured and properly arranged. This ap-
plies particularly to the Florida State Fair at Jacksonville, and
the South Florida Fair at Tampa, and to some extent the same
help was given with the larger county fairs. In these instances
both county and home demonstration agents have been called
upon to serve on committees or to take the active responsibility
for the success of the displays of the county. These fairs offer
in return an opportunity to exhibit extension work, particularly
boys' and girls' club work. They have also contributed space and
funds for a display of the Negro extension work. In these
cases, too, the Negro agents assume the responsibility for a dis-
play of the farmers' products.

COUNTY AGENT PROGRAMS OF WORK

The following facts are taken from annual reports of county
agents submitted to the state office for 1928.
SOILS
The county agents' work on the soils programs has been for
the purpose of improving the productiveness of the soils, prin-
cipally with the use of cover crops, and this has varied in the
different sections.
In the general farming area the county agents have con-
ducted 96 cover crop demonstrations. Some of these were
summer crops such as cowpeas, velvet beans, soybeans,
crotalaria, etc.; others were winter crops such as rye, oats, hairy
vetch, and Austrian winter peas. The fall of 1927 the county
agents conducted vetch and Austrian winter pea demonstra-
tions, using 6,000 pounds of seed, and the fall of 1928 they
started 243 demonstrations, using 50,000 pounds of seed.
Florida farmers need to make a more liberal use of com-
mercial fertilizers. Most of them use only a little kainit or a
little acid phosphate on most field crops. Others use a small
amount of a complete fertilizer without much knowledge of







Florida Cooperative Extension


what they are about. District and county agents have for two
or three years been attacking this problem from two angles.
First, by a series of meetings explaining the use of the different
plant food elements, and second, by some concrete, definite
demonstrations. They held 96 meetings and conducted many
demonstrations in
line with this at-
tack.
In one horti-
cultural c o u n t y,
SHighlands, accord-
ing to the best
available records,
there were 10 acres
of crotalaria, 58
acres of beggar-
weed, 125 acres of
cowpeas, and 15
acres of velvet
beans grown in
S1926. A cover crop
campaign was put
on by the county
agent in 1927. Fol-
lowing this, a care-
ful check :showed
Fig. 3.-County agents of northern and western
Florida are showing their farmers that Aus- that 952 acres of
trian peas make a good winter cover crop. crotalaria, 3 3 5
acres of beggarweed, 376 acres of cowpeas, and 40 acres of
velvet beans were grown in the county. Continuing this through
1928, there were grown by 101 growers in this county 2,838 acres
of crotalaria, 539 acres of beggarweed, 873 acres of cowpeas,
and 201 acres of velvet beans, or a total of 4,451 acres in
legume cover crops. In addition there were approximately
2,000 acres of cover crops which were seeded from the plantings
of the previous years. The growing of these crops has been of
much value to the citrus industry of this section.
In the horticultural territory during the year 1928, county
agents conducted 191 demonstrations with soils, involving 2,079
acres. Four hundred and sixteen farmers adopted improved
fertilizer practices this year, involving 2,583 tons of fertilizer.








Annual Report, 1928


One hundred and fifty-two farmers plowed under cover crops for
the first time on 4,232 acres. A total of 756 farmers adopted
improved practices in some phase of soils work during the year.

SOIL IMPROVEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrations given ............ .......... ..................... 1,544
Acres involved in completed demonstrations...................... 6,641
Farmers influenced to change methods soil management...................... 2,357
Farmers following advice in use of commercial fertilizers.................... 1,912
Tons commercial fertilizer involved ........................................... ............ 11,611
Farmers taking better care of farm manures.......... ..................401
Farmers using lime or limestone ...................... ............... 111
Tons of lime or limestone so used................................. .......................... 1,982
Farmers who plowed under cover crops for soil improvement.............. 330
Acres of cover and green manure so plowed under...................... 10,349
FARM CROPS
Corn-Approximately 62 percent of the land grown to any
crop in the general farming territory is grown to corn. According
to federal statistics, an average of 15 bushels of corn is being
produced per acre at a cost of approximately $1.12 per bushel.
It is known that when a better seedbed is made, better seed used,
and a more liberal amount of nitrogenous fertilizer used, the
production per acre can be increased and the cost correspondingly
decreased. There were 248 demonstrations composed of 405
acres conducted this year to show a more economical method of
corn production. On.these demonstrations there were produced
18,920 bushels of corn at a cost of approximately 54 cents per
bushel. If these better methods were generally used, it would
mean approximately 8,651,280 bushels more corn to the 16 gen-
eral farming counties, worth $6,000,000 at present prices.

CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats, etc.)
Number demonstrations given ................................... 872
Acreage grown under demonstrations ........................... .... 1,976
Boys' and girls' clubs .................................................. ... .. 34
Acreage grown by club members .........----..................................... 216
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels)........... ................... 8,469
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices............. ............. 935
Farmers who planted selected and improved seed.................................... 397
Farmers who treated seed grain for smut, first time.............................. 30
COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Number demonstrations given ................... ............................... 257
Acreage grown under improved methods .................................................. 408
Farms influenced to adopt better practice .................................. 209
Boys' and girls' clubs ...........................................--- ... ............... ....... 32
Members enrolled ........................ ........................ 250







Florida Cooperative Extension


Acreage grown by club members .................................. ..... ...... 117
Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.)....................................54,933
Farmers who planted improved seed first time....................................... 125

Cotton-The average production of cotton per acre in Florida
for 1928 was approximately 275 pounds of seed cotton. The cost
of producing this yield is approximately the same in every item,
except fertilizer and seed, as that of the 90 demonstrations con-
ducted by the county agents of the 16 counties which compose
the cotton belt of the state. With an added expense of ap-
proximately $12 per acre for better seed and more and better
fertilizer, these demonstrators produced 83,227 pounds of seed
cotton, or an average of 925 pounds per acre. If the methods
advanced by the county agents had been followed in growing this
94,000 acres of cotton, it would probably have meant a great
part of $3,000,000 more to these 16 counties.
Peanuts-Peanuts are grown in Florida for hog feed and for
commercial purposes. Most of those grown for hog feed are of
the runner type and those for market, the bunch type. The latter
is of the Spanish variety. Demonstrations were conducted this
year to show the value of land plaster as a fertilizer on the
running type and closer spacing of the bunch. The county agents
of this territory conducted 95 demonstrations. The yields in the
demonstrations were about two and one-half times the average
of the farmers. Many farmers will follow the methods used on
these demonstrations another year.

LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)
Number method demonstrations given ............ ................. ............ 692
Number result demonstrations under way ........................................ 927
Number result demonstrations completed ................. ....................... 564
Acres in completed demonstrations ........................ ........................ 5,631

Pastures-There has been considerable interest, chiefly among
the dairymen, in establishing permanent pastures. This interest
has come about from seeing results obtained on some demonstra-
tion pastures started three years ago, and as a result of competi-
tion in the dairy business which has caused dairymen to want to
grow feed in order to reduce production costs. Fifty-three dem-
onstrations with pastures were conducted by the agents in 10
counties, and the 516 acres involved were seeded to improved
grasses, chiefly carpet grass, Dallis grass, and lespedeza.







Annual Report, 1928


HORTICULTURE
Citrus-In the spring a series of citrus field meetings was
scheduled covering the citrus belt, 21 meetings being held in 11
counties of this territory, with a total attendance of 580 growers.
Fertilization, cover crops, irrigation, and insect and disease con-
trol were the main subjects discussed. These meetings were
conducted largely as roundtable discussions between extension
workers and small groups of growers. The district agents took
part in 24 of these field meetings held in 12 counties. These small
meetings of interested growers are very helpful and growers
take an active part in the discussion of production problems.
During the year 102 demonstrations were conducted involving
3,141 acres of groves.
Truck Crops-The work on truck crops for the year consisted
largely of insect and disease control on tomatoes, cucumbers,
peppers, eggplant, watermelons, beans, and cabbage. The im-
portance of seed treatment and the planting of the best seed
available have been stressed. Truck crops are expensive to pro-
duce and are subject to many disease and insect pests. The
county agents do a large part of the truck work as personal
service work; however, some demonstrations in varieties, spray-
mixing, and with fertilizers are carried on. During the year the
agents in the truck territory reported 64 demonstrations involv-
ing 201 acres of truck crops. One hundred and forty-nine
farmers sprayed or dusted 766 acres for insect and disease con-
trol who had not sprayed or dusted before; 244 farmers adopted
improved practices with truck crops.
The growing of bulbs on a commercial scale is being carried
on in a few counties. The plantings have, as a rule, done well
and are gradually being increased.

SWEET AND IRISH POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS
Number of demonstrations given .................... .... ....... ....... 518
Acreage grown under improved methods......... ............ ....- 2,047V'
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices........................... 724
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed ................................ 231
Farmers who treated seed for disease ............................--...... 200
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects..... 238

Other Fruits-Grapes, Avocados, Mangoes, Etc.-The grape
acreage is being increased somewhat and grape growers are
gradually working out the best ways to handle this crop. Grapes
are relatively new in Florida, and there were many points to be







26 Florida Cooperative Extension

worked out under Florida conditions. County agents have kept
up with the best practices and methods and have been of much
service to new growers with little experience in grape culture.
Assistance and information have been rendered growers on
spraying, culture, and fertilization of mangoes, avocados, and
other tropical fruits.
The commercial production of satsumas, blueberries, grapes,
and pears in West Florida is a new industry. The county agents
have spent a good deal of time with the growers advising them of
the proper methods of setting, cultivating, fertilizing, and spray-
ing of these fruits. The district and county agents made a tour
of the satsuma groves in the fall to advise best means of putting
them into the winter. The county agents have assisted the
growers in pooling orders for trees, in picking the fruit, in pack-
ing it, and in selling it.

HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATIONS
Number method demonstrations given............. .............................. 2,502
Number result demonstrations ................... ..................... 1,294
Result demonstrations completed during year.............................. ... 1,511
Acres involved in demonstrations ......................................................17,036
Number of boys' clubs ................................................ 19
M membership ............................................................................... .................. 488
Number planting improved stock or seed first time......................... 934
Number pruning first time ............................. .............. ........ 180
Trees involved ..................... .............................68,670
A cres involved ....................................................................................... 76
Number spraying or treating for diseases and insect pests............. 931
Acres treated ............. .............. ............................32,785%
Number farms adopting improved practices .................................. 385

BEAUTIFICATION
Until two years ago no beautification work had been under-
taken by North Florida county agents. This last season two or
three of them did a splendid piece of work at it. They assisted in
beautifying 226 homes.
In ornamental work the county agent of Okeechobee County
cooperated with the woman's club and parent teachers' associa-
tion, and 28 home grounds, as well as the school grounds and city
park, were beautified. Forty-three club boys in Palm Beach
County completed their project in ornamental club work. This
work was largely a matter of growing the ornamentals in pots
and later transferring them to their home grounds for beautifi-
cation.







Annual Report, 1928


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Hogs-One of the most consistent revenue-producers of North
Florida is swine. The county agents' work with swine takes on
about four aspects; namely, fattening, breeding, cholera con-
trol, and marketing. There were 67,000 hogs vaccinated against
cholera for 1,500 farmers during the year. There were hundreds
of breeding and feeding demonstrations conducted. The county
agents have placed purebred hogs on the farms of North Florida
the last season. Therefore, there are at present more purebred
and high grade hogs on the farms than at any time since the
deflation in 1920. Several car-lot sales were conducted. There
were 306 pigs shown at the State Fair by 4-H club members.
Starting two years ago with nothing, the county agent in
Nassau this year has 250 purebred hogs owned by the club boys
and has placed 60 purebred boars with the farmers of the county.
One cooperative hog selling association was organized during
the year, and it has handled four cars of hogs to date.
The association organized in Levy County last year has
marketed several cars of hogs.

HOG DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrations given .............. ............ .... ....... ................... 1,886
Animals in completed demonstrations .............................................. 12,137
Savings resulting from better practices ........ ....... ...............$.10,834.88
Farmers who secured purebred sires ....................... .... ............... 262
Farmers assisted in obtaining purebred females................................ 233
Farmers who fed better balanced rations.................................... 253
Farmers culling breeding stock .................................. ................ 100
Number of animals culled out...... ....................... --... ........ 699
Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests........................ 188
Farmers who vaccinated for cholera.... ........... .................. 1,903
Number farms adopting improved practices............................... 2,034

Dairy Husbandry-Purebred and high grade Jerseys have
been brought into Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Leon, Jefferson, and
Madison counties. In addition to assisting dairymen and farmers
in raising the standards of their herds, county agents are as-
sisting them in building silos and modern barns, and in making
their places more sanitary. They are helping dairymen from
other places get established. They are assisting them put in
permanent pastures.
In Volusia County the agent was instrumental in getting a
dairyman to build two silos into which was placed 180 tons of
corn silage in June. The actual cost of the silage, every expense







Florida Cooperative Extension


being carefully charged, was $5.25 per ton. Forty-five cows were
fed on this silage till November with the milk production keeping
up about the same as when animals were fed beet pulp and a
commercial feed. The silo was filled again in November with
kaffir corn, amber sorghum, and Texas seeded ribbon cane grown
on the same land the corn silage was grown on. By this means
nearly 400 tons of silage was produced on 35 acres of land in one
year. The owner so thoroughly believes in silage as an eco-
nomical milk producer that he says he never expects to be with-
out silage again as long as he is in the dairy business.
Some good work in record keeping and cow testing has been
carried on in Duval County, with the result that the dairymen
have changed their methods of feeding and producing feed in
many instances, and poor cows have been culled out.
Several thousand pounds of pasture grass seed were sown as a
result of interest aroused by the county agents this year, with
the result that there are many good pastures in the process of
development.
The dairy business has improved slightly over last year. There
has been less surplus milk than last year. Dairymen are produc-
ing more home-grown feeds and planting pastures. Thirty-five
calves from Tennessee were placed in Marion County during the
year. The Marion County agent is carrying on some demonstra-
tion cow-test work with seven farm dairymen whose herds em-
brace 60 cows.
County agents have conducted 16 demonstrations with dairy
cattle, involving 675 cows. They have assisted 17 farmers in
securing purebred bulls. On 13 farms the herds were culled;
165 animals were discarded from a total of 700. On 167 farms
improved practices were adopted.

DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS
Number demonstrations given .................. ........................................ 407
Animals in completed demonstrations ...............-.......... ................ 2,188
Saving resulting from better practices .................................... ...........$8,505
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices .................... ........... 586
Farmers assisted in securing purebred sires........................................... 56
Farmers assisted in securing high grade or purebred females .......... 127
Farmers who culled their herds ........ ... ....... ... ........... ........... 93
Animals in these herds ................... .............................. 2,598
A nim als discarded ............. ........................................ ........... ............... 1,050
Farmers' associations who tested cows for production......................... 32
Cows tested for production ........ ................... __ ................................... 701
Farmers who fed better balanced rations ................................... 171
Farmers who controlled insect pests ................................................ 33
Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis ...................................... 73
Number of farms adopting more sanitary production methods .......... 244







Annual Report, 1928


Poultry-In the poultry industry the weeding out process
which began last year has continued. The industry appears to
be on a safer basis at this time. Market conditions have been
fairly good during most of the year.
County agents conducted 65 demonstrations with 17,900 birds.
Forty farmers were assisted in the purchase of purebred males.
Eighty-one culling demonstrations were held and from 16,777
birds, 2,736 culls were removed.
Poultrymen were assisted in feeding balanced rations, and 76
poultrymen were influenced to adopt improved practices.
The poultry industry has not grown much in West Florida
during the last year, but the county agents have been busy in
assisting the poultrymen to get better stock, in culling, and with
their feeding problems. These demonstrations have directly af-
fected 15,000 birds.
A poultry club member in Union County purchased 140 baby
chicks, raised 134, and made a profit of $2.40 each on a club
poultry project this year.

POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrations given ........ .. -----... ........................... 867
Birds in these demonstrations .................................. ............ 51,750
Saving resulting from better practices .......................................$13,632.44
Number of farms assisted in securing purebred breeding stock.... 362
Poultrymen who culled their flocks .............--........................ 386
Number of birds in these flocks .. ...... ..................-- --..... ...... 59,703
Number of birds discarded ................. .... .......... ........ 10,432
Number of breed associations formed ......................... ............... 3
Membership ..................... --- ....- .. ....... .........- ... 92
RURAL ENGINEERING
Drainage and Irrigation-Irrigation and the construction of
farm buildings have been the phases of rural engineering where
most work has been done. County agents assisted 99 farmers in
installing irrigation on 3,699 acres of land and 69 in improving
the drainage on 1,427 acres. Plans were furnished for the con-
struction of 84 farm buildings composed of poultry houses, barns,
milk rooms, and silos.
Terracing-During the last year the county agents in those
counties that contain any rolling lands conducted terracing
demonstrations. This work is of untold value to the farmers
affected. A splendid piece of work of this kind was done by
County Agent R. J. Hart of Okaloosa County. He assisted in
terracing 66 farms comprising 1,725 acres.







Florida Cooperative Extension


RURAL ENGINEERING
(Things Done with Agents' Assistance and Advice)


Demonstrations given ......................... .........
Drainage systems installed ..........................................
Irrigation systems installed ..........................................
Terraces or soil dams constructed ..............................
Water systems installed ............................................
Heating systems installed ............................................
Lighting systems installed ........-................................
Farms on which buildings other than dwellings were
constructed or remodeled ..........................................
Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled......
Number sewage-disposal systems installed ....................
Farmers who cleared land ................................................
A cres cleared ............................... ................ ........
Number of farms adopting above practices for first
tim e ..... ..........- ..........--.......... ..----- ..... .. ....... .....


Acres Number
413
7,524 213
7,156 2,682
3,622 137
60
11
15
244
374
16
346
5,601
1,083


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
This year the county agents of the West Florida territory
have assisted the farmers and growers to perfect organizations
and assisted these organizations in the purchase of $178,682
worth of fertilizers, nursery stock, feeds, seeds, truck crates,
sirup cans and barrels, purebred hogs and cows. They have in
this way saved to the farmers $23,703 to be spent in other ways,
making their homes more comfortable and their farms more
profitable. This saving of money, of course, was desirable and
helpful. But the great benefit came in the county agent making
this contract at the most opportune time to teach and persuade
the farmers to use higher grade fertilizers and to use them
more intelligently than was their common practice. In the same
way he could see that they got the best seeds, the best nursery
stock, or the breed of animals most needed. In this way, this
contact was of untold value to the farmers.
By promoting car-lot cooperative sales of produce and live-
stock, the county agents have brought thousands of dollars into
the territory. But it was not in the sale itself that the greatest
service was rendered to the individual farmers and to the com-
munity-it was in demonstrating the proper method of pack
and quality, as well as orderly marketing. Local markets have
been thus relieved. The sales amounted to $161,000.
In Palm Beach County the agent was instrumental in getting
established a government inspection service of vegetables in the
Everglades, and in the establishment of a marketing service sta-
tion in the county during the shipping season.







Annual Report, 1928


In Duval and Volusia counties dairymen have been keeping
accurate records of cost of milk production and cost of producing
feed, with the result that many changes have been made in
methods of feeding, and the culling out of unprofitable cows has
gotten to be a well established habit.
County agents assisted in forming nine marketing and grow-
ers' associations during the year in the South Florida territory.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Number method demonstrations given ...................................... 264
Farm account books distributed ................................------- 238
Farmers who kept records ............ .. ....................................................... 89
Farmers assisted in keeping accounts ...........-- ..-.......----------- 132
Farmers who changed methods as result of keeping accounts.............. 85
Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming sys-
tems according to recommendations ...................... ............. 415
Farmers advised relative to leases .......................... .......... 291
Number of junior farm account clubs ..............................------- 12
Farmers assisted in keeping cost of production records.......................... 247
Number of farms adopting improved farm management practices...... 294
FORESTRY
There are millions of acres of cut-over land in North and West
Florida. Most of this land is bringing no revenue to the owners.
It is burned over every year. The second growth of pine is trying
to come back. By control of fire it will soon be producing a good
revenue again. Some of the land needs reseeding. During the
year a few seedbeds have been established to supply seedlings,
and, in addition, the county agents of this territory have started
26 fire control demonstrations consisting of approximately
150,000 acres.
RODENT CONTROL
Control of rodents and predatory animals was a minor pro-
ject in the programs of work of county agents. However, they
conducted demonstrations in fumigation of corn weevils and the
control of ground moles and rodents, particularly in some coun-
ties where rats cause damage to crops.

DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS
Demonstrations given ............................................ 2,272
Acres in completed demonstrations .................................-- ... ... 7,851
Farmers adopting control measures ......................................... 2,481
A cres involved ..................................................................................................50,750







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' CLUB WORK

R. W. Blacklock, Boys' Club Agent
Four-H club work was conducted in 34 of the 48 counties em-
ploying county agents during 1928. Members in these counties
started 2,679 club projects. As a boy is not considered enrolled
until he has actually begun work in his project, this represents
real club workers. The enrollment was divided as follows: corn
442, cotton 285, potato 150, truck 276, citrus 26, poultry 472,
breeding pig 366, fat barrow 332, calf 206, miscellaneous 124. The
enrollment per county ran from 265 in Escambia to 7 in Her-
nando. The number of projects carried on decreased 198 from
that of 1927. This decrease was caused by the county agent
work being discontinued in Pasco County where 421 were en-
rolled in 1927. Among the projects, the cotton and corn clubs
showed the greatest increase, and the poultry club the greatest
decrease.
The county agents are proving that the organizing of the mem-
bers in the different communities into clubs enables the agent to
accomplish more and better 4-H work. The officers of the clubs
accept some of the responsibility in keeping up interest in the
work. The agent is able to meet with the clubs and comes in con-
tact with all the members without so many home visits.
The most important factor in a 4-H organization is the local
leader. Wherever an interested person can be secured as leader,
good work in that community is assured. Ex-club members are
proving to be the best source of leadership material. Nassau,
Escambia, Washington, Jackson, Leon, Orange, Palm Beach,
Highlands, and Flagler counties have all club members in local
organizations. Some of the best club work in the state is being
done in these counties with the largest percentage of reports.

CROP CLUBS
CORN
Four hundred and forty-two acres of corn were planted by
4-H club boys in 1928. This gives an increase of 119 over 1927.
The offering of a scholarship to the College of Agriculture by the
Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau helped cause the
increase. The yields were normal. Gray Miley of Hillsborough
County produced the highest yield-104.5 bushels. In Hils-







Annual Report, 1928


borough County 19 boys raised 1,064 bushels of corn-an average
of 56 bushels per acre.
An attempt is being made to have crop club boys plant a winter
legume on their club acres in order to develop a soil building
program along with production.
COTTON
Two hundred and eighty-five boys planted an acre of cotton
each in 1928. The largest enrollment was in Okaloosa County
where 98 boys planted cotton as a club project. The yield was
slightly lower than normal, due to very unfavorable weather at
planting time-some boys replanting three times. In Okaloosa
County 44 boys produced 40,831 pounds of seed cotton on 44 acres
-an average of 928 pounds of seed cotton per acre.
SWEET POTATO
This club shows a profit on almost every project; still it is not
a favorite with the boys. Perhaps the potatoes are used for
the family, which keeps the boy from receiving any cash profit
for his work.
TRUCK
Accurate records from this club are hard to get, as so much is
used by the family, and the gathering of the crop is spread over
a long period. The best truck club members are in Palm Beach
County. This year all gardens were absolutely destroyed by the
hurricane, but the 4-H boys were among the first to replant.

LIVESTOCK CLUBS
PIG
This club project continues to be a great favorite. Enrollment
in fattening pig clubs is increasing. An attempt is being made
to have the boys feed out at least one barrow from every litter
produced by club breeding pigs. A trip to the International Club
Congress is offered by the State Fair to the boy having the best
barrow, the progeny of his own club pig.
CALF
With the gradual eradication of the tick, calf club work will
expand. Leon County did an exceptionally fine piece of work
in 1928. Fourteen boys and girls purchased purebred calves. All
calves were-well cared for and all were shown at the State Fair.










OF


,








Fig. 4.-This club boy sees the rainbow with the pot o', learning at its feet.


P


I


B








Annual Report, 1928


Many of the calves purchased in 1926 by the Madison County
boys are in milk. The cows raised by the boys are much better
than the average found on the farms. Calves from the original
heifers were shown in the club contest this year.

THE STATE FAIR

The final exhibition of 4-H club work was at the Florida State
Fair held in Jacksonville November 22 to December 1. At this
time the best products and animals from the various counties
were brought together.
The livestock exhibit was the largest ever held, consisting of
306 pigs, 30 cows and 50 chickens.
In the competition for the best 10 breeding pigs, Madison
County won 1st and Nassau 2nd.
The exhibit of Leon County in the calf club was excellent,
every calf being fitted for show and all being equipped with 4-H
club blankets.
George Apthorp, Jr., of Leon County won the championship in
the calf club on a fine Jersey heifer.
Orange County won sweepstakes in the poultry club depart-
ment.
Gordon Henderson of Madison exhibited the grand champion
barrow. Gordon's pig was an exceptionally smooth Duroc-Jersey
junior barrow. This pig was grand champion not only in the
club department, but also in the open ring. Gordon really won
two prizes on one pig as his champion pig was also winner as the
best pig raised from a pig club sow.
The reserve champion barrow-a Chester White-belonged
to Richard Bradford of Leon County. The reserve in the contest
for best barrow, the progeny of a pig club sow, went to Herbert
Jones of Nassau County.
Frank Ward of Nassau County won the grand championship
in the breeding pig class on a Poland China boar.

ANNUAL SHORT COURSE

The major prizes in county contests are scholarships to the
Club Short Course. The importance to club work of as many boys
as possible making a visit to the state university has made a
short course scholarship the first prize in each project in most
counties. The inspiration received makes even the best club








Florida Cooperative Extension


members better and does more than any other one thing in hold-
ing and increasing interest in club work.
New features were added in the 1928 course. Each boy regis-
tered was given a note-book containing much practical informa-
tion to supplement the instruction given in the regular classes.
Inspirational articles and definite leadership instructions which
the boys would have as reference throughout the year increased
the value of the note-book. Advanced leadership training was
given the boys who had attended previous short courses. Ex-
aminations for five scholarships to the College of Agriculture
were given. Another new feature was a banquet on Friday night
of the week spent in Gainesville.

CLUB CAMPS
The growth in both number and size of county 4-H camps has
proven the need for recreational facilities in rural life. The West
Florida 4-H camp which is located in the Choctawhatchee Na-
tional Forest is a reality. While not complete, a dining hall and
kitchen and seven cottages have been completed. The plan pro-
posed is for the 10 counties west of the Appalachicola River to
use this location for summer club camps. In 1928 boys from
Escambia, Okaloosa, Walton, Washington, Jackson, Holmes, and
Calhoun counties, and girls from Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes, and
Washington counties used the camp.
The success of this regional camp has shown the advantage of
this method over the unequipped county camp.
Seventeen counties held boys 4-H camps in 1928; 550 boys at-
tended. Leland Hiatt was employed as assistant club agent to
assist with the camp. Mr. Hiatt, a champion swimmer and
Licensed Red Cross examiner, gave lessons in swimming and
life saving.
EDUCATIONAL TRIPS
An opportunity to see what is going on in the outside world
has a wonderful value to the farm boy. The horizon of his life is
widened and his desires increased by visiting distant places. He
receives inspiration "to do" and oftentimes instruction in how
"to do".
In 1928 13 Florida 4-H club boys were given trips. Three boys
represented Florida as a judging team at the National Dairy








Annual Report, 1928


Show held in Memphis. Two boys attended the second National
4-H Club Camp held annually at Washington, D. C. One boy at-
tended the Moses Leadership Training School at Springfield,
Massachusetts. Seven boys visited Chicago during the Interna-
tional Live Stock Show and Club Congress.
Florida entered a demonstration team at the National Dairy
Show for the first time. Rhydon Owens of Nassau County and
Allen Phelps of Jefferson County made up the team. Phelps,
Owens, and Bennie Dennard of Duval County composed a 4-H
dairy judging team which competed at the National Dairy Show.
For the first time, Florida was included in the list of states to
be represented at the Moses Leadership Training School held in
connection with Camp Vail at the Eastern States Exposition.
This school is sponsored and all expenses paid by Mr. A. H.
Moses, a wealthy manufacturer of New England, who was born
on a farm and who is interested in the advancement of rural
youth. Ernest Young of Madison County was awarded the
trip for 1928.
The big event in the National Club year is the National Club
Camp at Washington, D. C. At this camp the two outstanding
club boys and the outstanding club girls from each state in the
Union gather for a week's instruction and recreation. Raymond
Crabtree of Duval County and Hoyt English of Hillsborough
County represented Florida 4-H club boys at the 1928 National
Camp.
Gordon Henderson of Madison County, Herbert Jones of
Nassau, Ernest Young of Madison, Rhydon Owens of Nassau,
Richard Bradford of Leon, Ben McLaughlin of Marion, and
George Apthorp, Jr., of Leon represented Florida club boys at
the National 4-H Club Congress held in Chicago in connection
with the International Live Stock Show. These boys had an op-
portunity to see the University of Illinois on this trip, in ad-
dition to the sights of Chicago and the stock show.
The value of these trips to club work is a potent factor in hold-
ing boys in the work. The winner of one of the Chicago trips
tried five times before he was successful. Other boys are bend-
ing every effort to win next year. These trips seem to offer a
fine incentive for better work on the part of the boys.








Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL SCHOLARSHIPS
The following boys were winners of scholarships to the College
of Agriculture, University of Florida, during 1928.
Frank E. Ward of Nassau County won the Frank E. Dennis
scholarship given annually to the boy showing the Grand Cham-
pion in the breeding pig class at the Florida State Fair.
William Platt of Marion County, Samuel Bradshaw of Pasco
County, and Donald Mowatt of Bay County won the three bank-
ers' scholarships.
Gray Miley of Hillsborough County and Russell Williams of
Union County won the Chilean Nitrate Educational Bureau
scholarships.
Over $10,000 was contributed by friends of 4-H club work as
prizes. The larger part of this was given in the form of educa-
tional trips and scholarships.
Frank E. Dennis has given annually a $250 scholarship to the
College of Agriculture for the past 10 years as a prize to the
pig club member showing the grand champion breeding pig at
the state pig club contest.
The Florida Bankers' Association gives three $100-scholar-
ships annually. The scholarships are awarded through exami-
nations given at the short course.
The Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau gave a $150
and a $100 scholarship as prizes in the corn club work.
The Atlantic Coast Line Railway gave $100 for the expenses
of a boy to the National Club Camp in Washington.
The DeLaval Separator Company contributed $100 toward the
expenses of a demonstration team at the National Dairy Show at
Memphis.
The Florida State Fair, in addition to the regular premiums,
paid the expenses of one boy to the National Club Camp and
contributed two trips to Chicago.
Armour and Company annually give a trip to Chicago to the
pig club member showing the grand champion barrow at the
State Fair.
Frank E. Dennis, Inc., and Farris and Co., contributed $200
each toward the premiums in the fat barrow show at the State
Fair.







Annual Report, 1928


In addition to the contributors to state winners, the boards of
county commissioners, chambers of commerce, luncheon clubs,
and private individuals throughout the state contribute thousands
of dollars for local and county premiums.

A BOYS' AND GIRLS' FLOWER SHOW

R. R. Whittington, county agent in Bay County, became very
much interested in beautification work. He was able to induce
the county commissioners to allow him to use the courthouse
lawn as a demonstration. This helped. Still the work did not
progress as rapidly as he wished; so he made use of the boys and
girls as demonstrators. Boys and girls were to use the home
grounds as a demonstration. The results were about 26 homes
beautified by the growing of shrubs and flowers.
To further interest the public, a flower show was held in Sep-
tember. At this show each boy and girl brought a basket of
flowers raised in the contest. Pictures of the homes taken be-
fore and after show marked improvements. One interesting fea-
ture is the increased interest on the part of all the family in
keeping the home and its surroundings more attractive.

A LEADER DEVELOPED BY CLUB WORK

Lewis Floyd, a 24-year-old 4-H club boy, has set a record that
demonstrates the value of club work as a school for developing
agricultural leaders.
Three years ago Lewis organized the Barrineau Park 4-H Club.
He has served as local leader for three years and his club can
boast the following accomplishments for this year. Every boy
of club age within four miles of the schoolhouse is a member;
every member made a complete report of his project and sent an
exhibit to the county contest; with one exception, all members
were present at the contest; the club won the cup offered for the
best local club in the county for the third year, thereby winning
permanent possession. One of the members won the medal
offered to the outstanding club member in the county. This club
meets regularly and is an outstanding example of what local
leadership can accomplish in developing a rural community.







Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRYING
Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
Among the dairying problems which received the attention of
the Extension Dairyman during the year were: Production
problems, especially feeding practices, introduction of purebred
sires, record keeping, culling poor cows, and marketing.
Production problems were considered of prime importance.
Except for a few months in the year, there is an adequate supply
of fluid milk for domestic consumption produced in Florida. Ex-
pansion, then, of the dairy industry is possible only when pro-
duction costs are reduced sufficiently to permit the profitable
manufacture of milk into by-products, such as butter, cheese,
condensed milk and powdered milk.
The growing of forage and pastures and better practices in
feeding were among the production problems stressed during the
year. These two factors are under the control of the individual
dairyman, and proper practices regarding them will go far
towards reducing costs of production. Economic conditions have
made it necessary to stress feed production above everything
else.
The introduction of purebred sires and the systematic culling
out of low producing cows were two other items which received
major attention during 1928.
In order to combat outside competition of inferior quality milk,
it has been necessary to stress better methods of handling milk
to improve quality. Attention was also given to dairy organiza-
tions to look after the interests of dairying in the various con-
suming centers and looking forward to legislation to protect the
dairy interests of the state against unfair competition from off-
grade milk being shipped into the state.

REDUCING PRODUCTION COSTS
Production costs can be'reduced; first, by better feeding prac-
tices; second, by having all pasture and forage crops home-grown
with an abundance for each animal; third, by having dairy herd
improvement associations in every dairy center of the state;
fourth, by having individual herd records to serve as guides for
proper feeding practices and as a basis for constructive breeding
and culling.






Annual Report, 1928


MAKE DAIRYING A GREATER ECONOMIC FACTOR IN THE STATE
It is hoped by improving the methods of production in the state
to be able to extend the dairy industry into every agricultural
county, where feed crops can be grown profitably. By extending
this industry into these counties the monthly farm sales will
be increased, and by furnishing the essential food elements sup-
plied by milk, farm-grown foods that formerly have been pur-
chased with proceeds out of the farm income will be produced on
the farm.
FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS

The one important problem in feeding cows for profit in Florida
is the production of cheap roughages. Pastures and silage with
soiling and grazing crops offer the best solution to this feeding
problem in the greater portion of the state. Hay crops of cow-
peas, soybeans and similar plants make cheap roughage for the
farm.
There were about 150 acres seeded to permanent pastures.
Four thousand pounds of carpet grass seed were cooperatively
distributed to farmers for demonstration pastures. County
agents planned these demonstrations and arranged for groups
of farmers to visit them. Sixty-five meetings at dairy demon-
strations helped to promote improvement in dairy practices.
News stories also assisted in getting pastures mowed during the
year to kill out the weeds and help spread the permanent pasture
sod.
Silos are coming into more general use by dairymen. Corn and
sorghum were used as silage crops.
In some cases where there was a light corn crop farmers
planted sorghum after the corn was harvested to fill their silos.
Some feeding records kept by dairymen have furnished infor-
mation about the value of silage as a feed in Florida. Forty-one
silos were built in 1928 with a capacity of over 4,200 tons in
Polk, Flagler, St. Johns, Duval, Escambia, Hillsborough, and
Manatee, Leon, Hernando counties.
The county agents in Hillsborough, Marion, Flagler, Indian
River, St. Johns, Volusia, St. Lucie and Duval counties conducted
27 demonstrations with stock beets and carrots and found them
practical for the small dairyman who has rich soil with plenty
of labor.






Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRY TOURS
Four dairy tours were made to Marion County to study first
hand what seems to be a practical, workable dairy program that
is being carried on by the farmers around Ocala in cooperation
with the Southland Creamery. A total of 158 interested per-
sons got information on dairy production and marketing prob-
lems in these motorcades.
A successful dairy tour was made by 18 farmers and business
men of Escambia and Santa Rosa counties into Baldwin County,
Alabama. They visited successful dairymen to study the pro-
ducers' problems, then visited the cooperative creamery, and a
corporation owned creamery to get information on creamery
organization methods.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY
BREEDING STOCK
There are two cooperative bull clubs in Marion and Santa Rosa
counties. Twenty-nine registered heifers were brought into
Marion County as a part of the herd improvement.
In Santa Rosa County farmers expect to get 8 years' service
from each bull, through a system of exchange. By this arrange-
ment each bull is moved to a different community every two years
to avoid in-breeding.
The farmers of Santa Rosa County purchased 36 high grade
bred heifers to start a dairy community in a section where the
bull club was formed. They plan to market the cream coopera-
tively at a creamery in Pensacola until the business will justify
building a plant in the community.
Because of efforts being made to promote creameries in seven
localities not ready for them because of lack of production, the
Extension Dairyman has carefully studied the situation in each
case and has recommended that these communities ship cream
until the volume of cream is sufficient to justify the building of a
creamery. There are creameries and milk distributing plants
operating at Pensacola, Tallahassee, Madison, Ocala, Tampa,
Jacksonville, Orlando, Palm Beach and Miami, within the state,
and nearby creameries in Alabama and Georgia. Cream may be
shipped from any new dairy communities in the state until the
volume of cream will support a local plant.





Annual Report, 1928


With the eradication of the cattle tick from the northern and
western portion of the state, there is an increased interest in
dairying.
DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS

This work is planned to get production records and the cost
of production and to use this information as a basis for culling
the herds and proportioning the feed to production.
There are dairy records collected from 83 herds of 1,542 cows
in fifteen counties. The records indicate the average production
of a cow to be about 4,200 pounds of milk with 197 pounds of
butterfat in a year.
317 low producing and unprofitable cows have been culled from
these herds and seventeen dairymen have modified their methods
of feeding by feeding each according to production.

DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION

One dairy herd improvement association was organized in
Duval County with 352 cows. The cows have been tested once
every thirty days. This demonstration is of practical value to the
Sdairymen in the county.
Beet pulp is generally used by 109 dairies in Duval county. By
replacing beet pulp with corn silage at the rate of 1 pound of beet
pulp to two and one-half pounds silage, estimating beet pulp at
$55 per ton, corn silage was worth $22 a ton when fed to replace
beet pulp. The cost of producing silage should not exceed $6 to
$8 per ton.
One dairyman who was feeding all cows alike changed to feed-
ing them according to production and thereby increased his re-
turns 103 percent for each dollar spent for feed.
The records for one month brought out that in one herd with
45 cows all the cows were getting the same amount of grain and
roughage feed without regard to production. Eight of these
cows were fed at a loss of $25.99 for the month. The cost of pro-
ducing milk in this herd during April was more than twice the
cost of a similar herd where the cows were fed according to pro-
duction.
BETTER BALANCED RATIONS

One hundred and forty-eight farmers with 2,345 cows have
practiced better feeding methods during the year. The price of
protein in commercial dairy feeds is higher than for carbohy-






Florida Cooperative Extension


drates in most places but in Florida the carbohydrates cost about
as much as the proteins. This, together with the small amount
of roughage the Florida dairyman feeds with his grain ration,
gives a very high protein content. Many dairymen are feeding
rations with a nutritive ratio as narrow as 1:21/2 when it should
be 1:5.
FAIR EXHIBITS
There has been considerable improvement in the quality of
dairy products shown at the fairs, both county and state. The
method of displaying in refrigerators and ice boxes has improved
each year.
Three counties exhibited dairy calves at the State Fair this
year. The county fairs offer the best opportunity for educational
work.

DAIRY CLUBS OR DAIRYMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS

In addition to the State Dairymen's Association there are dairy
organizations in Leon, Duval, Marion (South and North), Pasco,
Pinellas, Manatee, Polk, Orange, Volusia, Flagler, Madison, Palm
Beach, Sarasota and Escambia counties. Some of them are doing
effective work in the cooperative purchase of dairy feeds. The
annual meeting of the State Dairymen's Association was held
in Gainesville during Farmers' Week.
The dairymen of Sarasota are marketing their milk coopera-
tively through a central distributing plant. The county agents
have been very active in trying to help them in making a prac-
tical marketing association.






Annual Report, 1928


CITRUS PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY
E. F. DeBusk, Citrus Pathologist-Entomologist

The plan of work submitted at the beginning of the year em-
bodied (1) the control of melanose and stem-end rot, (2) blue
mold decay, (3) citrus scab, (4) psorosis and gummosis, (5) rust
mites, (6) citrus aphids, (7) whitefly and scale, and (8) fertiliz-
ing. An additional project on citrus grove irrigation was taken
up after the plan of work had been submitted. Considerable
time has been devoted to special service work, so that nearly
every phase of citrus culture has received attention. Citrus
meetings or schools were held in which problems of the growers
were discussed.

MELANOSE AND STEM-END ROT CONTROL

As a result of educational efforts, the economic importance of
melanose and stem-end rot control is becoming more generally
recognized among packers as well as growers. Through spray-
ing demonstrations, growers' meetings, press articles and other
means of educating growers during the last six years, the method
of controlling melanose and stem-end rot is generally known and
quite generally practiced.
In a grove where more than 12 percent of the crop is usually
marked by melanose to such a degree as to place it in the russet
grade or lower, very satisfactory profits may be expected from
spraying with home-made 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1 per-
cent oil emulsion when the fruit is about one-fourth inch in diam-
eter. However, quite a number of growers will not use Bor-
deaux mixture in their groves because it kills the much valued
entomogenous fungi. These growers are attempting to control
melanose and stem-end rot by pruning out the dead wood. Of
course, most of the growers who spray for melanose control sup-
plement the spraying by pruning out the dead wood. Pruning
has, as a rule, given very satisfactory results, especially in the
control of the Diplodia type of stem-end rot. But these pruning
operations are very expensive; and since they must be repeated
often to keep trees even comparatively free of dead wood, often
run the cost of melanose and stem-end rot control by this method
extremely high and leaves a doubt as to the operation being
profitable. Consequently, this problem has caused more atten-
tion to be directed toward the cause of the production of dead






Florida Cooperative Extension


wood and the practicability and economy of removing that cause.
In three grove irrigation demonstrations, the fact has been
clearly brought out that the deficiency of soil moisture during
the spring and fall droughts is largely responsible for the produc-
tion of dead wood in many of the heavy-bearing, non-irrigated,
groves. It is now being demonstrated quite generally that the
most effective and most economical way of controlling melanose
and sem-end rot is through the prevention of dead wood by ap-
plying irrigation water to the trees when it is needed. Some
interesting demonstrations along this line are being worked up.

BLUE MOLD DECAY CONTROL
Through educational efforts, growers and packers quite gen-
erally understand that blue and green mold decay are largely the
result of defective picking and otherwise improper handling of
the fruit.
The penalty for improper handling of fruit is clearly set
forth in Table I of the 1927 Annual Report, showing the final
cost of defective picking or losses to the grower in terms of
cents per box. These facts have been presented to packinghouse
managers, picking foremen, pickers and growers throughout the
citrus belt through meetings, press articles and special bulletins
of, packing organizations. Splendid cooperation has been given
by all concerned.
A recent checking up on conditions as they relate to the pick-
ing and handling of the fruit of the state shows that very grati-
fying improvements have been made. For example, two years
ago a large number of picking inspections showed 15.5 percent
picking defects, while a similar inspection made during 1928
showed only 10.7 percent picking defects. By again referring to
Table I of the 1927 Annual Report, it will be seen that this im-
provement means a saving to the grower of 22 cents per box.
SAs a goal, we are striving to reduce the picking defects to 4
percent, with a still further saving to the grower of 38 cents
per box through blue mold decay control.

CITRUS SCAB CONTROL
Scab control, from the grower's standpoint, is.not as serious
problem in grapefruit production as melanose control. This is
largely due to the fact that it has been demonstrated that scab
can be satisfactorily and economically controlled by spraying






Annual Report, 1928


with liquid lime-sulphur which, at the same time, controls red
spiders and the rust mite, while melanose control, by spraying,
necessitates the use of Bordeaux-oil.
However, in cases where scab infection is very heavy, demon-
strations show that one or two applications of home-made 3-3-50
Bordeaux mixture plus 1 percent of oil emulsion, to reduce the
scab to a "clean-up", are highly desirable. Where two applica-
tions are needed, one should be made just before the spring flush
of growth and the second as soon as the petals have fallen. Where
both melanose and scab are to be controlled, the second applica-
tion should be delayed a few days. As a rule, growers have scab
under satisfactory commercial control. The approved control
measures are generally understood.

PSOROSIS AND GUMMOSIS CONTROL
Since the unprecedented drought of 1927 and the freezes of
the winter of 1927-28 there has been an unusual development of
psorosis and gummosis throughout the citrus belt. It seems that
any shock that lowers the vitality of citrus trees may result in
renewed development of cases of these diseases of old standing
as well as in new outbreaks. In response to the demands for
assistance, a number of demonstrations in the proper treatment
of these diseases have been given.
The treatment for psorosis and gummosis consists of scraping
off the outer bark only, of the diseased area, scraping back a few
inches beyond the edge of the affected area, and applying a disin-
fectant in the form of lime-sulphur, Bordeaux paste or some
other mild tree wash or paste. The effectiveness of the treat-
ment depends largely upon the thoroughness of its application.

RUST MITE CONTROL
Through a series of meetings and by means of press articles,
the economy and practicability of more thorough rust mite
control has been stressed. Demonstrations in rust mite control
have everywhere produced unmistakable economic results.
In spite of the fact that rust mite control is almost univer-
sally practiced after a fashion, recent results of dusting and
reports on the grading of fruit going through a large number of
packinghouses as to rust mite injury, show conclusively that one
of the greatest opportunities for profitable investment for a large
percentage of our growers is in more thorough rust mite control.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS APHID CONTROL
The freezes of the last two winters, keeping down new growth
upon which citrus aphids must subsist, have greatly assisted in
preventing this pest being carried over to the spring growth.
This, together with other factors not fully understood, resulted
in a light infestation of aphids over the state during 1928. Con-
sequently, the damage done to citrus by this pest during the
year has been very light.
The following instructions in aphid control have been kept
constantly before growers by means of press articles and by
letters, and have been followed by a large number of growers:
1. Go through the young grove at intervals during the winter,
up to the time of the general flush of new growth in the spring,
clip off and destroy or dip, all new growth within reach. Also
destroy as far as practicable the cudweed and fireweed.
2. Spot dust with hand duster until the infestation becomes
more or less general, using 3 percent nicotine sulphate-lime dust.
3. Spray with 40 percent nicotine sulphate, 1 pint to 100
gallons of water, plus a spreader; or Derrisol, 1 pint to 100 gal-
lons of water; before leaves have become badly curled.
4. After leaves have become curled, fumigate under tents
with 3 percent nicotine sulphate-lime dust or calcium cyanide.
Every effort is made to protect the new growth and blossoms
just as they make their appearance, as this is the critical "aphid
stage."
WHITEFLY AND SCALE CONTROL
The use of red aschersonia in whitefly control has been en-
couraged. Several hundred cultures have been distributed to
growers, covering acres running into the thousands and saving
them many thousands of dollars on the spraying bill.
In one demonstration where the cost of spraying the bearing
grove with oil emulsion for the summer brood of whiterfly was
$9 per acre, a 15-acre block was sprayed with red aschersonia
culture, at the beginning of the rainy season, at a total cost of
$1.46 per acre. The control results where the parasitic fungus
was used were naturally delayed somewhat, owing to the fact
that time is required for the fungus to develop, but by the end
of summer the results were equal to those of the oil emulsion
spraying. In addition to a saving on the cost of whitefly control
this year, the beneficial fungus has become well established in






Annual Report, 1928


the grove and will keep whitefly under satisfactory control during
the next year or two, at least, if weather conditions are favorable.
Natural control of scale is claiming more attention from year
to year. Growers are urged to pay more attention to the develop-
ment of parasitic scale fungi in their groves, to spray with oil
emulsion only when it is needed, and then do a very thorough job.
An effort is made to keep before growers the fact that oil
sprays are injurious to citrus trees, and therefore, should not be
applied until they are needed, and then the job should be done
in a manner that will give maximum results in the control of the
pest. A poor job of spraying with oil emulsion often results in
more being lost through injury to the trees than is gained in pest
control.
It has been demonstrated that grove irrigation, even with the
surface method, facilitates natural control of scale and whitefly
as well as rust mites.

FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATIONS

Demonstrations with the use of nitrate of soda as a top-dress-
ing to increase the size of early grapefruit, oranges and tanger-
ines, were put on in six counties this year. The results cannot
be reported at this time as complete reports are not in, due to
the fact that picking has been delayed on account of unsatisfac-
tory market prices.
A number of demonstrations have shown that growers may
substitute the inorganic nitrogen carriers for the higher priced
organic sources with equal results and at a great saving on the
cost of fertilizing the grove.

IRRIGATION

In the investigations and control of melanose and stem-end
rot it has been found that dead wood is the source of the trouble,
and consequently the removal of all dead wood by pruning is
recommended.
Growers find pruning out dead wood to the extent of ap-
preciably controlling melanose and stem-end rot to be a very
expensive operation and perplexing problem, especially where
the operation must be repeated annually. While the production
of a small amount of dead wood in old, heavy-bearing trees may
be regarded as a natural condition, the necessity for pruning






Florida Cooperative Extension


out large amounts of dead wood annually, as is too often the case,
should be looked upon with more concern than that of mere
disease control. In addition to harboring disease, much dead
wood means reduced production of fruit, a devitalized tree and
consequently may result in outbreaks of withertip, psorosis or
other troubles.
With the foregoing facts before us, an effort has been made
to find the underlying cause of so much dead wood in many of
our groves, and, if practicable and economical, remove the
cause.
Our observations and demonstrations in grove irrigation clear-
ly bring out the fact that the fundamental cause of an over-
whelming percentage of the dead wood produced in many of the
heavy-bearing groves is the direct result of soil moisture de-
ficiency.
While the citrus belt of Florida can boast of an annual rain-
fall of more than 50 inches, which is in excess of the total annual
needs of citrus trees, a large percentage of the bearing groves
suffer from lack of soil moisture at times during the spring and
fall in five years out of seven because of inadequate monthly
and weekly distribution of this total amount of rainfall. A
study of the rainfall records of the Weather Bureau of the last
35 years, and the needs of the trees, brings out the fact that,
during that period, the number of years in which the rainfall of
each of the dry months was insufficient to supply the needs of
the trees was as follows: January, 10; February, 16; March, 24;
April, 25; May, 15; September, 2; October, 10; November, 23;
December, 10.
The most apparent results of a deficiency of soil moisture are
dropping of bloom and young fruit, and dropping of fruit in the
fall and winter. But the real effects go much further. Growers
are beginning to take into consideration the effect upon size and
quality of the fruit, upon the economic use of fertilizers, upon.
the cover crop and the consequent effect upon the organic content
of the soil and the more permanent effect upon the tree as
manifested in dead twigs and branches and susceptibility to
disease and insect attacks.
Correcting this deficiency of soil moisture is therefore a prob-
lem of very great economic importance with many citrus fruit
growers of the state.






Annual Report, 1928


The most practicable and most economical method of grove
irrigation in Florida is known as the surface method. The water
is pumped, usually by a centrifugal pump, from a lake or well
through a permanent main to the highest part of the grove. From
outlets in this main the water is carried by gravity through
lines of hose or movable conductor pipe to all parts of the grove.
The work in grove irrigation has been largely along the line of
teaching growers the economy and efficiency of installations of
large capacity. Growers have made the mistake of installing
plants with capacities ranging from 175 to 350 gallons per
minute where installations of 450 to 1,000 G. P. M. capacity would
be far more efficient and economical. This mistake is largely
due to the belief that mains should be made of wrought iron or
steel pipe, and to the fact that the price per foot of adequate sizes
of such piping is almost prohibitive.
These conditions have caused our efforts to be directed toward
finding a substitute for iron pipe by which adequate installations
can be made at a reasonable cost. A demonstration line of 8-inch
concrete pipe was laid at a cost of about one-third the cost per
foot of an iron pipe line of the same size. The line has stood the
test under a working head of more than 45 feet, and is found
to be very practicable and economical as a permanent water main
in surface irrigation. Following this demonstration a number
of installations have been made in which 8 and 10-inch concrete
pipe has been used. This is not only resulting in a large saving
to growers on the cost of installation but is enabling them to in-
stall adequate irrigation plants that can be operated economically.
To make practicable the distribution of a large volume of water
in surface irrigation without erosion, and economically, the
writer has worked out a method by which one man can handle
any quantity of water up to 1,000 gallons per minute, eliminating
erosion and making a uniform distribution. The method involves
the use of the usual conductor pipe or conductor hose, a set of
outlet crosses equipped with cut-off valves, and two to six dis-
tributing nozzles with hose connections to the outlet crosses in
the conductor line. The entire cost of the equipment will range
from $50 to $150, in addition to the usual conductor line, depend-
ing, in a measure, upon the length of the conductor lines but
mainly upon the amount of water to be handled. In addition to
the other advantages mentioned, the use of the method reduces
the labor cost of irrigation 50 to 75 percent.






52 Florida Cooperative Extension

With the old type installation, employing small mains, and
with the old method of distributing water, the total pumping and
distributing cost often runs as high as $3.50 per acre inch; with
the large mains and the use of the labor-saving devices mentioned
above, the total cost of pumping and applying water often comes
within $1.00 per acre inch.






Annual Report, 1928


POULTRY
N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
Poultry conditions in 1926-1927 were conducive to the develop-
ment of the industry in the state, whereas during 1927-1923
conditions were reversed. This past spring relatively high prices
of feed and low prices of eggs brought about a reduction in the
number of chicks purchased, also a reduction in the number of
adult birds on the farm. However, as the season advanced, the
outlook appeared more promising for those who were able to
cope with the adverse conditions.
Still in view of the above facts, the producers were eager to
study more than ever before economical production, together
with the adoption of some of the more accepted poultry practices.

PROGRAM OF WORK

The poultry population during the past year has not increased;
apparently, from reports given by baby chick producers and offi-
cers of some of the poultry associations throughout the state,
there is a slight reduction. No doubt this has been brought about
by relatively high prices of feed during the spring months and
low prices of eggs, causing a reduction in the number of both
chicks and laying birds. Although the number has been reduced
the quality of birds on the farms has been improved, the pro-
ducer realizing that more economical production in all phases of
poultry work is necessary if success is to be obtained.
Existing poultry conditions have emphasized more clearly the
development and putting into practice of those phases of eco-
nomical production as outlined in the poultry extension program.

METHODS OF CONDUCTING THE WORK

The various phases of poultry husbandry were presented to
the poultry producers in a number of different ways, the method
depending on the local situation.
Some of the most important methods were as follows:
Meetings were arranged by county and home demonstration
agents. These meetings were held in practically all sections of
the state. Poultry problems were discussed.
Demonstrations were conducted to illustrate better methods
and practices.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Boys' and girls' short courses at Gainesville and Tallahassee.
Monthly circular poultry hints.
Home Egg-Laying Contest reports.
Articles.
Farmers' Week-an intensive poultry program presented.
Farm visits.
PROJECTS

The plan of poultry extension work was completely revised for
the year just ended, the number of major projects being reduced
and changed to meet the conditions that have developed in the
state.
The four projects which were emphasized during the year
were:
1. Grow healthy chicks.
2. Grow green feeds.
3. Practice culling.
4. Home Egg-Laying Contest.
In making this change it is well to understand that none of the
projects as outlined the previous year were entirely discontinued,
but in the main they were absorbed in the four projects listed
above.
POULTRY DEVELOPMENT BY PROJECTS
GROW HEALTHY CHICKS
Clean, healthy young stock is the key to success in poultry
management. The number and the quality of pullets are de-
pendent on the rearing of chicks.
A heavy mortality occurs in the rearing of young chicks and
if this mortality can be reduced the cost of production is lowered.
With this in view a Grow Healthy Chick Campaign was started
with the 1928 baby chick season. Its purpose was to stimulate
an increased interest in raising more and better chicks.
The program was developed around six fundamental factors;
namely,
1. Hatch early.
2. Clean chicks and eggs.
3. Clean brooder houses.
4. Clean land.
5. Balanced ration.
6. Separation of pullets from cockerels.







Annual Report, 1928


Information circulars on these factors were distributed by the
county and home demonstration agents, together with a disease
chart and a mortality chart.
The results of Florida's first Grow Healthy Chick Campaign
have been tabulated from the records sent in.
There were 35 poultry producers who were in this campaign
and who kept records on mortality and answered the questions
that were listed on the mortality chart. About 30,000 chicks
were placed under the brooder, the number per farm ranging
from 11 to 3,104, the average being 845.
Twenty-four producers reported that they fed milk in some
form, 14 feeding liquid milk and 10 dry milk; 29 farmers used
some brand of commercial feed, while 6 mixed their own. Only
one producer used the all-mash method, all of the rest feeding
scratch.
Green feed was given the chicks in all cases except one. The
time of beginning to feed green feed ranged from the start to
the fourth week, with the average being at the end of the second
week.
Pullets were separated from the cockerels at about the sixth
week. However, the time ranged from the fourth to the six-
teenth week. Only two producers did not separate pullets from
cockerels.
The baby chick mash was changed to growing mash on the
average at the sixth week; this period ranged from the second
to the tenth week.
Twenty-seven producers hatched all their chicks before May 1,
five producers hatched some chicks in May but the greater per-
centage in the earlier months. Only three producers hatched
all chicks in May.
The poultry producers reported mortality as due to different
causes such as coccidiosis, pneumonia, OVERHEATING, change
of feed, BROODER TROUBLE, EQUIPMENT, weather,
CHILLED, and poor shipment.
Mortality Through 8th Week
A total of 29,573 chicks were placed under the brooder and at
the end of the eighth week 7,176 chicks had been lost. The aver-
age mortality was 24.26 percent. The average mortality per
farm ranged from 1 to 54.54 percent.








Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE I.-WEEKLY MORTALITY ON 33 FARMS IN PERCENT.


Disease

3.90

3.90

2.82

2.34

1.16

.57

.48

.48


Average

7.52

4.10

2.94

2.46

1.25

.62

.50

.49


Week Accident

1 ........................... 3.62

2 ........................... .20

3 ........................... .12

4 ............................ .12

5 .......................... .09

6 ............................ .05

7 .......................... .02

8 ............................ .01


A average .............. 4.23


NOTE:-The difference between the average mortality shown here and
that mentioned in the preceding paragraph is due to the fact that two
producers did not report weekly mortality.

TABLE II.-CORRELATION OF FACTORS ADOPTED WITH MORTALITY.

Factors No. Farms Percent Mortality Factors Not Adopted
Adopted

6 15 .65-18.20

5 3 25.6-34.42 Clean chicks and eggs

5 2 15.0-29.50 Clean brooder houses

5 1 20.50 Balanced ration

4 4 17.01-39.21 Clean chicks-
Brooder houses

4 1 19.38 Clean chicks-
Sep. Ckls and Pullets

4 1 47.09 Clean chicks-
Balanced ration

3 1 28.25 Clean chicks-
Balanced ration-
Clean brooder houses

3 1 41.42 Clean chicks-
Brooder houses
Sep. Ckls. and Pullets
3 farms report mortality due to overheating, poor equipment.
3 farms omitted from above tabulation due to insufficient records.


15.65 19.88







Annual Report, 1928


GROW GREEN FEEDS
Realizing that the feeding of green feed to all classes of
poultry has been found to be necessary for maintaining health
and for more efficient assimilation of food to secure the desired
results, a program emphasizing green feeds was put on.
Sixteen counties cooperated in this project, the county agent
furnishing the producer with an article on the value of green
feed, the schedule of planting green feed, and a record card. The
record cards will not be returned to this office until spring when
one year will have elapsed.
During the demonstrations, not only was culling discussed but
also proper feeding, disease and parasite control, and other fac-
tors relative to economical poultry production.
HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST
The primary purpose of the contest was to stimulate better
methods in poultry production by analyzing the records obtained
and discussing them with the producers. Three such contests
have been completed and the fourth was started the first of
November, 1928.
The rules and regulations are as follows: Entrant must keep
record for one year on entire poultry flock, have standardbred
poultry and send report to agent's office monthly.
The flocks are divided into three groups, depending on the
number of birds, as follows: Backyard flock, 1-50 birds, farm
flock 51-250 birds, and commercial flock over 250 birds.
Monthly reports are sent to the contestants showing the dis-
tribution of production with other timely information.
Some of the results of the Home Egg-Laying Contests have
been tabulated to show the monthly egg production and average
for the year, percent culling, percent mortality, feed prices, egg
prices. Table III shows the average monthly egg production for
the backyard flocks, farm flocks and commercial flocks for the
three contests, together with the total egg production per bird
for the year. It is of interest to note the total average egg pro-
ducion for each group and the increase each year. The average
production in the second contest shows an increase of 4.8 eggs
over the first, and an increase of 2.7 eggs in the third contest over
the second.







TABLE III.-DISTRIBUTION OF EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD IN THE HOME EGG-LAYING CONTESTS.


Month Backyard Flock Farm Flock Comr
I 1925-261 1926-271 1927-2811 1925-26 1926-271 1927-2811925-26

November ......... 3.8 9.3 11.0 3.0 7.4 5.6 7.1

December ............ 6.5 10.3 14.6 5.9 9.5 8.0 7.8
January .............. 11.8 13.5 15.1 8.8 11.9 9.7 10.8

February .......-... 15.2 15.9 15.3 13.8 15.6 15.3 14.0
March ................ 20.0 19.7 18.3 17.6 19.4 18.4 19.2

April ......--...... 19.6 21.6 17.5 16.6 '17.9 17.7 19.1

May --..-.---.- 18.0 19.9 16.9 16.0 15.0 16.8 18.1
June .....------.... .. 14.9 18.7 15.5 12.7 14.5 13.6 15.8

July --. ....---- 14.3 18.3 17.3 13.2 13.9 11.9 13.5

August ..... .. 11.2 15.5 15.0 11.5 9.4 11.1 10.9

September .......... 11.9 14.1 9.7 7.3 8.0 10.7 7.2
October .............. 10.5 7.9 5.2 7.8 6.0 7.8 5.5

Total .................. 157.6 184.6 185.0 134.2 148.3 160.9 148.9
I ]

Increase or
Decrease ....--. 27.0 .4 14.1 12.6


nercial Flock


Average


1926-2711927-2811 1925-26 1926-271 1927-28

5.2 5.6 6.0 7.1 5.7

9.2 8.4 7.6 9.5 8.4

11.5 12.3 10.4 11.6 11.7
15.6 16.3 14.3 15.6 16.0

19.1 19.3 18.9 19.1 19.0

18.1 18.2 18.4 18.2 18.1

17.2 18.0 17.4 17.0 17.7

14.0 15.7 14.5 15.7 15.3
15.3 15.1 13.6 14.9 14.3

12.1 10.8 11.2 11.5 11.0
8.6 8.2 8.8 8.6 8.8

4.8 6.1 8.0 5.2 6.4
150.6 154.7 149.1 153.9 156.6



1.7 4.1 1i 4.8 2.7
II ______________________ ___








Annual Report, 1928


TABLE IV.-MONTHLY AND AVERAGE CULLING PERCENT,
1927-28 HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST.

Month Backyard Farm Commercial Average for
Flock Flock Flock Contest

November ...................... 0.00 1.94 2.44 2.30
December ...................... 0.00 3.66 3.72 3.62
January ........................ 0.00 3.64 3.46 3.41
February ..................... 2.47 2.53 2.09 2.11
March ............................. 2.56 9.15 1.02 2.63
April .............. ............ 3.57 2.47 2.28 2.35
May ................................ 1.83 6.38 4.89 5.10
June .............................. .94 5.32 5.10 5.05
July ............................ 9.61 10.31 4.24 5.63
August .......................... 2.08 5.37 5.12 5.15
September .................. 4.25 5.81 4.88 5.06
October ......................... 43.93 6.87 7.94 8.30

Average ....................... 46.03 59.20 37.44 41.46


This increase would tend to indicate that the producers
throughout the state are paying more attention to the various
phases of poultry management such as feeding, breeding, etc.
Table IV shows the average and monthly percent of culling for
the different groups and the average for the entire contest. Table
V shows the average percent of mortality in the three groups
and the average for the entire contest. The farm flock group is
the only one that is exceedingly high, the average for the entire
contest being 9.42 percent.
Table VI shows the average price of eggs for each month for
the different groups.

POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS

Poultry associations have been of material help in poultry
extension work. In Florida there are two state organizations,
the American Poultry Association of Florida, and the Florida








60 Florida Cooperative Extension

TABLE V.-MONTHLY AND AVERAGE MORTALITY IN PERCENT,
1927-28 HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST.

Month Backyard Farm Commercial Average for
Flock Flock Flock Contest

November ................. 0.00 1.12 .62 .52
December ..................... 1.58 1.28 .52 .68
January ......... ........... 0.00 1.56 .43 .62
February ...................... 1.65 .84 .49 .59
M arch ............................. 0.00 1.02 .63 .69
April .............................. .89 2.47 .80 1.12
May .............................. 1.83 1.90 1.07 1.24
June ................................ .94 2.19 1.08 1.29
July ................................ 0.00 1.86 1.25 1.35
August ......................... 0.00 1.94 .69 .94
September ...................... 0.00 1.60 .90 1.02
October .......................... 0.00 1.50 .89 1.02

Average .............. ........I 6.34 17.99 7.63 9.42


Baby Chick Association. In addition to these, there are a
number of county and community poultry associations.
The American Poultry Association, with headquarters at
DeLand, has assisted materially in developing standardbred
poultry to a higher plane. The members of this organization
have cooperated with the Gainesville office and with the county
and home demonstration agents in furnishing the junior poultry
club members with better stock. They also have assisted with
educational meetings.
The Florida Baby Chick Association, an organization of
baby chick producers, has strived to furnish the chick buyer
with a better grade of chicks each year. The supervision and
accreditation of poultry flocks has been started under the super-
vision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. The association
has assisted with educational meetings and in fostering the
Grow Healthy Chick Campaign.








Annual Report, 1928 61

TABLE VI.-EGG PRICES, 1927-28.

Backyard Farm Commercial
Month acFlock Flock Flock Average


November .................... $0.56 $0.54 $0.48 $0.49
December ........... ........... .55 .55 .46 .48
January ........................ .52 .51 .44 .45
February ....... ........ ...... .34 .34 .29 .30
M arch ........... ................ .31 .30 .25 .26
April ....... ...................... .29 .29 .25 .26
M ay ................................ .25 .28 .29 .29
June ................................ .30 .32 .29 .29
July ............................ 38 .36 .33 .33
August .................. ....... .41 .41 .36 .37
September ...................... .49 .50 .47 .47
October ................. .... .51 .57 .51 .52


The community and county poultry associations have held
meetings at regular intervals and the meetings in the main were
of an educational nature. A few associations have done market-
ing and buying cooperatively.
Demonstrations and field meetings were held in connection with
the regular organized poultry associations.

JUNIOR POULTRY CLUBS

During the past year the rules and regulations of the junior
poultry club work were changed. The requirements were made
more rigid and a different plan was to be inaugurated during the
year.
Contests were held in different communities and counties at
which the members exhibited their poultry. In most sections
the quality of birds exhibited was better than the preceding
year. The junior management club work will be started the
first of the year and with this new plan it is expected that more
efficient poultry, work will be possible.








Florida Cooperative Extension


MISCELLANEOUS
The hatchery capacity in Florida has increased to a total of a
million eggs as compared with about 800,000 the preceding year.
The hatcheries and poultry breeders have cooperated with the
Extension Division in placing better chicks and stock out on the
farms. The number of mongrel chickens in the state is decreas-
ing rapidly.
Poultry producers and marketing organizations are beginning
to realize the importance of putting out a quality product and
with this in view it is possible to see a decided step in advance
along this particular line. Some are resorting to cold storage.
Commercial poultry production has demanded more attention
than ever before. Some of the main points under consideration
were feeding, management, diseases, and egg production. Eco-
nomical egg production is of great importance to Florida pro-
ducers.
Poultry shows were visited and judging was done. Educa-
tional features were employed as much as possible.
Considerable time was spent in connection with the Florida
National Egg-Laying Contest. A brief summary of the second
contest is given below.
The egg production was 190.93 eggs per bird for 51 weeks.
Table VII shows the feed consumption per bird for the light
and heavy breeds and the average for the contest.
TABLE VII.-FEED CONSUMPTION PER BIRD PER YEAR IN POUNDS,
FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST.

Feed Heavy Breeds Light Breeds Average

Mash .................. ............ 40.42 36.71 37.54
Scratch ....................... ..... 39.33 33.08 34.48
Oats .............................. 5.65 5.65 5.65
Semi-solid buttermilk ...... 12.18 12.18 12.18
Grit ................................... 2.28 1.83 1.93
Shell .................................... 3.50 3.37 3.41
Charcoal .............................. .51 .42 .44

Total .................................... 103.87 93.24 95.63
-------------- -1








Annual Report, 1928 63

TABLE VIII.-POUNDS FEED REQUIRED TO PRODUCE ONE DOZEN EGGS
AND COST.

Breed Pounds Feed Per Dozen Feed Cost Per Dozen
Eggs Eggs

Heavy ......... ........I 7.92 $0.264
Light ........................ 5.56 .187


Average ..-....----.. ........ 6.01 .201


AVERAGE FEED COST PER 100 POUNDS
Mash -......... ........ ...................... ...... ............... ........ $3.40
Scratch ....................................................... 3.25
Semi-solid Buttermilk ...................................... ...... 4.75
Oats ........................... ............................... 2.70
Grit ........................ .................. ........................ 1.10
Shell .......................................... .............. ........................ 1.10
Charcoal ........................ ................. ... ....................... 3.00

FEED COST PER BIRD
Heavy breeds ..... ............................ ................ $3.47
Light breeds ......................- .................. 3.12
Average ............. ....... ................... 3.20

Table VIII shows the number of pounds of feed to produce
one dozen eggs and the feed cost per dozen eggs for the light
and heavy breeds and averages for the contest.

MORTALITY
Average mortality was 15.1 percent, most of which was due
to ovarian trouble.







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Flavia Gleason, State Agent
Virginia P. Moore, Assistant State Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent
Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent
Mary E. Keown, District Agent
Isabelle S. Thursby, Foods and Marketing Agent
Mary A. Stennis, Dairy and Nutrition Agent

ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK IN COUNTIES

Home demonstration workers in Florida feel encouraged over
the progress that home demonstration work has made during
the year. Regardless of the prevailing financial depression, home
demonstration work has received continued financial support in
all organized counties and four additional counties have made
appropriations for developing the work within their bounds.
The year 1928 closes with, home demonstration work being
definitely developed in 35 counties under the leadership of 34
county home demonstration agents and three assistant home
demonstration agents. Two of these agents are working in two
counties each and are paid from Capper-Ketcham funds. An
appropriation is waiting for the appointment of an agent in
Jefferson County January 1. Therefore, home demonstration
work will be conducted in at least 36 counties during 1929. We
have had two transfers. One assistant agent who was married
during the summer is the only one who has resigned during the
year. Polk County, because of finances, dropped one of the two
assistants on June 30. This worker has been serving as assistant
to the home demonstration agent in Palm Beach County for the
past three months, doing emergency work following the storm.
Six of the 35 counties have had the work too short a time for the
agents to sumbit statistical reports. However, narrative reports
which they have submitted give some idea as to the way the
work is developing.
Statistical reports submitted from 29 counties show that home
demonstration clubs were organized and actively functioning in
541 communities. In these communities there were 544 clubs
with a membership of 10,405 girls and 207 clubs with a member-
ship of 6,508 women. Of this number 8,057 girls and 5,421
women completed a full year's work in demonstrations conducted
in the home according to home demonstration methods. Although
the reports from 31 counties in 1927 show a few more women and







Annual Report, 1928


girls enrolled, the 29 counties reporting this year show a con-
siderable increase in the number of members completing the
year's work. This was due to the fact that there were no inter-
ruptions caused by changing agents.

SUPERVISORY PROGRAM

In Florida the necessity for a-varied program in different sec-
tions of the state is realized. However, for the general develop-
ment of home demonstration work throughout the state, the
supervisory program was built around five main objectives for
1928. These were:
1. Development of the type of programs that will fill the
greatest need of those taking advantage of home demonstration
work.
2. Leadership development to assist agents in executing pro-
gram plans for the year.
3. To further develop community and county organizations,
especially the local home demonstration clubs and county councils.
4. To reach more adults with home demonstration work and
to form a closer contact with the rural homes.
5. To extend home demonstration work into a larger number
of counties.
Development of these objectives has been as follows:
(1) As in 1927, there was general interest in establishing
demonstrations in what are termed the fundamentals of home
demonstration work. Outstanding accomplishments were in-
creased in those things that develop profit, comfort, culture,
power and influence. Gardening, home dairying and poultry
have formed the basis for nutrition work. Increasing interest in
nutrition has, according to many agents, created a greater inter-
est in many communities for producing foodstuff at home. The
live-at-home program, including gardening, home dairying and
poultry work, has contributed to better foods and nutrition prac-
tices, assisted in developing effective home improvement and,
through the marketing of surplus products, has assisted girls
and boys in some homes in furthering their education.
(2) It is the policy to urge the selection of real leaders for
women's work from among the women who, because of their
accomplishments in their own homes, are naturally capable
leaders in a particular phase of work, and are so recognized by
other women in the neighborhood.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Older club girls are developing into good leaders among the
girls' clubs. However, well trained, understanding women can
render considerably more assistance to the agents in the capacity
of local leaders. One district agent reports that the project
leaders are organized into county leadership clubs in several
of the counties over which she has supervision. Members of
these clubs assist the agents in presentation of some of the sub-
ject matter. During the year there were 366 local leaders ac-
tively engaged in forwarding the extension program with the
girls and 299 with the women's work. There were 163 training
meetings held for local leaders with an attendance of 2,311
leaders.
Certificates of standardization are given to the various local
clubs as soon as they reach and maintain the necessary require-
ments. There are at present 180 of these standard clubs. Recog-
nition will be given to the standard club making highest score in
the state this year.
(3) Following the organization of local home demonstration
clubs is the formation of county councils. These county or-
ganizations are composed of two delegates, president and one
other, from each club in the county. They help to plan and
execute plans for the year's home demonstration work. They
are general promoters and boosters of home demonstration work.
With the exception of the counties in which home demonstration
agents have recently been appointed, all have girls' county
councils functioning in the conduct of the work in the county
and state. Seventy-five percent of the counties have county
councils for women's work.
The State Council for Girls' Club Work meets annually during
the State Short Course for Club Girls. Miss Lucy Belle Settle,
District Agent, serves as adult advisor for this group.
The Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work meets
annually during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week.
(4) The fourth point in the program of work was to reach
more adults with home demonstration work and to form closer
contact with the rural homes. Reports state that 312 more
women completed the work this year than last. There were
11,159 home visits made by county home demonstration agents,
an increase of 1,347 over the previous year. These visits were
made to and contacts formed in 5,505 homes.







Annual Report, 1928


OFFICE ORGANIZATION, RECORDS AND REPORTS

It is encouraging to see demonstration and office equipment
supplied more generally and more generously by the county
boards as satisfactory results become more evident.
Thirteen counties provide stenographic assistance. The
stenographers take care of office calls in so far as they can in
the agent's absence, and render general clerical assistance to
the agents. Sixteen agents have typewriters provided, 16 have
telephones, 14 have well equipped demonstration kitchens; 10
agents are furnished cars from county funds and two counties
provide motion picture machines.

MAINTENANCE AND TRAINING OF PERSONNEL

Home demonstration work has been considerably strengthened
during the year because of the fact that the agents remained
"on the job". New positions have been filled with well trained,
competent women. They are either college graduates with
teaching experience and a good background for home demonstra-
tion work or successful, experienced agents. Inexperienced
agents, before assuming the responsibility of county work, spend
as much time as can be arranged with experienced agents and in
the state office familiarizing themselves with requirements,
plans of work and available literature. They are given special
duties at State Short Course for Club Girls and Farmers' and
Fruit Growers' Week and special attention during district and
state conferences. The district agent assists in forming contacts
in the county.
Three district conferences were held early in the year. County
and state programs of work were discussed in detail with county,
district and state workers. Subject matter training which seemed
to be the most needed was given. However, for the most part
the meetings were filled with conferences on developing the work
throughout the year.
The annual meeting of home demonstration agents was held
at Florida State College for Women October 4 through the morn-
ing of October 10. This was done in order that the agents might
have access to the home economics laboratories and take ad-
vantage of subject matter information given by the home
economics resident staff and instructors in the department of in-







Florida Cooperative Extension


dustrial arts. The agents met in joint conference with all ex-
tension workers in Florida at University of Florida, October 11
and 12.

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS

Requirements regarding individual and club programs are
made by the state office. For instance, every club girl is required
to establish a demonstration in some type of productive work as
gardening, dairying or poultry work in addition to the home
economics phases of her work. At the end of four years of
home demonstration work, a girl is awarded a certificate in
recognition of her work. There were 531 recipients of these
during 1928.
Programs of work and reports are studied carefully by the
state and district agents. Comparisons are made of goals set
at beginning of the year and accomplishment as the work ad-
vances. State and district agents discuss plans for strengthen-
ing the work during visits into the counties and at agents' con-
ferences.
PUBLICITY
The Agricultural News Service carries timely articles of home
demonstration work. During the State Short Course for Club
Girls, the agricultural extension editor gave definite instructions
in writing newspaper stories to two girls from each county repre-
sented. The girls were most enthusiastic over the work and con-
tributed articles daily for a club news sheet. As a result of this
work and that begun by two other county councils, many of the
girls' councils now edit and publish their own county club paper.
A collection of 98 articles gathered in one week's time from
some of the largest papers in the state show that home demon-
stration articles have a wide circulation. The press is generous
in the use of home demonstration articles. Home demonstra-
tion work received much publicity during the year through fairs,
Farmers' Week, State Short Course for Club Girls, county con-
tests, window displays, camps, Florida Federation of Women's
Clubs, men's organizations, and other cooperating agencies.
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked
out .............-...-..---- ..--- ..- ..----------.5---------- 41
Voluntary county, community and local leaders.................-------- 366








Annual Report, 1928


Clubs carrying on extension work with juniors...................................... 544
M membership ...-.. --------....... ---...................--.........------ .......... ....................... 10,405
Clubs carrying on extension work with adults........................................ 207
Membership ...... ------------- --------------- --....................... 6,508
Home visits made by agents ............................................ ..... .. 11,159
Different homes visited ----....... -------...... ............ ...................... 5,505
Farm visits made by agents............--- ..................-................... 749
Different farms visited ......................- ------------ --.... .................-................ 461
Telephone and office calls on agents relative to extension work........ 40,453
Average number days spent in office .............. ............................ 61
Average number days spent in field-...............................- ..................... 234
Official letters written .....................--.....................-- -- 63,854
Exhibits at fairs ................................... -- ---------- 85
Community ................----..----...... ----- ..-- ...... .. 36
County ..---------------- -- ------------....................................... 27
Exhibits at 2 state fairs ..................... .. -----................. 22
Meetings held ..........--..-..-.....---.-........................................ 8,944
Attendance -........................------..... ...- ........ ........................... 221,763
Extension schools and short courses held.................-..... ---............. 43
A attendance ....................................................... ............... .. ........... ......... 2,428


PROGRAM SUMMARY
Number
communities
participating
Home gardens ..............................-......--- .. 415
Beautification of home grounds ..................... 28
H om e dairy .............................. ................. 56
Home poultry .............-..............- ........... 334
Rural engineering .............................-....-..... 114
Home marketing .........................-.........-- .. ---146
Foods ..................................... --- 454
N nutrition ............................................................... 394
Clothing .................................................. ..- 507
Home management ............................ ............ 218
House furnishings ..........-.......- .......-............ 417
Home health and sanitation ........................... 387
Community activities .......................................... 319
M miscellaneous ........................................................ 230


Days agents
devoted to
projects
828 %
21
59
459
1261%
150
1587
946
1898
2181
633%
36114
538 2
882/2


PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS

HOME GARDENS AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS

With the gardening and perennial plantings we are working
toward an all-year supply of fresh fruits and vegetables for the
home; to improve and beautify grounds by decorative plantings
of economic ornamentals, native shrubs and flowers; to furnish
means to increase income. The foods and marketing agent who
serves as leader for this phase of the work has secured splendid
cooperation from seed dealers, nurseries, fertilizer concerns, the
State Federation of Women's Clubs, and individuals in promoting
better gardens and more perennial plantings. In all 2,422







Florida Cooperative Extension


women and 4,322 girls have worked definitely along this line, and
4,016 homes are reported as having adopted improved practices
in home garden work.
In the all-year garden contest Thelma Hood of Santa Rosa
County was winner of the $50 offered by the Florida Federation
of Women's Clubs for the most outstanding gardening results
accomplished by a 4-H club girl, money to be used for educa-
tional purposes. Of her garden the county home demonstration
agent, Miss Ethyl Holloway, says: "Perhaps the most outstand-
ing demonstration is that of Thelma Hood, 14-year-old club girl
in Mt. Carmel community. She took over the family garden and
began a series of plantings in January. In this garden she
planted during the year 40 varieties of vegetables, and during
June she took an exhibit from her garden to Short Course in
Tallahassee, consisting of 30 varieties, quality stuff. All surplus
was disposed of either fresh or by canning. She canned a little
more than 300 jars which she valued at $38.10. Her fresh
tomatoes sold for $47.60. Other vegetables sold amounted to
$44.86, used fresh at home, $80.10, making a total of $210.69.
Her expenses including fertilizer, seed and spray, were $74.20,
leaving a net profit of $126.49".
Mrs. H. M. Burgess of Holmes County was winner of sweep-
stakes for an outstanding variety, successive plantings, utiliza-
tion of surplus and in a wealth of beautiful flowers. At the
county contest this fall, Mrs. Burgess exhibited 26 varieties of
vegetables from her garden.
POULTRY
The main phases of home poultry work as stressed by the
agents under the leadership of the extension poultryman were:
growing health chicks, growing green feed, culling, and the
home egg-laying contest. According to reports from 23 counties,
the total profit on result demonstrations conducted under super-
vision of home demonstration agents amounted to $37,922.80.
Improved poultry practices were adopted in 3,004 homes during
the year.
Guilda Yates of Orange County was the winner of the $50
prize offered by the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs for
the best accomplishments in poultry work as carried on by 4-H
club girls. The money will be presented with the understanding
that it is to be used for educational purposes only.







Annual Report, 1928


HOME DAIRYING
The dairy and nutrition agent working with the county home
demonstration agents has, through the nutrition work, increased
to a great extent the use of milk and milk products in the diet.
Milk for health campaigns served as a good means for bringing
this about. A total of 407 women and 178 girls have taken up
definite work in improving home dairy practices.
HOME IMPROVEMENT
The home improvement work under the leadership of the
assistant state home demonstration agent has seen a splendid
growth through the year.
Emphasis has been given to the importance of installing sani-
tary closets, screening homes, controlling flies, mosquitoes and
other insects to the extent that 24 counties report 3,801 homes
as having improved sanitary practices of this kind.
According to the reports from 19 counties, 611 homes fol-
lowed instructions and adopted improved practices in rural
engineering in the homes. This means that more people each
year are constructing and remodeling dwellings according to
plans furnished; installing sewage disposal systems, water sys-
tems, heating systems and especially lighting systems since
big power lines are beginning to serve the rural districts. Special
instruction was given the agents during the annual meeting on
buying standards for electrical equipment.
More demonstrations and time have been given by the agents
this year to the beautification of home grounds with the result
that 5,064 homes have done definite work in beautifying the home
grounds. Club girls and women in some of the counties adopted
county flowers and held a flower contest and flower show. This
aided materially in the beautification program.
That women and girls are learning to plan household work
systematically; the importance of using labor saving devices; to
arrange furniture for convenience; to use improved laundry
practices, and to keep accounts and budgets is seen by the fact
that 2,460 homes improved practices in home management work
during the year.
A total of 1,246 women and 1,859 girls have completed the
year's work in house furnishings, which included selection, ar-
rangement, repairing and remodeling of furnishings. In all,
693 women and 881 girls worked over walls, woodwork, and floors







Florida Cooperative Extension


and 3,218 homemakers in 28 counties have been reported as
adopting improved practices relative to the house furnishings
work conducted by the home demonstration agents.
The home improvement campaign which terminated at the
Florida State Fair, the work accomplished at the State Short
Course for Club Girls and Farmers' Week, and increase in the
family income through the productive phases of work, were im-
portant factors in promotion of home improvement work.
NUTRITION
Nutrition work under the leadership of the dairy and nutrition
agent was conducted in a way that linked the gardening, dairying
and poultry work with the family table. As a result, better meals
have been prepared, better food practices adopted and better
school lunches provided. A total of 6,375 homes, an increase
over last year of 2,203 homes, were reported as adopting im-
proved practices in nutrition work as conducted by home demon-
stration agents. A hot dish at noon was served for the first
time at 41 schools. A nutrition contest was conducted and a
trip to the National Boys' and Girls' Club Congress was awarded
to Kathleen Reese of Hillsborough County for showing the great-
est improvement as a result of her nutrition work.


Fig. 5.-Adult home demonstration members learn meal planning and
preparation in their nutrition work.







Annual Report, 1928


A long-time nutrition program was put into effect in the state
this year for the first time. The first year's results have been
quite encouraging. Better leadership by the women in the girls'
nutrition program, in the health contest, and in preparing better
school lunches, has been noted. More effective cooperation has
been secured in the milk-for-health campaigns and in securing
school lunch equipment.
A number of contests-such as salad contests, baking contests,
menu-planning contests, posture contests, etc.-have materially
aided the nutrition work during the year.
Nutrition work had an important place in determining the
winner of the trip to National Club Congress awarded to Qui-
nelle Fuller, Columbia County, for scoring highest in the State
Health Contest. She tied for second place in the National Health
Contest. These contests have had a splendid influence in inter-
esting the girls in nutrition work and results are proving valu-
able demonstrations.
FOODS
The preparation of foods forms a part of various club pro-
grams, is a part of the work outlined for club members carrying
gardening, dairying, home poultry and nutrition. Reports show
that 2,462 women and 3,523 girls completed food preparation
demonstration outlined for the year and 29 counties report 5,471
homes adopting improved practices in food preparation. The
nutrition and foods and marketing agents are leaders in this
phase of home demonstration work.










Fig. 6.-Home demonstration women can vegetables that are pleasing to
the eye as well as to the palate.

Food preservation work under the leadership of the foods and
marketing agent has been encouraged so as to preserve food







Florida Cooperative Extension


for home use, thus protecting health, reducing cost of transport-
ing food from a distance, encouraging the live-at-home idea, in-
suring varied diet all through the year, and putting surplus home
products into marketable shape. Reports show that 4,007 homes
adopted improved practices in food preservation this year.
Fruits, vegetables, meat and fish were canned; jelly, preserves
and pickles were made; fruit juices were extracted and pre-
served.
CLOTHING
Girls often become club members and conduct the required
living and growing demonstrations in order to have advantage
of the clothing work. This includes proper selection of mate-
rials, construction, renovation and remodeling of garments; mil-
linery, costume designing, making of a clothing budget and
wardrobe planning. A total of 2,523 women and 4,924 girls com-
pleted clothing programs as outlined for the year. Twenty-nine
county reports show that 7,372 homemakers adopted improved
practices in this phase of home demonstration work. There is
no leader for this phase of the work. It is supervised by the
district agents.
HOME MARKETING
Home products standardized and marketed consisted chiefly
of poultry and poultry products, canned goods, dairy products,
fruits, vegetables, baskets made of pine needles, wire grass,
palmetto or honeysuckle, and rag rugs. Four curb markets and
two home demonstration shops functioned to the advantage of
club members throughout the year. These have been estab-
lished and managed mainly through women's home demonstra-
tion councils. Walton, Volusia, Palm Beach, Citrus and Dade
counties carry interesting reports of marketing home products.
For money made from sale of vegetables, aside from supply-
ing the family table, Mrs. Margaret Nicholson ($1,353.54), and
Mrs. C. F. Rumph ($407.50), have been awarded garden plows
to the value of $22.50 and $17.50 respectively.
Miss Orpha Cole, home demonstration agent for Volusia Coun-
ty, makes the following statement regarding marketing of home
products: "The greatest success of the five years' history of
the home demonstration exchange has been realized this year






































Fig. 7.-Through efforts of county home demonstration agents, 41 Florida communities were induced to serve hot
school lunches this year.







Florida Cooperative Extension


and their deposits for the year have been brought to $5,123.12.
Products consist mainly of cooked foods, preserved and crystal-
lized products and flowers. Additional sales promoted by the
agent aggregate $213.20. These consist chiefly of pears, figs,
grapes, bulbs and jars. Four people were assisted in marketing
their entire fruit crop. Marketing is in progress at present on
the chayote crop.
"Other than amounts mentioned in the foregoing items, 25
women have reported the following amounts: Poultry, $909.13;
flowers, $5.90; baking, $74.25; crystallized fruits, $16.25; and
miscellaneous, $32.30; totaling $2,914.52. Combined with the
previous items it gives a total record of $8,494.84 for home
demonstration women."
COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Community activities vary according to the needs of the com-
munity as seen by the home demonstration agents and the club
members. Home demonstration clubs have been the means of
club houses being erected and equipped for community meet-
ings. The club house in Holmes County is invaluable to the peo-
ple of Leonia community, which is about 18 miles from town.
The school lunch is a community activity in which schools in
41 communities have been induced to serve a hot dish or school
lunch for the first time. Club members assisted with 22 com-
munity fairs.
Eighty-one school and community grounds were planted this
year according to landscape plans furnished by the home demon-
stration agents. Rural libraries are being established. A total
of 319 communities carried some definite community work as a
part of the year's program.

MISCELLANEOUS
A total of 1,093 women and girls in five counties completed
definite work in rug making and 1,846 women and girls are re-
ported as having learned the art of turning such native mate-
rials as'pine needles and wire grass into baskets, trays and other
articles. In all, 1,083 women and girls have completed definite
work in crafts, and 236 homes are reported as standardizing
these liiscellaneoi7, articles for-market.







Annual Report, 1928


STRENGTHENING THE HOME DEMONSTRATION
ORGANIZATION
STATE SHORT COURSE FOR CLUB GIRLS
This year's state short course was by far the most satisfac-
tory yet held. The Florida State College for Women closed the
spring term early, allowing ample time for the extension depart-
ment to conduct the short course before opening of the sum-
mer term. Dormitories, laboratories, and class rooms were avail-
able. The College nurses rendered valuable assistance by keep-
ing the infirmary open and giving the girls necessary medical
care during the week.
The 441 girls in attendance had won scholarships awarded in
the counties as a result of outstanding achievements in various
phases of work. Scholarships were provided by club members
themselves, county commissioners, school boards, women's clubs,
men's clubs, banks, merchants and interested individuals.
The course consisted of instruction and demonstrations by ex-
tension workers and home demonstration club members in
various phases of the work. Outstanding features were the
health contest, home improvement work, team demonstrations
in the afternoon, and meeting of the state council. Ample recre-
ation and entertainment were provided.
Girls who attend the short course usually develop into the best
leaders and realize a desire to go to college. Many of them as
a result find a way to become students and graduates of the
Florida State College for Women.
Because of the growing interest, number and service of local
leaders, a special period was given over to work with them. At
other times they observed work with the girls. There were 36
leaders in attendance.
FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK
The women enjoyed Farmers' Week at the University as much
as the girls did the short course. Demonstrations and instruc-
tion were given in various phases of work by state and county
extension workers, club members, University professors, and
home economics workers in business firms. Outstanding fea-
tures were exhibits, group work with women actually working
where they felt they could be best benefited and meetings of
the State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Most of the women paid their own way. However, more wo-
men were present with expenses paid due to the work of the
county councils and support of county federations of women's
club.
CAMPS
There were 36 camps held during the spring and summer.
Eight of these camps were for women, 12 for boys and girls
and 16 for the girls entirely. Local leaders attended and assisted
home demonstration agents with the camps. There were 378
women, 1,791 girls and 190 boys who enjoyed the recreation, in-
struction, fellowship, and leadership development of the camps
conducted by the home demonstration agents.
CONTESTS
Through county contests held in the various counties support-
ing home demonstration work, club exhibits were displayed,
demonstrations given by club members and the county agents
and supervisors had a means of observing the county-wide re-
sponse to the work; analyze the work for improvement; get the
work before the public, and create a better community and club
spirit.
RALLIES
Various plans are followed regarding rallies. Counties holding
them usually have one a year featuring work with juniors. One
county held a rally for the women's clubs once each two months
with an average attendance of about 250 women. That same
county had a community rally or picnic once a year in each com-
munity with good attendance. The pleasure of getting together
and hearing and giving club reports, has inspired club members,
women and girls, to better their individual work and that of the
community and the county.
FAIRS
Home demonstration exhibits were on display at community
fairs, county fairs, the Florida State Fair, the South Florida
Fair and the exposition at Toronto, Canada.
Through funds provided by the Florida State Fair, women
and girls having accomplished the most outstanding results in
either home improvement, nutrition, gardening, canning, poultry
work, or home dairying were given a trip to the State Fair to
give demonstrations in the home demonstration booths. These







Annual Report, 1928


women and girls appreciated the recognition, discussed their
work with the public, gave demonstrations and added tremen-
dous interest to the home demonstration exhibits. Similar dem-
onstrations were provided for by the South Florida Fair.
DEMONSTRATION TEAMS
In order to train leaders, develop efficiency and encourage
club members in giving public demonstrations, teams of two
girls each were trained in giving public demonstrations in vari-
ous phases of home demonstration work. These girls were
chosen in the local clubs and counties because of their efficiency,
success as club members and ability to interest others in home
demonstration methods. Home demonstration agents trained
94 such teams and found them to be invaluable in interesting
other girls and as demonstrations to the public of the value of
club work.
SCHOLARSHIPS TO THE FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
The State College for Women gave dining room scholarships
to 10 club girls this year. The business manager secured the
continuation of two loan scholarships for other deserving club
girls. Senator W. C. Hodges of Leon County continued the schol-
arship which he began in 1926 as a result of interest aroused
through the State Short Course. Continued interest in extension
work in home economics led the following counties to make ap-
propriations for full scholarships for training in home eco-
nomics: Hillsborough County, two; Dade, three; Palm Beach,
one; and Orange, one.
Club girls are enthusiastic over the scholarship fund provided
by club girls of the state through the State Council, which en-
ables an outstanding and deserving club girl to be in college this
year.
OUT-OF-STATE TRIPS
Because of their splendid record as club members, Laura Case
of Orange County and Whitlock Fennell of Dade County were
sent as delegates to the National Club Camp in Washington,
D. C., in June. The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs and
the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company provided funds for
these trips.
Quinnelle Fuller, Columbia County, winner in the state health
contest for club girls; Kathleen Reese, Hillsborough County,
winner in nutrition contest and Mildred Gunson, Gadsden Coun-







Florida Cooperative Extension


ty, for well rounded club work, were awarded trips to the Na-
tional Boys' and Girls' Club Congress held in Chicago. Finances
were provided by South Florida Fair Association, commercial
firms and individuals.


















Fig. 8.-Five Florida club girls were given trips to the International Club
Congress as rewards for outstanding club work.
Olive Verne Whitten, president of the College 4-H Club, a for-
mer club member and now training for home demonstration
agent work, represented Florida Club Girls at a National Leader-
ship Training School held in Springfield, Massachusetts, in Sep-
tember. Because of the splendid type of 4-H club work that
boys and girls in Florida are doing, Florida was invited to send
1 boy and 1 girl to this Leadership Training School, with ex-
penses paid by Mr. A. H. Moses of Massachusetts.
Club members have returned from these national meetings
with enlarged vision of club work and enthusiasm which they
have passed on to others who have heard their inspiring reports.
4-H COLLEGE CLUB
Former club girls who are in attendance at Florida State Col-
lege for Women are banded together in an organization for pro-
motion of club work. This club continues to attract the atten-
tion and interest of other students in home demonstration work
and encourage club girls to go to College as soon as they have
finished high school. Among the membership of this group are
some of the most outstanding girls in college.







Annual Report, 1928


NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
(Farm and Home Makers' Clubs)
MEN'S WORK

A. A. Turner, Local District Agent, Tallahassee
County Local Agent Address
Alachua ......... .... .......................W illiam Stockton ............................Gainesville
Bradford ............... .............. J. W Keller ........ ......... ................. Starke
Columbia .. --............................ E. S. Belvin ........... ........... .......... Lake City
Jackson .................................J. E. Granberry ................................ M arianna
Jefferson ..................................M. E. Groover ....................................Monticello
Marion -................................ W illiam B. Young ..............................Ocala
Suwannee ............................ C. T. Evans ............................-..Live Oak
(Corrected to December 31, 1928.)
During 1928 extension work with Negroes in agriculture and
home economics has been carried on in 16 counties. Men agents
have been employed in Jackson, Jefferson, Suwannee, Columbia,
Bradford, Alachua, and Marion counties, and women agents have
been employed in Duval, Leon, Madison, Marion, Orange, St.
Johns, and Sumter counties. Three other counties have been
without agents but the district agent has had the cooperation
of local leaders in these counties, making it possible to carry on
a limited amount of work where there is some local organization.
The Negro extension work has the same supervision as all
other extension work; however, the headquarters for the district
supervisors is at the Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, where
office space has been provided in the Agricultural Building of
that institution. The College has offered its cooperation and
the facilities of its agricultural equipment and has cooperated
with the Agricultural Extension Division in making it possible
to hold short courses and other schools of instruction for the
benefit of the Negro extension agents. One clerical assistant
is in charge of the office when the district supervisor is on field
work. The work has the supervision of the state leader for
men's work and of the state home demonstration agent for the
women's work; in addition, an assistant was employed for five
months to give help to county home demonstration workers.

NEGRO EXTENSION MEETINGS
The Negro Farm Boys' and Girls' State 4-H Club Short Course
was held at the Florida A. & M. College during April. The coun-
ty workers were responsible for bringing together 82 boys and
girls. These groups were selected because of their 4-H club







Florida Cooperative Extension


work and each county having agents had representatives from
their clubs present. The expense of travel for these 4-H club
members was borne by the counties represented. The program
consisted of instruction and entertainment provided by the Agri-
cultural Extension Division and the Florida A. & M. College. In
carrying out the program, the supervisory staff of extension
work was present, and assistance was obtained from T. M.
Campbell, the field agent of the United States Department of
Agriculture, who has headquarters in Tuskegee.
The county workers were assembled for three days instruction
at the Florida A. & M. College at a general extension conference
for the purpose of outlining programs and plans for the future.
COUNTY MEETINGS
County meetings were conducted throughout the year in all
the counties having agents. These were conducted in school-
houses and other public places and the programs were arranged
between the county workers and the local district agent. Sixty-
nine of these meetings were conducted, with an attendance of
2,453.
Ten of the local agents accompanied by Negro farmers and
their wives attended the Annual Farmers' Conference and South-
ern Farm Boys' and Girls' 4-H Club Camp held at Tuskegee In-
stitute the first week in December. The expenses of this trip
were borne by individual members, and, where club members
attended, their expenses were borne by local organizations. The
purpose of this meeting was primarily to promote 4-H club camp
methods for Negro boys and girls.
FAIR EXHIBITS
Fair exhibits were displayed by Negro farmers under the di-
rection of the Negro district agent at the South Florida Fair
and at the State Fair. The exhibits were creditable and received
the approval of the fair authorities and extension agents. The
exhibits consisted of displays of the products produced by 4-H
club members and colored farmers with whom the agents had
cooperated. The exhibits were creditable and well arranged, and
the expenses of these exhibits were paid by the fair associations
and the counties exhibiting.







Annual Report, 1928


RESULTS OF YEAR'S WORK
In the men's work seven agents were employed, giving 69
months of service, or an average of approximately 10 months.
There were six county farm associations primarily for the pur-
chase and sale of farm products. These had a membership of
183. The total number of communities was 66, and there were
74 junior and 72 adult community leaders who assisted the
agents in carrying out their programs. Thirty-one former 4-H
club members were reported to have entered the Florida A. &
M. College. There were 4,660 farm visits made, to 928 farms.
The agents distributed 1,404 agricultural bulletins supplied to
them from the Agricultural College and the U. S. D. A. There
were 11 community fairs and six county fairs.
Soils
The work with soils consisted principally of the turning under
of cover crops and terracing. These cover crop demonstrations
were principally winter cover crops with oats, part of which was
used for pastures and the remaining growth turned under. For
summer cover crops, the main ones were cowpeas and native
grasses. These were utilized for soil improvement purposes. The
soils demonstration work involved the use of commercial fer-
tilizers. These agents assisted the farmers in securing the
right formulas as approved by the Florida Experiment Sta-
tion for the various crops. Other work consisted of the care
of manure and rotation of crops. Special mention is made of
rotations in the peanut growing area where it is inadvisable to
follow the usual practice of planting peanuts year after year on
the same land.
Cereals
The principal cereals involved in demonstrations were corn
and oats. The results of the demonstrations were with corn an
increase of 33 percent over adjoining crops. This increase was
brought about by seed selection, cultivation, and proper spacing.
The oat demonstrations were conducted primarily to have a win-
ter cover crop and to provide grain for feeding the livestock dur-
ing the spring months. It was recommended that the oat crop
be sown earlier than usual in the fall and a larger amount of
seed used than is the general practice. With the cereals, too,
the boys did the best club work. There were 291 boys enrolled
and 127 completed the work.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Hay and Forage Crops
Hay and forage crop demonstrations were principally of le-
gumes and native grasses. It was impossible to get any acre
weighing on the tonnage produced, as the colored farmers are
without scales or other ways of weighing the hay. There were
a few demonstrations with soybeans. Other demonstrations,
were with velvet beans and peanuts. These were pastured off by
livestock and were not harvested. The 4-H club members used
principally peanuts in their demonstrations.
Horticultural Crops
The vegetable work was primarily with Irish potatoes, sweet
potatoes and vegetable gardens. An effort was made to increase
the yield by securing better seed and following the improved
methods of cultivation and fertilization. Through the assistance
of the Gainesville office the local district agent was able to se-
cure cooperation from the farmers principally in seed selection.
In many cases the usual practice of securing sweet potato slips
from volunteer vines had resulted in a low yield. Demonstra-
tions were intended to show the value of getting cuttings and
draws from beds where good seed had been planted. The Irish
potato crop is general on the Negro farms, being an important
food crop. The few demonstrations of Irish potatoes were prin-
cipally with seed improvement and fertilization. Other horticul-
tural crops were in the control of insect and disease pests of
peaches, plums, strawberries, and a few satsumas. In this hor-
ticultural work the selling of the products was an important item
in the county worker's program.
Livestock
The principal work in livestock was with dairy cattle, swine,
and poultry. For the most part, colored farmers are not in a
position to do very much with dairying. If possible, encourage-
ment is given to have dairy cows on as many farms as they
can be properly cared for. The main emphasis is placed on the
production of the proper feeds and sanitary methods of handling
the milk and butter.
With hogs the work was primarily in placing improved stock
on the farms. The best work was done with clubs, and 34 4-H
club boys fed out and cared for the animals that had been se-
cured through the efforts of the agents. Emphasis was placed
on better sires and better females. Some cooperative marketing







Annual Report, 1928


was done with hogs. This was usually in cooperation with the
agents when cooperative sales were being made.
In poultry work the agents gave assistance to the farmers in
culling and feeding and the control of insects and diseases. Due
to the low prices, a number of people who had become interested
in poultry found it necessary to dispose of their flocks as they
had not provided equipment and feed; however, those who were
equipped to handle the poultry in the proper way profited by
their efforts. It has been difficult for the agents to get the co-
operation of the farmers in the production of green feeds, and,
because of this, the feeding methods have been expensive and
in some cases unprofitable.
The 4-H club work shows some improvement over former
years. A part of it has been difficult to handle, due to the tenant
system so prevalent in the negro farming areas. The rules and
regulations governing 4-H clubs with white boys and girls have
been applied to the Negro clubs. Wherever the club work has
received reasonable attention and there is community interest
manifested, the results correspond very closely with other 4-H
clubs and with these Negro agents the club work forms an im-
portant part of their program.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

County Local H. D. Agent Address
Duval ...................... Olive L. Smith .................. Jacksonville, 1005 W. 12th
Leon ............ ......--..Alice W. Poole ...............Tallahassee
Madison ......................Althea Ayer ........................Madison
Marion .........................Idella Ransom ....................Reddick
Orange ............ ...... Mamie E. Wright ..............Orlando
St. Johns .......-........ Mary A. Caldwell ..............St. Augustine
Sumter ......... -.... --..... Diana H. Finlayson ..........Webster
The Negro work in Florida is a part of the Extension Service.
The women work directly under the supervision of the State
Home Demonstration office with A. A. Turner, Local Agent, in
charge of both the women and men local agents. Susie L. Turner
has been a temporary agent from time to time. A marked im-
provement has been noted the past year in demonstration work
for Negroes, due to the fact that she was in closer touch with
the women agents.
The foods and marketing agent and the assistant state home
demonstration agent have frequently met with the Negro wo-
men for conferences and instruction at the local and state meet-







Florida Cooperative Extension


ings. There is a wholesome cooperation between the white
home demonstration agents and the Negro women agents.
Following are some statistics as compiled from the local home
demonstration agents' reports:
There are 2,357 girls in demonstration club work, 317 boys,
88 men and 516 women. The local women agents instruct the
boys and men as well as the girls and women. It is remarkable
what the local agents in Madison and Sumter counties are doing
to lead the men and boys on to better practices in their farm
methods, in getting feed and forage for their animals, in bring-
ing up a better grade of hogs, cows and poultry, by securing
purebred males. Both these agents as well as other local agents
have secured a real interest from the white citizens because of
their practical and direct work to better the farm and home con-
ditions of rural colored people.
There were 2,543 home visits made to the colored homes by
the local agents to conduct various demonstrations in garden-
ing, home improvement, canning and food preparation with the
girls and women, and advise on seeds, planting, and better live-
stock with the men and boys. More thought has been given to
sanitary premises. The past year in the. Negro homes 126 out-
door toilets have been made, 140 houses were screened for the
first time, 385 fly traps were made and methods of controlling
the flies were studied, 84 houses have been whitewashed, and at-
tempts were made to clean up and beautify 641 houses. There
were winter gardens grown for the first time by 631 boys, girls
and women. A marked improvement in the diet of the Negro
families has been reported because of more attention given to
the growing and serving of green food for the family. Increased
income through the growing of poultry was reported from 445
homes. A number of counties are stressing a dairy cow for
every home. Better preparation and serving of food is reported.
The Negro exhibits at state fairs have shown marked improve-
ment from year to year and have served as a means of bringing
about better quality in sewing, canning, etc.

STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS
December 1, 1927-November 30, 1928
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 66
Voluntary county, community and local leaders ...................... 146
Clubs carrying on extension work ....................... ..................... 100
Memberships .............................-- ... .. .........................1,763
Farm visits made by local agents ---.. ....... .................. ........ ...... 4,660







Annual Report, 1928


Different farms visited ................-..----........-- ....----.........- 938
Office calls on agents relating to extension work ...................................2,014
Exhibits at fairs ...................... .................... 8
County ............................ ......---........ 6
State ............................. .. ...... ...... ......... 2
Number Attendance
Farmers' meetings held ......................... ............. 12 570
PROGRAM SUMMARY
Of Outlined Projects for Local Agents
Number Days Agents
Communities Devoted to
Participating Projects
Soils ........................ .... ............... 36 207
Farm Crops .................. ....................... 47 490
Dairy Husbandry ............................................. 6 29
Poultry Husbandry ............................... 20 100

Total ........................ ... .......................... 109 826
CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats. etc.)
Acreage grown under demonstration methods .............................. 4,745
Boys' and girls' clubs ...........................- ... ........... 45
Acreage grown by club members ............................... .......3031,
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels).......................12,735
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ................................. 258
Farmers who planted selected or improved seed ........ .......... 140
COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Acreage grown under improved methods ................. ............... 922
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ................................ 192
Boys' and girls' clubs .................................................... ........ 12
Members enrolled ...... ................... .............. 59
Acreage grown by club members ...................... ... ............. .... 125
Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) ..........................................12,750
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed ................................... 29
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases........ 31
LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)
Number method demonstrations given ................................. ... 380
Number result demonstrations under way ........................................ 566
Number result demonstrations completed .......................... ........... 581
Acres in completed demonstrations ............ ...................... .. .-....... 5,140
LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrations given ......................... .... ....... .... 367
Demonstrations completed ..................... ........ .......... .......... ............ 116
Animals in completed demonstrations ................ ........ ... ......... 2,576
Farmers who secured purebred sires and breeding stock.................. 23
Farmers culling breeding stock ........... ........... ..... ................ 18
Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests ............................. 26
RURAL ENGINEERING
Buildings on farms constructed or remodeled .................. ............ 29
Farmers who cleared land ......... .......................... ............ 8
Acres cleared ................ ....................-... ...... .......... 205
Number of farms adopting other practices for the first time................ 71
DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS
Dem onstrations .................. ................... ....................................... 121
Farmers adopting control measures .................................. ....... 343
Acres involved .......................................... ............-.... 142









INDEX


Agents, list of, 5
Agricultural economics, 30
Agricultural News Service, 15
Animal husbandry, 27
Aphid, citrus, control, 48
Associations, poultry, 59
Austrian peas, 21
Avocados, 25

Balanced rations, dairy, 43
Beautification, 26
Blue mold decay control, 46
Board of Control and staff, 4
Boys' Club Work, 19, 32
Breeding stock, dairy, exchange of,
42
Bulletins issued, 14

Calf clubs, 33
Camps, club, 36, 78
Cereals work, 83
Citrus, 25
pathology and entomology, 45
Clothing, 74
Club camps, 36, 78
contests, 78
short courses, 35, 77
trips, 36
Club work, 12
at State Fair, 35
poultry, 61
College club, 4-H, 80
Community activities, 76
Contests, club, 78
Cooper, J. Francis, work of, 14
Corn, 23
club, 32
Costs, reducing dairy, 40
Cotton, 24
club, 33
County agent programs, 21
work, 17
County programs, 17
Cover crops, 21
Cowpeas, 21
Crop clubs, 32
Crotalaria, 21


Dairy breeding stock, 42
Dairy husbandry, 27


Dairy tours, 42
Dairying, 40
home, 71
Demonstration teams, 79
Director, report of, 8
Drainage, 29

Economics, agricultural, 30
Egg-laying contest, home, 57
national, 62
Engineering, 29
Entomology, citrus, 45
Extension organization, 8

Fair exhibits, club, 35
dairy, 44
home demonstration, 78
Negro, 82
Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week,
13, 77
Farm crops work, 23
Farm paper stories, 15
Feeding demonstrations, 41
Fertilizer demonstrations, citrus, 49
Financial statement, 7
Flower show, club, 39
Foods, 73
Forage crops, 84
Forestry, 31
Fruits, 25

Gardens, home, 69
Grapes, 25
Green feeds, poultry, 57
Grow healthy chicks, 54
Gummosis control, 47

Hay crops, 84
Herd improvement, 43
Hogs, 27
Home demonstration work, 64
Negro, 85
Home Egg-lay:ng Contest, 57
Home improvement, 71
Home marketing, 74
Horticulture, 25
Horticultural crops, 84


Improvement, home, 71
Irrigation, 29, 49







Annual Report, 1928


Leader developed by
Lines of work, 10
Livestock clubs, 33
work, 84


club work, 39


Mailing room supervision, 14
Mangoes, 85
Marketing, home, 74
Meetings, extension, 20
Negro, 82
state, 20
Melanose control, 45
Moore, E. G., work of, 14

National Egg-Laying Contest, 62
reports, 15
Negro work, 81
News and farm paper stories, 15
News writing, training in, 16
Nutrition, 72

Oats, 21
Organization, dairy, 44
extension, 8
home demonstration, 64
Outside activities of county agents,
20

Pastures, 24
Peanuts, 24
Perennial plantings, 69
Pig clubs, 33
Poultry, 29, 53
associations, 59
home, 70


Production records, dairy, 43
Psorosis control, 47
Publications, 14
Publicity, home demonstration, 68

Rallies, club, 78
Reducing dairy costs, 40
Rodent control, 31
Rust mite control, 47

Scab control, citrus, 46
Scale control, 48
Scholarships, club, 38, 79
Short courses, club, 35, 77
Soils work, 21, 83
Specialists work with county agents,
19
Staff, 4
State fair club work, 35
Stem-end rot control, 45
Sweet potato club, 33

Terracing, 29
Training in news writing, 16
Trips, club, 36, 79
Truck crops, 25
clubs, 33

Velvet beans, 21
Vetch, 21

Whitefly control, 48
Winter cover crops, 21
Work, lines of, 10