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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal to gover...
 Credits
 Report of director
 County agent work
 Boys' club work
 Dairying
 Citrus pathology and entomolog...
 Poultry work
 Home demonstration work
 Farm and home makers' clubs
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00011
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1927
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00011
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal to governor
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    County agent work
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Boys' club work
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Dairying
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Citrus pathology and entomology
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Poultry work
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Home demonstration work
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Farm and home makers' clubs
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Index
        Page 85
        Page 86
Full Text







1927

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME
ECONOMICS

Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1927
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1927













1927


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME
ECONOMICS


Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1927
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1927












CONTENTS
PAGE
BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF .--~...... ------..-...----------. 4
COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS ............ .......-------------..-- 5
REPORT OF DIRECTOR .........-.......- ..--- ------....... --- --...... ... ---------------- 7
Financial Statement, 7; Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, 10;
Personnel Changes, 10; County Financing, 11; Farmers' and Fruit
Growers' Week, 11.
PUBLICATIONS ................. ----------------- ------------------ 13
COUNTY AGENT WORK ..........-.--..-....--......-....-- ..----------------.-----.--.- 14
County Programs of Work, 14; Specialists' Work with County
Agents, 15; Extension Meetings, 15; Fair Work, 15; General Ac-
tivities, 16; Soils, 17; Farm Crops, 20; Rodents, 25; Animal Hus-
bandry, 25; Dairy Husbandry, 26; Poultry, 27; Rural Engineer-
ing, 28; Agricultural Economics, 29; Community Activities, 30.
BoYs' CLUB W ORK .....................--... ................. -------------- --- ------------- 31
Corn club, 31; Cotton club, 32; Livestock clubs, 32; Annual Short
Course, 34; County 4-H Club Rallies, 34; County Club Camps, 35;
Special Features, 35; Club Work and Its Influence on College
Enrollment, 35; West Florida Club Camp, 36; Dairy Judging
Team, 37; Educational Trips, 37.
DAIRYING ....-............... .....--.---- ----...-------.. ------- ---- ----------------------- 39
Economic Changes Affecting Work, 39; Herd Improvement, 40;
Ultimate State Goals, 40; Pasture Demonstrations, 40; Grazing
Crops, 41; Better Balanced Rations, 41; Marketing, 41; Dairy
Production Records, 42; Distribution and Exchange of Dairy Sires,
42; Calf Club, 42; Dairy Tours, 43; Fair Exhibits, 43; Dairy Or-
ganizations, 43.
PLANT PATHOLOGY ANE ENTOMOLOGY ...--.......-----.....----..-...............--. 44
Melanose and Stem-End Rot Control, 44; Citrus Scab Control, 45;
Control of Blue Mold Decay, 46; Treatment of Trunk and Root
Diseases, 48; Rust Mite Control, 48; Citrus Aphid Control, 48;
Scale and Whitefly Control, 49; Miscellaneous Work, 50.
POULTRY W ORK --......................... ....-...... ............. .....- ...---.....-------............ 52
Methods of Conducting the Work, 52; Projects, 52; Development
by Projects, 53; Miscellaneous, 57.
HOME DEMONSTRATION W ORK ........................................................................ 60
Organization in the Counties, 60; Supervisory Program, 61; Pub-
licity, 66; General Activities, 66; Project Activities, 67; Commun-
ity Activities, 73; Miscellaneous, 74; State Short Course for Girls,
74; Women's Work at Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week, 75;
Camps, 75; Contests, 75; Rallies, 76; Fairs, 76; Demonstration
Teams, 77; Scholarships, 77; Out-of-State Trips, 77; 4-H College
Club, 78.
FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS ................--........................................... 79
Supervision, 79; Men's Work, 80; Livestock and Poultry, 80;
Women's Work, 81; Home Improvement and Clothing, 81; Boys'
and Girls' Club Work, 82; Extension Meetings, 82; State and Coun-
ty Fairs, 82; Statistical Summary, 83.




















Hon. John W. Martin,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agri-
culture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1927, in-
cluding a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1927.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman, Board of Control.







BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

OFFICERS, EXTENSION SERVICE, U. S. DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE
C. W. WARBURTON, Director
C. B. SMITH, Chief
STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, A.M., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, B.S.A., Editor
ERNEST G. MOORE, M.S., Assistant Editor
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary
GRACE GREENE, Secretary to County Agent Leader
K. H. GRAHAM, Business Manager,
RACHEL MCQUARRIE, Accountant

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Specialist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
JOHN M. SCOTT, B.S., Animal Industrialist
A. A. TURNER, Local (Colored) District Agent

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
MARRY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Home Dairy and Nutrition Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent









COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua ..........F. L. Craft ..-.......... Gainesville............Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Baker .............R. F. W ard .............- Macclenny ........................................ .....
Bay ................---- R. R. Whittington ..Panama City .................................
Brevard ..........W R. Briggs ..........Cocoa ................. ....................................
Broward ........C. E. Matthews ......Ft. Lauderdale ..................................
Calhoun ..........John G. Kelley ........Blountstown ...........................................
Citrus ............I. R. Nolen ..............Inverness ......................Mrs. E. W. Moore
Collier ......................................Everglade ....-............... Mrs. B. L. Vadent
Columbia ........C. A. Fulford .........-Lake City ....................Mrs. Lassie Black
Dade ..............---- J. S. Rainey ............Miami ...-.................Miss Pansy Norton
(Asst.) ........C. H. Steffani .........-Miami ........ .... iss Marion Swain
Duval(Actg.)..Wm. Gomme .-.......-..Jacksonville ..............Miss Pearl Laffitte
(Asst.) ........J. O. Traxler .....----. Jacksonville ........................ ....................
(Asst.) ........H. B. Lansden .......-Jacksonville ........................
Escambia ........Wingate Green ------Pensacola ............Miss Josephine Nimmo
Flagler ..........L. T. Nieland ..........Bunnell ... .......-- ..- ......
Gadsden ............. ---...........................----Quincy ........................Miss Elise Laffitte
Hamilton ...... J. J. Sechrest .........Jasper .................... .............
Hernando ......J. H. Logan .----B...... rooksville .........
Highlands ......L. H. Alsmeyer ...--Sebring ........... ................
Hillsboro ---....C. P. Wright ..--------Plant City ............. .....................
Hillsboro (E).-----.......--..-. ---..Plant City ..............Miss Motelle Madole
Hillsboro (W) ....... .----------Tampa .....----..................Mrs. Mary S. Allen
Holmes ----.--...... .....--.. -- -----Bonifay ........................Mrs. B. A. Caudle
Indian River..W. E. Evans .-.....---- Vero Beach ....--................-.......
Jackson .........-E. P. Scott ......-------Marianna ...........Miss Mary Sue Wigley
Jefferson ........E. H. Finlayson ......Monticello ...... .........................
Lafayette ......D. C. Geiger .........-..Mayo ............................
Lake --..............C. R. Hiatt --------.... Tavares -----..............Mrs. Marie Cox King
Lee ...............----- C. P. Wright ..---....---Ft. Myers............Miss Sallie B. Lindsey
Leon ----............G. C. Hodge ----....... Tallahassee............-Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum
Levy ----...........---N. J. Allbritton -...--Bronson ..........................
Liberty ..........A. W. Turner --..--..Bristol --------------------
Madison ........B. E. Lawton --------.Madison ...-- ---------------
Manatee ........L. H. Wilson ............Bradenton ................Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion ...........-**C. R. Hiatt .--.......Ocala .........................--- iss Tillie Roesell
Martin --..-.......C. P. Heuck .......-...Stuart ............... ............. ........
Nassau ..........A. S. Lawton ..........Fernandina ......-..........Miss Pearl Jordan
Okaloosa ........R. J. Hart .............-- ---Laurel Hill ...........---... --..-.....
Okaloosa ................-------------............-- Crestview ..................-----Miss Bertha Henry
Okeechobee ....S. H. Sherard .......--.Okeechobee ................ ---..........
Orange ..........K. C. Moore ............Orlando .....................----Mrs. N. W. Taylor
Osceola ..........J. R. Gunn ....-----.....Kissimmee ................Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach ..S. W. Hiatt ............--- West Palm Beach..Mrs. Edith Y. Morgan
(Asst.) ........M. U. Mounts ..........West Palm Beach .........................
Pinellas ......... E. H. Hurlebaus ....Clearwater .....--..Mrs. Joy Belle Hess
Polk ................-- --- F. L. Holland ..........Bartow .........------...Miss Lois Godbey
(Asst.) ......................................- Bartow .....---.....M..... Miss Mosel Preston
(Asst.) ........................... ............Bartow ........................M iss Bernice Lyle
Putnam ..........--- ...----------..............--- Palatka .........------...............Mrs. B. L. Vaden
St. Johns ........John L. Schribner --.St. Augustine...........Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie ........Alfred Warren .......Ft. Pierce ....................... ........
Santa Rosa ....J. G. Hudson .........Milton ......................Miss Ethyl Holloway
Sarasota ........P. M. Childers .......Sarasota .-------
Taylor ............R. S. Dennis ............Perry .-...................Miss Ada L. Simpson
Union ............. L. T. Dyer ..............Lake Butler .............. ........ ........
Volusia ............ T. A. Brown ............DeLand .........-----......--.......-- Miss Orpha Cole
(Asst.) .....C. D. Case ................----DeLand --------
Wakulla .........D. M. Treadwell ....Crawfordville..................
Washington ..Gustavus York ........Chipley ........
*This list is correct to December 31. 1927.
**Transferred to Lake County near end of year.
tTransferred to Putnam County near end of year













































Fig. 1.-Over 1,600 men and women attended the sixth annual Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week at the College of
Agriculture in August, 1927.


ir- ; ; -











REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES

FOR 1927

With
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30, 1927


Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report
of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1927 and a summary
of the activities of the Division for the calendar year 1927. I
respectfully request that you transmit the same in accordance
with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Receipts
College of Agriculture Funds-
Smith-Lever, Federal .........-.....................$ 58,872.25
Smith-Lever, State ........................ .... ......- 48,872.25
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal ....... 15,496.08
Supplementary Smith-Lever, State .................. 15,496.08
U. S. D. A. Appropriation ...........................- .. 22,050.85
State Appropriations ............-.................. 17,316.64
County Appropriations ....... ...................... 136,748.56
$314,852.71
Expenditures
Administration ...--- ................... ... ......... 8,762.52
Printing and publications ..-...............--................. 5,754.13
County Agent Work ..................-................... 155,827.41
Home Demonstration Work .....- .. ............. -........ 95,152.07
Foods and Marketing ................ .... ...- ........... 3,819.09
Dairy and Nutrition ..................... ....... ........ 3,600.00
Boys' Club W ork ............................... ............... 5,926.43
Animal Husbandry ................................... ........... 4,885.60
Negro Agents' Club Work ..................................... 17,670.42
Plant Pathology and Entomology ........................... 6,601.32
Poultry Husbandry .................. .................... ..... 4,248.65
Extension Schools and Farmers' Week .................. 2,605.07
$314,852.71






Florida Cooperative Extension


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE
AND HOME ECONOMICS

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Florida has had 13 years of Cooperative Extension in Agri-
culture and Home Economics service directed by the College of
Agriculture, University of Florida, in cooperation with the Agri-
cultural Extension Service of the United States Department of
Agriculture under the terms of the Smith-Lever Act of 1914.
During this period Florida has undergone many changes, and
the agriculture and horticulture of the state have been mate-
rially affected by these changes. Each year the Extension Ser-
vice has had to face changing conditions that affect the farm
and the home. This has required a variation in programs.
The organization for the past year has consisted of Director,
Vice-Director and County Agent Leader, three District Agents,
and the following specialists: one Boys' Club Agent, one Citrus
Pathologist and Entomologist, one Extension Poultryman, and
one Extension Dairyman. The home demonstration staff has
consisted of: one State Agent, one Assistant Agent, three Dis-
trict Agents, one specialist for Home Dairying and Nutrition,
and one specialist in Food and Marketing. One District Agent
was employed for negro work. All of these workers have head-
quarters at the state colleges.
Of the 67 counties, 48 have cooperated in conducting Exten-
sion work. Of these 44 have had county agents and 33 have had
home demonstration agents; 28 counties have cooperated in the
employment of one county agent and one home demonstration
agent, 11 counties have had the services of county agents alone
and five counties have had the services of home demonstration
agents alone. In these counties the agents have been supplied
with clerical help as follows: 12 offices have had full-time cleri-
cal help, three offices have had half-time clerical help, and 32
offices have had practically no clerical help with the exception
of assistance for short periods. For the most part the county and
home demonstration agents have used the same offices or ad-
joining rooms in the same building, so that the services of a
stenographer can be utilized by both agents. The expense of this
clerical assistance is borne entirely by the counties.
Agricultural Extension work in Florida has been carried on
under 13 main projects, and reports of work under each will ap-







Annual Report, 1927


pear in the following pages. These 13 projects are limited to the
most important lines of work affecting Florida agriculture and
home making and do not cover many lines of work for which


Fig. 2.-The new Horticultural Building, on the campus of the Uni-
versity of Florida, which houses the state offices of the Agricul-
tural Extension Service.

there is not constant demand. For carrying on these projects six
specialists are employed, who give expert assistance in their par-
ticular fields. The district agents give expert assistance in their
lines. The assistance in this direction is far from adequate to
meet the entire needs. However, as far as conditions permit, the
county workers are supplied with assistance of various kinds to
make them efficient in their lines of work.
The facilities of the Florida Experiment Station have been
materially increased for the purpose of making investigations
affecting farm and home life, and as fast as these investigations
are completed or information made available by the Experiment
Station, the Agricultural Extension Service uses it for conduct-
ing its work in the counties.







Florida Cooperative Extension


During the past year the offices of the Extension Division
have been moved into the new Horticultural Building, with bet-
ter facilities for directing the work.
The Agricultural Extension Service has a joint work and rela-
tionship with the Agricultural College and Experiment Station
and looks to these institutions for subject matter.
The Florida State College for Women is the headquarters for
the home demonstration work and cooperates in carrying out the
programs.
The Florida A. & M. College for Negroes is the headquarters
for negro Extension work and cooperates for the promotion of
this work.
FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST

By an act of the Legislature the Florida National Egg-Laying
Contest was established at Chipley, Florida. This contest plant
was built and financed for the first year by the Chipley Chamber
of Commerce but placed under the direction of the Agricultural
Extension Service for operation during 1926. The contest is now
a state institution and the Florida Legislature has appropriated
$25,000 for operating expenses during the biennium ending June
30, 1929, and placed it under the direction of the Agricultural
Extension Service. This property consisting of 14 acres, has been
deeded to the State of Florida and the contest is a permanent
institution, whose supervision is a part of the poultry husbandry
work.

PERSONNEL CHANGES OF SUPERVISORY STAFF
Miss Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent, Home Demonstration
work, was on leave of absence for study from September 1, 1926,
to May 15, 1927. During this period Miss Eloise McGriff, a for-
mer county home demonstration agent, was assigned to the posi-
tion of District Agent.
Miss Mary E. Keown was appointed District Home Demonstra-
tion Agent, September 15, 1926.
Mr. M. R. Ensign, Pathologist and Entomologist, resigned
September 1, 1926, and the position vacated by him has not been
filled.
Mr. K. C. Moore, District Agent, resigned October 10, 1926,
and this position was not filled until after the close of the fiscal
year.






Annual Report, 1927


There were many changes in the personnel of county, farm,
and home agents brought about by resignations, promotions, and
the addition of new places to be filled.
Reports and statistics by projects are stated in the following
pages. These fail to relate the many and varied duties that
county Extension workers are called upon to perform, but point
to the major problems that are recognized as most important.
COUNTY FINANCING

Special mention is made regarding the liberal response and
cooperation from counties for financing county and home dem-
onstration work. In this respect Florida counties stand fourth
in the United States; that is, for each dollar appropriated by the
Federal Government for conducting work in the state, the coun-
ties of Florida appropriate two and one-half dollars. There is an
increasing demand for the services of trained county and home
Extension agents, even at a cost to the counties that is higher
than that in many other states. To meet this demand for trained
service, the Extension Service prefers to recommend for appoint-
ment only those who have completed a 4-year course in an agri-
cultural college and who have had several years of farm experi-
ence.
FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK

Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week conducted at the College
of Agriclulture has become an annual event and a part of the
Extension program. During 1927 it was conducted August 8-13
with the largest recorded attendance. While this is an Extension
activity, each branch of the Agricultural College contributed to
the program. The dormitories and dining hall used by the stu-
dent body during the school year were made available to visitors
at a nominal cost. The week's events were divided into sections
with a special program for each. Of the 67 counties in the state,
65 were represented in attendance, and as far as facilities were
available, a program was arranged to meet the needs of those
from each section of the state.
An increasing attendance from year to year during Farmers'
Week indicates that the College of Agriculture can serve a large
number of people by offering an opportunity to visit the institu-
tion at least once a year and receive such instruction as is avail-
able in a limited period of time.






12 Florida Cooperative Extension

The actual cost to the State of Florida for conducting Farm-
ers' and Fruit Growers' Week was approximately $1.50 for each
person in attendance.
Summing up the year's work, there is evidence of progress in
every part of it. The demand for expert service becomes greater
each year, requiring larger facilities to meet these demands. The
College of Agriculture and the Experiment Station with their
increased facilities are in a better position than ever before to
meet the demands upon them from the Extension Service. Co-
operation from each department of the institution has contrib-
uted much by giving help that will serve the farms and homes
of this state. More specialists are needed to reinforce the efforts
of the county workers.






Annual Report, 1927


PUBLICATIONS

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Ernest G. Moore, Assistant Editor

The following publications were issued by the Agricultural
Extension Division and State Home Demonstration Department:
No. Title Pages Copies
Bul. 43 Club Work and the Farm Boy........ 20 5,000
1927 Calendar-----ndar ............................ 12 8,675
1926 Annual Report ................................132 1,500
Six issues Florida Pepper (Club Paper) ......... 4 10,000 each
Circ. 974 First Year Sewing (Reprint) ........ 16 5,000
" 976 Third Year Sewing (Reprint) ...... 4 2,500
" 978 Food, Nutrition and Health (Re-
print) .................... ........... 36 10,000
Weekly Agricultural News Service ......... 1 28,560 (42 wks.)
Circ. 974 First Year Sewing ......................... 16 5,000
" 975 Second Year Sewing ....................... 12 5,000
" 978 Food, Nutrition and Healta .....-..... 66d 0,o0
Chart for Meal Planning ...-.......... 2 2,500

NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST REPORTS

.Thirty-six weekly progress reports of four pages each were
printed during the fiscal year, and were distributed to 600 people
each week.
MISCELLANEOUS

Special stories were sent to the Associated Press at intervals
during the year. Articles were written for eight farm and agri-
cultural journals during the year. Regular articles were prepared
monthly for two of these. During Farmers' Week a page was
run in the Gainesville Daily Sun each morning. The material for
it was written by the Extension Editor.
Special stories were sent out on request from both farm and
newspapers.
MAILING LIST

The mailing list is kept checked by the return of publications
mailed to dead names. New names are secured by listing those
who ask to be placed on the list, or those who ask for certain
bulletins, or by lists supplied by county and home demonstra-
tion agents.






Florida Cooperative Extension


COUNTY AGENT WORK
A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader
H. G. Clayton, District Agent
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
County agent work was carried out in 44 counties during 1927
under the supervision of the county agent leader and two dis-
trict agents until September 1 when a third district agent was
appointed.
The counties were divided into two districts, one comprising
the general farming and livestock area in North and West Flor-
ida; the other district in the central and southern counties
where the activities are principally horticulture, dairying, and
poultry.
During the calendar year there were 18 changes made in the
personnel of county agents by transfers and new appointments.
This is a larger number than usual and, consequently, required
more supervision on the part of the district agents.
From January 1 to June 30 four counties, Nassau, Indian River,
Martin, and Polk, paid the entire expenses of their county
agents' services, as the funds of the Agricultural Extension Ser-
vice were entirely covered prior to the time these counties made
application for an agent. This condition was relieved at the be-
ginning of the fiscal year July 1, 1927, because of an increase in
appropriations by the Florida Legislature. Since July 1 two ad-
ditional counties have been added, Hernando and Sarasota, and
on September 1 the Board of Commissioners of Pasco County
decided to withdraw its support and discontinue county agent
work in that county.
Each county agent appointed during 1927 is a college gradu-
ate with three or more years' actual experience in farming since
graduation, and it will be the policy in the future to recommend
for appointment only persons who have had similar agricultural
training. There was some delay in the appointments of certain
agents because of difficulty in securing the services of county
agents who had sufficient training to carry out constructive
work.
COUNTY PROGRAMS OF WORK
On January 1 of each year county programs of work are made
out by the agents. These are on a county-wide basis and made
up according to projects as follows:






Annual Report, 1927


Soils, farm crops, horticulture, forestry, rodents, animal hus-
handry, dairy husbandry, poultry, rural engineering, agricul-
tural economics, and miscellaneous.
SPECIALISTS' WORK WITH COUNTY AGENTS

The Extension Service has four specialists for men's work,
each of whom submits his program at the beginning of the year,
and these are incorporated with the county agents' programs.
In this way the county agents have expert assistance at their
call.
The Boys' Club work is interwoven with the work of the coun-
ty agents; that is, all club work in the county is done by the
county agents and it is the duty of the club agent to organize
the work, supply needed assistance in the direction and manage-
ment of club work. In this way the district agents also play an
active part in the direction of club programs.
During the annual meeting of County and Home Demonstra-
tion Agents, committees were appointed to make recommenda-
tions governing future work. These recommendations are used
as a guide in making up county programs.
EXTENSION MEETINGS

The annual meeting of County and Home Demonstration
Agents was held at the University in October and lasted for one
week. This consisted of a series of conferences on Extension
work. Members of the departments of the College of Agriculture
were brought into conference with the agents.
Throughout the year county agents conducted meetings in
communities with the assistance of specialists and district agents
from the state office.
FAIR WORK

County agents have been active in fair work and where there
were county fairs the agents were largely responsible for the
management and success of the fairs.
As the exhibits at the Florida State Fair and the South Flor-
ida Fair were made up from county exhibits, the county and
home demonstration agents were given a large part of the re-
sponsibility for the success of their displays. These fairs have
consumed much time on the part of several agents.







16 Florida Cooperative Extension





















Fig. 3.-Meetings of rural men and women enable county and home
demonstration agents to reach and help a large number of people
at one time.

The position of the county agent requires that he be active in
many community problems affecting the farm people, and he is
called upon to render service in various activities. This gives him
an opportunity to render a much needed service that in most
cases has heretofore been neglected. There are however, several
definite duties that he is called upon to perform and certain re-
strictions to observe when undertaking activities related to
church, school, roads, and other community enterprises.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked
out ....------------------....................-..... ..... ..... ..................... 398
Voluntary county,, community and local leaders.................................. 545
Clubs carrying on extension work .....------....-....................... 241
Memberships ............... .------------......------------.....-- .................. 4,298
Farm visits made by county agents.......... ............. ...................32,200
Different farms visited ......-...----- ....... .. .... ........... ....10,757
Home visits made by county agents ....................... ..........-- .. 2,515
Different homes visited ....................... ....... .......... ............... 1,297
Telephone and office calls on agents relative to extension work....62,437
Average number days spent in office .........-..-.......-...... 79.9
Average number days spent in field -............... ..-............ 222.11
Official letters written .....-......---............ .... ..........51,566
Exhibits at fairs ....------.......... -- ....----- ----..-..- ........-... 58
Community ....-----............................. 14
County .....-----...--- ..... ............... 42
State ............................ .............. 2







Annual Report, 1927


Number
Farmers' meetings held ...................--.---.... .......... 1,206
Extension schools and short courses held ................ 33
Total attendance club members, junior encampments
and rallies ....................... ...............--


Attendance
31,573
1,561

1,797


PROGRAM SUMMARY
Of Outlined Projects by County Agents
Number Days agents
communities devoted to
participating projects
Soils .................. ................-. ...... 232 639
Farm Crops ..................--............... ............ 251 1,400/2
Horticulture ............ .................... ......... ..... 318 1,8731/
Forestry ....................-............... --..... ................ 15 27
Rodents, predatory animals and birds ......-......-.......... 62 78
Animal husbandry ........................... .......................... 225 1,269 1/
Dairy husbandry .......... ............ ..... .................. 155 576
Poultry husbandry ........... ..... ...... .............. 265 1,274%
Rural engineering ................ ..............- .......... 112 3491
Agricultural economics ...................................... 224 596
Miscellaneous work ................................ ................... 141 928
Community activities .. .... ...... ....... 26 145 /


Total .............. ................................................. 2,026


9,156%


SOILS

The care of the soil is of utmost importance to enable continual
production of good crops with a minimum expense. In Central
and South Florida practically all of the soils work included soil
building by the use of cover crops. Most of this was in citrus
groves and a limited amount was with truck and field crops. The
citrus grower was interested more than usual in lowering pro-
duction costs, due to low markets for the 1926-1927 crop and to
the storm and cold damage to that crop, and a resultant light
crop in 1927-1928.
Tests made by the Florida Experiment Station have shown
that on light soils Crotalaria will yield a greater tonnage, and
that it adds on the average a larger amount of nitrogenous plant
food than any other leguminous crop tested. Growers have recog-
nized the soil improvement value of Crotalaria, so the time was
ripe to encourage more extensive use of it as a cover crop in
groves. County agents had encouraged growers who had plant-
ings of Crotalaria to save seed. They found a ready sale for this
seed at fair prices, so that a much larger acreage has been seed-
ed to Crotalaria than usual. Fourteen agents report 115 farmers
and growers plowing under cover crops for the first time on 2,203
acres.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 4.-Showing the effect of Crotalaria on succeeding crops. Above: Grass
crop in a citrus grove following two crops of beggarweed. Below: Grass
crop following two crops of Crotalaria.

At a series of citrus meetings, cover crops was one of the
main subjects discussed. The agent in Highlands County made
a special effort to increase the plantings of cover crops in citrus
groves of this county as a means of making the trees more pro-
ductive and reducing the cost of producing good fruit.
In 1926 there was 10 acres of Crotalaria, 58 acres of beggar-
weed, 125 acres of cowpeas, and 15 acres in velvet beans planted
for cover crops, but a careful check shows that in 1927, 952
acres Crotalaria, 335 acres beggarweed, 376 acres cowpeas, and
40 acres velvet beans were sown on 34 properties in this county.
In the Central and South Florida counties the agents' reports
show 147 soil-building demonstrations on 4,387 acres. This is
over six times the acreage in demonstrations during 1926.
In Marion County 30 farmers are making small plantings of
vetch this fall for the first time, and 14 acres were seeded to






Annual Report, 1927


Austrian peas. Few winter legumes do well in Florida, and these
two are among the most promising.
To demonstrate the value of vegetable matter in the soil,
county agents of North and West Florida have conducted 121
demonstrations of winter cover crops including vetch, rye, oats,
and Austrian winter peas, and 50 demonstrations of summer
cover crops including Crotalaria, peas, soybeans, and velvet
beans.
R. J. Hart, Okaloosa County Agent, says that because of a
demonstration in which vetch was turned under, followed by
corn which produced 35 bushels per acre, 14 farmers purchased
1,070 pounds of vetch seed for soil building purposes.


Fig. 5.-Vetch is proving to be a valuable winter cover crop in central,
northern, and western Florida.

John Hudson, Santa Rosa County, says: "One acre of vetch
was turned under on April 16, and the land was planted to corn
on April 25. This corn made a yield of 351/ bushels per acre. No
fertilizer was used on corn or vetch. The results are that 12
farmers have planted from one to five acres each of vetch this
fall."
SOIL IMPROVEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS


Demonstrations given .............................. .........
Acres involved in completed demonstrations ....................
Farmers influenced to change methods soil management.....
Farmers following advice in use of commercial fertilizers...
Tons commercial fertilizer involved.............................-.....


.............. 1,528
........... 5,298
............ 1,624
--... .. 1,533
............ 8,328







Florida Cooperative Extension


Farmers taking better care of farm manures ..................................... 27
Farmers using lime or limestone .................. .... .........-... ....... 90
Tons of lime or limestone so used .......................................................... 1,435
Farmers who plowed under cover crops for soil improvement............ 246
Acres of cover and green manure so plowed under.............................. 4,920

FARM CROPS

CORN

By more intelligent fertilizing and the use of better seed, corn
production can be increased and the cost per bushel lowered. To
arouse more interest in higher yields, a state five-acre corn con-
test was conducted in 1927, and some definite corn fertilizing
demonstrations were carried on. There have been 232 corn grow-
ing demonstrations conducted, in which 10,777 bushels were pro-
duced at an average cost of 71 cents per bushel.
B. E. Lawton, Madison County, reports that 12 farmers pro-
duced an average of 28 bushels of corn per acre, or double the
average yield. The extra 14 bushels cost $8.80 to produce and
was worth $13.60, giving a profit of $4.80 per acre. If the 29,000
acres of corn planted in Madison Couity in 1927 had produced
at this rate, the farmers' corn crop of this county would have an
increased value of $139,200.
In the Southern District seven agents report a total of 37 dem-
onstrations completed with corn on 128 acres. Relatively few
farmers plant a large acreage of corn as a main crop, most of it
being planted after early truck crops as a follow or catch-crop.
The dry summer was unfavorable to high yields.

CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats, etc.)
Number demonstrations given ................ ..........-- -- ............... 588
Acreage grown under demonstrations .................... ............... 8201
Boys' and girls' clubs ............- ..--- ..-- ...-... ............... ....- ........... 35
Acreage grown by club members .....---- ................................... 200
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels)..-- ................. 6,3142
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices.......... --................... 372
Farmers who planted selected and improved seed -------..................... 159
Farmers who treated seed grain for smut, first time........................ 4
COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Number demonstrations given .............--........................ 75
Acreage grown under improved methods .................................. 92
Farms influenced to adopt better practice ........... ..........---.. 82
Boys' and girls' clubs ........................................................................ 3
Members enrolled ........... ....................... .............. 44
Acreage grown by club members ....... ................... .......... 25
Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.)............................... 32,854
Farmers who planted improved seed first time....-------................... 46






Annual Report, 1927


IRISH POTATOES

Forty-six demonstrations involving 566 acres were completed
with Irish potatoes and in most cases the increase in yield was
30 bushels. The highest increase was in the Glades, where 50
bushels increase was secured. The acreage in southern counties
and outside the main potato sections of Florida is gradually be-
ing increased.
Sixty-one Florida farmers used improved seed for the first
time, and 66 farmers sprayed or dusted for the first time.

SWEET POTATOES

Sweet potatoes for summer marketing is receiving attention
on the farms of North Florida. Though the 1927 market was
poor, the county agents conducted 164 demonstrations in grow-
ing them, using from 1,000 to 1,600 pounds 8-3-5 fertilizer per
acre, and 10,000 plants per acre.

SWEET AND IRISH POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS
Number demonstrations given ---------.. ---..... .... ......................... 675
Acreage grown under improved methods .................................. ... 2,22414
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices .....................-.......... 502
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed............................. 339
Farmers who treated seed for disease............................................. 153
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects ... 153
PEANUTS

Peanuts are grown both as a hog feed and as a market crop.
They are produced on light sandy loam soils. The production is
low and often the peanuts do not fill well. The Experiment Sta-
tion had found that peanuts fertilized with land plaster applied
either under or as a top dressing to the running varieties would
cause them to fill better. Demonstrations in using land plaster
were conducted on the lighter soils.
Jackson County produces about 25 million pounds of Spanish
peanuts annually. Mr. E. P. Scott, County Agent, reports:
"Thirty-one farmers entered the peanut contest. Various
grades of land were used, from light sandy to heavy clay. Twenty-
six produced an average of 56 bushels per acre, or 41 bushels
above the average of the county. Yields of 70 bushels per acre
on 30 acres were obtained by one farmer; another obtained 81
and 83 bushels on single acre plots; a third 65 bushels per acre
on his entire crop. This contest has attracted attention from pea-






Florida Cooperative Extension


nut growers. The difference in yield is apparently not influenced
so much by the fertilizer used, or any one operation, but due to
a combination of good land preparation, proper fertilization and
cultural methods."
SOYBEANS

Fifty demonstrations of soybean growing were conducted this
season by the county agents of North and West Florida. Some
were grown in groves to demonstrate their value as a summer
cover crop and a soil builder. Others were grown to show their
value as a hay crop. The Laredo and Otootan varieties produced
as much as two tons green material per acre. More will be grown
another year.

LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)
Number method demonstrations given .............. ... .............. 445
Number result demonstrations under way ...................-. .... ............. 637
Number result demonstrations completed ....................... ...... 513
Acres in completed demonstrations ........................ ................... 5,439
TOBACCO

Sun-grown or flue-cured tobacco has become an important crop
in North Florida and is consuming much time of some of the
agents. J. J. Sechrest, Agent of Hamilton County, worked with
growers who planted 970 acres, and 90 per cent of the growers,
many without experience, made money. Jackson, Hamilton, Col-
umbia, Lafayette, Madison, and Taylor farmers are increasing
their acreage, and the county agents are helping them with their
problems.
FERTILIZERS

In the northern district during the month of January 72 fer-
tilizer meetings were held, having an attendance of 2,000. The
subjects discussed were: Humus and its relation to fertilizer;
where fertilizer elements are derived and what each does; apply-
ing fertilizer to suit the crops; cover crops; economic value of
the use of high-grade fertilizer.
The records of county agents in the southern district show
that 765 farmers adopted improved practices in the use of fer-
tilizers and that 3,443 tons of fertilizer were used. This is an
increase which involves five times as many farmers and three
times as much tonnage as in 1926.







Annual Report, 1927


Recent preliminary results obtained at the Everglades Experi-
ment Station show striking results from treating muck soils
with copper sulphate. Several agents are carrying on demonstra-
tions with this material. About 40 demonstrations are under way
in two counties adjoining the Everglades, and others in counties
where similar soil types are found.
HORTICULTURE

In Central and South Florida citrus fruit is one of the main
sources of income, and county agents give special attention to
citrus culture. During 1927, 394 demonstrations were completed
involving 11,606 acres of groves. These were mostly in the con-
trol of insects and diseases, culture and fertilizer practices.
Forty-five demonstrations were carried on in pruning, involving
33,175 acres. Following the freeze of January many groves were
pruned, and there were many calls on the agents for help in this
connection.
The commercial growing of tree fruits in North and West
Florida is a new industry. Satsumas and sand pears are being
grown successfully. The acreage of grapes and blueberries has
been increased. The county agents are now spending much time
advising the proper methods of setting, cultivating, fertilizing,
and spraying these fruits. They have assisted farmers in pooling
orders for trees. They have held method demonstrations in pick-
ing and packing fruit. Jackson, Bay, Escambia, Santa Rosa,
Washington, and Okaloosa counties have the largest acreage in
these fruits.
TRUCK CROPS

The work with truck crops deals largely with the control of in-
sects and diseases, seed treatment, and improved seed. The agents
report 355 completed demonstrations involving 3,939 acres of
truck crops. In one county 40 growers were supplied with small
amounts of Marglobe tomato seed. This was possible through
the cooperation of the United States Department of Agriculture.
Truck growers require a great deal of personal service work
from the county agents. Truck crops are usually expensive to
produce and must be grown quickly in order to secure a quality
product. When something unusual is observed, the grower loses
no time in locating the trouble and the county agent is very
likely to get an urgent call.







24 Florida Cooperative Extension





















Fig. 6.-Truck crops are among the important crops of Florida, and county
agents devote considerable attention to problems confronting truck
growers.

New settlers from other states who raise truck usually depend
on the county agents for considerable assistance.

HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATIONS
Number method demonstrations given .......--------.......--...-.---.----......-----.. 2,492
Number result demonstrations ....................-......................-- 1,056
Result demonstrations completed during year..................................--- 1,265
Acres involved in demonstrations ---------............... --.. -------------..... 23,270
Number of boys' clubs ----------..... -----............--.. -... --..... ---. ----.. .................. 32
Membership .- --------------.. .................... ..... .. 429
Number planting improved stock or seed first time.......----................. 775
Number pruning first time .-.....------..................-- -------------......................... 245
Trees involved ..........--................---- ----...----- ...---------- ...-- .... 43,769
Acres involved .-----..... -----.--- ------....-----........ 37,036%
Number spraying or treating for diseases and insect pests............ 753
Acres treated -----..--- --..---------- --------------................... ... 4,806
Number farms adopting improved practices --------............................. 2,060

FORESTRY

Very little has been done by the agents in forestry work. This
year nine agents had forestry projects of a preliminary nature.
Their efforts were directed toward getting this matter before
some of the large owners of uncleared land, collecting data, and
urging more care to protect new growth on cut-over lands. How-
ever, the time is at hand when the general public is becoming
interested in forest conservation.
As an evidence of increased interest in forestry, the Legisla-







Annual Report, 1927


ture of 1927 created a Forestry Board. The United States For-
estry Service Experiment Station located at Starke, Florida, has
collected valuable data which are being used by the county
agents. Professor J. M. Scott of the Florida Experiment Station,
cooperating with the county agents in establishing permanent
pastures, has laid a foundation for valuable work in connection
with reforestation. The favorable outlook for beef cattle has in-
terested cattlemen in permanent pastures. All these factors may
well be correlated into a practical reforestation program.

RODENTS AND OTHER PREDATORY ANIMALS

Control of rodents was a minor project in the programs of
work of county agents. However, they conducted demonstrations
in the fumigation of corn weevils, the control of ground moles
and rodents in some southern counties where rats cause serious
damage to crops in the muck lands. The agent in Okeechobee
county carried out a demonstration with four farmers on 150
acres of land, using barium carbonate as recommended in Farm-
ers' Bulletin 896 with good results.
DEMONSTRATION IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS
Dem onstrations given ................................................................ 569
Acres in completed demonstrations ................ ................. ........... 2,892
Farmers adopting control measures ......................... ................... 1,102
Acres involved ................................................... ............ ...... 4,651%
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

In Central and South Florida 13 agents had projects in hog
production. This was a major project with only 25 percent of
the agents. Three agents vaccinated hogs. In other counties the
State Live Stock Sanitary Board takes care of this. County
agents inoculated 680 hogs in Okeechobee county, 13,860 hogs
in Levy County, 1,180 hogs in Citrus county, and arranged for
the treatment of an additional 1,000 by the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board.
In a number of counties veterinarians are not available and
county agents give assistance in caring for sick animals.
Marion County had the best pig club in Central and South
Florida. Twenty purebred pigs were placed with club boys who
gave them good care. Forty club pigs were shown at the Marion
County Fair by the 25 club members.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Swine is the main project in Levy County. Hog production is
one of the main enterprises on many farms and the county agent
is rendering valuable service to the farmers in growing and
marketing hogs. A tour for farmers was conducted to see first-
hand investigations in swine sanitation which Dr. E. M. Neigh-
bert of the United States Department of Agriculture is carrying
on at Moultrie, Georgia.
During 1927 the county agents of North and West Florida
conducted 454 swine feeding demonstrations and placed many
purebred pigs for breeding purposes on the farms. Some of the
feeding demonstrations were with purebred stock and others
with grades. Seven cars were grown out and marketed by boys
under the supervision of the county agents. Two hundred and
ninety-six purebreds and grades were exhibited by them at the
State Fair. The swine breeders exhibiting at the State Fair stated
that they met stronger competition from the pig club boys of
Florida than from similar clubs in any other state. In one county
where for several years special attention has been given by the
county agent to improving the hogs, he succeeded during 1927
in placing 35 purebred sires and 65 registered and high-grade
sows on 85 farms. Six agents organized cooperative hog sales
this year. County agents vaccinated 52,944 hogs for 1,778
farmers.
HOG DEMONSTRATIONS
Dem onstrations given ...................... .... ... ............ .................. 1,636
Animals in completed demonstrations ............................... .............. 8,803
Savings resulting from better practices ................. ................. .. $10,500
Farmers who secured purebred sires ..:........................ ........... ...... 138
Farmers assisted in obtaining purebred females ............... ..:..... 189
Farmers who fed better balanced rations..................... ........ ..... 166
Farmers culling breeding stock ........................ ........ ............ 30
Number of animals culled out ....................... ............... 250
Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests ............................ 146
Farmers who vaccinated for cholera ........... .... .......... ........... 1,824
Number farms adopting improved practices ................... ...- ......... 1,574
DAIRY HUSBANDRY

The dairymen in Florida faced an unusual market situation.
A surplus of whole milk resulted in a lowered price. The better
dairymen are meeting this situation by growing feed and pas-
tures, culling their herds and planning to use better bulls with
a hope of raising heifer calves that will develop into high-produc-
ing cows. The agents are rendering assistance in helping dairy-
men carry out this program.








Annual Report, 1927


During the year 70 demonstrations were completed, involving
1,099 animals. Twenty-four dairymen were influenced to cull
herds, numbering 692 animals, and out of these herds 105 low
producers were discarded. County agents assisted in the pur-
chase of 28 purebred bulls and 49 females. Fifty-seven farmers
were influenced to have their dairy herds tested for tuberculosis
and 170 farmers were aided in using improved sanitary practices.
The dairy industry in North and West Florida has continued
to grow. The farmers today are more interested in the econom-
ical production of milk and in growing feeds. This has led to more
permanent pastures being put in. Seventy-six pastures were
started this year. This is the most wholesome situation that has
existed in this industry for several years.

DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS
Number demonstrations given .......--................... .... ............. 555
Animals in completed demonstrations ............ ...... ....... ...... ....... 1,521
Saving resulting from better practices.................... .. ............ ... $4,402
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices......... ....... ......... 436
Farmers assisted in securing purebred sires .....-.......-..............- 53
Farms assisted in securing high grade or purebred females............... 103
Farmers who culled their herds ................................... 67
Animals in these herds ..............-.. -.... ............. 1,425
Animals discarded ......................... .......................... 425
Farmers' associations who tested cows for production................... 53
Cows tested for production ................--.................... 576
Farmers who fed better balanced rations................................... 135
Farmers who controlled insect pests ................ ........ ....... 84
Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis.............................. 164
Number of farms adopting more sanitary production methods......... 274
POULTRY

Poultry production has made progress in Florida during the
past year. County agents of the southern district have conducted
235 demonstrations involving 22,768 birds. One hundred forty-
one Junior demonstrators completed projects involving 2,713
birds. Agents have assisted in the purchase of 110 purebred
cocks and cockerels and 228 pullets and hens. They have con-
ducted 228 culling demonstrations, dealing with 24,462 birds,
from which 5,565 were taken ous as culls. The agents have as-
sisted in forming seven poultry organizations with 159 mem-
bers. One hundred nineteen poultrymen have been influenced to
feed a better balanced ration and 203 poultrymen have been in-
fluenced to adopt improved practices.








Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrations given ...................... ................. 1,600
Birds in these demonstrations ................... ............ ................ 67,637
Saving resulting from better practices....................... ...................... $23,662
Number of farms assisted in securing purebred breeding stock........ 599
Poultrymen who culled their flocks ............. .............................. 558
Number of birds in these flocks............... ..................... 74,351
Number of birds discarded ..........-.................... ............. 18,983
Number of breed associations formed .....................-.............. 8
Membership ...................... ........ .... ....... ............... 194

The county agents of North and West Florida conducted 579
demonstrations during the year involving 41,396 birds. They
have assisted 191 farmers to secure purebred sires and 121 to
secure purebred hens. They persuaded 28 farmers to feed a bet-
ter balanced ration to their poultry and assisted 406 to control
insects for the first time. They conducted 303 culling demon-
strations. The flocks culled were composed of 47,722 birds and
12,189 of these were thrown out as culls. Other demonstrations
were conducted dealing with grading, packing and marketing of
poultry products. In addition to express shipments there were
five solid carloads of live poultry moved from this territory dur-
ing the year through the efforts of the county agents. Never
before were carloads of live poultry shipped from this area.

RURAL ENGINEERING

County agents assisted 80 farmers in installing irrigation sys-
tems on 2,909 acres of land. They helped 160 farmers in better-
ing the drainage on 7,056 acres, and installed 34 water supply
systems.
Plans were furnished for 284 farmers to construct barns, poul-
try houses and milk houses.
Although most of the land in Florida is level, the county
agents of Madison, Santa Rosa, Escambia, Hamilton, Leon, and
Okaloosa counties conducted 79 terracing demonstrations on as
many farms. These demonstrations involved 2,525 acres.

RURAL ENGINEERING
(Things Done with Agents' Assistance and Advice)
Acres Number
Demonstrations given .............. ............ ... 419
Drainage systems installed ........-............. ........ ... ...- 8,7641A 181
Irrigation systems installed ........--...- ........ .................. 3,014 90
Terraces or soil dams constructed ............... ........ 2,525 79
Water systems installed 53
Water systems installed ................. ....................... .. 5
Heating systems installed ............................... ....-.... 5
Lighting systems installed --.................... ...- 14








Annual Report, 1927


Farms on which buildings other than dwellings were
constructed or remodeled ........ ............................... 269
Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled...... 538
Number sewage-disposal systems installed .................. 30
Farmers who cleared land ........ .... ........ ................... 250
A cres cleared ....................... ......... ............................ 5,984
Number of farms adopting above practices for first
time ................. .......................... 597

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

In Central and South Florida most of the cooperative buying
and selling is carried on by well organized associations which
have been in existence for a number of years. The county agents
work in close contact with these associations.
Due to the fact that truck crops were planted in some sections
where truck is not usually grown, there was need for local as-
sociations to handle the crop. A need was felt in some localities
for poultry organizations to help with the marketing of poultry
and eggs. County agents assisted in forming 13 truck and poul-
try organizations with a total membership of 560.

COOPERATIVE PURCHASES

In North and West Florida the county agents have assisted
farmers to perfect organizations and assisted them in purchas-
ing fertilizers, nursery stock, feeds, seeds, truck crates, syrup
cans and barrels, hogs, and cows. They have thus saved these
farmers thousands of dollars. This contact gave these agents
an opportunity to teach the farmers to use higher grade ferti-
lizers and use them more intelligently.

COOPERATIVE SALES

By their carlot sales of produce and livestock, the county
agents have brought thousands of dollars into the territory, but
their greatest service rendered has been in demonstrating to
farmers that there is a market for their produce when properly
packed and marketed. The lessons taught through these activi-
ties are having decided influence in placing the farmer on a
sounder business basis.

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Number method demonstrations given ............ .............. ... ...... 1.70
Farm account books distributed ..................................... ... 229
Farmers who kept records .............. ....................... .. ...... .......... 96
Farmers assisted in keeping accounts ......... ... ..........-.. .......-.. ...... ....... 65
Farmers who changed methods as result of keeping accounts.......... 51








Florida Cooperative Extension


Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming sys-
tems according to recommendations ........ .......--.............-
Farmers advised relative to leases .............................- ..........
Number of junior farm account clubs ......................... .........
Farmers assisted in keeping cost of production records....-...............
Number of farms adopting improved farm management practices..

SUPPLIES PURCHASED AND PRODUCTS SOLD


Fertilizer .........................
Seeds and Plants ...........
Fertilizer, Seeds, Spra
Crates, etc. ..............
Crates ....................
Poultry and Poultry Pro
Baby Chicks .....................
Hogs and Cattle ............
Feeds .................................
Watermelons .....................
Melons and Potatoes .....
Vegetables, Fruit, Seeds
Syrup .... .......................
Cans and Barrels ..........
Insecticides .......................
Cotton ..............------
Cotton and Eggs ..........
Fruit and Nut Trees .
Nursery' Stock .........
Miscellaneous ..................

T otal ..........................


Supplies Purchased Products Sold
Value Saving Value Profit

......... $102,143.05 $15,672.50 .....
......... 17,080.79 2,957.41 $ 10,000.00..............
ys,
......... 30,590.00 1,600.00 3,500.00 300.00
...... 13,419.75 2,450.07 100,286.15 21,080.60
ducts 18,010.00 1,550.00 114,497.25 11,460.25
........ 75.00 ........... ............ ................
......... 327.00 72.00 84,244.87 9,108.00
......... 102,629.60 17,356.00 .................. ...........
......... .... ........ .................... 114,000.00 4,200.00
.............. ............................. 4,000.00 800.00
,etc. 128,040.00 30,100.00 210,152.00 30,940.00
.............. ..... 28,330.00 150.00
......... 2,000.00 600.00 ....................
......... 246.45 65.98 .....................
-.--I----- -- ................. 1,637.40 85.00
......... 1,500.00 250.00 5,000.00 700.00
.......1 1,037.50 165.00 ................ -......
..... 142.00 30.00 ................... ...............
.......I. 56,662.20) 10,983.30 176,092.001 30,162.20

......... $473,903.341$83,852.26 $851,739.67 $108,986.05


COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES

Twenty-four counties held county fairs. In all fair work the
county and home demonstration agents have a very important
part. Thirty counties had exhibits at the South Florida Fair
and State Fair.
District agents during the year ending December 1 made 248
visits to county agents, each visit of one or more days. Ten visits
were made to counties without agents.







Annual Report, 1927


BOYS' CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, Boys' Club Agent
Club Enrollment Week, which was held in October, 1926, gave
a large increase in enrollment. Many boys enrolled at that time
who found later that they could not carry on the work because
of the lack of land on which to grow a crop or to raise an animal.
The excessive dry weather during the spring caused many to
wait until it was too late to plant their acres. With all the un-
favorable circumstances, an increase of 488 was secured in those
who actually started the club project.
The total enrollment for the year was 2,877. Following is a
list of the various clubs and the number of boys enrolled in each:
corn, 323; pig, 471; cotton, 54; citrus, 81; barrow, 173; poultry,
879; potato, 209; calf, 120; truck, 385; miscellaneous, 182.
CORN CLUB

There were 323 club acres planted to corn in 1927 as against 232
in 1926. Fifty-four percent of the crop acres in Florida are plant-
ed to corn, while but slightly over 11 percent of the club projects
were in this crop. The reason, doubtless, lies in the fact that the
member of the corn club stands the least chance of getting the
profit from his work. Over 90 percent of the boys reporting
stated that the corn raised by the boy went to feed the stock
on the farm. In other clubs, the boy is likely to be allowed to
keep what he makes.
The Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau offered prizes
in a contest which should help materially in increasing the num-
ber enrolled in this club. This Bureau offered a $150 scholarship
to the College of Agriculture as first prize and a $100 scholar-
ship as second prize in a corn growing contest. The only condi-
tion was that nitrate of soda be used as a side-dressing. The of-
fer was not made early enough in the year to increase the num-
ber in 1927, but, if continued, should increase it for 1928. The
method of awarding these scholarships is a big step in advance
of usual methods. Every boy enrolled in the contest who raises
over 40 bushels of corn on his contest acre, is eligible to compete
for the scholarship by taking an examination at the 1928 Short
Course. This method gives the boy with less productive soil an
equal opportunity with the boy more favorably situated as to
soil fertility.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Santa Rosa was the best example of good work in the Corn
Club. In this county 18 boys reported an average yield of 45.2
bushels per acre. The lowest was 23.2 and the highest was 73.8.
Had every acre in Santa Rosa County produced a like average,
the profit to the farmers would have been more than doubled.

COTTON CLUB

The agitation for a decreased acreage and the low prices ob-
tained during the latter part of 1926 caused a decrease in enroll-
ment in the cotton club from 191 to 54. The boys planting cot-
ton made a fair profit as shown by the following table.
COTTON RESULT TABLE

To tal Nume A Yield Aver'ge Av
Counties er (Seed Per Acre Cost per Total Profit
Counties Reports Cotton) (Seed Acre Profit (Per
Cotton) Acre)

Escambia ....... 8 8530 lbs. 1066 Ibs. $33.88 $475.95 $59.49
Santa Rosa .... 5 6312 Ibs. 1262 lbs. 41.85 314.45 62.89
Total ......... 13 14842 Ibs. 1141 lbs. $36.94 $790.40 $60.80

LIVESTOCK CLUBS

The eradication of the tick and the relatively high prices for
livestock are causing the farmer in the general farming sec-
tions to plan on having a few hogs and cattle to sell in addition
to,his corn, cotton, and tobacco. This interest is reflected in the
number of boys enrolled in the livestock projects.
CALF CLUB

Due to the tick eradication work being carried on at this time,
it has not seemed advisable to attempt to increase the number
of calf club members. The enforced dipping of the calves every
two weeks is too big an obstacle to ask a boy to overcome in
raising a single calf. When the territory is clean, an effort will
be made to foster a calf club in every county where conditions
seem to warrant the introduction of some higher priced animals.
Madison county continued with the 93 purebred Jerseys intro-
duced in 1926. These calves made a fairly satisfactory growth.
Some are milking at this time and the rest will freshen during
the coming spring and summer. Twenty-five calves were exhib-







Annual Report, 1927


ited at the County Fair and 11 were taken to the State Fair.
This was the first time that dairy calves had been exhibied at
the State Fair by club members.

PIG CLUB-BREEDING
The interest in swine production noted last year continues.
The enrollment in the Breeding Pig Club increased from 287 in
1926 to 471 in 1927.
The county agents in all general farming counties report a
large number of purebred pigs placed with farmers as well as
club boys. The quality of the pigs raised by the club members
was such that very few animals were purchased outside of the
state. The club boys, particularly of Madison County, were able
to supply the demand. The exhibit of club pigs at the county
fairs was always a large part of the livestock exhibit.
Nassau County carried on work in this project for the first
time. A. S. Lawton, County Agent, placed 32 purebred pigs with
his club members. Mr. Lawton gave his club boys definite instruc-
tions and furnished them with good type pigs. Richard Turleson
showed the Junior Champion Duroc Boar in the open ring at
the Florida State Fair.

PIG CLUB-FATTENING
The fat barrow project is showing the greatest improvement
of any in club work. The improved quality of the breeding pigs
is reflected in the quality of the barrows raised by the boys.
While the boy is allowed to start pig club work with a grade
barrow, the majority use purebreds. The quality and finish of
the barrows show improvement in direct ratio to improvement
in type of pigs selected. The quality of pigs raised by boys in
breeding club in 1926 was such that very few barrows were
shown which were not from club sows.
The object of swine raising is the production of pork. To en-
courage the club boys to take up the fattening project along
with the breeding, a trip to the International Livestock Show
was secured as a prize for the boy who showed the best barrow
raised from his own pig club sow.
Jackson County club boys began pig club work this year and
most of them fed out a barrow. A car of barrows fed out by the







Florida Cooperative Extension


pig club members was shipped in September. This demonstra-
tion proved that it is possible to produce a number one fat hog
in time to reach market before the annual fall drop in price.

POULTRY CLUB

The poultry club continues to grow in numbers. The results
have not been fully satisfactory. The requirements have been
too low, and little profit is made. Under a new set of rules
adopted, the number of chicks required to begin the year's work
has been increased. This should give the member an opportunity
to finish the year with enough pullets to make the work of some
profit.
ANNUAL SHORT COURSE

His first trip to the State University is a milestone in the ex-
periences of a country boy. The inspirational value of this new
contact is potent. Many boys are now in college primarily be-
cause they attended a Boys' Short Course and were inspired with
a determination to come back as regular students.
The 1927 Short Course was the largest and the best we have
held in Florida. One hundred sixty-five boys attended. A new
course in farm accounts was added. In addition to the usual
courses of instruction, two periods of work in leadership were
added. The older boys were given training so that they will be
able to act as local leaders in their communities and assist their
county agent in carrying out the club program. The leadership
course included training in recreation and organization.

COUNTY 4-H CLUB RALLIES

Club work was brought forcibly to the attention of the public
in seven counties by means of rallies. The club boys and girls of
Escambia, Washington, Jackson, Nassau, Marion, Pasco, and
Columbia Counties paraded the streets of the county seat. Club
banners and caps, together with plenty of 4-H pep, made the
parades the centers of interest. In Washington County many
local clubs were 100 percent in attendance. Jackson County cele-
brated the first year of club work with a big parade. The rally
offers a means of selling club work to the public that excels any
other methods tried.







Annual Report, 1927


COUNTY CLUB CAMPS

The 4-H camp is an event in the summer's work for a country
boy. He looks forward to it and remembers it until time for the
next one. Fifteen counties held camps and several had one-day
picnics. Washington County, with an attendance of 135, held the
largest camp. The number of boys attending camps has made it
troublesome to find locations suitable for handling so many at
one time. Leland Hiatt was employed for two months to assist
with camps.
SPECIAL FEATURES

Perhaps the outstanding 1927 accomplishment of Boys' Club
work in Florida was the pig club exhibit at the Florida State
Fair. The size and quality was worthy of the so-called "hog
belt." Three hundred pigs fed out by Florida boys and girls filled
one of the largest barns at the Fair and an additional section
had to be set aside to accommodate the overflow.
Five counties contested for the "best 10 breeding pigs." Leon,
Madison, and Jefferson had shown before, while Nassau and
Sansa Rosa were there for the first time. When the 50 selected
pigs were driven into the ring, the out-of-state farmers did not
want to believe their eyes. The pigs showed both size and qual-
ity. In the under year classes of the breeds in which the club
pigs competed, over half the open ring money went to the club
boys. Florida pig club boys can meet the breeder on his own
ground and win junior championships. In the championship for
"10 breeding pigs", Leon County succeeded in breaking the long
string of victories by Madison County.
The barrow show was a feature. Club barrows won every
championship in the open ring. Fred Reed of Jefferson County
won grand champion in both open ring and club contest on a
junior Duroc barrow. The most pleasing thing about the
barrow exhibit was the fact that while 90 percent of the animals
shown were Florida bred, over 50 percent were shown by club
boys as the offspring of their last year's club gilts. Francis Allen
of Madison County won first prize in this class, and Ralph Arant
of Santa Rosa County won second prize.

CLUB WORK AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COLLEGE ENROLLMENT

The future of agriculture depends upon an increased supply
of trained scientific workers and of trained extension agents to







Florida Cooperative Extension


supplement well educated farm operators. A college education
is becoming more of a necessity each decade. Club work should
be the most important feeder for the Agricultural College. The
Florida Club Department is trying to do its part. In 1927, 165
boys were brought to the University for a week. These boys
went home with an increased desire to secure a college education.
Thanks to the Florida State Bankers' Association, three club
boys were awarded $100 scholarships to the College of Agricul-
ture. The winners for 1927 were Adolph Grundin of Santa Rosa
County, Raymond Crabtree of Duval County, and Peter Novak
of Hardee County.
Frank E. Dennis, Inc., of Jacksonville, offers a $250 scholar-
ship to the boy showing the grand champion breeding pig in the
club exhibit at the Florida State Fair. Raymond Crabtree of
Duval County showed the champion in 1927.
The Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau offered a
$150 and a $100 scholarship as prizes in a corn growing contest.
These prizes will be awarded at the 1928 Short Course.
Six club scholarships a year assure the College of Agriculture
of six future students. Four winners of club scholarships in the
past entered college this year. One scholarship boy who received
his master's degree last June is now employed as a scientific
worker in the Experiment Station. Two old Florida club boys are
now employed as county agents, and two club boys from other
states are on the county agent force.
WEST FLORIDA CLUB CAMP
The increased interest in 4-H camps and the increasing num-
ber of boys attending has brought us to the point where suit-
able locations and equipment cannot be found. A place suitable
for a camp of 25 is entirely inadequate when a camp of 75 is at-
tempted. Swimming is a feature of the club camp. A place safe
for 135 boys and girls to swim is not available in many localities.
Suitable facilities for housing and feeding that many cannot be
had in many counties.
The most feasible way out of the difficulty appears to be the
consolidation of camp activities in several counties, and the
building 'of a suitable camp with necessary equipment. This
idea is being worked out for the 10 Florida counties west of the
Apalachicola River. A highly satisfactory location is available in
the National Forest. Fifteen acres of level land bordering on








Annual Report, 1927


Choctawhatchee Bay have been leased from the Forestry Ser-
vice. The bathing beach is almost without fault. While it will
take some years to finally complete the camp as planned, when
it is finished Florida will have a model 4-H camp. Figure 7 gives
some idea of how the proposed camp will look when completed.






.- .....








Fig. 7.-An idea of how the proposed permanent 4-H club camp for
West Florida will look when completed.

The boys and girls wished an opportunity to help in securing
the camp for West Florida. Each member agreed to donate one
fat hen to be sold and the proceeds used toward equipping the
club camp. The last of June the hens were gathered at the county
seats and when all the hens from the counties interested were
gotten together, a car was loaded. "A car of fat hens" for a 4-H
project is surely an object lesson in worthwhile cooperation.

DAIRY JUDGING TEAM
For the first time Florida was represented at the National
Dairy Show by a club judging team. Albert Glass of Madison
County, Raymond Crabtree of Duval County, and John Williams
of Marion County, made up the team. Coached by Hamlin L.
Brown, Extension Dairyman, the team stood 15th out of 28
teams. The increased interest in dairying will make it easier to
have Florida represented in future contests.

EDUCATIONAL TRIPS
Armour & Company, the Seaboard Air Line Railway, and the
Florida State Fair, offer trips to the Intertiational Live Stock







38 Florida Cooperative Extension

Show and Club Congress. Fred Reed of Jefferson County won the
Armour & Company trip; Francis Allen and Ralph Arant won
the State Fair trips; and Byron McAllister of Palm Beach
County won the Seaboard trip. These boys accompanied by
Marable Love of Leon County and H. G. Clayton, District Agent,
made the trip to Chicago. These trips are valuable in creating
interest in club work, and we hope to be able to continue sending
boys to the Club Congress.
The most inspiring 4-H meeting ever held in the United States
was the First National 4-H Club Camp in the City of Washing-
ton last June. Two outstanding club boys and two outstanding
club girls from each of 41 states were gathered together in a
camp. The camp was located on the grounds of the United States
Department of Agriculture and almost in the shadow of the
Washington monument. The inspiration for citizenship and bet-
ter club work which radiated out from this camp will bear fruit
in years to come.







Annual Report, 1927


DAIRYING
Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
ECONOMIC CHANGES AFFECTING WORK

During 1925 many dairymen of the state entered the real
estate business, and with a large influx of tourists and other
people, there was a greater demand for whole milk. During 1926-
1927 many real estate dealers pushed the sale of farms, empha-
sizing the unusual opportunities in the dairy business. A good
many new dairymen came in and many former dairymen went
back to producing milk. On top of this, several large milk-dis-
tributing companies located in the larger consuming centers as
Tampa, St. Petersburg, Miami, Orlando, Jacksonville, and other
cities. They imported large quantities of milk.


Fig. 8.-Many Florida dairy farms produce and harvest an abundant supply
of silage, which provides cheap roughage when needed.






Florida Cooperative Extension


These conditions gave a large amount of surplus milk, espe-
cially noticeable after the close of the tourist season in April.
Unfortunately, all the distributing plants had been equipped for
handling fluid milk for domestic consumption-there were no
plants to convert the surplus milk into butter and other by-prod-
ucts. Then, too, the dairymen had drifted into expensive feeding
practices by buying most of their feed at retail prices instead of
growing much of their roughages as formerly, and were not in
a position to produce milk on a butter-fat market basis.
The economic conditions have made it necessary to stress feed
production above all else. In order to meet out-of-state compe-
tition of inferior quality of milk, it has been necessary to stress
better methods of handling milk to improve quality.
Attention was also given to dairy organizations in an effort to
look after the interests of dairying in consuming centers and
looking forward to legislation to protect the dairy interests of
the state against unfair competition of low grade milk which is
shipped into the state. Production problems have also received
their share of attention through these county dairy organizations.

HERD IMPROVEMENT
The importation of purebred sires, systematic culling, and
individual farm production records have helped to insure the
improvement of the dairy herds.
ULTIMATE STATE GOALS
The one definite aim is to be able to so lower the cost of
production that Florida dairymen can supply all the milk and
milk products for state consumption.
Production costs can be reduced: first, by better feeding prac-
tices; second, by having all pasture and forage crops home-
grown with an abundance for each animal; third, by having
dairy herd improvement associations in dairy centers; fourth,
by having individual herd records to serve as guides for proper
feeding practices and as a basis for constructive breeding and
culling; and by improving the quality of milk to cause a steady
increase in the consumption of dairy products.

PASTURE DEMONSTRATIONS
There were 95 pasture demonstrations in 17 counties with
567 acres. Madison County had 45 demonstrations of 200 acres.







Annual Report, 1927


The success of pasture demonstrations in Madison County was
made possible through the introduction of 101 registered Jer-
seys and 204 grade Jerseys. Also, the county agent made exten-
sive use of his calf club boys. They ordered the seed cooperative-
ly, which gave them much better prices and helped to create
greater interest among farmers.
GRAZING CROPS

Cowpeas are being extensively used as a summer grazing
crop and winter oats and rye are being extensively seeded for
fall grazing. A few dairymen are growing velvet beans for win-
ter feeding.
During the year 21 silos, with a capacity of 2,560 tons, were
built. The heavy rainfall during the summer months makes hay-
making a difficult task. The silo is much more economical. One
farmer claimed he put 200 tons of corn silage in his silos for
$3.60 a ton, counting all costs.
Pastures, green forage, grazing crops, and silage are real
necessities in any program that will lower the cost of produc-
ing milk in Florida.
BETTER BALANCED RATIONS

One hundred forty-eight farmers with 2,345 cows have prac-
ticed better feeding methods. In most sections of the county pro-
tein is the high-priced element in commercial dairy feeds, but
in Florida the carbohydrates cost about as much as the pro-
teins. This condition, together with the small amount of rough-
age the Florida dairyman feeds with his grain ration, gives a
very high protein content in the dairy ration. Many dairymen
are feeding rations with a nutritive ratio as narrow as 1:21/
when it should be 1:5. In buying feeds too many dairymen look
at the protein content only. If the feed has 20-24 percent pro-
tein, they overlook the carbohydrate content and forget that
such feed was intended to be fed with a roughage containing a
large amount of carbohydrates.

MARKETING
There have been 242 demonstrations in better methods of
marketing milk. The dairymen's associations in five counties-
Palm Beach, Orange, Polk, Manatee, and Duval have cooperated






Florida Cooperative Extension


with the Health Boards in formulating ordinances governing the
sale of milk.
Better methods of sterilizing dairy utensils, the building and
repairing of milk houses and barns, proper methods of cooling
the milk, and fly-eradication around dairy barns and milk
houses by the use of a mixture of cane syrup, skimmed-milk, and
arsenical cattle dip, are demonstrations that have gotten the
best results.
DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS
Seventy-two dairymen kept individual records of their dairy
herds. Sixty-seven of these practiced culling as a result of these
tests and culled 419 cows from 1,389 cows under test.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES

There have been 52 pure bred sires brought into herds of the
state. Dairymen have been encouraged to purchase registered
bulls from breeders in the state as far as possible.
One cooperative bull association in Marion County was organ-
ized under the rules of the Dairy Division of the United States
Department of Agriculture. This Association is using principally
registered Jerseys and prefers the Majestry strain, which it
hopes to extend throughout the county.
As an indication of the benefits coming from this work, 28
dairymen of the North Marion Dairymen's Association made up
a cooperative purchase list of 42 registered Jersey heifer calves
to put in their herds. A number of these calves will be entered in
the county calf club, but this work was done independently of
the calf club work.
CALF CLUB
There were 102 calf club members with 61 members complet-
ing their work. Madison County put on the first display of calves
ever put on by the calf club members at the State Fair. There
were 11 registered Jerseys on exhibit.
A judging team was taken to the National Dairy Show. This
was the first time Florida has been represented at the National
Dairy Show. The team placed 15th in a class of 28 states. The
great value coming from the trip was the drive through the
dairy section of the South en route.






Annual Report, 1927


DAIRY TOURS

One of the most profitable dairy tours was one planned by
county agents of Highlands and Polk counties into Pasco and
Hernando counties to study pasture and forage conditions and
to get information about home-grown feeds. There were 35 in
the motorcade. W. T. Nettles, County Agent in Pasco, was host
to the party in that county.
Frank Holland, Polk County Agent, made practical use of the
information gathered from this trip. He put on six feed growing
demonstrations in his county. They later organized a dairymen's
association. In fact, they did more real practical dairy demon-
stration work in Polk County than has been done in that county
in seven years.
FAIR EXHIBITS

There has been a great improvement in the quality of dairy
products shown at the fairs, both county and state. The method
of displaying in refrigerators and ice boxes has improved each
year.
There was a good calf club exhibit again at the Madison County
fair. Dairy calf club work is in a good condition for steady
growth. Much credit is due B. E. Lawton of Madison County in
helping to establish such good records for Calf Club work.
DAIRY CLUBS OR DAIRYMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS

There are dairy organizations in Leon, Duval, North Marion,
South Marion, Pasco, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Manatee, Polk, Or-
ange, Highlands, Flagler, Madison, Palm Beach, and Dade coun-
ties. There is also a State Dairymen's Association. These dairy
organizations in Marion, Orange, Highlands, and Pasco counties
are doing effective work in the cooperative purchase of dairy
feeds.
The Duval County Dairymen's Association purchases milk bot-
tles cooperatively at a great saving to the producers. The Duval,
Orange, and Manatee Associations have taken active part in the
drafting of milk ordinances governing the sale of milk with a
view to standardizing them so that all towns in the same county
will have uniform regulations.





Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY
E. F. DeBusk, Pathologist-Entomologist
The plan of work for citrus disease and insect control for the
year 1927 embodied the following sub-projects: melanose and
stem-end rot control, citrus scab control, blue mold decay control,
tree trunk and root disease treatment, rust mite control, citrus
aphis control, whitefly control, and special service work.
Each county agent in the citrus producing counties was sup-
plied with a copy of the plan of work at the beginning of the
year, with each sub-project written up in detail and approved.

MELANOSE AND STEM-END ROT CONTROL
The approved method of melanose and stem-end rot control is
spraying with home-made 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1 per-
cent oil emulsion when the fruit is about one-fourth inch in
diameter, and pruning out the dead wood. The number of spray-
ing demonstrations lined up in the spring was greatly reduced,
because of the long-drawn-out blooming period and consequent
irregular setting and size of the fruit and light crop in the groves
to be sprayed. Under such conditions spraying is not likely to
prove profitable. Fortunately, from the standpoint of melanose
control, this abnormal blooming condition and lack of spraying
was accompanied and followed by a dry spring. The result is a
light infection of melanose. In parts of the state where condi-
tions were most favorable spraying demonstrations were con-
ducted in the usual manner with highly profitable results.
Much educational work must still be done with both growers
and shippers. During the year, ,31 meetings with growers and
packers were held, in which the economic importance of melan-
ose and stem-end rot was stressed and practical methods of con-
trol discussed. A valuable illustrated lecture on this subject by
Dr. H. R. Fulton, United States Department of Agriculture, was
given in connection with a similar lecture by Mr. F. C. Meier on
vegetable diseases in transit, at seven different places through-
out Central and South Florida. The meetings were well attended
by growers, packers and transportation men. The press has been
used extensively in advertising meetings and in keeping subject
matter before growers.
Because of the abundance of dead wood in groves, as the re-
sult of the freezes of January and February, an unusual devel-






Annual Report, 1927


opment of melanose and stem-end rot in the current crop was
expected. Drought conditions in the spring largely prevented
the development of melanose but the fruit showed considerable
stem-end rot during the early part of the shipping season, in
certain sections of the State, at least. Pruning demonstrations
have shown very satisfactory and profitable results in the con-
trol of stem-end rot, even under the unfavorable conditions of
this year. Pruning seems to be the most practicable and most
effective method of controlling the Diplodia type of stem-end
rot, and consequently is becoming more generally practiced as
the result of demonstrations and other means of education.
CITRUS SCAB CONTROL

This has not been a bad scab year on the regular spring set-
ting of fruit, owing to the unusually dry spring. The June bloom,
however, was very heavy, and in certain sections of the state
the scab infection was extremely bad on this summer setting of
fruit. Spraying for scab control on June bloom grapefruit is
rarely recommended, but this year in one spraying demonstra-
tion the scab infection was 30 percent on the unsprayed plot,
while the sprayed plot showed only 10 percent scabby fruit. This
spraying was highly profitable, and would indicate that scab con-
trol might be expected to produce profitable returns on a heavy
June bloom. In this summer spraying 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture
plus 1 percent oil emulsion was used.
In the spring spraying for scab control, both the 3-3-50 Bor-
deaux plus 1 percent oil emulsion and liquid lime-sulphur are
used. The Bordeaux is generally applied where it is desired to
control melanose and stem-end rot, the one spraying serving the
dual purpose on grapefruit. In cases where scab infection is
heavy, demonstrations show that two applications of Bordeaux-
oil may be required to reduce the scab to a "clean-up"; one just
before the spring flush of growth and a second as soon as the
petals are off.
Where the scab infection is not likely to be very heavy and
where melanose is not a factor, it has been demonstrated that
liquid lime-sulphur often proves to be more economical than Bor-
deaux-oil, especially where red .spider and rust mite control are
desired. Here again lime-sulphur is used as a dual spray, and
consequently the cost of pest control is materially reduced. When
applied before the flush of growth, lime-sulphur is being used in







Florida Cooperative Extension


concentrations of 1-30, 1-25, 1-20 and even as strong as 1-15 in a
few cases.
Scab control is no longer a difficult problem in grapefruit pro-
duction. As a rule, growers have it under satisfactory commer-
cial control. It does, however, threaten to become a problem of
commercial importance in Satsuma production in North and
West Florida. Attention will be directed to that field as the crop
increases.
CONTROL OF BLUE MOLD DECAY

To set forth facts determining the work undertaken in
control of blue mold, Table I is submitted. It is generally known
among growers and packers that blue mold decay is due to a fun-
gous organism penicilliumm) which can enter the fruit and cause
decay only through cuts and abrasions in the rind. About 75 per-
cent of the picking defects referred to in Table I normally result
in decay. A "long stem," on an average, punctures one or more
other fruits and is therefore taken as a picking defect.
Table I is a record of 25 pickers taken at random over three
counties and from six groves. They were receiving 10 cents per
box and picking about the same number of boxes each per day.
In arriving at the "final cost of picking," the percentage of
picking defects, the percentage of decay due to such defects,
and the discount on the sale price of the fruit because of the
decay, were all taken as factors.
In an effort to reduce the losses resulting from poor picking,
demonstrations in the proper use of picking equipment have
been given in every commercial citrus producing county in the
state. Seventeen meetings for packinghouse managers, picking
foremen, pickers and growers have been held in different parts
of the citrus belt, in which the reduction of blue mold decay by
better picking and more careful handling of the fruit was the
chief subject discussed. Splendid cooperation has been received
from growers, packinghouse managers and the heads of market-
ing organizations. A shipper in one of the leading citrus pro-
ducing counties reported to the County Commissioner that he be-
lieved his company had profited to the amount of $15,000 on this
year's crop alone from the work done on this project in his terri-
tory. A county agent reports: "Nine out of 12 picking crews
have adopted better clippers and have eliminated 75 percent of
the bad picking. This item alone would pay the County Agent's
salary several times over."







Annual Report, 1927


TABLE I.-RECORDS OF 25 PICKERS.


Number Picking De

Picker Long Clipper
No. Stems Cuts Pulled

1 76 1 0

2 28 0 1

3 80 14 4

4 54 0 0

5 80 14 4

6 91 0 1

7 23 2 1

8 23 0 0

9 19 1 0

10 25 0 1

11 15 0 2

12 17 2 0

13 60 6 1

14 13 1 3

15 8 0 1

16 13 3 0

17 9 1 4

18 34 1 0

19 16 2 0

20 29 1 0

21 I 31 0 8

22 30 0 1

23 16 11 2

24 13 10 0

25 66 21 1


A average .-.............................. .........


fects per Box

I Percent
Bruised Defective


0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0








1
0
1

0
0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0
0

0

0


14.5

5.0

10.8

14.2

9.8

15.3

23.5

32.8

16.4

21.6

10.6

4.0

34.0
8.5

5.3

6.8

6.1

19.3

10.0

15.5

15.2

14.1

16.1

10.5


48.8

15.5


Final Cost of
Picking When
Pickers Were
Receiving 10
Cents Per Box


$ .69

.11

.48

.63

.43

.70

1.16

1.55

.75

1.05

.48

.10

1.61

.38

.12

.29

.25

.89

.43

.70
.70

.63

.74

.48

2.30

$ .70







Florida Cooperative Extension


TREATMENT OF TRUNK AND ROOT DISEASES
An unusual development of foot-rot, gummosis and psorosis in
certain sections has apparently resulted from the shock of the
freezes of last winter. In response to the demand for assistance
in treating these diseases, especially psorosis, 27 demonstrations
are under way which will run through three or four years. This
will be taken up more in detail in next year's report.
RUST MITE CONTROL

Owing to the deficiency of rainfall throughout the year and
the absence of the usual summer rainy season, rust mite control
has been rendered very difficult, from the grower's standpoint,
this year. In other words, the usual rust mite control by the rust
mite fungus during the months of July and August could not be
depended upon in many localities this year because of the very
light rainfall during those months. Many of the growers did not
find this out until it was too late to prevent russeting and conse-
quently have a larger percentage of russets than usual. In most
of the rust mite control demonstrations the rainfall factor was
taken into consideration and spraying or dusting done accord-
ingly. Consequently, some very striking demonstrations were ob-
tained during the year. One demonstrator reports: "I sold my
fruit for $2.40 per box on the tree, which was 40 cents per box
more than any of my neighbors could get, and it was all on ac-
count of the thoroughness of rust mite control. They all tell me
I have the brightest fruit in the community." The total cost of
controlling the rust mite and making the fruit bright was less
than 3 cents per box. This leaves a very attractive profit.
CITRUS APHID CONTROL

In citrus aphid control we have found that an ounce of pre-
vention is worth many, many pounds of cure. Beginning last
winter, an effort was made to bring about a more general prac-
tice of the following procedure in citrus aphid control or preven-
tion:
1. Go through the young groves at intervals during the win-
ter, up to the time of the general flush of new growth in the
spring, clip off and destroy, or dip, all new growth within reach.
Also destroy as far as practicable the cudweed and fireweed.
2. Spot dust with hand duster until the infestation becomes
more or less general, using 3 percent nicotine-lime dust.







Annual Report, 1927


3. Spray with 40 percent nicotine sulphate, 1 pint to 100
gallons of water, plus a spreader; or Derrisol, 1 pint to 100 gal-
lons of water; before leaves have become badly curled.
4. After leaves have become curled, fumigate under tents
with 3 percent nicotine-lime dust or calcium cyanide.
Every effort was made to protect the new growth and blos-
soms just as they made their appearance, as this was the critical
"aphid stage."
The freeze in February greatly assisted in exterminating the
aphids usually carried over to spring. This and other factors
resulted in a rather light infestation of the aphids generally over
the state during the year. Consequently, the damage done to the
citrus industry by this pest this year was very light.

SCALE AND WHITEFLY CONTROL
It is not an easy matter to show by demonstrations the value
of spraying for scale control. Scale infestations, as a rule, are
not general or uniform over an entire grove or in any given
locality. Entomogenous fungi often give commercial control of
the purple scale (the most common) on individual trees scat-
tered over a grove, on solid blocks of a grove, or even an entire
grove of several acres. This makes it very difficult to get a com-
parative check of sprayed trees against unsprayed in a demon-
stration. One will find in the same locality growers who spray
religiously once a year or twice a year for scale control, and at
the same time growers who either never spray for scale or
spray only every two or three years, with apparently the same
degree of success in scale control.
The explanation is found in the natural control factors when
careful investigation is made. It is this phase of scale control
that is claiming more attention from year to year. Considerable
time has been devoted to a study of individual grove conditions,
with special reference to natural control of scale, to determine
the minimum amount of spraying required for scale control under
the conditions. Groves are often sprayed when conditions do not
justify the expense. Growers are saved many thousands of dol-
lars on this phase of the scale control project. One grower says:
"Your visit and instructions on scale control saved me $500. It
is clear to me now that I had nothing to spray for."
Growers are constantly confronted with the problem of se-
curing greater efficiency in spraying. Rarely does a grower get






Florida Cooperative Extension


more than 70 cents in "spray value" for each dollar invested,
largely because of poor spraying. The first step in reducing the
cost of spraying is to increase the efficiency. Much progress has
been made along this line by the Extension organization.
The cottony cushion scale is almost universally controlled by
the parasite, Vedalia. More than a hundred colonies of this para-
site have been distributed during the year.
A rather heavy infestation of whitefly occurred during the
latter part of the summer, due in part to the abnormally dry
season and consequent lack of development of the parasitic fun-
gi. For this reason demonstrations with the use of the red
Aschersonia in the control of whitefly were productive of results
later in the season than usual. With this weather condition at
hand, spraying had to be resorted to in many instances where
the fungus could have been depended upon for control under nor-
mal rainfall conditions.
Natural control of whitefly is economical and will continue
to constitute an important part of our whitefly control project.
The greatest need along this line is a practicable method of
growing and distributing the brown fungus parasite.
MISCELLANEOUS WORK
Much time has been devoted to grove problems not included
in the regular sub-projects. A more general use of legume cover


Fig. 9.-This Crotalaria crop, which was grown in a young citrus grove,
produced 22 tons of green material to the acre.






Annual Report, 1927 51

crops has been generally recommended and especially stressed
in groves of the ridge section. One ridge county reports a 700 per-
cent acreage increase in legume cover crops over last year. Cro-
talaria led with more than five tons of dry matter per acre, equal
in nitrogen content to more than a ton of nitrate of soda.
Eleven growers have been assisted in laying out and install-
ing systems of grove irrigation. The surface type is used and is
being operated very effectively at a total cost of $2.50 per acre
for each irrigation. In one irrigated grove, the crop increase will
net the grower this year more than three times the total cost
of the entire irrigaion plant.
Growers have been assisted with their grove fertilizing prob-
lems through 31 field meetings and a large number of grove
visits.






Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY WORK
N. R. Mehrhof, Poultryman
INTRODUCTION

During the past year the number of commercial poultry farms
and farm flocks has increased. There has also been an improve-
ment in quality, which means a substantial development of Flor-
ida poultry production.
It has been necessary for poultry raisers to study economical
production more than ever. However, according to records, pro-
duction is below consumption which means there is a quantity
of eggs and poultry shipped in from other states to supply the
local trade.
Problems facing Florida poultrymen are: green feeds, sanita-
tion, and feeding for economical production.

METHODS OF CONDUCTING POULTRY EXTENSION WORK
Meetings.-Poultry meetings were held by county and home
demonstration agents where general poultry problems were dis-
cussed.
Poultry schools.-Schools continuing for one or two days were
held when arranged by county and home demonstration agents.
Demonstrations were conducted to illustrate the practice of
better management, culling, caponizing.
Boys' and Girls' Short Courses were held at the state colleges
with programs of lectures and demonstrations.
Circular poultry hints were distributed monthly to the poultry
raisers.
Monthly report of Home Egg-Laying Contest was sent to con-
testants and newspapers.
Articles were written for the Agricultural News Service and
farm papers.
An intensive poultry program was presented at Farmers'
Week. Twenty-three periods were devoted to various poultry
problems.
PROJECTS
The various phases of the Poultry Extension program are as
follows: (1) standardization of poultry flocks; (2) standardiza-
tion of poultry products; (3) organization (state, county, and






Annual Report, 1927


community poultry associations); (4) boys' and girls' poultry
clubs; (5) Home Egg-Laying Contest; (6) Extension poultry
schools; (7) poultry tours of inspection; (8) culling demonstra-
tions; (9) caponizing demonstrations; (10) National Egg-Lay-
ing Contest; (11) miscellaneous.

POULTRY DEVELOPMENT BY PROJECTS
STANDARDIZATION OF POULTRY FLOCKS
The mongrel flocks in Florida are disappearing. Poultry
breeders have cooperated with the Extension organization in
placing high-producing standardbred poultry on the farm, and
have assisted with the junior poultry program. The number of
good breeders has increased materially. The hatching capacity
has more than doubled; reports show over 800,000 egg-capacity
at this time, while last year it was 350,000.
Following is the Florida hatching capacity by counties, taking
into consideration only incubators of 1,000 or more egg-capacity:
Alachua 20,000; Bay 12,000; Brevard 50,000; Citrus 12,000;
Columbia 10,000; Duval 88,000; Hardee 10,000; Highlands 9,000;
Hillsboro 101,000; Lake 10,000; Leon 10,000; Madison 1,000;
Manatee 43,000; Marion 34,000; Martin 19,000; Nassau 85,000;
Orange 40,100; Osceola 8,500; Palm Beach 6,000; Pasco 50,000;
Pinellas 46,000; Sumter 16,000; Suwannee 14,000; St. Lucie
50,000; Volusia 33,500; Walton 24,000; Washington 12,000; total
814,100.
STANDADIZATION OF POULTRY PRODUCTS
With the increase of poultry products in the state, it has be-
come necessary for the producers to pay more attention to the
quality of the product marketed. Outside competition has made
it necessary for the poultry associations to grade and put more
uniform products on the market. Educational work stressing
quality products, as furnished by the United States Department
of Agriculture, was emphasized. Sixteen poultry associations
were grading and marketing eggs during the year. The associa-
tions which have marketed eggs for their members report that
a greater average price was received than prior to this arrange-
ment. In certain sections of Florida, particularly the East and
West coasts, markets have been available, so that it was not ad-
visable to stress marketing cooperatively.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ORGANIZATION

The various poultry associations in Florida, including the
American Poultry Association of Florida, the Florida Baby Chick
Association, and the numerous community and county associa-
tions have been of great assistance in the development of the
poultry industry. They have assisted materially in furthering
better practices of poultry management. These various organiza-
tions are so situated that the greatest percentage of poultry
raisers can make use of them. The educational work of these
associations is most important, although some are attempting to
develop a marketing organization. In 1925-1926 there were 27
poultry associations, while in 1926-1927 there were 35 associa-
tions, an increase of 8.
The American Poultry Association of Florida serves the en-
tire state, and has been of great help in the development of
standard bred poultry, The members have cooperated with the
Extension organization in holding educational meetings and fur-
thering junior poultry work.
The Florida Baby Chick Association has been instrumental in
securing aid from the state for the supervision and accreditation
of poultry flocks. This work has already started under the direc-
tion of the State Livestock Sanitary Board. The members of this
association are striving to put out quality chicks and have co-
operated with the Extension Service in this phase of poultry
husbandry.
Field meetings and demonstrations on various phases of poul-
try management were held during the year. Approximately 70
percent of the meetings held were in cooperation with the or-
ganized poultry associations.

BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBS

The juniors enrolled in poultry work had the same rules and
regulations as last year. The poultry club enrollment for the
year was 2,159. Contests were held in various communities and
the members exhibited their poultry at eight poultry shows. The
quality was fair. Each year an improvement in the poultry work
is seen. Better stock is obtained by members, due, in the main,
to the splendid cooperation of the breeders of the state.






Annual Report, 1927 55

HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST

The Second Florida Home Egg-Laying Contest, which came to
a close October 31, 1927, was conducted along the same lines as
the first contest. The rules and regulations briefly stated are:
(1) Entrant must keep record for one year on entire poultry
flock; (2) have standardbred poultry; (3) send report to agent's
office monthly. Practically all of the poultry raisers who were
in the first contest entered their flocks in the second. The records
tabulated showed that 36 farms completed the year, or 48 per-
cent of the number started. Poultry raisers from 12 new coun-
ties were represented in the contest. Thirty-three percent of the
counties in Florida were represented.
The Third Florida Home Egg-Laying Contest started Novem-
ber 1, 1927, with a number of new counties represented.

TABLE II.-DISTRIBUTION OF EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD IN THE HOME EGG-
LAYING CONTEST.
Backyard Farm Commercial Aver
Month Flock Flock Flock Average
1925-2611926-2711925-26 1926-2711925-26 f926-2711925-2611926-27
SI _
Nov. ............... 3.8 | 9.3 3.0 7.4 7.1 5.2 6.0 7.1
Dec. .............. 6.5 10.3 5.9 9.5 7.8 9.2 7.6 9.5
Jan. ................ 11.8 13.5 8.8 11.9 10.8 11.5 10.4 11.6
Feb. .................. 15.2 15.9 13.8 15.6 14.0 15.6 14.3 15.6
March ............. 20.0 19.7 17.6 19.4 19.2 19.1 18.9 19.1
April ................ 19.6 21.6 16.6 17.9 19.1 18.1 18.4 18.2
May ............... 18.0 19.9 16.0 15.0 18.1 17.2 17.4 17.0
June ................ 14.9 18.7 12.7 14.5 15.8 14.0 14.5 15.7
July .................. 14.3 18.3 13.2 13.9 13.5 15.3 13.6 14.9
August ...-..... 11.2 15.5 11.5 9.4 10.9 12.1 11.2 11.5
Sept. ............... 11.9 14.1 7.3 8.0 7.2 8.6 8.8 8.6
October ......... 10.5 7.9 7.8 6.0 5.5 4.8 8.0 5.2
II I
Total .......I 157.6 184.6 134.2 148.3 148.9 150.6 149.1 153.9
Increase ....I 27.0 14.1 1.6 ) 4.8

Table II represents the monthly egg production per bird in
the first and second contests for the backyard flock (up to 50









Florida Cooperative Extension


birds), farm flocks (51 to 200 birds in the first contest and 51
to 250 birds in the second), commercial flock (over 200 birds in
the first contest and 250 in the second), and average for the en-
tire contest. It will be seen from the table that an increased egg
production is noted in each class and an average of 4.84 eggs per
bird for the entire contest. This, no doubt, is due to better stock,
better feeding, and better management.
A detailed study of the results will be presented to the poul-
try raisers during the coming year.
The chart in figure 10 shows the monthly distribution of egg
production for the first and second Home Egg-Laying Contests,
and the average monthly price of white eggs in Jacksonville
for the same period. It is of interest to note high egg prices and
low egg production and vice versa.


20


017


Iz

'3"

LU 12
0'0

-9


OQ5

rn 4.
03


SI.


DEC. JAN.


FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUN. JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT.


C"
.60


50 L


35 '-

-25
203


MONTHLY DISTRIBUTION OF EGG PRODUCTION -----

AVERAGE PRICE OF WHITE EGGS, JACKSONVILLE 1926,127 -

Fig. 10.-Monthly distribution of egg-production in the Home Egg-Laying
Contest, and average price of white eggs on the Jacksonville market.
This shows that when egg production is high, egg prices are correspond-
ingly low.


EG( PRo UcTI N
Ii '-.'-
I
II

1 !

I,
//I '
I I/ % I
I'
i I ,
I, I "

"
* I




C
C .' '

LcliZ






Annual Report, 1927


From some of the records sent to this office, it is interesting
to see how high winter egg production and profits are positively
correlated. The greater the winter egg production, the greater
the profit.
POULTRY EXTENSION SCHOOLS

Three poultry schools were conducted as a poultry round-up
to discuss phases of poultry management and to give demonstra-
tions and to help the producers solve their problems.
POULTRY TOURS OF INSPECTION

One tour was conducted to illustrate better methods of man-
agement.
CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS

Systematic culling is one of the most important phases of
successful poultry management. Sixty culling demonstrations
were held during the year.
The demonstrations conducted were important, not only from
the standpoint of eliminating the poor producer, but of inform-
ing the poultry raiser of the more modern methods of manage-
ment. Better feeding practices and disease and parasite preven-
tion were discussed and illustrated at these demonstrations.
Ten caponizing demonstrations were conducted in a few coun-
ties to show method of operation.

MISCELLANEOUS

Considerable time during the year has been spent with the
commercial poultrymen, hatcheries, breeders, and fairs. Assist-
ance was given as to methods of management, including layout
of plants, records, egg supply, feeding, and disease control. At
the fairs poultry was judged and as far as possible, educational
features were employed.
The Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, which was fos-
tered and the plant erected by the Chipley Chamber of Com-
merce, came to a very successful close for the first year. In June
an appropriation was made by the Legislature for its operation
by the state for the next two years. It is under the supervision
of the Poultry Extension Division. It is equipped to take care
care of 100 pens. In the first contest 50 pens were entered, while
in the second 96 pens are entered. Some of the results of the
first contest are briefly given below:








Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 11.-View of the plant and one of the pens at the Florida National
Egg-Laying Contest.

The mortality was 14.3 percent.
The greater percentage of this mortality was due to ovarian
trouble and internal hemorrhages.


TABLE III.-FEED CONSUMPTION AND FEED COST
THE FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING


PER BIRD PER YEAR* IN
CONTEST.


Ing


greaients A
(P


M ash ...............-....

Scratch ...................

Grit .......................

Shell .......................

Oats .......................

Semi-Solid Butter-
milk ....................

Charcoal ............-..


Total ................


SLight Bree


mount
ounds)

37.60

29.15

2.65

4.60

7.94


9.42

0.60


92.02


ds Heavy Breeds
Amount
Cost Amount Co
Cost (pounds)

$1.28 38.39 $1.

0.93 34.35 1.

0.03 2.76 0.

0.05 i 4.24 0.

0.17 7.91 0.


0.56

0.02


3.04


9.37

0.61


97.63


st

30

09

03

04

17


Light breeds include Leghorns, Anconas, and Minorcas.
Heavy breeds include Reds, Rocks, Wyandottes, Orpingtons.
*Year (51 weeks).

The average cost of feed per 100 pounds at Chipey, Florida,
was: mash $3.40; scratch $3.20; grit $1.10; shell $1.10; oats
$2.25; semi-solid buttermilk $6.00; charcoal $3.00.


-r i.







Annual Report, 1927


TABLE IV.-POUNDS FEED TO PRODUCE ONE DOZEN EGGS.
C s AlFeed Omitting Grit, Shell
Class A Feed and Charcoal

Heavy Breeds ............ 7.83 7.21
Light breeds ................. 6.10 5.58
Average .. ...................... 6.52 5.98


The average egg production per bird for the year was: light
breeds, 195.8 eggs per bird; heavy breeds, 162.7; average 186.5..
The feed cost per dozen eggs for the heavy breeds was 23.64
cents; light breeds 18.6 cents.
A detailed report of the First Florida National Egg-Laying
Contest has been published.








Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Flavia Gleason, State Agent
Virginia P. Moore, Assistant State Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent
Mary E. Keown, District Agent
Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent
Isabelle S. Thursby, Foods and Marketing Agent
Mary A Stennis, Dairy and Nutrition Agent
ORGANIZATION OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK IN COUNTIES
During 1927 home demonstration work was conducted in 32
counties in Florida. One home demonstration agent worked in
each of these counties. Polk employed two assistants and two
agents conducted the work in Hillsborough. As Hillsborough is
such a large county, one agent makes her headquarters in Plant
City and works the eastern part while the other agent has her
office in Tampa and works the west side of the county.
Financial depression caused three counties to discontinue the
appropriation for home demonstration work, while Putnam re-
appropriated after having been without an agent for the past
three years. Walton County discontinued the appropriation in
July but during the month of December made a larger appropri-
ation than ever before. The readiness with which other county
boards renewed contracts and increased appropriations is an in-
dication of the permanent place which home demonstration work
seems to have in the various counties financially supporting it. Six
counties formerly maintaining the work for only 10 months dur-
ing the year have increased the appropriations to such an extent
that the agent's term of service has been lengthened to 12
months. Salary increases were realized in several other counties.
There have been two transfers of agents from one county to
another. Eight agents resigned during the year. Six well trained
workers have been appointed to fill vacancies.
The state home demonstration staff, which assists the county
home demonstration agents in the development of home dem-
onstration work in the various counties, consists of a state home
demonstration agent, an assistant state agent who serves as
leader for home improvement work, three district agents, home
dairy and nutrition agent, and foods and marketing agent. The
extension poultry specialist works with both the agricultural







Annual Report, 1927


and the home demonstration agents. During the first five months
of the year one district agent was on leave of absence for study.
An acting district agent substituted.
Home demonstration clubs were organized and actively func-
tioned in 565 communities with girls' work and in 227 with wo-
men's work. These clubs had a membership of 10,553 girls and
.6,558 women. Of this number 7,802 girls and 5,109 women com-
pleted a full year's work in demonstrations conducted in the
home according to home demonstration methods. Each year
,shows an increase in number of club members and of work ac-
complished.
County project committees for the various phases of work
were developed through the work of the county councils. These
committees assisted in development of the work in the communi-
ties, in securing records and exhibits and in marketing of home
products. One agent states that through the committees in the
council $805.50 was saved in cooperative buying and selling and
that the local prices on poultry and eggs were kept far above
the average for the state. This she said was due to the fact that
the poultry committee kept up with prices and with all products
which were for sale in the county.
County programs were developed with local club representa-
tives, councils, where organized, and county home demonstration
agents discussing together the county needs, together with sug-
gestions, plans and available help from the state office. These
programs were submitted to the district and state supervisors
for approval.
SUPERVISORY PROGRAM
The home demonstration supervisory program for 1927 was
built around five main objectives. These were (1) a continuation
of the 1926 program in bringing about better balanced county,
club and individual programs of work, (2) preparing and revis-
ing subject matter material for the agents' use, (3) further de-
velopment of county and state councils, (4) leadership develop-
ment among successful demonstrators of at least three years'
experience to be of assistance to the agents in executing com-
munity and county plans of work, (5) increasing the efficiency
of the agents by giving more attention within the counties to
office organization, and to the making and filing of reports.
During 1927 there was an increasing interest in establishing
demonstrations in the fundamentals of home demonstration







Florida Cooperative Extension


work. Outstanding accomplishments were seen in those things
that develop profit, comfort, culture, power and influence. Gar-
dening, home dairying, and poultry have formed the basis for
nutrition work and on the other hand have created a greater
interest in many communities for producing foodstuffs at home.
The increase in productive work contributed to better foods and
nutrition work, developed effective work in marketing and home
improvement, and assisted girls and boys in furthering their
education.
During the year literature was prepared for the agents' use
in poultry, gardening, foods, nutrition and health, clothing and
home improvement.
All organized counties with the exception of two now have
girls' county home demonstration councils functioning in the
conduct of the work in the county and state. Councils are com-
posed of two delegates, the president and one other from each
club in the county. They usually meet quarterly.
Some idea of the place that the councils have in development
of worthwhile activities and responsibility in the girls them-
selves may be realized from the fact that the Lake County Coun-
cil created enough interest in the local girls' clubs to have the
members raise enough money to establish a scholarship at Flor-
ida State College for Women for one of the 4-H club girls of
Lake County. Dade and Palm Beach councils for girls' work
publish 4-H club news sheets monthly.
The State Home Demonstration Council for Girls' Work,
which convenes during the State Short Course for Club Girls,
is creating a fund to establish a scholarship for a club girl from
the state at large.
Meetings of State Council for Women's work held during
Farmers' Week give added zest to the women's work. Council
reports given by the delegates from the various counties are re-
ceived with splendid interest.
Of the important functioning of a council in the conduct of
home demonstration work one of the district agents said: "In
Hillsborough County, where the nutrition program was launched
with a county-wide milk-for-health campaign, plans for the year
were presented at the July meeting, recommended by the pro-
gram committee and formally accepted by the council in regular
session in October. The Nutrition Specialist and District Agent
were present with the County Home Demonstration Agent at







Annual Report, 1927


this meeting and final arrangements made for beginning the
year's work.
"The effectiveness of the council was apparent more to the
,district agent than to anyone else present, since seven years ago
when she was home demonstration agent in Hillsborough Coun-
ty a milk campaign was put on as a part of her work. Instead of
a county-wide campaign it was conducted only in Tampa and
Plant City and the presence of every member of the state staff,
with one exception, and five neighboring home demonstration
agents was required to carry it through the week. The present
milk for health campaign covers a period of one month, carries
with it at least two demonstrations in every community, likewise
covering one month in time, and provides for many community
meetings. Except for the assistance with preliminary arrange-
ments and final checking of results, the home demonstration
agent supported by the county council and county leadership or-
ganization of well trained leaders is able to conduct the volume
of work alone. This is indeed an achievement in organization of
local talent."
Demonstrators serving as local leaders in forwarding the
home demonstration program increased from 399 in 1926 to 580
in 1927 with girls' work and from 242 with women's work last
year to 298 this year. As the work grows, more women and girls
continue as club members from year to year. Along with this
experience and instructions given in special leadership meetings,
the more assistance local women and older club girls are able to
render to the agents in the conduct of the year's program.
Miss Mary Sue Wigley, home demonstration agent in Jack-
son County, makes the following statement: "As to the leaders,
they have been my right hand 'men' in every undertaking with
the girls this year. I now have an active club leader in each
community where there is a club, except with one old club and
four new ones."
Miss Pansy I. Norton in Dade County said of her project
leaders: "In this county the project leaders are very important
to the women's work." Special work is often given leaders, as
for example in making Christmas gifts they were given demon-
strations at a leaders' meeting and provided with a traveling
county exhibit of Christmas gifts. When the exhibit reached the
community it was the leader for this particular work that took






Florida Cooperative Extension


charge of it and gave demonstrations to the other club women,
thus permitting the agent to continue with regular work.
Other counties are finding leaders of great value in develop-
ment of the home demonstration programs, which now cover
so many phases of work conducted by increasing numbers of
individuals in more and more communities in the counties. Mem-
bers of the leadership organization in Hillsborough County are
especially enthusiastic voluntary workers.
The State Extension office provided agents with small binders
and record sheets for recording the days' work, monthly report
blanks, large loose-leaf books containing outlines for all phases
of the work, programs of work and special instructions from the
United States Department of Agriculture and the State office;
card filing cases; and record books for individual demonstrators
and for club reports. Office and office equipment was furnished
by some county organization, in most cases by the board of
county commissioners. Nine counties provided stenographic as-
sistance, 16 agents were provided with typewriters, 16 with tele-
phones, and 12 with well equipped demonstration kitchens. Pro-
visions were made for one other. Ten agents were furnished with
cars from county funds and two counties provided motion pic-
ture machines.
In filling county vacancies and new positions preference was
given College graduates, who had at least two years teaching
experience, or similar qualifications. Sometimes poor salaries or
local conditions cause the appointment of women with less train-
ing and experience. Inexperienced agents before assuming the
responsibility of county work spend as much time as can be ar-
ranged with experienced agents, and in the state office familiar-
izing themselves with requirements, plans of work and available
literature. They are given special duties during State 'Short
Course for Club Girls and Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week
and are given special attention during district and state confer-
ences. The district agent assists them in forming contacts in the
county.
Requirements regarding individual and club programs are
made by the state office. For instance, every club girl is required
to establish a demonstration in some type of agricultural pro-
ductive work such as gardening, dairying, and poultry work in
addition to the home economics phases of her work. At the end
of four years of home demonstration work, a girl is awarded a







Annual Report, 1927


certificate in recognition of her work. There were 498 recipients
of these during 1927.
Standard clubs must conform to the following requirements:
1. Minimum of five members.
2. Minimum of nine meetings.
3. Average of 80 percent attendance at meetings for the
year.
4. Eighty percent of members handing in complete record
books.
5. Sixty percent of members exhibiting at contest.
6. Officers of the club to collect record books from members
and to assist in filling in secretary's book.
7. All organized clubs to secure their own membership and
revise the club enrollment for the year.
88. Club to hold annual election of officers in December or
January.
9. Club to show reasonable profit and material results by
majority of members.
10. At least one member to attend some county or state club
meeting during the year-camp, annual rally, short course.
11. Eighty percent of members shall be up to average weight
for height and age.
12. Each Home Demonstration Club after being standard for
one year must develop demonstration teams from second, third,
and fourth year members and third and fourth year members
must develop judging teams fof local use, at least.
One hundred twenty-nine clubs have received standard cer-
tificates for meeting these requirements.
The annual conference of all field workers was held at the
University of Florida during the first week of October. This
conference was devoted almost entirely to discussions on devel-
opment of work as planned for at the beginning of the year, for
completing the year's work and for conducting the 1928 work.
In addition to discussions there were inspirational features inter-
spersed with informational lectures and demonstration.
Because of a lack of funds district meetings were not held
during the year. Home demonstration state staff conferences
were held monthly at which time progress of the work and fur-
ther plans for development were made.
State and district workers supervised the development of the
work through the year. Contest days, fairs, and visits into the







Florida Cooperative Extension


counties for regular routine work enabled the district agents to
keep in close touch with the programs of the work in the coun-
ties. Programs of work andreports were studied carefully by the
state and district agents. Comparisons were made of goals set
at beginning of the year and accomplishments as the work ad-
vanced. State and district agents discussed plans for strength-
ening the work during visits into the counties and at agents'
conferences.
In addition to her administrative duties the assistant state
agent served as leader of the home improvement project. In this
part of her work she planned and worked with the agents in the
same way as do the subject matter specialists in poultry, dairy-
ing, nutrition and foods. Subject matter heads at the College
for Women and University of Florida assisted in the prepara-
tion of bulletins and circulars for the agents' use and with in-
struction during state meetings.
PUBLICITY

The publication of the year creating the most interest in home
demonstration work in Florida was the bulletin Rural Home
Life in Florida prepared by the Home Demonstration Depart-
ment and printed by the State Department of Agriculture.
The Agricultural News Service carried timely articles of
home demonstration work. Florida Pepper, the club paper, was
of particular interest to 4-H club members. Two junior councils
published county home demonstration news sheets monthly. The
women in the west side of Hillsborough County published an
interesting home demonstration news pamphlet which has be-
come a monthly publication all through the year.
The press was generous in the use, of home demonstration
articles. Home demonstration work received much publicity dur-
ing the year through fairs, Farmers' Week, State Short Course
for Club Girls, county contests, window displays, camps, Florida
Federation of Women's Clubs, Business and Professional Wo-
men's Clubs, men's organizations, and other cooperating agencies.
GENERAL ACTIVITIES

During the year 34 home demonstration agents made 9,812
home visits, visiting 5,082 homes. They received 26,692 office
calls and 14,121 phone calls relating to home demonstration work.
They spent 2,274 days in office work and 6,750 days in field







Annual Report, 1927


work. They wrote 2,474 news articles for papers and 92,237 let-
ters in conduct of the work. Fair exhibits were shown at 53 com-
munity fairs, 21 county fairs, and two state fairs.
A total of 8,867 method and result demonstration meetings
were held with an attendance of 22,803; and 150 meetings with
an attendance of 1,429 were held for training local leaders.
Thirty-one extension schools and short courses were held with
an attendance of 1,820.
Thirty-four camps for girls were conducted and 1,341 club
girls attended. Others present brought the total attendance to
1,624. Eight camps for women were held with an attendance of
293 home demonstration club women, others present bringing
the total to 382. Other extension meetings not reported numbered
842 with an attendance of 60,221.
PROJECT ACTIVITIES

It is gratifying to note the continued growth in the various
project activities. Each club girl, in addition to her home eco-
nomic phases of work is required to conduct demonstrations
either in gardening, poultry or dairy work or a definite yard im-
provement program. In women's work each one decides which
particular subject she is most interested in and establishes that
particular demonstration in her own home. Definitely linking the
nutrition work with gardening, dairy and poultry work has
aroused a greater interest in producing these essential foods at
home.
HOME GARDENS

During 1927 the home demonstration agents gave about 10.75
percent of their time to the promotion of better gardening prac-
tices, with the aim in view of having a supply of vegetables for
use in the diet the year round and to increase the family income
by marketing the surplus. Thirty counties reported 5,241 homes
improving practices according to methods used by agents in
home garden work. Reports show that 1,197 more women and
girls established demonstrations in gardening this year than last.
The foods and marketing agent has served as leader for this
project. For many years the Florida Federation of Women's
Clubs has given $50 annually to the girl scoring highest in her
garden and conservation work, the money to be used for educa-
tional purposes. Dorothy Jones, Alachua County, was winner of







Florida Cooperative Extension


this award during 1927. Her record revealed good production
and a fulfillment of our aim in use at home. She led her family
to realize the importance of having fresh vegetables in the diet.
The surplus was marketed and the money used to increase her
go-to-college fund.
All counties with home demonstration agents reported an in-
crease in gardening which was due to the need felt for it and
interest aroused through demonstrations, lectures, exhibits, con-
tests and programs at regular meetings.
HOME POULTRY

The poultry specialist assisted the home demonstration agents
in their work with better poultry production and management in
order to supply the needs of the family table and to increase the
family income by marketing the surplus. The agents gave 8.5
percent of their time to this project. As a result 29 counties re-
ported that 3,004 homes adopted improved practices in poultry
work during the year. This shows an increase of 521 homes over
1926. The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs offers $50 annu-
ally to the club girl making the best poultry record, money to be
used for educational purposes. Laura Case, Orange County, was
the winner. She won first in the county in the egg-laying con-
test, and was selected by the State Home Demonstration Staff
and Fair Association to represent junior poultry work at the
State Fair. She won first, second, third and fourth prizes on her
poultry exhibit in the club department of the Florida State Fair.
Laura is using her money for furthering her education.
HOME DAIRY

In connection with her nutrition work the home dairy and
nutrition agent serves as leader for the home dairy work. The
necessity for good, wholesome dairy products in the diet has
been stressed. Demonstrations given have been mainly in the
preparation of dairy products for the family table. An exhibit
of rats showing the effects of a milk and non-milk diet and ex-
plained by means of well planned posters was effectively used in
demonstrating to the public the importance of milk in the diet.
It has been displayed in some of the counties working especially
for a better milk program and in the home demonstration booth
at the Florida State Fair. This exhibit was worked up by the
home dairy and nutrition agent assisted by the home economics






Annual Report, 1927


research department, Florida State College for Women. Milk for
health campaigns are other means being used to emphasize
necessary care, production and consumption of dairy products.
NUTRITION

Nutrition work under the leadership of the dairy and nutri-
tion agent was conducted in a way that linked the gardening,
dairying and poultry work with the family table. As a result
better meals have been prepared, better food practices adopted
and better school lunches provided. Home demonstration agents
report that 4,172 homes adopted improved practices in nutrition
work. Thirty-six schools were induced to serve a hot lunch for
the first time.
A few interesting expressions from club members' reports on
the benefits they received from nutrition work are as follows:
"A poorly planned meal gives me a guilty feeling." "I serve more
vegetables, milk and fresh fruit," "My meals are more appetiz-
ing to my family." "I have learned to drink water before break-
fast." "I have learned the importance of serving my family
fresh vegetables and fruits." "I am growing a garden so as to
get fresh vegetables in abundance for the table." One member
who was overweight from eating proudly reports she is now
"normal" and feels better. Another proudly says "I have brought
an underweight up to average."
For the purpose of keeping the interest all through the year
in the women's program, nutrition contests have been used. In
the summer teams among the women prepared for the State
Contest in demonstrating a Florida fruit or vegetable salad.
This contest occurred at Farmers' Week in August. Later came
the State Contest in menu planning and last there was the check-
ing of reports to see which one of the women's clubs in the State
had carried out the best year's program in nutrition. Volusia
came first.
Two state contests were planned and carried out for girls-
one in "health" and one in "best improvement in nutrition." All
girls enrolled in nutrition were allowed to compete provided there
were as many as 25 enrolled in the county. Each contestant had
to be a producer of some food-milk, fruit, vegetables, or eggs.
Each contestant was required to keep her records up to date and
to win in a county contest before entering the state contest.
Trips to Chicago were the awards in the contest. Stress was






Florida Cooperative Extension


placed on the bringing of all food, nutrition and health girls
into play; emphasis was laid on the matter of getting physical
defects removed not only from those girls who were probable
winners but from every girl. The records show that more than
5,000 girls were definitely reached. The demonstration teams
contested at the State Short Course in "salads." Milk for health
campaigns, exhibits, lectures and demonstrations have done
much in accomplishing results in nutrition work.
FOODS

The preparation of foods formed a part of various club pro-
grams, and was a part of the work outlined for club members
carrying work in gardening, dairying, home poultry and nutri-
tion. Reports show that 2,145 women and 2,338 girls completed
food preparation demonstrations outlined for the year and 29
counties reported 4,839 homes adopting improved practices in
food preparation. The nutrition and foods and marketing agents
are leaders in this phase of home demonstration work.


Fig. 12.-Home demonstration agents work with adult club members in the
preparation of foods and meal planning.

Food preservation work under the leadership of the foods and
marketing agent has been encouraged so as to preserve food for






Annual Report, 1927


home use thus protecting health, reducing cost of transporting
food from a distance, encouraging the live-at-home idea, insur-
ing varied diet all through the year, and putting surplus home
products into marketable shape. Twenty-six counties reported
3,657 homes adopting improved practices in food preservation
this year. Fruits, vegetables, meat and fish were canned; jelly,
preserves and pickles were made, fruit juices were extracted and
preserved.
CLOTHING

Girls often become club members and conduct the required
living and growing demonstrations in order to have the clothing
work given. This includes proper selection of materials, con-
struction, renovation and remodeling of garments; millinery,
costume designing, making of a clothing budget and wardrobe


Fig. 13.-Sewing is one of the popular subjects among club girls. The home
demonstration agent supervises the young seamstresses.

planning. A total of 2,291 women and 5,202 girls completed cloth-
ing programs outlined for the year. Twenty-eight counties re-
port that 6,102 homes adopted improved practices in this phase
of home demonstration work. Work with children's clothing re-
ceived a stimulus through the exhibit shown and talks made dur-






Florida Cooperative Extension


ing agents' meeting by Miss O'Brien of the Bureau of Home
Economics, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
HOME MARKETING

Home products standardized and marketed consist chiefly of
poultry and poultry products, canned goods, dairy products,
fruits, vegetables, rag rugs and baskets made of pine needles,
wire grass, palmetto, or honey-suckle. Three old and six new
curb markets functioned to the advantage of club members
through the year. Fifteen counties reported standardization of
special products for market. Four hundred thirty-two homes
were reported as adopting improved practices in home market-
ing during the year. The foods and marketing agent served as
leader for this project.


Fig. 14.-With the help of the home demonstration agent, often an ill-
arranged kitchen can be changed to a convenient one at small cost.

HOME IMPROVEMENT

The home improvement work under the leadership of the as-
sistant state home demonstration agent made splendid growth
through the year.
Emphasis was given to the importance of installing sanitary
closets, screening homes, controlling flies, mosquitoes and other






Annual Report, 1927


insects to the extent that 23 counties reported 2,962 homes as
having improved sanitary practices of this kind.
According to the reports from 19 counties, 842 homes followed
instructions and adopted improved practices in rural engineer-
ing in the homes, almost twice as many as last year. This means
that more people each year are constructing and remodeling
dwellings according to plans furnished; installing sewage dis-
posal systems, water systems, heating systems and especially
lighting systems, since big power lines are beginning to serve the
rural districts.
More demonstrations and time have been given by the agents
this year to the beautification of home grounds with the result
that 2,561 homes did definite work in beautifying the home
grounds.
Women and girls are learning to plan household work sys-
tematically. They are also learning the importance of using labor
saving devices; how to arrange furniture for convenience; to
use improved laundry practices, and to keep accounts and bud-
gets. This is evidenced by the fact that 2,193 homes improved
practices in the home management work during the year.
A total of 1,126 women and 1,921 girls have completed the
year's work in house furnishings, which included selection, ar-
rangement, repairing, and remodeling or furnishing. Six hun-
dred sixty-five women and 374 girls worked over walls, wood-
work, and floors this year. In 3,552 homes in 29 counties im-
proved practices were adopted relative to the house furnishings
work conducted by the home demonstration agents.
The home improvement campaign, which terminated at the
Florida State Fair, and the work accomplished at the State Short
Course for Club Girls, Farmers' Week, and the increase in the
family income through the productive phases of work were fac-
tors in promotion of home improvement work.
COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES

Community activities vary according to the needs of the com-
munity as seen by the home demonstration agents and the club
members. Home demonstration clubs have been the means of
three club houses being erected and equipped for community
meetings during the year. The school lunch is a community ac-
tivity in which schools in 35 communities were induced to serve
a hot dish or school lunch for the first time. Club members as-






Florida Cooperative Extension


sisted with 53 community fairs. Forty-nine school and commun-
ity grounds were planted through the year according to land-
scape plans furnished by the home demonstration agents. Two
hundred eighty-nine communities carried some definite commun-
ity work as a part of the year's program.
MISCELLANEOUS

Eight hundred fourteen women and girls in five counties
completed definite work in rug making. Five hundred thirty-
three women and girls were reported as having learned the art
of turning such native materials as pine needles and wire grass
into baskets, trays and other articles. Eight hundred twenty-six
women and girls have completed definite work in crafts, and 89
homes were reported as standardizing miscellaneous articles for
market.
In addition to individual visits, club meetings, agents' meet-
ings, county and state councils mentioned elsewhere in this re-
port, home demonstration work was strengthened during the
year through the following activities:

STATE SHORT COURSE FOR CLUB GIRLS

This year's State Short Course was by far the most satisfac-
tory yet held, due to the fact that the Florida Stae College for
Women closed the spring term early, allowing ample time for
the extension department to conduct the Short Course before
opening of the summer term. Dormitories, laboratories, and class
rooms were at our disposal. The College physician and nurses
rendered valuable assistance by keeping the infirmary open and
giving the girls necessary medical care during the week. The
girls were loud in their praises of the food provided them during
the week by the college dietitian and her department. President
Conradi and other members of the faculty gave inspirational
talks.
The 429 girls in attendance had won scholarships awarded in
the counties as.a result of outstanding achievements in various
phases of work. Scholarships were provided by club members
themselves, county commissioners, school boards, women's clubs,
men's clubs, banks, merchants and interested individuals.
The course consisted of instruction and demonstrations by ex-
tension workers and home demonstration club members in vari-
ous phases of the work. Outstanding features were the health






Annual Report, 1927


contest, completely working over a girl's bedroom, team demon-
strations in the afternoon, and meeting of the state council.
Ample recreation and entertainment were provided.
Girls who attend the Short Course usually develop into the
best leaders and realize a desire to go to college. Many of them
as a result find a way to become students and graduates of the
Florida State College for Women.
Because of the growing interest, number and service of local
leaders a special period was given over to work with them. At
other times they observed work with the girls. The splendid
assistance rendered to the state staff by the agents and local
leaders was invaluable in making the Short Course successful.
WOMEN'S WORK AT FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK

The women enjoyed Farmers' Week at the University of Flor-
ida as much as the girls did the Short Course. Demonstrations
and instruction were given in various phases of work by state
and county extension workers, club members, University pro-
fessors, and home economics workers in business firms. Out-
standing features were exhibits, group work- with women actu-
ally working where they felt they could be best benefited, and
meetings of the State Home Demonstration Council for Women's
Work.
Most of the women paid their own way. However, more than
the usual number of women were present with expenses paid,
due to the work of the county councils and support of county
federations of women's clubs.
CAMPS

There were 32 camps held during the spring and summer.
Eight of these camps were for women, seven for boys and girls
while the others were for the girls entirely. Local leaders at-
tended and assisted home demonstration agents with the camps.
There were 293 women, 1,341 girls and 123 boys who enjoyed
the recreation, instruction, fellowship and leadership develop-
ment of the camps conducted by the county home demonstration
agents.
CONTESTS

Through county contests held in the various counties support-
ing home demonstration work, club exhibits were displayed, and






Florida Cooperative Extension


demonstrations given by club members. The county agents and
supervisors had a means of observing the county-wide response
to the work; analyzing the work for improvement; getting the
work before the public, and creating a better community and
club spirit.
RALLIES

Counties vary as to plans for holding rallies. Counties having
them usually have one a year featuring work with juniors. One
county holds a rally for the women's clubs once each two months
with an average attendance of about 250 women. That same
county has a community rally or picnic once a year in each com-
munity with good attendance. The pleasure of getting together,
hearing and giving club reports, has inspired club members to
better their individual work and that of the community and
the county.
FAIRS

Home demonstration exhibits were on display at 53 commun-
ity fairs, 21 county fairs, the Florida State Fair, the South Flor-
ida Fair and the exposition at Toronto, Canada.


Fig. 15.-Adult and junior club members take a lesson in rug making.
Many home demonstration club members are supplementing their in-
comes by making and selling rugs.







Annual Report, 1927


Through funds provided by the Florida State Fair women and
girls who accomplished the most outstanding results in either
home improvement, nutrition, gardening, canning, poultry work,
or home dairying were given expenses of a trip to the State Fair
to give demonstrations in the home demonstration booths. These
women and girls appreciated the recognition, and discussed their
work with the public, giving demonstrations which added tre-
mendous interest to the home demonstration exhibits.

DEMONSTRATION TEAMS

In order to train leaders, develop efficiency and to encourage
club members in giving public demonstrations, teams of two
girls each were trained in giving public demonstrations in vari-
ous phases of home demonstration work. These girls were chosen
in the local clubs and counties because of their efficiency, suc-
cess as club members, and ability to interest others in home dem-
onstration methods. Home demonstration agents trained 78 such
teams and found them to be invaluable in interesting other girls
and giving demonstrations to the public of the value of club
work. There were 14 judging teams that functioned at fairs and
contests during the year.
SCHOLARSHIPS

The State College for Women gave dining room scholarships
to eight club girls this year. The business manager secured the
continuation of two loan scholarships for other deserving club
girls. Senator Hodges continued the scholarship which he began
last year as a result of interest aroused through the State Short
Course. Continued interest in extension work in home economics
led the following counties to make appropriations for full schol-
arships for training in home economics: Hillsborough, two; Dade,
three; Palm Beach, one; and Orange, one.
The club girls of Lake County are enthusiastic over the schol-
arship which they have provided and which is enabling one of
their number to be in College this year.

OUT-OF-STATE TRIPS
Because of their splendid record as club members, Vivian
Shepard of Palm Beach County and Viola Yates of Hillsborough
County were sent as delegates to the National Club Camp in







Florida Cooperative Extension


Washington, D. C. The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs
and the South Florida Fair Association provided funds for these
trips.
Beulah Weeks, Santa Rosa County, winner in the state health
contest for club girls, Mary Jones, Alachua County, winner in
nutrition contest, and Hattie Fletcher, winner for well rounded
club work, were awarded trips to the International Club Con-
gress, held in Chicago. Finances were provided by commercial
firms and individuals. Club members have returned from these
national meetings with enlarged vision of club work and enthusi-
asm which they have passed on to other girls who have heard
their inspiring reports.
4-H COLLEGE CLUB
Former club girls who are in attendance at Florida State Col-
lege for Women have banded themselves together in an organi-
zation for promotion of club work. This club is attracting the at-
tention and interesting other students in home demonstration
work and encouraging club girls to go to college as soon as they
have finished high school.








Annual Report, 1927 79

FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS
(Negro Extension Work)

A. A. Turner, Local District Agent, Tallahassee, Florida
(Corrected to January 1, 1928)

Local Agents
County Name Address
Alachua ....................W P. Stockton...---.......--... ....................-- --- Gainesville
Bradford ..................J. W. Keller ...............................--------------Starke
Columbia ..............--.E. S. Belvin ......... ---..-................ ........-- Lake City
Jackson ....-............... E. Granberry .-----.. ............... .............Marianna
Jefferson ..................M. E. Groover .....................---------.................Monticello
Marion .....................W B. Young .........- ........... ........ ............. Ocala
Suwannee .....--........C. T. Evans .----..................... --. ... .....-- -- Live Oak
Local Home Demonstration Agents
Duval ........................Olive L. Smith ............-Jacksonville (1005 W. 12th St.)
Madison ......----.... Althea Ayer ..........-..................................---Madison
Marion ....................Idella Ransom ......--..........------ .............. ...... Reddick
Orange ......................-----Mamie E. Wright --... ----------............ ..... .--- Orlando
St. Johns ..................Mary A. Caldwell .................----.......... ......... St. Augustine
Sumter ......................Diana Hartsfield Finlayson..-................--........ W ebster

During the calendar year 1927 Negro Agricultural Extension
Work was conducted in 14 counties, namely: Alachua, Bradford,
Columbia, Jackson, Jefferson, Putnam, and Suwannee for men's
work, and in Leon, Levy, Madison, Marion, Orange, St. Johns,
and Sumter for women's work. In these counties there were eight
men and seven women employed; Marion having both a man and
a woman agent.
Under the direction of the Local District Agent some work
was done in Gadsden, Volusia, and Hillsborough counties, with
the assistance of volunteer local leaders, making a total of 18
counties having Negro Extension Work.

SUPERVISION

All Negro Extension Work is conducted by the Agricultural
Extension Division of the University of Florida. The headquar-
ters are at the Florida A. & M. College for Negroes at Tallahas-
see. The general supervision is under the Local District Agent, A.
A. Turner, and the subject matter is arranged by the state leader
for men's work and by the state home demonstration agent for
women's work.
The greatest part of the salaries and expense of the county
workers is borne by the Extension Division with the exception







Florida Cooperative Extension


of four counties, which contribute to the salaries and expenses
of local home demonstration agents.
MEN'S WORK

The work with adult farmers consists of demonstrations with
crops, livestock, and poultry, with a view of carrying these out
to improve cultural practices, yields, and quality of the crops
suitable to the soils in which they are grown. Corn, sweet pota-
toes, peanuts, cotton, and sugar cane are the main demonstration
crops in the general farming territory.
The Negro farmers of Florida consider cotton a main cash
crop. In most cases the yields are low, and the methods of pro-
duction are faulty. The same demonstration methods in cotton
growing are used as with the white farmers-to secure the best
varieties of cotton seed and recommend the best cultural prac-
tices, and use such precautions in boll weevil control as condi-
tions seem to warrant.
The better colored farmers have taken advantage of improved
methods and have profited accordingly. However, a much larger
percent of them are tenants or share croppers, and it is difficult
to reach this class through the ordinary methods of farm dem-
onstration work.
SIn other sections where it is profitable to grow vegetable crops
for market purposes, the agents carried out Extension Work
with a view of planting sufficient acreage to warrant carlot ship-
ments, and then by cooperative sales to find a market for these
vegetables. This also involves some work with the control of in-
sects and diseases and recommendations for application of fer-
tilizer.
In the marketing of these vegetables 43 carloads of vegetables
were shipped by Negro cooperative marketing associations. Bet-
ter methods of picking, grading, and packing with available
market information added much to the efficiency of marketing
these truck crops, and, for the most part, farmers who observed
these practices were able to realize a fair profit from their vege-
table crops.
LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY

The principal livestock demonstrations were with hogs: im-
proving the grade of hogs, feeding them through the summer
on pasture crops, and then finishing them on corn, peanuts, and







Annual Report, 1927


sweet potatoes. This practice fits well into the farming system
of the northern counties. There were no carlots of hogs sold by
Negro cooperative associations. Most of them were butchered
and either sold as dressed pork or cured for future use and sale.
There has been an increased interest in poultry raising with
the colored farmers. The poultry work has functioned for the
improvement of the farm flock, and in a few cases Negro farm-
ers have undertaken poultry on a commercial scale. Some work
was done toward improvement in marketing eggs, as the Negro
farmers have experienced difficulty in marketing their eggs dur-
ing the time of large supply. Much of this trouble is because a
large part of the farmers' eggs are sold ungraded to local stores.
More than 80 percent of them are sold at the lowest price. Con-
sistent effort to improve the quality of the eggs now produced
will add materially to the price received for them during the
period of low prices for eggs. Much information was distributed
among the colored farmers as to breeds, housing facilities, feed-
ing, and the general care of poultry to make it profitable.

WOMEN'S WORK
The Extension Work for Negro women has a program dealing
with food supplies in the home, principally gardens, poultry
products, and dairy products. The production of garden crops
and the proper use of them will mean much to improve the con-
dition around the average Negro farmer's home. This work is
intended to instruct the Negro women in the proper and eco-
nomical use of foods, looking principally to the nourishment of
the children. Emphasis is placed on the value of milk, eggs, and
vegetables, and the proper use of such meats as are commonly
used in the Negro farmers' homes.

HOME IMPROVEMENT WORK AND CLOTHING
Home improvement and clothing are both vital to the Negro
women. The local home agents have given demonstrations in the
making of rugs, curtains, draperies, and clothing.
Home sanitation is a part of the program-screening the
houses against mosquitoes, ventilation, care of the sick, and
general sanitary conditions.
The general appearance of the home, that is, the condition of







Florida Cooperative Extension


the yards, porches, and shrubbery, has also been a part of the
home improvement program.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUB WORK

Statistics attached show the number of Negro boys and girls
who have enrolled in club work. This part of the Negro Exten-
sion Work, which has to do with the training of boys and girls
along agricultural lines, gives them an opportunity to study
crops, livestock, and poultry, and other questions more directly
related to the homes, intended primarily for the girls' work.
These clubs are organized by the local agents in communities
and with the help of the teachers in the Negro schools. The work
carried on is similar to the club work of the 4-H clubs. Prizes
are awarded at intervals during the year to club members who
complete their work according to definite projects.
EXTENSION MEETINGS

The annual meeting of local county and home demonstration
agents was held at the Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, in
December. The county club contests were held in the different
counties during October and November.
Throughout the year 12 county meetings were held with a
total attendance of 1,821. At many of these meetings local agents
and others interested in the Negro farmers' problems took part
in the programs.
The inter-state meeting of the Southern Negro Boys' and Girls'
4-H Camp was held at Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, December
5, 6, and 7, and was attended by a delegation of 20 people from
Florida.
STATE AND COUNTY FAIRS

The Florida State Fair at Jacksonville and the South Florida
Fair at Tampa made provision for Negro farmers' exhibits. Fhese
exhibits were largely collected and installed by the Negro Exten-
sion Agents of the various counties. In each case the exhibits
were intended to show the progress of development of Negro
Extension Work for both men and women. These exhibits were
creditable in every respect and showed a marked improvement
in the methods of displaying the products of Negro farmers in
an educational way.








Annual Report, 1927


The following statistics are compiled from the annual reports
of Negro agents:

STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS
December 1, 1926-November 30, 1927

GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 70
Voluntary county, community and local leaders.................................. 114
Clubs carrying on extension work-.............-............. ........... 84
Memberships ........................----... ... ---------------..-----..... 1,481
Farm visits made by local agents.................-.. ......-............. 2,984
Different farms visited .................... ..... ...... ..... ... ....... ........- 804
Home visits made by local agents.................... ... ....- ....... ......... 1,492
Different homes visited ............................. ...... ....................- 815
Office calls on agents relating to extension work.............................- 1,525
Average number of days spent in office.......................................- 41
Average number of days spent in field......................-.............. .. 170
Official letters written .......................- ....- .--..-............. 956
Exhibits at fairs .............-------..........-----.. ....--........ 7
County ... ................... .............. ...... ...... ........... 5
State .. ....................... .. ........ ............. .... ... 2
Number Attendance
Farmers' meetings held ............ ......... ..... ...... 211 318


PROGRAM SUMMARY
Of Outlined Projects by Local Agents
Number
Communities
Participating
Soils ........................-- .. .......... 58
Farm Crops ...........................--....-...... 86
Dairy Husbandry .................... ...-............. 19
Poultry Husbandry .................................. 34
Total ............ ...............--........ 197


Days Agents
Devoted to
Projects
275
305
60
110

750


CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats, etc.)
Acreage grown under demonstration methods....................................
Boys' and girls' clubs ....................... ............... ....... ....
Acreage grown by club members ...........................................................
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels)........................
Farmers influenced to adopt better piactices....................................
Farmers who planted selected or improved seed ..............................


7,000
58
1,430
6,752
219
187


COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Acreage grown under improved methods........... ... ...... ............... 385
Farmers influenced to adopt better practice......................-................ 23
Boys' and girls' clubs ....... ........ ...................-. .... ...- .......... 16
Members enrolled .............-.........-..-............... ............. 39
Acreage grown by club members............................. .......... 104
Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.)..................- .....58,800
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed.................................. 28
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases.......... 22







84 Florida Cooperative Extension

LEGUME AND FORAGE -CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)
Number method demonstrations given ..................................... ..... 253
Number result demonstrations under way....................... ........... ..... .... 153
Number result demonstrations completed...................----- ................ 677
Acres in completed demonstrations ........ ............. .......................4 9 4,369

LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrations given --.......................... .............. 271
Demonstrations completed ... .. ... ..................................... 119
Animals in completed demonstrations ............................... ......... 3,409
Farmers who secured purebred sires and breeding stock....................... 102
Farmers culling breeding stock -----......................... ......... 57
Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests ....--............................. 239

RURAL ENGINEERING
Buildings on farms constructed or remodeled ........................25--- 25
Farmers who cleared land ............. ........................................... 3
Acres cleared ........--------........................ ... .....-..............-.... -70
Number of farms adopting other practices for the first time................ 25

DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS
Demonstrations .............................2............ ..... 26
Farmers adopting control measures --............................. 20
Acres involved ------. ---- ...................... 212

SUPPLIES PURCHASED AND PRODUCTS SOLD

Supplies Purchased Products Sold
Value Saving Value Profit

Fertilizer ...................... $565.00 $160.00 .............

Truck Crops .................... ............ $9,123.00
Watermelons .................... .. ......... .......... 800.00

$565.00 $160.00 ................ $9,923.00










INDEX


Agents, list of, 5

Blacklock, R. W., report of, 31
Blue mold decay, control of, 46
Board of Control and Staff, 4
Boys' club work, 31
Brown, Hamlin L., report of, 39
Bulletins published, list of, 13

Calf clubs, 32, 42
Camps, 35, 75
Cereal demonstrations, 20
Citrus aphid control, 48
Citrus pathologist-entomologist, re-
port of, 44
Citrus scab control, 45
Clayton, H. G., report of, 14
Clothing, 71
Club camps, county, 35, 75
Club rallies, county, 34, 76
Club work, influence on college en-
rollment, 35
Clubs, calf, 32
corn, 31
cotton, 32
pig, 33
poultry, 34
Contests, 75
College enrollment, influence of
club work on, 35
Cooper, J. Francis, report of, 13
Cooperating agencies, 11, 79
Control of blue mold decay, 46
Corn, 25
clubs, 32
Cotton clubs, 32
demonstrations, 20
Counties, cooperation of, 11
County agent work, 14
County club camps, 35
County club rallies, 34
County programs of work, 14

Dairy cattle demonstrations, 27
judging team, 37
organizations, 43
sires, exchange of, 42
tours, 43
work, 39, 68


Dairyman, report of, 39
DeBusk, E. F., report of, 44
Demonstrations-
cereal, 20
cotton, 20
dairy cattle, 27
farm management, 29
horticultural, 24
legume and forage crops, 22
pasture, 40
poultry, 28
rodent control, 25
rural engineering, 28
soil improvement, 19, 20
sweet and Irish potatoes, 21
swine, 26
Demonstration teams, 77
Director, report of, 8

Editor, report of, 13
Educational trips, for club members,
37, 78
Egg-Laying contest, National, 10
home, 55
Ensign, M. R., resigned, 10
Extension meetings, 15

Fairs, work with, 15, 76
Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week,
11, 75
Farm crops work, 20
Farm management demonstrations,
29
Financial statement, 7
Florida A. and M. College, cooper-
ating, 79
Foods, 70

General activities, county agents,
summary, 16
report for 1927, 7
Gleason, Flavia, report of, 60
Grazing crops, 41

Herd improvement, 40
Hog demonstrations, 26
Home demonstration work, 60
Home improvement, 72
marketing, 72








Florida Cooperative Extension


Home egg-laying contest, 55
Horticultural demonstrations, 24

Keown, Mary E., appointed, 10

Legume and forage crop. demonstra-
tions, 22

Mailing list, 13
Marketing, dairy products, 41
Meetings, extension, 15
Mehrhof, N. R., report of, 52
Melanose and stem-end rot control,
44
Moore, K. C., resigned, 10

National Egg-Laying contest, 10
Negro club work, 82
extension work, 79
Newell, Wilmon, report of, 8
Nutrition work, 69

Pasture demonstrations, 40
Personnel changes, 10
Pig Clubs, 33
Potato demonstrations, 21
Poultry clubs, 34, 54
demonstrations, 28
extension work, methods of con-
ducting, 52
standardization of, 53
work, 52, 68
Poultryman, report of, 52
Production records, dairy, 42
Program of work, county, 14
Program summary, county agents,


Project work, 17, 67
Publications, list of, 13

Rallies, club, 34, 76
Records, dairy production, 42
Rodent control demonstrations, 25
Rural engineering demonstrations,
28
Rust mite control, 48

Scale and whitefly control, 49
Scholarships, 77
Sires, exchange of dairy, 42
Settle, Lucy Belle, granted leave of
absence, 10
Short course, 34, 74
Soil improvement demonstrations, 19
Soils work, 17
Smith, J. Lee, report of, 14
Specialists work with county agents,
15
Spencer, A. P., report of, 14
Staff, and Board of Control, 4
Statistical summary, County Agent
work, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24,
25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30
Negro extension work, 83
Supplies purchased and products
sold, 30

Trunk and root diseases, treatment
of, 48
Turner, A. A., report of, 79

West Florida club camp, 36
Whitefly control, 49