<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal to gover...
 Credits
 Report of director
 County agent activities
 Boys' club work
 Permanent pasture demonstratio...
 Dairying
 Citrus pathology-entomology
 Plant pathology and entomology
 Poultry work
 Home demonstration work
 Farmers' week and extension...
 Farm and home makers' clubs
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00010
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1926
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00010
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal to governor
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    County agent activities
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Boys' club work
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Permanent pasture demonstrations
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Dairying
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Citrus pathology-entomology
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Plant pathology and entomology
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Poultry work
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Home demonstration work
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Farmers' week and extension schools
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Farm and home makers' clubs
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Index
        Page 94
        Page 95
Full Text





1926

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME
ECONOMICS

Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director


REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1926
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1926











1926


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME
ECONOMICS


Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1926
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1926











CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR ................ ..-.... .............. ..... 3
BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF ............... ........ ............. 4
COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS ................................... 5
REPORT OF D IRECTOR ........................-......................... ............................... 7
Financial Statement, 7; Cooperating Agencies, 8; Cooperation in
the Counties, 9.
PUBLICATIONS ................ .. -. ............ ..........- ... ...... ........ ...... 11
COUNTY AGENT ACTIVITIES ........... ................. .............. ....................... 12
Summary of Activities, 12; Central and South Florida District, 16;
North and West Florida District, 24.
BOYS' CLUB W ORK ......... ........... .............. ............... ........... ........................ 30
Crop clubs, 31; Citrus and Ornamentals Clubs, 34; Livestock Clubs,
34; Annual Short Course, 37; Club Rallies and Camps, 37; Teach-
ing Thrift in Club Work, 38.
PERMANENT PASTURE DEMONSTRATIONS ..... ........................................ 39
DAIRYING ... ............ .................. ....--- ............ .......... .......... 47
Feeding Demonstrations, 47; Silos, 47; Purebred Sires, 48; Calf
Club Work, 48; Dairy Tours, 49; Dairy Organization, 49; Fair Ex-
hibits, 49.
CITRUS PATHOLOGY-ENTOMOLOGY .............. ..... .................................. 50
Melanose, 50; Citrus Scab, 50; Blue Mold Decay, 51; Trunk and
Root Diseases, 52; Rust Mite, 52; Citrus Aphid, 53; Scale and
Whitefly, 53.
PLANT PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY .................................................. 54
Cucurbit Disease Control, 54; Spraying and Dusting of Irish Po-
tatoes, 56; Mosaic of Sugar Cane, 57; Seedbed Disinfection, 57;
Cotton Boll Weevil, 58; Two-Spotted Mite on Ferns, 58; Handbook
on Truck Diseases, 58; Bean Seed Work, 58; Report of Bean Seed
Inspection Trip, 59.
POULTRY W ORK ...... ........... ..... ..... ........................ 62
HOME DEMONSTRATION W ORK ............................................... .............. 69
Supervisory Program, 69; Project Activities and Results, 71;
Strengthening the Home Demonstration Organization, 85.
FARMERS' WEEK AND EXTENSION SCHOOLS ................................................ 88
FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS (Negro Work) .................................... 90























Hon. John W. Martin,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agri-
culture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1926, in-
cluding a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1926.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman, Board of Control.






BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra
A. H. LANDING, Tampa
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

OFFICERS, EXTENSION SERVICE, U. S. DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE
C. W. WARBURTON, Director
C. B. SMITH, Chief
STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, A.M., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER,. M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, B.S.A., Editor
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary
GRACE GREENE, Secretary to County Agent Leader
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor
RACHEL MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
K. C. MOORE, B.S., District Agent (Resigned October 10, 1926)
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
JOHN M. SCOTT, B.S., Animal Industrialist
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
M. R. ENSIGN, M.S., Pathologist and Entomologist (Resigned
September 30, 1926)
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent (Leave of absence, effective
October 15, 1926)
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
ELOISE MCGRIFF, M.S., Acting District Agent
MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Home Dairy and and Nutrition Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, B.S., Food and Marketing Agent







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua .......... F. L. Craft ........... Gainesville ................ Mrs. G. F. Warren
Baker ............ J. H. Shepherd, Jr... Macclenny ..................
Bradford ........ R. F. Ward .............. Starke ..... .......
Bay ................ R. R. Whittington.. Panama City ......................................
Brevard .......... W R. Briggs .......... Cocoa ...... .... .......... ........................
Broward .......C. E. Matthews .... Fort Lauderdale ... ...... ...........
Citrus ............ S. H. Rountree ...... Inverness ......................Mrs. E. W. Moore
Collier ........................................... .... Everglade ....................M rs. B. L. Vaden
Columbia ........ C. A. Fulford ......... Lake City ....................Mrs. M. S. Shook
Dade .............. J. S. Rainey .......... Miami ....................Miss Pansy I. Norton
Dade (Asst.).. C. H. Steffani .......... Miami .. ............ ...... ........
DeSoto ..........---...........--...............-----......... Arcadia ........................Mrs. N. B. Tucker
Duval ............ W. L. Watson ........ Jacksonville ......----.......Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.).. J. O. Traxler .......... Jacksonville........Miss Louise M. Pickens
Duval (Asst.).. H.. B. Lansden ........ Jacksonville ...........................
Escambia ...... Wingate W. Green.. Pensacola ...........-- Miss Josephine Nimmo
Flagler .......... L. T. Nieland ........ Bunnell ................--........
Gadsden ........--..........---................------- Quincy .......................Miss Elise Laffitte
Hamilton ..... J. J. Sechrest ........ Jasper ..... -- ............- ..........
Hardee .......... J. A. Shealy ............Wauchula ...................................
Highlands ...... L. H. Alsmeyer ...... Sebring .......... ............. .......
Hillsborough.. R. T. Kelley .....-.....Plant City................Miss Motelle Madole
Hillsborough.. .................-----..............----- Tampa ........................Mrs. Mary S. Allen
Holmes ....-.....-------...---..........-----.. ------- Bonifay ------.......................Mrs. B. A. Caudle
Indian River.. W. E. Evans .......... Vero Beach ................ ... ..
Jackson ........ E. P. Scott .............. Marianna ...........Miss Mary Sue Wigley
Jefferson ........ E. H. Finlayson...... Monticello ..----..................... ....
Lafayette ...... D. C. Geiger .......... Mayo --------------
Lake .............. E. W. Jenkins ........ Tavares ............................Miss Marie Cox
Lee ................. C. P. Wright ..........Fort Myers ..........Miss Sallie B. Lindsey
Leon .............. G. C. Hodge .......... Tallahassee ..................Mrs. R. C. Kellum
Levy ................N. J. Allbritton ...... Bronson .. ............... ..........
Liberty ......... A. W. Turner ........Bristol ...... .......... ........-....
Madison .......... B. E. Lawton ......... Madison ............................- ...
Manatee ........ L. H. Wilson .......... Bradenton ..............Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion .......... C. R. Hiatt .............. Ocala ................Miss Christine McFerron
Martin .......... C. P. Heuck ............Stuart .... ............. ........
Nassau ......... ...................................... Fernandina .----...............Miss Pearl Jordan
Okaloosa ........ R. J. Hart ................ Laurel Hill ---. ..--..........-
Okaloosa .............................................. Crestview ..................-----Miss Bertha Henry
Okeechobee .. S. H. Sherard ........ Okeechobee ................................
Orange .......... K. C. Moore ............ Orlando ........................Mrs. N. W. Taylor
Osceola ......... J. R. Gunn ............ Kissimmee .... ...............
Palm Beach.... S. W. Hiatt .............. West Palm Beach......Mrs. E. Y. Morgan
(Asst.) .... M. U. Mounts .......... West Palm Beach ..................................
Pasco ........... W. T. Nettles .......... Dade City ................Mrs. H. A. Ticknor
Pinellas ....... E. H. Hurlebaus...... Clearwater ..............Miss Helen Kennedy
Polk ................ F. L. Holland .......... Bartow ........................Miss Lois Godbey
(Asst.) .... ..................................... Bartow ......................Miss Mosel Preston
(Asst.) ......................................... Bartow ........................Miss Bernice Lyle
St. Johns ...... J. L. Scribner .......... St. Augustine..........Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie ...... Alfred Warren ...... Ft. Pierce ...................
Santa Rosa .. J. G. Hudson .......... Milton ..............Miss Ethyl M. Holloway
Seminole ........ B. F. Whitner, Jr... Sanford ... .....................
Sumter .......................... ..................... Bushnell..........Miss Agnes D. Yeamanst
Suwannee ............................................ Live Oak ................----Miss Corinne Barker
Taylor ............ R. J. Dorsett .......... Perry ............................Mrs. A. P. Powell
Union ........... L. T. Dyer ............ Lake Butler ................................
Volusia .......... T. A. Brown .......... DeLand ..........................Miss Orpha Cole
(Asst.) .... C. D. Case ............ DeLand .......... ............ ...
Wakulla ........ E. W. Ingle ........... Crawfordville ...............................
Walton .......... Gus A. York .......... De Funiak Spgs...Miss Agnes D. Yeamans
Washington .. L. S. Carter .......... Chipley .... .............................
*This list is correct to December 31, 1926.
TTransferred to Walton County near end of year.








































Fig. 1.-County club rally days create interest in club work among both club members and others of the county.










REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES

FOR 1926

With
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30, 1926


Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report
of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1926 and a summary
of the activities of the Division for the calendar year 1926. I
respectfully request that you transmit the same in accordance
with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Receipts
College of Agriculture Funds-
Smith-Lever, Federal .......................................S 58,872.25
Smith-Lever, State .............................. .. ........................ 48,872.25
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal .................................. 15,496.08
Supplementary Smith-Lever, State ......................................... 15,496.08
U. S. D. A. Appropriation ......................-....- ...... ............ .... 21,475.00
State Appropriations ............. ........................ 22,100.00
County Appropriations ................. .... ........................ 79,318.12

$261,629.78
Expenditures
Administration .................. ....... ........ ............................$ 9,877.17
Printing and Publications ...................... ............ ........ ............. ... 6,951.92
County Agents' work ................ ....... .... ............................ 122,093.94
Home demonstration work ...... ... ............... ..................... 72,897.67
Foods and Marketing ..............-.......... ... ....................... 3,707.34
Dairy and Nutrition ......................... .................... 3,600.00
Boys' club work ---........................................ 5,245.04
Animal industry ........................................................... 4,722.79
Negro farm and home makers' work ...................................-...... 16,500.42
Plant pathology and entomology .............................. ........... 9,548.77
Poultry industry ......................................................... 3,958.61
Extension schools and Farmers' Week ........................................ 2,526.11

$261,629.78






Florida Cooperative Extension


COOPERATING AGENCIES
The Agricultural Extension Division is one of the three de-
partments of the College of Agriculture of the University of
/ Florida. It carries on cooperative extension work in agricul-
ture and home economics under the provisions of the Smith-
Lever Act passed by Congress in May, 1914. This extension
work consists of giving instruction and practical demonstra-
tions in agriculture and home economics by field demonstrations
and publications, the work to be carried out according to an
agreement between the Secretary of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture and the State Agricultural College.
The State of Florida, through the State Legislature, provides
an offset appropriation of moneys equal to or exceeding those
furnished by the Federal Government through the Smith-Lever
Act. Counties desiring to cooperate provide additional funds
to be applied to the salaries and expenses of county extension
agents. It is also required that all appointees be selected and
their appointments approved by the Board of Control of the
University of Florida, and the United States Department of
Agriculture, before becoming effective. These regulations,
therefore, require a mutual plan of work between all cooperating
agencies, and the funds expended must be accounted for as pro-
vided by the Smith-Lever Act.
During the calendar year 1926, 54 Florida counties cooper-
ated in the employment of county extension agents. A list of
counties and names of agents is given on page 5.
In the employment of county extension agents the county
funds are usually provided by the boards of county commission-
ers and the county boards of public instruction, the Legislature
of Florida having made it legal for said boards to make a levy
for this purpose.
The fiscal year for the state extension activities begins July
1. Prior to this a budget outlining expenditures is approved
by the State Board of Control and the United States Department
of Agriculture and provides for a plan for conducting demon-
stration work in the fields of agriculture, horticulture, livestock,
poultry, and home economics. Counties desiring to cooperate
make application through the office of the Director of Exten-
sion. As far as funds are available, counties are provided with
county extension agents.






Annual Report, 1926


Small additional funds have been provided by the Legisla-
ture for expansion of extension work over that required to meet
the provision of the Smith-Lever Act. These are as follows: A
special fund to conduct extension work appropriated direct to
the State College for Women, Tallahassee. This is conducted
under the supervision of the State Home Demonstration Agent
and is a part of the home economics extension program for the
state.
By an act of the Legislature, a sum of money for the payment
of county agents' salaries is dispensed through the office of the
Commissioner of Agriculture on vouchers approved by the Di-
rector of Extension.
Other cooperative agencies are as follows: The Florida Ex-
periment Station, the College of Agriculture of the University
of Florida, and the State Plant Board, located at the Univer-
sity of Florida.
The Florida A. & M. College for Negroes, at Tallahassee, pro-
vides headquarters for the Negro extension work. This branch
also receives subject matter assistance from the A. & M. Col-
lege and all branches of extension work.
The Florida Live Stock Sanitary Board has helped many
county agents to render valuable assistance to the livestock in-
terests of Florida, particularly to dairymen, poultrymen and
hog raisers.
The State Marketing Bureau, under the supervision of Com-
missioner L. M. Rhodes, has rendered valuable services to this
office and to farmers with whom county agents work, in the
marketing and disposal of agricultural products that would
have been difficult to market otherwise.
The agricultural extension service works in close coopera-
tion with fairs, livestock, fruit, vegetable and other agricultu-
ral associations to promote agriculture and home economics
throughout the rural sections of Florida.

COOPERATION IN THE COUNTIES
Agricultural extension work was originally designed to place
county and home demonstration agents in every county, yet after
12 years of operation the limited funds provided have made it pos-
sible to cooperate with only 54 of the 67 counties, leaving 13 in
which no work is being done. The amount of money allotted
to extension work in Florida is relatively small compared with






Florida Cooperative Extension


that in other states, due to the fact that the Smith-Lever Act
provides that the allotment be made on the basis of the rural
population of any state in proportion to the total population
of the United States, and as the rural population of Florida is
comparatively smaller than that of other states, both the Fed-
eral and State allotment of funds is comparatively small. This
accounts for the inability to reach all counties of the state and
can only be remedied by additional state appropriations. The
Florida allotment to counties is smaller than in most other
states, due to smaller appropriations of funds from State and
Federal sources.
The average appropriation by counties in Florida is larger
than in many other states and has shown an annual increase
each year since 1914. This would indicate the approval of the
taxpayers in the various counties and a desire on the part of
county boards to promote the welfare of Florida's agricultural
interests.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1926, through lack of
funds, it has been impossible to cooperate with five counties
which made liberal appropriations to conduct extension work.
They made applications after the budget and allotments were
set, and it was impossible to allot these counties the amount
usually applied to counties. Four of these, however, cooperate
in the employment of county agents, the counties paying the
entire salary and expenses and placing the direction of the work
under the Agricultural Extension Division. In the fifth county
the allotment was not sufficient to employ a competent agent.
In order to give.assistance to all the diversified farming inter-
ests of Florida, it would be necessary to provide for other proj-
ects that cannot now be undertaken with the present allotment
of funds.






Annual Report, 1926


PUBLICATIONS
J. FRANCIS COOPER, Editor
The following publications have been issued during the year:
Bulletin No. Title No. Pages No. Copies
43 Club Work and the Farm Boy............ 20 5,000
44 Vegetable Crops of Florida................. 48 15,000
45 Poultry Houses and Equipment.......... 24 10,000
46 Water and Sewerage Systems for
Florida Rural Homes .................... 24 10,000
Cooperative Annual Report................. 100 1,500
Florida Pepper (Club paper)............ 4 18,000
Yearly Calendar.............................. 12 8,540
Ten Lessons for Poultry Club Mem-
bers .......... -..................... 16 5,000
Agricultural News Service .............. 1 28,560
Vegetables and Serving ..................... 16 5,000
Breads for Home Demonstration
Clubs ................ .. ...................... 20 10,000
Foods and Methods of Preparation.... 52 5,000
Miscellaneous: The editor has supervised the mailing room,
where all bulletins and other publications are mailed out, and
where the multigraphing and mimeographing for the Experi-
ment Station and Agricultural Extension Division are done.
A special "Farmers' Week" page was run in the Gainesville
Sun each day during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week, and
copies of the paper were distributed free to visitors. Mimeo-
graphed Club Short Course News Sheets were prepared by the
Editor and distributed at the short courses in Gainesville and
Tallahassee.
Special stories on extension activities or containing farm in-
formation were prepared for Florida, Southern, and National
farm papers. Numerous pictures of extension activities were
furnished, both with and without special stories.






Florida Cooperative Extension


COUNTY AGENT ACTIVITIES
A. P. SPENCER, State Leader
H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
K. C. MOORE, District Agent
The counties of Florida having agents were supervised by
three district agents until October, 1926, when K. C. Moore re-
signed to take up county agent work, leaving the supervision to
two district agents. The division of districts was made on the
basis of the type of agriculture and also with a view of economy
in travel.
The supervisory work has consisted of assistance to county
agents in making plans and helping to carry them out, also giv-
ing assistance in maintaining the office organization, with re-
ports, handling of meetings, fairs, etc. This part of the super-
vision has taken a little more than two-thirds of the district
agents' time. In each county the agent works toward a system-
atized plan and the program is shaped so as to conform to the
most satisfactory agricultural practices.
For the most part, the county agents are equipped with offices
or headquarters, with filing cases, typewriter, desk, bulletin
rack, and, in a few cases, with stereopticon or motion picture
outfits, all of which are paid for by funds appropriated by the
county boards. It is recommended that where finances are suf-
ficient and the work justifies, clerical assistance be provided in
the offices and paid for by the county boards. Approximately
25 percent of the counties have complied with this request,
which has proven valuable.
A statistical summary of activities follows:
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 357
Voluntary county, community and local leaders....................................... 518
Clubs carrying on extension work .................... ....................... 261
Memberships ............... ............ ............................ ....... 4,306
Farm visits made by county agents ............................. ...........23,649
Different farms visited ........................................... 9,771
Home visits made by county agents ............................................. 3,302
Different homes visited ..... ................ ........ ..... 2,110
Telephone and office calls on agents relative to extension work..........56,465
Average number days spent in office ............-.. -................... 91.1
Average number days spent in field ..... ...----..... ......... ............... 202.6
Official letters written .................- ...................... ....35,897
Exhibits at fairs ................. ........... ................. 41
Community ---...---...............................................10
County ............................... ............... 29
State .. ...................... ........................ 2







Annual Report, 1926


Number Attendance
Farmers' meetings held ................... ... ...... .........---- ... 963 14,336
Extension schools and short courses held.....--...............---.. 19 534
Total attendance club members, junior encampments and rallies..-..... 434

PROGRAM SUMMARY
Of Outlined Projects by County Agents
Number Days agents
communities devoted to
participating projects
Soils ................... --- ................. ... .. 160 409
Farm Crops .......... ...........-.... .... ........ ......... 292 1,298
H horticulture ..................... ................ .......... ........ 254 1,698%
Forestry ..... ......................... ..... ........... ... ..........- .. 11 14
Rodents, predatory animals and birds..-...................--. 36 115
Animal husbandry ....................... ............ .... .... 136 1,0471
Dairy husbandry .....................- --- ....- ............ 103 713%
Poultry husbandry ................. .......... .................. 195 1,210 2
Rural engineering ............................. ............... 94 196
Agricultural economics ........................ ... ............. 158 538 4
Miscellaneous work ...... .. --- ...... .... ........... ........ 128 1,151%
Community activities ........ -----............ ............ 15 137


Total .................- ...................1,582

CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats, etc.)
Acreage grown under demonstration methods................................-
Boys' and girls' clubs ......-......................... ......
Acreage grown by club members ...........................................
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels).........................
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices..............................
Farmers who planted selected or improved seed........................
Farmers who treated seed grain for smut.................................

COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Acreage grown under improved methods................-..... ..-- .......
Farms influenced to adopt better practice.................--...............
Boys' and girls' clubs........ .................. .---- .... .........
Members enrolled ...... .....-- .........-.................-
Acreage grown by club members..............................................
Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.)...................... ........- .
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed..............................
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases........
Number farms treating seed for disease ........................ ..........


8,530


396
41
106
4,070%
351
303
4



694
212
11
199
82
96,483
116
35
37


LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)


Number method demonstrations given ...........................-.......
Number result demonstrations under way....................... ...........
Number result demonstrations completed.................................
Acres in completed demonstrations............ .............


233
245
711
11,428/2







Florida Cooperative Extension


HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATIONS
Number method demonstrations given ................................ 1,712
Number result demonstrations .................. ............ 1,192
Result demonstrations completed during year........................ 914
Acres involved in demonstrations ............................ 10,117
Number of boys' clubs ........---....................... 27
Membership ......... ............................... 688
Number planting improved stock or seed................................ 570
Number pruning ............................... ................ 152
Trees involved ...... ...... .......................... 125,693
Number spraying or treating for diseases and insect pests ........... 638
Acres treated .................... ... .............. 1,253
Number farms adopting improved practices ............ ............... 960

SWEET AND IRISH POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS
Method Demonstrations .... ................... .. ......... 117
Acreage grown under improved methods .................. .......----...- 4481/2
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices................................. 360
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed............................ 246
Farmers who treated seed for disease.......... ............ ........ 88
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects.... 62

DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS
Animals in completed demonstrations. ......--- ..............- 565
Saving resulting from better practices......................................... $1,490
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ............................ 297
Farmers assisted in securing purebred sires ............................. .. 67
Farms assisted in securing high grade or purebred females ....... 178
Farmers who culled their herds ............ ............... ......... 93
Animals in these herds ............................ ........ ... ....... 1,431
Animals discarded ....... ---...... .... -------- -- ........... ........... 403
Farmers' associations who tested cows for production --............... 40
Cows tested for production ........................... ..... .......... 1,817
Farmers who fed better balanced rations .......-........ ...... 145
Farmers who controlled insect pests ................. ...... ........ 157
Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis............. .............. 173
Number of farms adopting more sanitary production methods........ 237

HOG DEMONSTRATIONS
Dem onstrations given ....................................... 710
Animals in completed demonstrations....................... .......... 4,238
Savings resulting from better practices ............-............- $8,700
Farmers who secured purebred sires ..........----- ............... 109
Farmers assisted in obtaining purebred females ......................... 117
Farmers who fed better balanced rations .................................... 94
Farmers culling breeding stock ................................ .......... 61
Number of animals culled out ............ ....................... 267
Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests ...........................-- 67

POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrators ............................... ........................................ ............ 546
Birds is these demonstrations .......-..............- ............. -- 52,536
Saving resulting from better practices ......................................$531,846







Annual Report, 1926 15

Number of farms assisted in securing purebred breeding stock..... 393
Poultrymen who culled their flocks ............................... 388
Number of birds in these flocks ........................... ........ 57,729
Number of birds discarded ................................... 18,022
Number of breed associations formed ........................... ........ 5
Membership .................. .......... ..........----...... 166

SOIL IMPROVEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrations ............. ........... ............... ...... ............ 729
Acres involved in completed demonstrations-- ................................. 2,694
Farmers influenced to change methods soil management............... 1,372
Farmers following advice in use of commercial fertilizers......... 1,277
Tons commercial fertilizer involved.................... -- ......... 6,6341/2
Farmers taking better care of farm manures ...............................- 308
Farmers using lime or limestone.............................. ... 135
Tons of lime or limestone so used ............ ........ ... .......... 7141/2
Farmers who plowed under cover crops for soil improvement........ 154
Acres of cover and green manure so plowed under........................ 2,792

RURAL ENGINEERING
(Things Done with Agents' Assistance and Advice)
Acres Number
Drainage systems installed .................................... 6,502 124
Irrigation systems installed ....................... ... .... ........... 288 30
Terraces constructed ................ ....... .... ................ 1,952 73
Water systems installed ..................................... 24
Heating systems installed .............................. ........ 2
Lighting system s installed ................ ......... ........ ......... 14
Farms on which buildings were constructed or remodeled............. 194
Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled....................... 386
Number sewage-disposal systems installed............................... 14
Farmers who cleared land .................................................. ........... 154
A cres cleared ............. ...... ........... .... ........................... .. 3,187
Number of farms adopting above practices for first time ............- 453

DEMONSTRATION IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS
Demonstrations .................. .. ....................... 192
Farmers adopting control measures ................................... ... 691
Acres involved ....-................. ................... 12,319

FARM MANAGEMENT
Number method demonstrations given.................................. 104
Farm account books distributed ---.......---...................... 294
Farmers who kept records ............................. .. .. .......... 66
Farmers assisted in keeping accounts ......................................... 86
Farmers who changed methods as result of keeping accounts...... 91
Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming
systems according to recommendations .................................. 242
Farmers advised relative to leases .......... ....................... ................ 286
umber of junior farm account clubs ..................................... 12
farmers assisted in keeping cost of production records..-............ 197
Number of farms adopting improved farm management practices 567







16 Florida Cooperative Extension

SUPPLIES PURCHASED AND PRODUCTS SOLD
Supplies Purchased Products Sold
Value Saving Value Profit
Crates .....- ................... $ 6,960.00 $ 1,630.00 ...............
Seeds, fertilizer, barrels,
dust, etc........................ 115,187.71 24,257.84 $154,637.91 $ 85,277.13
Livestock ................ ... 65.00 ............... 54,675.00 9,310.00
Poultry ................................ ................ 30,199.70 7,452.00
Fertilizer ........................... 99,897.80 17,358.30 4,425.00 625.00
Seeds ........... ........ ....... 9,285.00 1,940.00 .....................
Cukes .... ............... ............. ............... 58,020.00 46,370.00
Citrus ....................... ...... .. 208.70 98.75 ........................
Fruit trees .......................... 900.75 236.80
Dairying ........................... 7,900.00 1,625.00 3,300.00 250.00
Sweet potatoes ................. .............. ............. 4,500.00 300.00
Syrup cans & barrels........ 2,000.00 600.00 ........
Truck crops ................... .,... ...... .............. 39,630.00 .................
Excelsior ........................... 1,234.00 207.00 ........ .
Nursery stock & fertilizer 10,271.90 1,842.06 ............... ................
Feeds .............................. 2,755.52 496.80 ................ .......
Fertilizer & eggs ............. 9,800.00 3,500.00 683.60 105.00
Total ............................$266,466.38 $ 53,792.55 $250,071.21 $149,689.13

CENTRAL AND SOUTH FLORIDA DISTRICT-
H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent
The work in this territory has been carried on in a satisfac-
tory manner during the past year. About half of the agents
have been granted salary increases, indicating an appreciation
of the work being done. The close of the year finds the agricul-
tural situation in a condition much improved over last year.
County agent work is on a good safe basis and well thought of
in the counties cooperating.

SUMMARY DISTRICT AGENT'S VISITS
This agent has during the year ending November 30, made
83 visits to county agents, each visit of one or more days. Ter)
visits were made to counties without agents; 189 days were
spent in the field and 103 in the office; 10 days were spent ii
the Farm Seed Loan Office at West Palm Beach helping to sup
ply United States Department of Agriculture funds to storn
stricken farmers; 42 meetings with an attendance of 4,000 per.
sons were attended, the district agent taking part in many oj
the programs.
OFFICE ORGANIZATION
All county agents have offices. Ten of these are at the respect)
tive courthouses and five are situated at places other than court






Annual Report, 1926


houses. Five county agents have stenographers. The county
agents in this territory have had experience in extension work
which averages over four years per agent. Only one agent has
had less than one year of such work.
There has been less changing of agents in this territory this
year than last, changes being made in only two counties due to
resignations. Every agent in the territory with two exceptions
has had agricultural college training and these two have had
years of practical farm experience.
Four agents have motion picture machines, purchased from
county funds. Each agent has typewriter and some office
equipment.
PROJECT WORK
All project work is divided under the following heads: (1)
Soils, (2) farm crops, (3) horticulture (including truck crops,
citrus, beautification), (4) forestry, (5) rodents, predatory ani-
mals and birds, (6) animal husbandry, (7) dairy husbandry, (8)
poultry, (9) rural engineering (drainage, farm buildings, etc.),
(10) agricultural economics (including marketing and farm
management), (11) community activities (fairs, community
meetings, organizations, etc.), (12) miscellaneous.
Club work is carried as junior project work and comes mainly
under numbers, (2), (3), (6), (7), and (8)'as listed above.
Each county agent in this territory is working on an average
of 51/2 of the above projects. Every agent has projects (3) and
(8) in his plan of work. Forestry is not a project with any
agent.
During the spring months interests other than agriculture
were active and seemed to offer financial possibilities in excess
of possible profits from agriculture. This drew interest away
from the farms and kept growers during the spring months
from cooperating with county agents in conducting as many
demonstrations as had been planned.

SOILS
The soil is the basis of all present and future agricultural
production and it is especially necessary under climatic condi-
tions existing in Florida to so handle agricultural production
that the soil is kept in a productive condition. Cover crops are
essential to maintain a high producing soil. This fact is well






Florida Cooperative Extension


known to citrus growers, the majority of whom grow a cover
crop each year. Truck growers have not given as much thought
to cover crops as have the citrus growers, largely due to the
fact that following the spring truck crop a volunteer crop of
crab grass appears and this is enough of a rotation to enable
the same land to be used for truck crops year after year. How-
ever, each year more farmers are realizing the need for grow-
ing a legume cover crop and for this purpose at the present
time velvet beans, cowpeas, beggarweed and crotalaria are the
best crops of the kind that we have.
In this territory during the past year county agents' reports
show 36 demonstrations completed on 684 acres and that 153
farmers plowed under cover crops on 1,673 acres for the first
time. This type of work is each year converting additional
farmers to the value of such practices.
This section of Florida buys each year a great amount
of commercial fertilizer and, while many growers are fairly well
posted, each year additional farmers are improving the prac-
tices they have been following. This year 144 farmers adopted
improved practices involving 1,167 tons of fertilizer as a result
of the efforts of county agents.

FARM CROPS
Four counties in this territory grow considerable acreages of
corn, peanuts, velvet beans, sweet potatoes, etc. In Levy Coun-
ty the corn and peanuts grown for hog feed made good yields.
In the other counties general farm crops are grown mainly as a
follow-up crop after truck crops.
County agents have assisted farmers in purchase of seed and
improved varieties. Forty demonstrations in seven counties in-
volving 709 acres were carried on in the growing of legumes
for forage and cover crops. Nineteen farmers in three counties
planted improved sweet potato seed for the first time. Nine
demonstrations in four. counties with Irish potatoes gave an
average increase over ordinary methods of 321/ bushels per
acre.
HORTICULTURE
Citrus.-Citrus on a commercial scale is grown in all except
two counties in this territory. A large part of the time of the
county agents has been spent in work with citrus. The main






Annual Report, 1926


problems from the production standpoint before the citrus
grower are to improve the quality of the fruit and reduce the
cost of production per box. This involves a number of phases
of citrus production. In some cases economical control of in-
sects and diseases will produce the desired results; in others
the chief trouble is with the soil, which needs building up or
spots in the groves need drainage; in still others, changes in
fertilizer practices or increased fertilizer may be needed.
Rust mite control demonstrations were carried on in seven
counties. Twelve demonstrations were carried out in the con-
trol of scale-insects. Seven demonstrations were conducted on
melanose control. Friendly fungi to control scale and whitefly
were introduced into 13 groves. In Orange County the county
agent has certain typical groves for which he outlines the fer-
tilizer, spraying schedule and cultural practices. Three of these
groves so handled serve as object lessons to other growers. In
a test on a grove of 1,600 trees to find the cause of shy bearing,
with some trees results show failure to bear was due to wrong
fertilizing and not to poor bud selection. Observation shows this


Fig. 2.-The county agent helps club boys and girls to study citrus insects
and diseases.






Florzda Cooperative Extension


Fig. 3.-Truck crops are an important source of farm income in Florida,
and county agents devote a great deal of attention to problems of
truck growers.

same condition is true in other groves of the county. Every
agent in these citrus producing counties does a large amount
of personal service work in the nature of inspection of groves
to make recommendations as to spraying, culture, fertilization,
etc. In the case of new settlers who have bought or planted
groves, this service may call for from one to two to as many as
eight or ten visits a year. This type of service is much appre-
ciated by the grower and is of value to the county. This is
termed personal service work and not actual demonstration.
By press articles, circular letters and personal contact, the agent
is able to call the attention of the growers to the need for timely
sprayings, especially in the case of such insects as whitefly,
scale-insects and rust mites, thus catching these insects at the
proper stage for best control.
The change in ownership and cutting up of large acreages of
grove property has interfered with carrying on actual demon-
strations this year, but has added to the personal service work.






Annual Report, 1926


Truck Crops.-The work on truck crops was mainly disease
and insect control on tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplants
and Irish potatoes. One item of special value to the truck grow-
er is seed treatment.
The use of improved seed is being increased through the
county agents' activities. Test packages of Marglobe tomato
seed were distributed to over 100 growers in this territory.
Truck growers also demand personal service work. New set-
tlers coming in are served by inspection of their land, advice
as to crops it is suited for, varieties of seed, fertilization, cul-
ture, spraying schedule, etc.
Bulb growing on a commercial scale is being carried on in
only a few counties. This continues to look promising and the
plantings to increase. No grower is known who made a fail-
ure during the year. This crop has not been grown long enough
to test the markets and establish a selling system.
Other Fruits.-Grapes, Avocados and Mongoes.-Assistance
has been rendered by county agents to growers of these fruits,
especially with regard to information on spraying, culture and
fertilizing.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Only one agent in this territory has been vaccinating hogs
against cholera. He has treated over 13,000 hogs and has ren-
dered a valuable service. In connection with the treating of
hogs, this agent has encouraged better feeding, sanitation, mar-
keting and the improvement of breeding stock. A cooperative
selling organization was organized and is functioning, having
handled five cars of hogs to date. Eight purebred boars and
eight purebred sows have been brought into the county. Other
agents have been working with the Live Stock Sanitary Board,
whose agents do the actual work of treating hogs. Marion
County has an active pig club and the boys had 40 good club
pigs at the county fair and annual contest.
There is increased interest in growing hogs especially in
Union, Alachua, Marion and Levy counties.
Beef Cattle.-Most of the beef cattle are range cattle which
have sold at low prices for the past few years. There has been
a small demand for good bulls to use on the ranges and an inter-
est aroused in selling range cattle as yearlings.







Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRYING

County agents have given considerable attention to the needs
of dairymen. The trend in dairying is to produce whole milk
either for local trade or for shipment to other markets in the
state. Marion and Pasco counties are the leading counties of
this territory in the shipment of milk.
Much interest is now manifest in securing better pastures,
-,and this is largely due to results obtained with demonstration
pastures and meetings held at such demonstrations. A grass
mixture of carpet, lespedeza, Dallis and Bahia grasses has given
best results. Dairy associations have been organized in Mar-
ion, Manatee and Pasco counties. Also the first Bull Club in the
State was organized in Marion County. This county also has
the only dairy calf club in this territory.
Help has been given dairymen on feeding and care of dairy
cows and on care and handling of milk. Plans have been fur-
nished for 15 dairy barns and milk houses.
Marion County community dairy associations are buying feed
cooperatively, holding regular meetings, and are working to-
gether to build up dairying. One association had a nice exhibit
at the county fair.
Work done in Pasco County on keeping milk and feed records
and in growing soiling crops, is having a real effect as the re-
sults are showing the value of such items to the dairymen.
They have caused culling of boarder cows, home mixing of feeds
and the growing of more feed. Twenty dairymen are keeping
records.
Forty-one dairymen have been assisted in adopting better
feeding methods, 25 in improving their methods of handling
milk, 8 purebred bulls have been brought in and 40 farmers
have been assisted in buying either high grade or purebred
cows.
POULTRY

This is a live subject in this territory. New poultry farms
are going in, farmers are increasing their flocks, good breed-
ing stock is in demand. Active poultry associations are at work
in almost every county. Culling demonstrations have been held
by county agents in practically every county. The records






Annual Report, 1926


show 138 culling demonstrations were held, dealing with 20,000
birds from which 5,000 were culled.
Poultry associations are most active in marketing eggs and
live poultry.
County agents have assisted poultrymen in planning poultry
houses, purchase and sale of breeding stock, with feeding meth-
ods, sanitation, marketing of eggs, disease and insect control
and the cooperative buying of supplies.
Poultry club work offers an opportunity to do club work in
counties where other types of club work do not seem to be
adapted. The county agents are taking this up as the main club
activity in some counties.
RURAL ENGINEERING
Drainage and the planning of farm buildings are the main
items under this heading upon which work was done. County
agents furnished plans for 48 poultry houses and 15 barns.
ARGICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Most of the cooperative buying and selling in this territory
was done by well organized associations. Some of these have
been in existence for a number of years. The county agents
work closely with these associations, but the members of the
association do all the handling of the business. See page 16.
MISCELLANEOUS
Storm Relief Work.-Following the storm of September 18,
1926, the county agents in Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, Lee,
Okeechobee and Highlands County agent, acting for Glades
County, and the former agent of Hendry County performed a
very creditable service to this area. Through their efforts a
quick approximate survey of the needs of the farmers was as-
certained, with lists of farmers who would absolutely have to
have help in order to get in even a part of a normal crop. Other
extension and Experiment Station workers secured information
about counties where no agents were located.
Through the offices of the Secretary of Agriculture, $300,000
was made available for loans to be used for the purchase of.feed,
seed, fertilizer, gas and oil. The Federal Farm Seed Loan Office
established an office in West Palm Beach with Dr. C. W. War-
burton from Washington in charge and with Mr. L. E. White
as disbursing officer.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The county agents furnished this office with lists of citizens
fitted to serve on local and county committees for passing on
the merits of applicants for loans before such applications came
to the Seed Loan Office.
These agents spent approximately 60 days each in helping
their farmers to secure this aid and aiding the Farm Seed Loan
Office by furnishing information which permitted prompt ac-
tion on applications for loans.
This disaster demonstrated that in a case of this kind an or-
ganization of county agents was a force resourceful and capable
of meeting emergencies in an efficient manner.
Fair Work.-This is one activity which at times appears to
consume too much of county agents' time. Some counties show
at the State Fair, the South Florida Fair and hold a county fair.
However, one of the needs of Florida is more settlers and the
fairs offer a means of displaying agricultural products before
prospective settlers, besides keeping agriculture before our own
citizens.

NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA DISTRICT
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
About two-thirds of the time of the District Agent has been
spent in the counties of the district with the agents, assisting
them in maintaining their office organization, reports, and rec-
ords; assisting them in determining what their program of work
for the year should be, or in analyzing their program; assisting
them in their subject matter, their publicity, or other phases
of their work. In doing this he has made 128 visits to counties.
He has taken part in 61 extension meetings with an attendance
of 3,089 farmers. The remainder of the time has been spent in
the office, or in connection therewith, attending to records and
reports, publicity, boys' short course, Farmers' Week program,
and fairs.
SOILS
The rainfall in Florida is between 50 and 60 inches per an-
num. Conditions are such as to bring about a quick oxidization
of the vegetable matter of the soil. Therefore, a need for lots
of it. To supply this and to demonstrate its value, the exten-
sion service of North and West Florida has conducted or has
under way, 12 demonstrations with soybeans or other legumes,






Annual Report, 1926


and 25 with oats and vetch, or rye. These crops were or will be
plowed into the land at the proper time.

FARM CROPS
Corn: Approximately 62 percent of the cultivated land in
this territory is grown to corn. According to Federal Govern-
ment statistics, this corn is costing $1.12 per bushel. The pro-
duction is only 15 bushels per acre. The market price at pres-
ent is 75 cents a bushel. This is approximately what the corn
is costing when labor is not counted. When a better prepara-
tion of the seedbed is made, better seed are used, and a better
use of fertilizer is made, the production per acre can be in-
creased and the cost of production correspondingly decreased.
There were demonstrations conducted by the agents in this ter-
ritory this year to show the method and value of more econom-
ical corn production. An example of the results is shown below:
Mr. G. M. Green of Columbia County says, "With the help of
Mr. C. A. Fulford, the County Agent, I have this year produced
on 10 acres of land, 375 bushels of corn at the low cost of a
little more than 50 cents per bushel. Total cost was $191, which
included all labor, man and mules, fertilizer and land rent. At
75 cents per bushel, it is easy to see that I made a profit of
S90 on the 10 acres after deducting the cost."
Cotton: The average production of cotton in Florida this
year was approximately 335 pounds seed cotton per acre. The
cost of producing the yield is the same in every item, except
fertilizer and seed, as that of the demonstrations conducted by
the county agents. With an added expense of $8 for better
seed and more and better fertilizer, Okaloosa County's 22 club
boys produced an average of 1,319 pounds per acre; an increase
of 984 pounds over the state's average. These boys produced
their seed cotton for 3.1 cents per pound.
Peanuts: Our demonstrations this year with peanuts were
to show the value of land plaster as a fertilizer for peanuts. At
a field meeting at one of these demonstrations, the demonstra-
tor said: "The facts brought out are almost unbelievable, yet I
know them to be true. Where land plaster was used 183 solid
nuts were produced to 17 where it was not used, and less pops."
There were a great many of these demonstrations conducted
this year.
Sweet Potatoes: Several county agents conducted demon-
strations this year to show the value of early sweet potatoes






Florida Cooperative Extension


as a cash crop. The value in part is shown by Henry L. Baker,
a Washington County club boy, who put some time on the farm
and the balance at public work. He says, "When I was at work
on my crop, I was making the average of 34 cents per hour and
when I was at public work I was making the average of 163/%
cents per hour."
Soybeans: To show the value of soybeans as a hay crop as
well as a soiling crop; 12 demonstrations were conducted.
HORTICULTURE
Fruits: The commercial growing of satsumas, blueberries,
grapes, and sand pears in West Florida is a new industry. In
this territory the county agents have spent a good deal of time
with the growers advising them of the proper methods of set-
ting, cultivating, fertilizing and spraying these fruits. They
have assisted them in pooling orders for trees. They have
held method demonstrations in picking the fruit, and in
packing it. The
first carloads of
fresh blueberries,
grapes, and sat-
sumas moved
from this terri-
tory this season.
Beautification
Work: The
grounds around
most farmsteads
and public build-
ings in West
Florida are any-
thing but beau-'
tiful. They are
bare of lawn
grass, rubbish is
lying around, and
no flowers and
shrubbery a r e
planted. The
several agents
Fig. 4.-County agent and grower discuss pruning conducting beau-
and other problems of grape growing.
tification demon-






Annual Report, 1926


stations this year are the first ones in this district to conduct
demonstrations along this line. R. R. Whittington, county
agent of Bay County, did an outstanding piece of work. He re-
ports: "The project of beautification of home grounds, I was
able to put over far beyond my expectations. Twenty-six home
grounds and three public ground demonstrations have been
made in which I have assisted from the preparation of the
grounds to the selection of the plants, planting, and advising
the care for them through the year. The plans included hedges,
borders, gardens, foundation plantings, and lawns. By these
demonstrations so much interest has been aroused that I now
have quite a number of requests to assist with beautification
work this winter."
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Swine: Practically every county agent in the North and West
Florida territory has been actively engaged in conducting both
breeding and feeding demonstrations with swine this year.
The agents have conducted 170 feeding demonstrations and 113
breeding demonstrations. They have assisted farmers in secur-
ing 63 males and 50 females. B. E. Lawton of Madison County
has been able to place 125 breeding pigs on Madison farms this
year. Club boys fed out 93 barrows which he helped them sell
for approximately $2,200. He helped sell 60 registered pigs for
club boys who were breeding pigs. He got some 50 farmers to
feed out several cars of hogs and put them on the August and
September market. His boys exhibited 208 pigs at the county
fair and 135 at the State Fair. One of his boys showed the
grand champion Duroc sow in the open ring at the State Fair.
The county agents have vaccinated,hogs for the prevention
df cholera on 552 f'rms': '
DAIRY HUSBANDRY
Besides assisting dairymen and farmers in building silos and
modern barns, making their places more sanitary, extension
workers of North and West Florida are assisting them in rais-
ing the standard of the herds. They are helping dairymen from
other places to get established. They are assisting them to or-
ganize so that they can economically market their products.
They are assisting in putting in pastures. They have assisted
in placing 41 purebred sires and 293 purebred or high grade
dams on the farms this year. There are now 25 permanent pas-
ture demonstrations being conducted. In one county where a







Florida Cooperative Extension


year ago no dairy products were being marketed, more than 500
gallons of milk a day are now being shipped out.

POULTRY HUSBANDRY
Poultry: The last two years have seen a wonderful develop-
ment in the poultry industry of West Florida. There were in
January, 1925, approximately 600,000 birds on the farms of
this terriory. The estimate now is 750,000. There are com-
mercial flocks in every county now; then there were very
few. The flocks on the farms have been increased and their
standard raised. There is no force that has been as instru-
mental in this development as the extension workers of the
College of Agriculture. The last year they have placed 20,244
purebred birds on the farms and culled 111 flocks composed of
10,093 birds. They have assisted in marketing poultry products.


















Fig. 5.-A poultry brooder house.
National Egg Laying Contest: The Chipley Chamber of
Commerce, cooperating with County Agent L. S. Carter, built
a plant of 50 houses, costing over $10,000 and put up $5,000
for operating expenses for a National Egg-Laying Contest
at Chipley and requested the Extension Division of the Col-
lege of Agriculture to take it over and conduct it. This was
done and on November 1, 1926, the first Florida National Egg-
Laying Contest began with 50 pens entered. Mr. E. F. Stanton,
a practical poultryman, was put in charge. This plant will be






Annual Report, 1926


a great means of stimulating interest in poultry in Florida and
especially in this district.

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Terracing: During this year 68 terracing demonstrations
affecting 1,952 acres were conducted by the county agents of
Madison, Jefferson, Leon, and Okaloosa counties.
Poultry and Hog Houses: Forty-six poultry houses suitable
to Florida conditions were built in this part of the state from
plans furnished by county agents and under their supervision.
Twenty-seven hog houses and barns were built under the
agents' supervision.
Water and Light Plants: More water and light plants were
installed in this district this season than ever before in one year.

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Purchases and Sales: The county agents of this territory
have assisted in making a large number of purchases and co-
operative sales during the year. See page 16.
The service rendered has been worth the time and attention
given, but in performing this service the agents have rendered
a larger service in showing the farmers how to pack a standard
product or in advising the proper quantity and quality of fer-
tilizer to use for various purposes.

MISCELLANEOUS
Extension Meetings: This year there were held 399 meet-
ings with an attendance of 8,244 farmers, where such subjects
as dairying, hogs, pastures, fruit culture, fertilizers, etc., were
discussed. Through these meetings it has been possible to
reach many farmers with the things they are most interested in.
Fairs and Exhibits: There were 10 boys' and girls' club
contests held in this territory. These were the most success-
ful ever held. More educational work was gotten over with
them. Where there was no county fair, judging lessons were
&iven the boys. A judging contest was held at the Walton
countyy Contest.
Eight counties of North and West Florida were represented
,t the State Fair with exhibits. Only four county fairs were
teld in the district. These county fairs are conducted largely
'y the county agents and are becoming more and more educa-
ional each year.






Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' CLUB WORK
R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent

The year 1926 has been the most successful club year in
Florida since the War. In 1918 and 1919, due to the emergency
appropriations, county agents were employed in every county
and assistant agents in several. With war-time fervor to help,
it was an easy matter to enroll club members. The highest en-
rollment was reached in 1918 when 3,276 boys were enrolled in
club work. Beginning with 1920 there was a decided drop in
enrollment until 1923 when the bottom was reached. The last-
ing value of club work was beginning to be appreciated and the
enrollment started upward. Table I shows the enrollment for
1925 and 1926.

TABLE I.-CLUB ENROLLMENT FOR 1925 AND OCTOBER, 1926

I4
o o

0 .d 0 ;: 0
u P m U U 0 A Ec H E-E

1926 ........................ 232287 96 130 191296 36 152597346 26 2389


Gain** in 1926 ....30144 -3 108 9 7 ....... -349332 -3 1231

*Peanut club.
**Loss indicated by minus (-) sign.

The 1926 enrollment was increased 108 percent over that for
1925. This increase was obtained under the abnormal condi-
tions resulting from the unusual real estate activity. During
the fall of 1925 and the spring of 1926, interest in farming was
low and agricultural club work did not offer much inducement
in comparison to the wages paid, even to boys, for work on subdi-
visions. Even so, the enrollment for 1926 was within 887 of
that for 1918. There were 14 counties having boys in club work
in 1918 which had no work in 1926. Considering only those
counties having the work in 1926 and comparing their enroll-
ment with the enrollment for the same counties in 1918, we find
that 1926 enrollment exceeded that of 1918 by 293. Club work






Annual Report, 1926


is at its best mark and with the addition of several more coun-
ties employing agents for 1927, we expect to bring the enroll-
ment up to that of 1918-19.
The greatest improvement was in the Central and South Flor-
ida districts. West Florida has long held the leadership but
was forced to yield in 1926. Each district showed an increase.
The central district went from -130 in 1925 to 1,201 in 1926.
The county agents in Pasco, Lee and Marion counties were re-
sponsible for the larger part of this increase.

CROP CLUBS

Cotton Club: The large yields and profits made in the cot-
ton club in 1925 caused a decided increase in enrollment. The
membership went from 94 in 1925 to 191 in 1926. The county
agents of the cotton growing counties planned for better cotton
acres as well as more of them. The boys were encouraged and
aided in securing the right kind of fertilizer. In most counties
an improved variety of seed was purchased for the club acres.
The outlook for a record crop was favorable. The acres had
been well prepared, fertilized and properly cultivated. Nitrate
of soda was applied as a side-dressing to most of the club acres.
The boll weevil gave little trouble, although the boys were pre-
pared to poison and some few did where it appeared advisable.
When the cotton began to open the yield promised to be the
best average in the history of club work.
On September 18 a tropical hurricane struck Florida. While
the most damage was done in the southern end of the Peninsula
the western end of the state was hit on September 19 by a storm
of but little less intensity. The area severely injured by this
storm included 150 of the 191 cotton club acres. Where the
boys had been able to gather their crop before September 19,
the yields were excellent. On the acres not picked, the storm
made it hardly worth while to gather the crop. The price had
fallen to a place where storm cotton was not worth picking.
Seveny-four boys reported. The returns ran from a loss to
a profit of over $50 per acre where the cotton had been gath-
eredand sold before the price slumped. Table II gives a sum-
mary of reports from five counties.






Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE II.-RESULTS OF BOYS' CLUB WORK WITH COTTON.


0 3 -




Okaloosa ...... 22 1319.1 $41.63 $ .031
Walton .......... 18 1107 39.51 .036
Washington .. 6 1107 37.04 .034
Madison ........ 5 1217 42.60 .035
Escambia ...... 5 1191 42.40 .034

Average ...... 56 1207.6 $40.62 $ .0335


708 7
460 8
466 6.3
700 9.4
590 5.6

678 7


In Okaloosa County, the agent, R. J. Hart, gave much atten-
tion to his cotton club work. Of the 22 boys reporting, 16 re-
ported the use of from 400 to 800 pounds of 8-3-5 fertilizer
under their cotton and the use of from 100 to 200 pounds of
nitrate of soda as a side-dressing. The 16 reports show an
average use of 512 pounds of 8-3-5 under the cotton and the
application of 155.5 pounds of nitrate of soda. The average
yield reported was 1,332 pounds of seed cotton per acre. The
average for the state, as taken from the ginning report, is but
335 pounds seed cotton per acre. The club boys are showing
the way in cotton production. The fertilizer plus the improved
seed appears responsible for the increased yield as the methods
used and cultivation given varies but slightly from what would
be done by the average farmer in the cotton growing sections.
Corn Club: Although corn is the most important crop in
Florida in number of acres planted (54 percent of the crop acres
is planted to corn), the corn club, once the most popular, is los-
ing in membership. The reason probably lies in the fact that
under Florida conditions the corn club boy has less chance of
getting his profit in cash than with any other project. Nearly
all the corn club members report that their corn is used for
feeding the home stock. In the cotton, pig and potato clubs,
the articles produced are likely to be sold with a much better
chance for the boy to get the profit from his work.






Annual Report, 1926


The storm leveled all the ungathered corn fields in West Flor-
ida with a resulting decrease in number of club boys reporting.
Table III gives summary of reports from 55 club acres.
TABLE III.-RESULTS OF BOYS' CLUB WORK WITH CORN,



County t 3o o



Santa Rosa .............. 22 984 44.7 $22.94 $ .51+
Okaloosa ................ 13 339 26 13.28 .50+
Walton .............. .... 9 310 34.4 17.55 .50+
Liberty ..................... 6 211 35 23.27 .60+
Duval ...................... 5 173 34.6 23.53 .59+

TOTAL ................. 55 2017 36.6 $19.99 $ .52+


Sweet Potato Club: The enrollment in this club was less by
three than for 1925. That year was rather disappointing in
yield and profit, so that the boys were tempted to turn to cot-
ton, which promised handsome profits.
In Washington County, 13 potato club members reported.
This county is a fair example of the impossibility of a uniform
report on sweet potatoes. The members planted one-fourth
acre each with yields running from 16 bushels to 63 bushels
on their plots. The reason for such variation in the yields is
due to the fact that some dug and sold their potatoes in July
while others allowed them to grow on until fall. Those digging
in July made more profit on the average than those holding
until fall, notwithstanding the higher yields. It is impossible
to give worth while statistics on this crop.
Truck Club: This type of club is new in boys' club work in
Florida. It was found to be the only project in crop production
work which would fit into conditions for southern Florida. Palm
Beach, Pasco and Lee counties furnished 286 of the 346 enrolled
in this club.
The spring gardens and truck plots did very well with most
of the boys showing a profit. The storm of September 18 ob-






Florida Cooperative Extension


literated everything started in Palm Beach and Lee counties.
The boys have started fall gardens and the county agents re-
port the plots coming nicely.
This club appears to offer an opportunity for the members
to make spending money over a long period. The records are
much harder to keep, but with more experience the boys will
be able to show better record books.

CITRUS AND ORNAMENTAL CLUBS
Citrus Club: This club is proving popular in some counties
but lacks a clearly defined revenue-producing feature. There is
a need of more subject matter instruction in this club. The
range of the subject is so great that it cannot be covered in one
subject matter bulletin and still be concise enough for boys to
follow.
Ornamental Clubs: This is a new idea in club work. Florida,.
with all its wealth of ornamentals, is giving scanty attention to
beautification. The club department decided that club work
might be a help in promoting this needed work. The members
should be able to make some money as well.
Thirty-six boys were enrolled in this project. As a beginning
they were instructed in planting seeds of the more common
kinds of palms and in caring for the young plants. Instruc-
tions were given in layering and rooting of cuttings from the
more popular shrubs. The asparagus fern was used by a few
boys with good results. This project can hardly be completed
in a year's time, hence no detailed report is possible.

LIVESTOCK CLUBS
Calf Club: The systematic eradication of the fever tick and
the increased demand for dairy products is bringing the dairy
calf into more prominence.
Madison County put over the biggest calf club project at-
tempted up to this time. Ninety-three Jersey calves, mostly
purebreds, were placed with 73 boys and girls in July and Aug-
ust. This is reported to be the second largest Jersey calf club,
in the United States. Though the tick had not been eradicated
in that county, the boys and girls gave such attention to their
calves that only two have died. The calves were six months
of age and under, which explains the small loss. The time has
been too short for worthwhile reports. The members exhibited






Annual Report, 1926


65 of the calves at the county fair in November. The introduc-
tion of that many blooded animals will change the complexion of
the milk producing cows in Madison County.
In Marion County, the result of a small start with four calves
three years ago is to be seen. Three of these animals are now
producing around 20 pounds of milk per day with their first
calves. C. R. Hiatt, the county agent, expects to place more
calves in 1927.
Duval County continues to work mostly with grades but ex-
pects to change to purebreds in the future.
Breeding Pig Club: The enrollment in this club doubled in
1926. The value of swine production as a source of revenue is
beginning to be appreciated by the farmer. With this comes
a demand for better blood. The pig club members are about
the only ones producing purebred breeding swine in Florida to-
day. This was demonstrated at the Florida State Fair, where
but one Florida herd was shown, other than those shown by the
club boys.
Some trouble was experienced in securing the right type of
pigs for the increased enrollment. The club boys of Madison


Fig. 6.-Russell Henderson, Florida's champion club boy, giving his county
agent the record of a sow which raised 31 pigs in three successive litters.






Florida Cooperative Extension


County had the largest supply in Florida. They sold over 60
breeding pigs to other club members in addition to those sold
to farmers. This county has been the premier pig club county
in the state for five years and was awarded first honors again.
Leon, Jefferson and Marion counties continue to improve.
The improvement in Marion and Jefferson was perhaps the
greatest in the state.
That Florida club boys are raising the right type of breeding
pigs was shown at the State Fair, where a club pig fed out by
Russell Henderson of Madison County won the grand champion
Duroc sow award in competition with the breeders. In addition
to this grand championship, club pigs won three junior cham-
pionships.
Barrow Club: The enrollment in this club fell off three from
last year, due to the increased demand for boars for breeding
purposes. The club boys have learned that it takes a good type
pig to produce a winning barrow. The barrow show at the
state fair was one of the best and largest yet, and 150 barrows
were exhibited. All championships were won by club barrows.
As usual, F. E. Dennis, Inc., bought the barrows after the
fair was over. Mr. Dennis is the staunchest supporter of pig
club work in the state. He has bought every club barrow of-
fered for sale in Florida. He gives the boys and girls a premium
over the market price. He bought 127 barrows after the fair
and paid a total of $2,794.17 for them.

TABLE IV.-RESULTS OF BOYS' CLUB WORK WITH FAT BARROWS.



County U 5 t ad d



Leon ..............21 1290 5074 3784 129 1.3 $ .062
Madison .............. 21 1305 6024 4719 151 1.5 .051

Table IV gives the average cost of producing barrows by club
members.
Poultry Club: Until 1925 the poultry club had been under
the direction of the home demonstration agents. This project
is new to county agents, but in two years has grown until it






Annual Report, 1926


is the largest club in number of members enrolled. Pasco Coun-
ty, with a membership of 166, leads. In counties where only a
man agent is employed, the poultry club is popular with the
girls wishing to do club work. In Washington County, nine of
the fifteen reporting were girls.
With the assistance of the Extension Poultryman, a club bul-
letin for poultry club work was published. This small bulletin
appears to have filled the need for a source of general informa-
tion to club members.

ANNUAL SHORT COURSE

The plan of the 1926 short course was varied in no way from
that of 1925. The 137 boys who attended were awarded diplomas
or certificates at the end of the week. These certificates are
taken home and oftentimes framed and serve as permanent in-
spiration for securing a college education.
The part which showed a decided improvement was the swim-
ming meet. This feature was added in 1925. The first year
it was difficult to induce boys to enter. The news of the meet
and the medals to be won spread over the state, so the boys
practiced at home and came prepared to try. It was necessary
to run four heats in every race. Every section of the state
was represented among the winners. We find that recreation
features aid wonderfully in holding the older boys in club work.

CLUB RALLIES AND CAMPS

Club Rally: In April over 300 boys and girls of Pasco Coun-
ty attended a club rally in Dade City. A monster parade was
held, after which Mr. C. A. Cobb, Editor of Southern Ruralist,
addressed the boys and girls. A picnic dinner and games fin-
ished the day.
County Club Camps: In counties where club work is really
successful, the club camp is a fixture. Fourteen camps were
held in 1926, against nine for 1925. A total of 235 boys attend-
ed these camps.
Four counties in South Florida held camps for the first time.
The state club agent visited camps in Georgia and South Caro-
line to secure new ideas.
Club Motorcade: In place of a club camp, the agents of Col-
ambia, Madison and Hamilton counties took some of their club







Florida Cooperative Extension


members on a trip through the western end of the state, visit-
ing the satsuma, blueberry and grape growing localities. The
motorcade was entertained by civic associations along the route.
.The members spent one night as guests of the Santa Rosa club
boys at their camp. Forty boys taking the trip were given a
broader idea of their native state and her resources.

TEACHING THRIFT IN CLUB WORK

To test the value of club work as an aid in developing the
thrift habit among our rural boys, the following is placed on
the bottom of the front cover of all club record books, "Every
Club Member Should Have a Bank Account. Have you One?"
This plan has been in operation for three years. The result is
pleasing as the percentage of members having bank accounts
grows each year.
As this is the first year Walton County boys have been in
club work, this county offers an opportunity when compared
with Madison County, where club work has been established for
10 years, to test the efficacy of our work in increasing number
of bank accounts among rural boys. The following table speaks
for itself. If the member failed to answer the question, it was
considered as if it had been answered in the negative.

No. No. Having No. Not Percentage
Record Bank Having With Bank
Books Accts. Bank Accts. Accts.
Walton (work for 1 year) 31 6 25 19.3
Madison (work for 10 years) 62 42 20 70

In 1920 we began to ask the question, "Have you a bank ac-
count?" of all boys attending the short course. In that year
less than 50 percent of the best boys in the state, as all were
county winners, reported bank accounts. There has been grad-
ual improvement until 1926. In 1926 135 boys filled out the
card and of them 90, or 66 percent, reported bank accounts. Of
the 45 boys answering "No," 23 had been in club work but one
year. After the boys had returned home, a letter was sent to
every boy not reporting a bank account urging him to start one.
One is justified in believing that club work is an aid in teach-
ing the country boy to save money as well as the means of mak-
ing it.






Annual Report, 1926


PERMANENT PASTURE DEMONSTRATIONS
JOHN M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist

In connection with extension animal husbandry work there
have been established a number of permanent pastures in vari-
ous counties and on different soil types. Many of these demon-
strations reported have been under way since 1924, as it usu-
ally requires at least two seasons' growth to give a fair idea of
the value of permanency of the pasture. This work was under-
taken under the supervision of the Extension Animal Industri-
alist in cooperation with the agricultural departments of the
Seaboard Air Line and the Florida East Coast railways. In
each case the demonstration was located by the county agent
and through his efforts much interest has been aroused in the
value and permanency of these pastures. For the most part,
the seed was furnished by the extension service and the rail-
roads, and owners of the property prepared the land and sowed
the seed. These are the first demonstrations that have been
carried out in a systematic way in the state, and the results
should have far reaching effect toward improving the grazing
and cut-over lands of the state, as well as giving the dairymen
and farmers a permanent pasture for their stock.
It is estimated that as a result of these permanent pasture
grass demonstrations, not less than 1,000 acres have been seed-
ed to permanent pastures during 1926, and a larger acreage will
be seeded in 1927.
These permanent pasture grasses have been established in
;he following counties: Leon, Marion, Flagler, Madison, Her-
iando, Jefferson, Okeechobee, Duval, Bay, St. Johns, Suwan-
iee, St. Lucie, Gadsden, and Palm Beach.
The mixture, in nearly every case, was composed of 6 pounds
)f carpet grass seed, 4 pounds of Dallis grass seed, 2 pounds of
3ahia grass seed, and 3 pounds of lespedeza seed.

LEON COUNTY

The pasture grass demonstration in Leon County is located
)n the College Farm. The land selected had been in cultivation
Wor several years, is high and sloping, and much of the topsoil
qas been washed away. The surface is red clay and typical of
;he red clay lands in Leon County..






Florida Cooperative Extension


The seed was sown broadcast about May 1, 1924. The land
was disked before seeding.
In this demonstration, seed of each variety was sown sepa-
rately. The weather was dry at the time of seeding and con-
tinued dry for some time, with the result that a good stand of
grass was not obtained. However, a thin stand of all the grasses
was secured. Carpet grass has spread faster and covered more
of the surface of the ground to date than any of the other
grasses. There is also now a good seeding of Dallis. Bahia
grass is thin, but is growing well and spreading.

SMARION COUNTY

The permanent pasture in Marion County is located on the
farm of Mr. Chas. Painter, northeast of Ocala. The piece of
land was an old field that had been in cultivation for a number
of years. The soil is Noroflk sandy loam with a chocolate
brown clay subsoil.
The seed mixture was sown broadcast April 25, 1924, on a
well-prepared seedbed. The land had been plowed and harrowed
and was in excellent condition for seeding.
In this pasture there is a good mixture of all of the grasses.

FLAGLER COUNTY

This demonstration is located on the farm of Mr. A. S. Fow-
ler about three miles southeast of Bunnell.
The land selected is typical flatwoods, but with no palmetto,
and was part of an old field that had been in cultivation for sev-
eral years. The land was plowed and a good seedbed prepared,
and the seed mixture sown broadcast August 15, 1924.
A good stand of grass was obtained and all made a satisfac-
tory growth. As in all of the other demonstrations, the car-
pet grass made a more rapid growth and spread faster than
any of the others.
MADISON COUNTY

The permanent pasture grass demonstration in Madison
County is located on the farm of Mr. A. Strickland, near Green-
ville. The land is well drained heavy loam soil.
The land was plowed and a good seedbed prepared. Carpet
and Dallis grasses have made the best growth.






Annual Report, 1926


A meeting of 24 farmers and dairymen was held at this pas-
ture October 28, 1926. It was the opinion of a number of farm-
ers that this pasture would carry two cows per acre for at least
nine months during the year.
Mr. Strickland says: "Good permanent pastures will be the
salvation of the livestock industry in Florida." He has faith
in livestock in Florida, as he is adding purebred Guernsey cattle
and Poland China hogs to his farming operations.

HERNANDO COUNTY

This demonstration is located on the farm of Mr. O. P. Wer-
nicke, about three miles southeast of Brooksville.
The land is good hammock, such as would be considered ideal
trucking land in that section. The seed mixture was sown
broadcast May 10, 1924, on well prepared land.
All of the grasses have made a good growth and have formed
a complete sod.
On September 29, 1926, a meeting was held at this pasture,
attended by about 25 farmers and dairymen of Hernando and
adjoining counties. It was estimated that this pasture would
carry two cows per acre for at least nine months of the year.
Mr. Wernicke is increasing his acreage in permanent pas-
tures.
JEFFERSON COUNTY

This permanent pasture grass demonstration is located on
the farm of Mr. W. W. Bassett, near Monticello.
The land is a sandy loam soil with a red clay subsoil, a sloping
and well-drained soil that would probably produce 25 bushels
of corn per acre without fertilizer.
In this demonstration all grasses have made uniform growth
and are now covering the ground. There is a good stand over
most of the field. Mr. Bassett began grazing this in 1925. Dur-
ing 1926 it was grazed very heavily.
On October 29, 1926, a meeting was held at Mr. Bassett's
farm and this pasture was inspected. It was the general opin-
ion that all of the grasses were giving excellent results from a
grazing standpoint. Mr. Bassett has the following to say re-
garding this demonstration:
"This, together with several other plantings of the same
grasses, i. e., carpet, lespedeza, and Dallis grass, have demon-






Florida Cooperative Extension


strated to me that a good stand of these grasses will easily-
carry one to two head of cows per acre from April to October.
Such pastures are invaluable to stockmen and dairymen, and to
even the small farmer with only a few cows.
"My hopes and needs are being fully realized by these grasses
and my acreage of them is being extended each year." Mr.
Bassett seeded 75 acres to permanent pastures last year.

OKEECHOBEE COUNTY

This permanent pasture grass demonstration is located on
the farm of Mr. McWilliams about four miles northwest of
Okeechobee City. The land is typical flatwoods originally cov-
ered with scrub palmettos. The land was plowed and harrowed
and a good seedbed prepared.
On December 10, 1926, a meeting was held at this pasture
demonstration, attended by 15 dairymen and farmers.
A good stand of carpet grass now covers the ground, and
with it a good sprinkling of Dallis and Bahia.
This demonstration pasture has perhaps received more se-
vere grazing than any of the other demonstrations. It was
grazed very hard during the early spring and summer of 1926.
In spite of this hard grazing, the grasses have grown and spread
so that they now cover the ground. The appearance of this
pasture now would indicate that it would carry one cow to the
acre during the year.
DUVAL COUNTY

This demonstration is located on the farm of Mr. Windle
Smith about five or six miles northwest of Jacksonville. It is
typical pine land. The land was disked and a good seedbed pre-
pared.
The carpet and Dallis grasses have made a good growth and
are furnishing excellent pasture. Mr. Smith has been so well
pleased with this demonstration that he has sown a large acre-
age to grasses since this first seeding.

BAY COUNTY

This permanent pasture grass demonstration is on the farm
of Mr. E. O. Miley. It is located on cutover land, similar in all
respects to thousands of acres of other lands in Bay County.






Annual Report, 1926


The land was plowed and a good seedbed prepared, and the seed
mixture sown broadcast July 15, 1925. Carpet and Dallis grasses
have made the best showing. There is a scattering stand of
,Bahia and lespedeza.
ST. JOHNS COUNTY

The pasture grass demonstration in St. Johns is on the farm
f Mr. Wolf on the highway between Hastings and St. Aug-
stine. The land is typical scrub palmetto flatwoods soil. The
and was cleared and disked, but left very rough. The seed
nixture was sown broadcast June 21, 1924.
A poor stand of grass was obtained, largely because a good
seedbed had not been prepared. However, lespedeza germi-
nated and grew well. The carpet grass during the summer of
1925 made a good growth and spread well, so that now there is
a good sod of carpet over a large portion of the pasture. Dallis
and Bahia are now growing well and seeding freely. They do
not spread and cover the ground as rapidly as does carpet grass.

SUWANNEE COUNTY

This pasture grass demonstration is located on the farm of
Franz Schmidt, about two miles southeast of Live Oak. The
land is cutover pine land, Norfolk sandy loam soil.
The land was plowed and harrowed and a good seedbed pre-
pared before sowing the seed. No lespedeza was sown with
this mixture. The ground had been seeded to lespedeza the
year before. All of the grasses made a good growth on this
pasture.
ST. LUCIE COUNTY

The pasture demonstration in St. Lucie County is located on
the farm of Mr. Wm. Garrup, four miles west and one and a half
miles north of Ft. Pierce.
The piece of land selected is drained land generally spoken
of as grassy flatwoods. The surface soil is a sandy loam with
a brownish sandy subsoil with some clay.
The land was plowed and a good seedbed prepared, and the
seed mixture sown September 15, 1925.
There is a uniform stand of grass and it is making satisfac-
tory growth. The carpet and Dallis grasses are the most ag-






Florida Cooperative Extension


gressive and are making the most rapid growth. Although
this grass has been planted less than a year and a half it has
made a complete sod and completely covered the ground.
On December 9, 1926, a meeting, attended by 50 farmers
and dairymen from Indian River, St. Lucie, and Martin coun-
ties, was held at this demonstration pasture. It was the opinion
of a number of the men present that the pasture would carry
three cows per acre for the entire year.

NEW PASTURES

Pasture grass demonstrations were planted during 1926 in
Gadsden and Palm Beach counties. The one in Palm Beach
county is farther south than any other thus far established.

MISCELLANEOUS

Judging from the number of inquiries from county agents,
farmers and dairymen for good stock and also for information
regarding the feeding of stock, much more interest is being
taken in livestock than there has been during the past two or
three years. This is particularly true of dairy cattle and hogs.
Another noticeable fact is that prospective buyers are de-
manding a better quality of purebred animals. This is a good
healthy sign.
During the year we have assisted in placing six purebred
Jersey bull calves. These have all gone into communities that
are developing along dairy lines.
Have assisted in placing 10 good purebred Poland China pigs.
These pigs in most cases have gone to young farmers who are
just getting started in the hog business. Their intentions are
not so much the selling of purebred hogs as that of producing
good meat hogs.
Letters coming to the office asking for information on feed-
ing and care of livestock numbered 200.




DEMONSTRATIONS IN FLORIDA.


1- --- ItnA nAtjiUIN Vr J IIUZrI UnJto


County


Leon


Marion


Name and Address
of Grower


State College
for Women,
Tallahassee,
Fla.
Mr. Chas. Painter
Ocala, Fla.


Grass Seed Date Planted
Mixture-Pounds
Per Acre


Carpet Grass 6 May 1, 1924
Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3
Carpet Grass 6 April 25, 1924
Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3


Flagler A. S. Fowler Carpet Grass 6
Bunnell, Fla. Dallis 4
Bahia 2
___Lespedeza 3
Madison A. Strickland Carpet Grass 6
Greenville, Fla. Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3
Hernando O. P. Wernicke Carpet Grass 6
Brooksville, Fla. Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3 i
Jefferson W. W. Bassett Carpet Grass 6
Monticello, Fla. Dallis seeded be-
fore other seeds
were sown.
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3


Okeechobee


Mr. McWilliams
Okeechobee City,
Fla.


Carpet Grass
Dallis
Bahia
Lespedeza


Aug. 15, 1924


Kind of
Soil


Seedbed
Preparation


Red sandy Disced before
clay seeding


Sandy Plowed and
loam harrowed


Flatwoods


April 28, 1924 Well drained;
heavy loam


May 10, 1924 Hammock



April 28, 1924 Sandy loam
clay subsoil




May 21, 1925 Flatwoods I
heavy growth
palmetto
I___ i


Plowed and
harrowed


Condition of pasture De-
cember 30, 1926.

Good growth-thin stand.



Good growth-% stand.



Good growth a n d good
stand.
Plowed up April, 1926.


Plowed and Good growth of carpet,
harrowed Dallis and lespedeza.


Plowed and IExcellent growth and stand
harrowed of all.


Plowed and Good growth of all.
harrowed


Palmettos
grubbed out
and land
plowed and
harrowed


Good sod of carpet, thin
stand of Dallis and Ba-
hia, fair stand of lespe-
deza.


I


-----~L---








TABLE V.-LOCATION, GRASS SEED MIXTURE, DATE OF PLANTING, KIND OF SOIL, AND SEEDBED PREPARATION OF PASTURE GRASS
DEMONSTRATIONS IN FLORIDA-Continued.


Name and Address Grass Seed
of Growers Mixture-Pounds
Per Acre


Windle Smith I Carpet Gr
Jacksonville, Fla. I Dallis
Bahia
Lespedeza


E. O. Miley
Panama City, Fla.


Mr. Wolf
Hastings, Fla.


Wm. Garrup
Ft. Pierce


Suwannee Franze Schmidt
Live Oak


Bradford State Farm
Raiford


Bradford State Farm


Bradford


ass 6
4
2
3


Duval



Bay



St. Johns



St. Lucie ~


State Farm I Same as above


Date Planted


April 26, 1924


July 15, 1925



June 21, 1924



Sept. 15, 1925



May 3, 1924



July 10, 1924



July 10, 1924


I July 10, 1924


Kind of Seedbed Condition of pasture De-
Soil Preparation cember 30, 1926.


Flatwoods


Disced two
or three
times


Flatwoods Plowed and
harrowed


Flatwoods Disced twice
with some poorly pre-
palmetto pared

Drained Plowed and
grassy flat- harrowed
woods

High pine Plowed and
harrowed


Flatwoods Seed sown on!
wire grass
sod

Flatwoods Disced
twice


Flatwoods


Plowed and
disced twice


Carpet and Dallis growing
fine, some lespedeza.


All growing fine.


Carpet Grass -6
Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3
Carpet Grass 6
Dallis 4
Bahia 2
SLespedeza 3
ICarpet Grass 6
Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3
Carpet Grass 6
Dallis 4
Bahia 2

Carpet Grass 6
Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3
1 Same as above


County


Good growth of carpet,
Dallis, and lespedeza,
some Bahia.

Excellent growth of carpet
and Dallis, some Bahia.


Good growth of all.



Poor, thin stand of carpet.



Fair stand of carpet, some
Dallis and lespedeza.


Good stand carpet, some
Dallis, Bahia and lespe-
deza.


---


-~---~--






Annual Report, 1926


DAIRYING
H. L. BROWN, Extension Dairyman
The Extension Dairyman visited the following counties in 1926
in carrying on demonstrations of various kinds: Escambia,
Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Bay, Washington, Jackson, Liberty,
Gadsden, Wakulla, Leon, Jefferson, Taylor, Madison, Suwannee,
Hamilton, Columbia, Baker, Nassau, Duval, Bradford, Alachua,
St. Johns, Putnam, Flagler, Marion, Citrus, Sumter, Hernando.
Lake, Volusia, Brevard, Osceola, Hillsboro, Manatee, Sarasota,
Lee, Highlands, Hendry, Glades, Indian River, St. Lucie, Palm
Beach, Okeechobee, and Dade.

FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS
The most important thing in a program to enlarge the dairy
business in Florida is cheaper feeds, such as home-grown rough-
ages and good pastures, with economical grain rations.
The Extension Dairyman cooperated with the Animal Indus-
trialist and county district agents in holding field meetings at
all of the pasture demonstration plots, where there were 845
farmers and business men getting first hand information about
practical pasture work. There will be 150-175 pasture plots
seeded in Florida in 1927 as a direct result of the field demon-
strations held in 12 counties.
The dairy agent carried on practical feeding demonstrations
with the cooperation of the county agents with 365 dairymen
in 26 counties.
Forty-three dairymen kept an abbreviated system of dairy
production records, showing an estimated cost of producing
milk, ranging from 18 to 57 cents a gallon. The average cost
of milk produced by the dairymen was 37 cents a gallon, while
the average cost of producing milk in the state will probably
exceed 45 cents a gallon when all items of cost are accounted
for.
The dairymen getting the lowest production costs are grow-
ing an abundance of pasture and roughages, and are carrying
on other lines of farming in connection with their dairy work.

SILOS
The silo has proven to be a very necessary equipment in the
production of milk at a low cost. There have been 34 silos
built in the state as a part of the feed demonstration work.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Building plans have been furnished to 27 dairymen as a part
of the dairy extension work.

PUREBRED SIRES
One purebred bull association was formed in Marion County
with five registered bulls to be managed according to rules
governing such associations. This means that constructive
breeding methods providing for purchase and exchange of sires.
will give maximum use of a bull throughout his life time, pro-
vided his daughters prove good. It also provides for the butch-
ering of sires that do not prove worthy.
Eighty-seven registered bulls have been placed in dairies
wanting better bulls, through the cooperation of the county
agents and the Extension Dairyman.

CALF CLUB WORK

Organized calf club work was carried on in Duval and Mad-
ison counties with 69 boys and girls. Madison County put on


Fig. 7.-Calf club work in Florida was greatly increased in 1926.






Annual Report, 1926


the largest county calf show ever held in Florida and the sec-
ond largest boys' calf exhibit ever held in the South as a direct
result of dairy extension work. As in all other work, the Ex-
tension Dairyman cooperated with the State Club Leader, dis-
trict agents and all others connected with club work in making
this a success.
Madison County brought in 150 Jersey calves during 1926 as
a result of the work of county agent and dairy agent. Of these,
103 were registered.
DAIRY TOURS

Dairy tours are valuable aids in arousing interest among
dairymen to increase their efforts to improve their methods of
dairy operation. Some may think the man past 30 years of
age will not take on new ideas, but all that is needed to disprove
such statements is to take a bunch of farmers and dairymen
on a tour and watch them copy new ideas when they get back
home.
The Extension Dairyman made six motorcades with 94 dairy-
men that gave splendid aid in awakening six counties to new
and better ways of dairying.

DAIRY ORGANIZATION

Five county dairy organizations with a membership of 127
dairymen were formed as a means of improving dairy methods.
These dairy organizations are greatly increasing the quality of
their products through organized methods.
Cooperative buying of feeds in car-lots has netted a saving
of over $2,500 to these organizations. Cooperative buying of
bottles and crates in car-lot quantities has netted a saving of
four or five thousand dollars.

FAIR EXHIBITS

The interest in dairy exhibits at the State Fair and the South
Florida Fair has greatly improved. These associations are in-
creasing the prizes each year and have provided for separate
prizes for the producers and distributing plants another year.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS PATHOLOGY-ENTOMOLOGY
E. F. DEBUSK, Pathologist-Entomologist

The approved plan of work in citrus disease and insect con-
trol provides in detail for definite projects in each of the citrus
producing counties on melanose, citrus scab, blue mold decay,
tree trunk and root diseases, rust mite, citrus aphid, scale and
whitefly.
MELANOSE
The adopted methods of melanose control are spraying with
3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1 percent oil emulsion and prun-
ing out dead branches. Demonstrations with either or both of
these methods were conducted in the principal citrus producing
counties. The unusual rainy season at spraying time, early in
April, caused many of the co-operating growers to abandon mel-
anose spraying, believing that results under the conditions
could not make the operation profitable. However, despite the
unfavorable season, the results of melanose spraying generally
have been very satisfactory.
Considerable time has been devoted to instructing growers,
through method demonstrations, press articles, field meetings
and field visits, in detail as to the proper time and method of
applying the Bordeaux and the follow-up oil spray. With more
favorable labor conditions, pruning is being recommended in
many cases as a substitute for spraying. The economic phases
of melanose control are being stressed through special press
articles, reprints, and packers' bulletins to grower members.

CITRUS SCAB
Spraying demonstrations in scab control were conducted in
the sections where scab is an important factor in the production
of grapefruit of quality. Scab control on satsumas was also
carried on this year, by spraying demonstrations, in four of the
satsuma producing counties of West Florida.
Except in a few cases where conditions seemed to warrant
the use of 1 to 30 or 1 to 40 lime-sulphur, homemade 3-3-50
Bordeaux mixture plus 1 percent oil emulsion was used. In
some cases, spraying with 1 to 30 lime-sulphur immediately be-
fore the first flush of growth is found to be most economical.
In all but extreme cases, successful efforts have been made to
work out a spray schedule by which the grower can procure sat-






Annual Report, 1926


isfactory control of scab by one application of the spray mate-
rial. In most cases the cost of scab control has been kept within
7 cents a box.
Last spring the same weather conditions that made melanose
control difficult favored the development of citrus scab and
rendered control measures less effective. Consequently, the
fruit is not as free of scab this year as it was last year. On
citrus fruit as well as with vegetables, the weather at spray-
ing time in a large measure determines the effectiveness of a
fungicide applied.
BLUE MOLD DECAY

SAn attempt has been made to materially reduce the $3,500,000
annual losses from blue and green mold decay. It is known that
this decay is due to fungi (Penicillium) which can enter the
fruit and cause decay only through cuts and abrasions in the
rind. It has also been found that a large percentage of the
wounds through which decay develops are made in picking and
handling the fruit in the grove. In picking, the rind of the
fruit is broken by clipper cuts, long-stem punctures, plugging
by pulling, finger nail scratches and various forms of bruises
and minor injuries. From this defective picking and handling,
largely due to improper supervision, heavy decay results and
consequent heavy discounts on the sale price of the fruit in the
markets, often taking the grower's profits. Therefore war has
been declared on defective picking and rough handling of the
fruit from the tree to the packinghouse. In nine counties dem-
onstrations have been conducted in the proper use of picking
equipment and in careful handling of the fruit. More thorough
supervision of the picking operations has been urged. In every
case very marked improvement and a big saving to the grower
have been the result of the demonstration. Demonstrations
with three crews containing 30 pickers resulted in improve-
ments and saving to the growers as follows:
With inadequate supervision and improper use of picking equip-
ment before demonstration, average picking defects ................ 14.2%
After demonstration and adoption of better methods, picking de-
fects ....... ........................ ................................ 5.3%
Final cost of picking at 10 cents per box, before demonstration,
with 14.2% defective --....................... ......... ................... 63 cents
Final cost of picking, after demonstration, 5.3% defective.............. 12 cents
Saving in picking cost to grower, per box.......................................... 51 cents
Additional cost per box of proper supervision and more careful
picking ........... .......................................... ......... ....................... 1 cent
Net saving per box on picking ............................. ...................... 50 cents






Florida Cooperative Extension


In arriving at the "final cost of picking," the percentage of
picking defects, the percentage of decay due to such defects and
discount on the sale price of the fruit because of the decay,
were taken as factors.
If the above 30 pickers pick 5 months or 100 days and pick
an average of 30 boxes each per day or a total of 90,000 boxes
and maintain the same high standard of picking throughout the
season, which they no doubt will, this little piece of work will
result in a saving of $45,000 to the growers whose fruit they
handle. One county agent in his annual report says: "I believe
I can save the growers of my county $100,000 on this project."
Special articles bearing on this project have been carefully
prepared and used very effectively by the press. The leading
fruit packing and shipping organizations of the state secured
reprints of one article and placed same in the hands of their
packinghouse managers and field foremen. Such cooperation
is bound to give results.

TRUNK AND ROOT DISEASES

Especial attention has been given to improving the methods
of treating foot rot. Through demonstrations and the press,
growers have been saved money by substituting the "machine
method" of treating foot rot for the slow, expensive, hand
method. The regular grove power spraying outfit is used, with
one hose, open nozzle and high pressure, to wash the dirt
away from the roots. Then the same outfit, adjusted for spray-
ing, is used to spray Bordeaux mixture on to the crown roots.
Treating foot rot by the "machine method" reduces the cost
about 75 percent.
In advanced stages of foot rot, many trees have been saved
by building a mound of dirt or clay 18 to 30 inches high and 12
to 16 feet in diameter around the trunk of the diseased tree.
Trees treated in this manner develop new root systems and
again become profitable producers.

RUST MITE

In addition to conducting dusting and spraying demonstra-
tions in rust mite control in the principal citrus producing coun-
ties, much time has been devoted, through field meetings, field






Annual Report, 1926


visits, and the press, to instructing growers along the lines of
more economical control of the rust mite. Many of the demon-
strations were planned to teach growers that more economical
rust mite control is to be attained through more timely and
more thorough dusting and spraying, thereby reducing the to-
tal number of applications necessary. Certain growers are
wasting money by making unnecessary and untimely applica-
tions. Three growers' organizations have been induced to pur-
chase more efficient equipment and do all their rust mite con-
trol cooperatively or on a kind of "spray ring" plan. This meth-
od greatly reduces the per box cost of rust mite control. With
proper equipment and timely applications, the cost of rust mite
control should not exceed 4 cents per box with a normal crop.
In many cases it is being done at a total cost of 2 cents per box.

CITRUS APHID

Except in a few small areas, the citrus aphid did not develop
into a serious pest during the year. This was perhaps due to
the dormant condition of trees during the winter of 1925-26,
and to the development of natural parasites during the favor-
able weather of the early spring and summer. Consequently
much less spraying and dusting was done during the year than
was done in 1925, and only slight damage resulted to the citrus
industry from infestations of this pest.

SCALE AND WHITEFLY

An effort has been made through method demonstrations,
field meetings, and the press, to bring about more thorough fall
and winter clean-up spraying for whitefly and scale. More gen-
eral use of the red Aschersonia in whitefly control has been en-
couraged with gratifying results. The necessity of the extra
oil emulsion spraying in June following an application of Bor-
deaux-oil for melanose control, to keep down scale infestations,
has been stressed with satisfactory results.






Florida Cooperative Extension


PLANT PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY
M. R. ENSIGN, Pathologist-Entomologist

The plan of work submitted and approved at the beginning
of this year carried with it four main lines of work as follows:
1. Cucurbit disease control by spraying and dusting and
seed disinfection.
2. Control of late blight of Irish potatoes by spraying and
dusting.
3. Bean leaf-hopper control.
4. Dissemination of mosaic-resistant variety of sugar cane.
During the year four other lines of work developed which
may be classed as emergency and miscellaneous: (1) Cotton
boll weevil control; (2) the control of the two-spotted mite on
ferns; (3) preliminary work in securing disease-free bean seed,
and (4) making a hand-book on truck diseases.

CUCURBIT DISEASE CONTROL

Demonstrations were started in cucumber mildew control in
the following counties: Three demonstrations in Lake, two in
Sumter, two in Orange, and four in Marion. Acts of Provi-
dence, however, practically rendered these ineffective. First of
all, the winter temperatures were unusually low and prolonged,
and it is the experience of growers that following such a win-
ter the mildew is a negligible factor. It proved to be so in this
case, for in none of the fields did this usually destructive dis-
ease do much damage until very late in the spring. In the sec-
ond place, some of the heaviest rains attended by very cold
weather came just after the cucumbers were planted and con-
tinued until after the normal shipping season was past. Com-
petitive producers farther north ruined the price so that many
fields were abandoned before any results from the demonstra-
tions could be secured. With only one grower, Mr. P. H. Britt
of Winter Garden, were we able to get any data and this was
not very complete. Therefore, the following brief summary is
given as the deductions which the data seemed to justify.
1. It is most economical to use a traction sprayer in the
control of mildew of cucumbers until the vines begin to run
well.
2. Use three nozzles to the row with a pressure of 150 tc
200 pounds.







Annual Report, 1926.


3. When the foliage becomes too thick and runners are sent
out, then the power sprayer with a man on each lead of hose is
Necessary in order to cover the under side of the leaves. The
spray gun properly operated gave excellent results.
4. Spraying every five days gave much better control than
with longer intervals.
5. Dusted plots held up well until the latter part of the pick-
ing season, but this may have been due to the fact that mildew
was not severe earlier.
Dusted plots produced fruit a few days in advance of sprayed
plots, but the total yield was in favor of the sprayed plots.

TABLE VI.-RESULTS OF SPRAYING AND DUSTING FOR CONTROL OF LATE
BLIGHT OF IRISH POTATOES, HASTINGS, 1926.

Dusted Plots.-25-75 Copper Lime Dust
:1 Yield in Barrels Per Acre and Percent Cost of Control



S (Night)
a) 0 f 0Q.


I. 5 days 37 67 12.9 23 15.1 10 55 $11.25 .20
Wet 5 applications
(Night) II1


10 days 29
Wet
(Night)
5 days 39.9
Dry
(Day)
10 days 37.2
Dry
(Day)


5 days I 50.8

10 days 47


15.5 33

11.9 21


2.5

3.2


64 20 32 4.3 4 61.5


Liquid Spray (5-5-50 Bordeaux)

73 15 23 ) 2.3 j 4 68.1


72 14 i21


7 65


6.75 1 .14
3 applications

11.25 I .20
5 applications

6.75 .11
3 applications



8.60 .12
5 applications

5.16 .08
3 applications


Check: There was but a small patch left for check and the actual
weights were not taken, but, judging from the way the plot turned out,
there could not have been more than 25 bbls. No. 1's and 16 bbls. No. 2's,
3's and 4's combined. This is a liberal allowance.


V.

VI







Florida Cooperative Extension


SPRAYING AND DUSTING OF IRISH POTATOES
Attempts were made to secure demonstrations in Palm Beach,
Volusia, Flagler, and St. Johns. One demonstration in the lat-
ter was all that materialized.
The results secured through the cooperation of J. L. Scrib-
ner, county agent, on the Leonard Farms at Hastings, are sig-
nificant and are given in Table VI.


Fig. 8.-County agent showing growers different grades of Irish potatoes

The highest total yields were produced on the sprayed plots
slightly in favor of the 5-day interval. These 5-day interval
sprayed plots also produced the highest percentage of grad
No. l's, with a total cost of $8.80 per acre. On the other hand
the lowest yield was produced on the dusted plots when th
plants were wet (night) at 10-day intervals. Comparing thes'
with total net income, the spraying paid the highest dividend,
The data show an important difference between the incoir
per acre from the plots dusted when the plants were dry an
from the same number of applications when the plants wei
wet. In putting on the dust during the day a canvas drag abol
15 feet long was used, which confined the dust and insured
much better distribution than when applied even to wet plant







Annual Report, 1926 57

Basing the figures on the prices obtained last year, the fol-
lowing comparisons are interesting:
TABLE VII.-PROFITS FROM SPRAYING AND DUSTING FOR THE CONTROL OF
LATE BLIGHT OF POTATOES
Dusted Plots (Average) Acre
Yielded 36.2 bbls. No. 1's @ $7.50............................... $271.50
Yielded 15.0 bbls. No. 2's @ $5.00 .... ............... ...... ..........-... 75.00
Yielded 3.8 bbls. No. 3's @ $3.00 .......... ----..... ................. 11.40
Total income, dusted acre .......... ............................$357.90
Total cost, control measures ...... .. ......... ............... 9.00
Total income, other costs being equal .................. ................$348.90
Sprayed Plots (Average) Acre
Yielded 48.9 bbls. No. l's @ 87.50 ..... .................. ..............$366.75
Yielded 14.5 bbls. No. 2's @ $5.00 .....-- ............ ................ .. 72.50
Yielded 3 bbls. No. 3's @ $3.00 ...............................- ..... 9.00
Total income sprayed plots ............. ... .................. ..$448.75
Cost of control .................. ..................... 6.88
Total net income, other costs being equal.............................. $441.37
This shows a net income difference of $94.47 in favor of
spraying. And in this year of good prices the second and third
grade stuff brought a good price. In years of poor demand the
spread would be even greater, for then only the No. 1's bring
any money. It would appear that it would pay the potato
grower to give the disease control feature some real thought
and supervision.
MOSAIC OF SUGAR CANE

Since this is just the time of year when the agitation for the
securing of Cayana cane is, made, nothing very specific has been
accomplished. Two or three articles for the press have been
prepared, calling attention to this matter. Cayana is making
many friends and the possibilities of its ultimately displacing
the susceptible varieties are very good.

SEEDBED DISINFECTION

Two commercial firms of Sanford were induced to buy a port-
able boiler and build two wooden pans for the steaming of cel-
ery beds. This equipment cost in the neighborhood of $1,500.
It was July 7 before the equipment was at work, so that only
a relatively limited -number of beds were sterilized. Beds were






Florida Cooperative Extension


treated for varying time-intervals from 30 to 90 minutes. The
steam pressure was maintained at nearly 100 pounds.
It is too early to secure results at this time. Indications are
that the treatment will prove satisfactory in spite of the fact
that the whole area was inundated because of the hurricane of
July 29. This will interfere with a normal test, for the beds
will undoubtedly be more or less re-contaminated.

COTTON BOLL WEEVIL

A series of meetings was held in the northern and western
counties of the state, and farmers were urged to look upon boll
weevil control as a matter of insurance. The provision of poi-
son, the fall plowing of cotton land and the use of syrup mix-
tures for at least two applications, was urged. The results
seem to be satisfactory.

TWO-SPOTTED MITE ON FERNS (Asparagus Plumosus)

An outbreak of the two-spotted mite on the Asparagus fern
in Volusia County threatened to become serious. The use of
sulfur, the orthodox treatment, seemed at first not to work. The
adults were apparently quite resistant to it, and dusting failed
to get those on the ends of the long sprays. By repeated use
of sulfur the nymphs were killed and in 10 days the infesta-
tion was under control. The use of calcium cyanide as a fumi-
gant was quite ineffective.

HANDBOOK ON TRUCK DISEASES

A series of 20 picture's showing symptoms of various true.
crop diseases common to the vegetables of Florida were made
up in a loose-leaf binder. Opposite each picture was a page ol
information regarding the disease, including losses, and dis.
tribution, symptoms, and control. These handbooks were dis-
tributed to county agents in truck growing territory.

BEAN SEED WORK

Losses to bean growers due to seed-borne diseases mount ul
to nearly a half-million dollars annually. Last year 450 pounds
of bean seed produced in the Western states, California, Colo
rado and Idaho, were planted in about 20 different places ii






: Annual Report, 1926


Florida and, as a check, the seed coming through the regular
channels of trade were planted alongside. Many of these tests
failed to show anything conclusive, due to weather unfavor-
able to the growth of the beans (high water and cold rain) or
to too dry weather for the development of any diseases. How-
ever, those that did show results were very conclusive and the
Western-grown stuff showed at least 50 percent better than
any of the checks, not only in the matter of freedom from an-
thracnose or bacterial blight, but in general vigor and produc-
tivity.
Since these demonstrations showed the Western seed to be
so desirable, the writer was authorized to make a trip with Dr.
L. L. Harter of the Bureau of Plant Industry to California,
Idaho and Colorado to stimulate the growth of better bean seed
with the object of getting on a basis of seed certification as soon
as possible. The results of the trip are summarized below.

REPORT OF BEAN SEED INSPECTION TRIP

1. It is evident that anthracnose of beans and of bean seed
grown in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Colorado
occurs so infrequently as to render it of no concern to Florida
bean growers.
2. Mosaic is general in the states mentioned above, and es-
pecially in the Twin Falls section, where the aphid is plentiful
during the early part of the growing season, and aphids un-
doubtedly act as agents of inoculation. The. damage to the
crop is considerable and continues to increase in severity from
year to year. Seedsmen, strange to say, have so far disregard-
ed this and other bean diseases. They very zealously rogue
out any plants that are "off type" and from that standpoint
the product is par excellence. But the inroads that diseases
have made for the past two years, especially in the Twin Falls
section, is compelling attention and Dr. Charter's and my visit
there will stimulate more thought in that direction. The men
heading the seed houses located in the West frankly state that
they do not know anything about the disease problem and hence
have done nothing along that line.
Arrangements were made to secure seed of several varieties
showing 100 percent mosaic, which it is proposed to plant in
wo bean growing sections of Florida to determine whether or
ot mosaic expresses itself under Florida climatic conditions.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The evidence so far seems to indicate that it is not a serious
menace to the spring crop. It may have more influence upon
the fall crop. Further work along this line is needed and con-
templated.
3. No bacterial blight, the greatest enemy of the bean in
Florida, was found in some of the sections visited. It was prob-
lematical whether it was in the Twin Falls section, but it was
very prevalent in the Greeley, Colorado, section. It was the
only disease that was of any consequence in the latter place, but
it was of such general occurrence, on both the leaves and their
pods, that it would be unsafe to use seed from that quarter this"
year, at least.
It is, therefore, the bacterial blight problem that is para
mount in the seed production of the Western states and of vita
concern to the Florida and other Southern and Eastern beal
growers. The very fact that all of the largest seed concerns
have gone to the Western states shows clearly that they recog
nize the arid conditions prevailing there as ideal to the produce
tion of seed, yet, even with anthracnose eliminated, bacteria
blight continues to be a real problem. These same seed houses
have seed-producing areas in New York and Michigan and her<
bacterial blight and anthracnose frequently take the crop anm
are present almost every year to a greater or less extent. Mucl
of the seed that goes into the retail seed houses serving th
South and East comes from Michigan and New York plantings
so that, unless the growers specify that they want Western(
grown seed, they are liable to get seed infected with not only
bacterial blight but anthracnose as well.
4. Note was made of the varietal susceptibility and resist
ance of beans to the diseases studied and, while none was er
tirely free in all sections visited, there was a range of suscel
tibility that was quite evident.
Among the pole beans, the Brown Kentucky Wonder was t
freest from disease. At Eugene, Oregon, it was entirely fr'
from anthracnose and bacterial blight. Ther n occasion
plant that showed mild mosaic.
The Burpee's Stringless Green Pod was a
strongest-growing bush variety in each section
the Giant Stringless as a close second. The Tennt
Pod, much grown in Florida, but a very poor quality b






Annual Report, 1926


in every case the most subject to all the diseases and a very
weak grower.
A letter of information relative to the facts in the bean seed
situation was mailed to each of the county agents in bean grow-
ing counties of the state and they were urged to use their good
offices to induce seed houses in their respective counties to buy
seed in accordance with the facts presented herewith.
The bean seed situation presents a parallel case with that of
Irish potato seed, so far as the Florida producer is concerned
and, in the writer's opinion, should be handled in a similar man-
ner. Some of the best money that the State of Florida could
expend would be to have someone working in Florida in the
winter or during the bean-producing season and then work in
the Twin Falls and Greeley sections during the months of seed
production. As a result of the recent trip to these sections,
there are a number of lines of work in these places that should
be undertaken immediately to insure the Florida bean grower
I constant supply of high-grade, disease-free seed.






Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY WORK
N. R. MEHRHOF, Extension Poultryman
Interest in poultry production in practically all sections of the
state has been at a very high pitch during the year. This has
been true with the backyard poultry raiser, the farmer, the
commercial poultryman, and the fancier.
This great stimulus in poultry production is due no doubt to
the demand for poultry products-both meat and eggs. From
estimates furnished by the U. S. Department of Agriculture
and the State Marketing Commissioner, the production of poul-
try products is much below the consumption. Prices received
during the current year for these products have helped to a
great extent in the development of the industry.
The poultry work for the year consisted of the following
projects:
1. Standardization of poultry flocks
2. Standardization of poultry products
3. Organization
a. State I
b. County Poultry Associations
c. Community
4. Boys' and Girls' poultry clubs
5. Home Egg-Laying Contest
6. Extension poultry schools
7. Poultry tours of inspection
8. Culling demonstrations
9. Caponizing demonstrations
10. Miscellaneous
Standardbred flocks were increased materially by reason ol
the fact that poultry breeders and hatcheries operated at ful
capacity. The beginners in poultry production secured Stan,
dardbred poultry, in a great many cases with high egg produce
tion records. This project was carried out with junior clul
members and adult demonstrators. Standardbred poultry wa
increased in every county, these birds taking the place of mon
grels.
The number and capacity of hatcheries in the state increase
considerably in 1926 over 1925, reaching a total of 350,000-el
capacity. The hatcheries have run at full capacity during t'
hatching months, and the commercial poultrymen and breede
have sold to their limit. The junior poultry club work has i






Annual Report, 1926


creased. All of these agencies would indicate that there have
been a greater number of Standardbred flocks in 1926 than in
1925.
Standardization of.poultry products is one of the projects
which, up to the present time, has not been stressed to any
great extent, due to the fact that the demand was greatly in
excess of production. However, a certain amount of funda-
mental work was given, so as to have the poultrymen in readi-
ness when the time arrives for greater quality and uniformity,
and standardization of grades.
Organization: Poultry associations throughout the state,
whether they be state, county, or community, have been val-
uable agencies through which poultry information could be
presented to a larger number of people. These associations
have been of great value to the poultry raiser in that they pre-
sented timely poultry information and also assisted in market-
ing poultry products. Field meetings and demonstrations, as
'features, were held in connection with some of these associa-
tions.
There are 27 poultry associations in the state; five of which
vere organized during the current year. In two counties the
communityy poultry associations were replaced by county poul-
try associations and one county poultry association ceased to
function and was replaced by community poultry associations.
'he associations now organized operate in 26 counties, an in-
rease of four counties over the previous year. This shows that
8.8 percent of the counties in this state have poultry associa-
lions.
The American Poultry Association of Florida-a state organi-
ation-serves the entire state.
In August, the Florida Baby Chick Association was organized,
presenting the hatcheries and poultry raisers who have chicks
br sale. The members are located in widely different sections
f the state. This was perhaps one of the greatest achieve-
tents during the year. In effect its motto is, "To promote,
aster, and improve the baby chick industry and the allied
ranches of poultry husbandry in Florida."
Poultry products were graded by 13 associations, thus mak-
Ig it possible for the producers to secure better prices for their
*oducts. More attention will be paid to this phase of the poul-
y program.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Poultry Club Work with boys and girls continued with the
same rules and regulations as the preceding year, with poultry
hints to the juniors being issued in the club paper. Poultry
breeders throughout the state have been a great help in the
development o f
this project.
Lectures a nd
d e m o n s t r a-
tions were given
at the boys' and
girls' club short
courses at
Gainesville a n d
Tallahassee.
The boys and
girls poultry
clubs increased'
40 percent, which
is a marked ad-
vance. Contests
were held at
which the boys
and girls exhib-
ited their poul-
t r y. Exhibits
were held at the
State Fair, South
Florida Fair and
several count
fairs.
Home Egg
Laying Contest
The First Flor
ida Home Egg
Laying Contes
came to a ver
successful close
October 31, 192
The Second Flo
ida Home Eg
Fig. 9.-Poultry is one of the important club projects ida Home Eg
of both boys and girls. Laying Contes







Annual Report, 1926


started November 1 with a total of 74 contestants. This con-
test is conducted practically along the same lines as the First,
and is so arranged as to take care of backyard flocks, farm
flocks, and commercial flocks. There are 30 counties repre-
sented in the Second Home Egg-Laying Contest, and the in-
crease in number of contestants for this contest is approximate-
ly 100 percent.
Following are results of the First Florida Home Egg-Laying
Contest:

TABLE VIII.-EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD PER MONTH IN THE HOME EGG-
LAYING CONTEST.


N ov. ......................

Dec. .................. .

Jan. ......................

Feb .....................

M ar. ......................

Apr. ....... .........

M ay .....................

June .......... .......


Average


5.95

7.55

10.44

14.34

18.92

18.41

17.37

14.46


July ................... 13.63

A ug ........................ 11.22

Sept. ................ .. 8.80

ct. ... ................ 7.97


Yearly Total 167.28


Best Backy'd Best Farm Best Com-
Flock Flock merc'l Flock


4.40 5.93 13.94

17.40 10.36 15.19

24.40 12.28 16.50

22.13 20.87 19.04

26.51 28.75 23.03

28.05 24.35 23.69

23.91 21.73 22.09

17.94 20.74 19.43

23.53 17.99 17.48

21.05 13.62 16.03

19.26 8.95 12.02

20.54 5.69 11.66


249.12 191.26 210.10






Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE IX.-STATISTICAL REPORT OF FIRST FLORIDA HOME EGG-LAYING
CONTEST.

Best Back-I Best Farm Best Com- Average for
yard Flock I Flock mercial Flock Entire Contest

Aver. No. Birds .. 34 149 584 274
Total Eggs ...-... 7,445 25,959 125,258 1,098,730
Eggs Per Bird -.. 249.12 191.26 210.10 148.67
Total Cash Ex-
pense .............. 372.88 325.28 1,891.35 998.69
Total Cash Re-
ceipt ............... 790.56 614.05 4,729.99 1,780.40
Net Return ......... 417.68 288.77 2,838.64 881.71
Net Return Per
Bird ................ 12.28 1.93 4.86 3.21
Average Price of
Eggs ............... .613 .328 .446 .466
Mortality (n o.
birds) ....... 7 9 5 28

Note:-Net return is the difference between total cash expense and
total cash receipt.
Extension Poultry Schools were conducted to present various
phases of the industry, and to discuss the problems of the pro
ducer. They were held when arranged by county agents and
home demonstration agents. One- or two-day sessions were de
voted to the discussion of various poultry subjects. Five ex
tension poultry schools were held during the year, all of which
were very successful.
Poultry Tours of inspection were conducted to illustrate bet-
ter methods of management. Two of these were held during
the year.
Culling Demonstrations are of great importance and mucld
work has been accomplished through them. These demonstrate
tions were a means of interesting the producer in better meth
ods of management and effected savings for producers. Cull
ing poultry continued to be a very important part of the exten
sion program. It was in connection with these demonstrations
that better feeding practices and disease and parasite prevent
tion were illustrated.







Annual Report, 1926


Caponizing Demonstrations were conducted, but were not
stressed due to the good broiler prices. Those conducted have
proven profitable. There were 15 such demonstrations given.
Miscellaneous: Under this heading comes work such as that
with commercial poultry farms, hatcheries, breeders, and fairs.
Assistance was given in each instance to improve the quality
of poultry. The above factors have been very important in the
development of the poultry industry.


Fig. 10.-Poultry club members and the county agent discuss poultry
problems on the ground.

Meetings arranged by county and home demonstration agents
vere held in various counties and communities. Timely poul-
ry information was given.
Monthly circular poultry hints were distributed to the poul-
try raisers. Articles were written for the Agricultural News
service and farm papers.
Interesting poultry programs were given at Farmers' Week,
35' periods being devoted to poultry. Assistance was obtained






Florida Cooperative Extension


from the College of Agriculture, State Marketing Bureau, coun-
ty agents, and leading poultrymen.
No doubt the greatest poultry feat this year in this state
was the establishment of the Florida National Egg-Laying Con-
test at Chipley, Florida. This contest was fostered and the
plant erected by the Chipley Chamber of Commerce. Its en-
tire management, including rules and regulations, reports, etc.,
are under the direction of the Extension Poultry Division. The
contest was started November 1, 1926. Due to the fact that
the contest was organized at a late date, there are only 50 pens
entered. The contest plant will accommodate 100 pens. It is
wonderfully located, properly equipped and constructed and is
one of the finest contest plants in the country. E. F. Stanton
has been secured to supervise it.
Assistance was given to the commercial poultrymen relative
to management, plans, feeding, and disease.
A number of fairs were visited to become acquainted with
the breeders and also to assist with the boys' and girls' poul-
try club exhibits.






Annual Report, 1926


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, District Agent
ELOISE McGRIFF, Acting District Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent (on leave)
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Foods and Marketing Agent -
MARY A. STENNIS, Dairy and Nutrition Agent
The home demonstration organization ,consists of 35 county
home demonstration agents working in 31 counties, a state
agent, assistant state agent, three district,,agents, a dairy and
nutrition agent, a foods and marketing ,agent, and a poultry
specialist who,works with county agricultural,and home demon-
stration agents.
An important change in our plan of.organization,during 1926
was the creating of a new district, giving three districts with
three district agents. This change was not made until October
and has been of greatest help so far in .developing stronger
plans of work for 1927.

SUPERVISORY PROGRAM

1. Objectives and Development: The main objectives of the
state home demonstration staff for 1926,were developing and
strengthening home demonstration work through better bal-
anced county, club, and individual programs. of work, preparing
and revising subject matter material for the agents' use; organi-
zation of county councils to assist the agents in development
of the work as planned according to county needs.
During the year literature was prepared for the agents' use
n poultry, food preparation, nutrition and health, installation
,f water and sewerage systems in rural homes, first, second,
third and fourth year sewing, and record books for nutrition and
tome improvement work.
As a result of the attention given to the importance of coun-
y councils, 80 percent of the counties have girls' home demon-
tration councils functioning and 58 percent have active senior
ome demonstration councils.
2. Equipment: Agents are furnished card filing cases and
irge looseleaf books containing record sheets, outlines for all
hases of the work, programs of work and special instructions






Florida Cooperative Extension


from the United States Department of Agriculture and the
State office. Office and office equipment is furnished by some
county organization, usually by the board of county commis-
sioners. Nine counties provide stenographic assistance, 16
agents have typewriters provided, 15 have telephones, 11 have
well equipped demonstration kitchens, 10 are furnished with
cars from county funds, and 2 counties provide motion picture
machines.
3. Filling Vacancies: In filling county vacancies and new
positions, preference is given to the college graduate-who has
had at least two years' teaching experience, or similar or better
qualifications. Sometimes poor salaries or local conditions
cause the appointment of women with less training and experi-
ence whose personality, knowledge and practical experience
with local conditions show good possibilities of them growing
into successful home demonstration agents. Unexperienced
agents, before assuming the responsibility of county work,
spend as much time as can be arranged, with experienced agents
and in the state office, familiarizing themselves with require-
ments, plans of work, and available literature. They are given
special duties during State Short Courses for Club Girls and
Farmers' Week, and are given special attention during district
and state conferences.
4. Agents Meetings: During 1926 two district conferences
were held in the early part of January to make plans for the
year. At these meetings each agent submitted a program of
work showing goals set. These programs were discussed and
shaped into an agreeable working plan in which specialists and
county and home demonstration agents could fully cooperate.
An attempt was made to standardize "The Florida Gift Pack-
age," by each agent preparing products and completing pack-
age under direction of the foods and marketing agent.
A state conference was held in October, at which plans were
discussed for completing the year's work and for the develop
ment of the 1927 work.

AGENTS' GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked
out ...... ... .................. ................................ 521
Voluntary county, community and local leaders actively engaged in
forwarding the extension program .............. ................... 63:







Annual Report, 1926


Clubs carrying on extension work-
Junior ........................................................................................................... 586
Adult ......................................................................... ............. ............... 227
Club members completing year's year-
Girls ........................................................................................................... 5,862
W omen ................................................................................................ 3,402
Girls judging or demonstration teams trained........................................ 90
Club girls entering college ........................ ... .... ................... 77
Farm visits made ..... .................................................................................... 1,864
Different farms visited ......................... .................................................... 1,168
Home visits made ......... ... ........... ................................................. 8,239
Different homes visited ........................ ...... ................................. 3,933
Office calls relating to extension work......................................................20,755
Telephone calls relating to extension work..............................................11,073
Average number of days spent in office.................................................... 72
Average number of days spent in field...................................................... 208.5
Official letters written ............................................................................57,246
Exhibits at fairs-
Community ..---.........................--- -............... ............... .................... 42
County ................................................................................ .................. 23
State ............................................ .......... ..... ...... .............. 2


Number
Training meetings for local leaders ............................... 122

Extension schools and short courses held........................ 23
Junior club encampments held ........................................ 24

PROGRAM SUMMARY


Attendance
1,611
122,382
2,889
1,357
1,586


Communities Days Agents
Participating Devoted to
Project
'Horticulture-home gardens, beautification of
home grounds ...................................................... 406 780
H om e dairy ............................................ .............. .. 72 93
ome poultry ........................................ ... -......317 559%
ural engineering- home ... ............................. 127 159
ome marketing ................................ ......... ...... 110 138%
oods ..................-.................................... 426 970%
nutrition ..................................... .................... 409 673
Clothing ........................................-............ 511 1,256
Iome management .................................................. 121 121%
louse furnishings ........................................ ......... 376 400
Iome health and sanitation .................................. 344 360
Community activities .............................................. 199 243
miscellaneous ..................---- ........----------- -.............. 108 501%

PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS

Progress in home demonstration work this year has been
based on the development of the productive phases of the work.
s a result, goals set by home demonstration agents and results
accomplished in fundamental home demonstration activities
how a decided increase over last year. Clubs for women in-
luded more poultry and garden work in their programs and,
Though varied conditions made varied programs necessary,






Florida Cooperative Extension


every bona fide club girl has conducted a living, growing demon-
stration. In connection with it she received assistance in food
preparation and preservation, nutrition, development of health
and sanitation, clothing, and interior and exterior home im-
provement.
The following paragraphs will give an idea of the purposes
of and accomplishments through the projects that have received
the major portion of the agents' attention:
Home Gardens: In addition to work as foods and marketing
agent, Miss Isabelle Thursby has acted as leader for the home
gardening project. Vegetable gardening was stressed with the























Fig. 11.-Every club girl is required to have a "living, growing" demo
station, such as a garden, a calf, or poultry. This one chose garden
and has seven varieties of vegetables.
aim in view, first of all, of having a supply of vegetables fo
use in the diet the year round and, second, to increase the fa
ily income by marketing the surplus. Goals set in the begi
ning of the year for developing this phase of the work wel
surpassed. Twenty-eight counties report improved practice
according to methods used by agents in home gardening wol
as follows:







Annual Report, 19.26


Individuals adopting improved practices in growing fruit trees..........
Individuals adopting improved practices in growing bush and small
fruit .---.............-------.-------------------
Individuals adopting improved practices in growing grapes ...............
Individuals adopting improved practices in growing vegetables..........
Individuals saving improved stock or seed ................... ............ ....
Homes adopting improved practices in home gardening.......................


931
879
186
4,240
219
4,353


Home Poultry: The Extension Poultryman has aided home
demonstration agents in giving timely assistance to the 2,483
homes in 27 counties reported as having adopted improved prac-
tices in home poultry work. This means that the women and
girls representing these homes are learning how to select eggs
for hatching; incubation; to care for baby chicks and entire


Fig. 12.-This club girl is leg-banding her chicks so she can keep records
on them.

lock through the right kind of feeding and housing; how to
ull for egg production; selection of birds for breeding pens;
control of insects and marketing of poultry products. Of the
homes mentioned above, 1,476 were directly assisted in increas-
ng the family income this year through poultry marketing.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Agents report that people of their counties have found that
it pays to have good stock, cull, have good houses and proper
feed to get good results. A number of flocks have been entered
in the national and home egg-laying contests.
Home Dairying: Miss Mary A. Stennis, the Nutrition and
Dairy Agent, has assisted in holding special dairy meetings
where method demonstrations and illustrated talks were given
to increase the quantity of milk produced on the farm, to im-
prove the quality of all dairy products, and to create an inter-
est in a greater use of dairy products. Eighteen counties re-
port 640 homes as having this year adopted improved practices
according to home demonstration agents' methods in home dairy
work. One county reports eight new dairies, another six, and
another that 15 families are keeping a home cow for the first
time.
The Pasco County home demonstration agent says that fol-
lowing a campaign put on four years ago the production of milk
was at times more than the housewife could handle, while at
other times she did not have enough to use. There is now a
milk depot that will take all surplus, and the club members
have put in two or more cows, so as to have a milk supply the,
year 'round. The amount of milk reported by club members
representing 165 homes is given at 36,724 gallons, which, at
40 cents a gallon, would amount to $14,889.60.
Members also report 6,885 pounds of butter made, which, at
50 cents a pound, is valued at $3,442.50. The value of butter
sold was $1,425.85, leaving $2,016.65 worth used in the homes,
which is a 70 percent increase over 1925 in consumption of
dairy products in the home.
Nutrition: Nutrition work under the leadership of the Dairy
and Nutrition Agent was conducted in a way that linked the
gardening, dairying and poultry work with the family table. As
a result, not only have better meals been prepared and better
food practices been adopted in the 4,908 homes reporting, buc
school lunches have been improved.
Energy has been directed toward improvement of condition:
under which children eat their school lunches, as well as im
provement of the lunch itself. Three-fourths of the counties
have reported definite results. The statistical report show,
71 schools serving a hot dish for the first time, more than 2,00(
girls and women preparing better school lunches.






Annual Report, 1926


In Lake County the club girls have helped to prepare and
serve hot school lunch dishes. The Hillsborough County home
agent has supervised the women's home demonstration clubs in
making possible school lunch equipment and management. Lee
County has cooperated with the home economics teachers in ef-
fecting better lunches and comfortable quarters for all children
to eat their lunches-the lunches they bring from home as well
as the ones purchased at school. Leon County has worked out
a plan of making vegetable soup at home and heating it in jars
at school. This plan is used in one- and two-teacher schools.
It places the responsibility upon the mother as well as upon the
school.
Material in the form of recipes for 50 and 100 people has
Been supplied to larger schools; nutritional leaflets relating to
children'ss school lunches have been given agents and teachers;
demonstrations, menus, recipes, for the individual lunch pre-
)ared at home, have been given.
Three counties which had begun county-wide programs for
underweight school children were assisted in completing the
vork. Polk, Citrus, and Suwannee counties completed this
vork and Duval partially completed it. Agents were supplied
vith nutrition programs. Teachers, principals, elder club girls
md women's clubs were used in carrying out these demonstra-
ions.
In Suwannee County this program has been carried out in
thorough way with the result that 327 underweight children
vere brought up to normal; 932 children kept accurate food and
health records; 18 schools were reached and given nutrition in-
truction; of the 374 club girls in the county, 136 were under-
Teight in April and only 59 in October.
In Suwannee County, stressing the value of fruit in the diet
)r each day in the year resulted in the setting out of satsumas,
ranges, figs, peaches, pears, plums, berries, and grapes. A
lant exchange in the clubs helped. Partly as a result of the
nutrition program, all except six of 429 club members (girls
nd women) have gardens with at least one variety of green
vegetables. Through the nutrition work on milk, 59 women
ad girls have started dairy records, 11 club members have
adopted a calf club program. Teaching the people food for
health has resulted in increased production.







Florida Cooperative Extension


In Citrus County, where 790 children formed the demonstra-
tion, the nutrition work increased interest in gardening and
conservation work among adults.
Gradual effort has been made during the year to interest the




















Fig. 13.-Nutrition programs increase interest in gardening. These club
girls are taking beans directly "from field to can".

agents in a nutrition program which has for its purpose the
building up of the girl club members first. The plan is then tr
have the "up to average" club members, the teacher who i
interested and cooperative, and the women's home demonstra
tion club of the community work together in making a demon
station in bringing a group of 10, 20, or 30 underweight chil'
dren up to normal. This plan is being used for the following
reasons:
1. The county-wide program is too burdensome an undertak
ing for a home demonstration agent alone.
2. Girls who have learned to bring themselves up to norm
are the most suitable leaders in bringing other children to th
right food and health habits.
3. One teacher in a school can nearly always be found wh
will make a capable local leader in this program.
4. Club girls need to do some community service and thi






Annual Report, 1926


together with lunch room improvement, has been chosen as
that service.
Programs for underweight club girls have also been stressed.
All clubs in eight counties and some clubs in every county have
given special attention to this problem, using production and
utilization of fruits, vegetables, milk, and eggs as a basis.
In Dade County, the home demonstration agent made a splen-
did demonstration using the summer camp for girls with an
enrollment of 172 girls as a beginning. The diet was made up
of club products largely. Forty-five girls who were under-
weight made an average gain of 3.2 pounds the week of the
camp. Follow-up plans carried the good work through the year.
Of the 1,600 enrollment at short courses and camps for girls
in 1926, 1,500 were served milk every day and practically 1,500
drank it. Less than 20 failed in this. Of the 1,500, 1,000 drank
a quart a day, and 500 drank a pint daily. Not in every camp
could weights be checked but gains were evident. Fully one-
third of the 1,600 were not accustomed to drink milk at home.
(The special counties mentioned are used as illustrations of
the work accomplished in a number of counties. Eighteen coun-
ties held camps at which better nutrition was stressed.)
Nutrition Programs for Women, a series of eight, to be used
in connection with food and nutrition programs for girls, have
been prepared. The women's work has also been based on pro-
ductive work and has had for its goal not only better food prep-
aration but better selection and utilization with a view to better
nutrition and health. In regular club meetings, in the commun-
ity gatherings, in short course, camps, Farmers' Week at the
University, demonstrations have been given to agents, special-
ists, women and girls. Food selection and meal planning as well
as food preparation have been worked out in the program and
as a climax a rather interesting contest was planned from the
state office. This contest was in menu planning and in working
out recipes and was open to all counties who would enter as
many as 10 women. All menus and recipes entered were re-
turned by the specialist, with criticisms and suggestions. As
a special community service, the women have served as leaders
in nutrition for girls, have assisted in health contests and have
improved school lunches.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Foods: Food work includes food preparation and preserva-
tion and forms a part of the dairy, garden, poultry and nutrition
programs. Miss Isabelle Thursby, Foods and Marketing Agent,
and Miss Mary Stennis, Dairy and Nutrition Agent, assist the
agents in development of this project. Through work with
foods, women and girls are learning how to use farm products
to the best advantage for the health, happiness and well-being
of the family. Records show that 2,002 women and 2,804 girls
completed food preparation demonstrations as outlined for the


Fig. 14.-Adult club members learn a great deal about food preparation
and balanced diets.

year and that 4,561 homes have adopted improved practices in
food preparation. Special attention was given to the value and
preparation of vegetables, fruits, poultry and dairy products.
Also, 3,932 homes are reported as having adopted improved
practices this year in food preservation. This phase of the food
work has been stressed so as to preserve food for home use,
thus protecting health, reducing cost of transporting food from
a distance, encouraging the live-at-home idea; insuring a varied
diet all through the year, and putting surplus home products
into marketable shape.







Annual Report, 1926


SUMMARY OF FOODS WORK
Individuals adopting improved practices in bread making.................... 1,663
Individuals adopting improved practices in meat cookery............... 1,512
Individuals adopting practices in vegetable cookery.......................... 4,696
Individuals adopting improved practices in preparation of dairy
product dishes .... ............... ................... ..... 1,202
Individuals adopting improved practices in meal preparation and
service ..................................... .. ...-........ ...... -........ ... ............ 4,058
Homes budgeting the family food supply ........................................ 273
Number homes providing better food storage for first time............. 281
Food preserved for home use:
Quarts fruits and vegetables canned ................................................. 298,165
Quarts meats and fish canned .-............................................... 26,277
Quarts jelly and preserves made .......................................... 95,965
Quarts fruit juices made ......... ......... ...... .......... ................ 13,672
Quarts pickles made .. .............. ............. ......... 30,071
Pounds fruits and vegetables dried................... ............ ........... 3,699
Pounds meat cured .................................................-........... 67,415

Clothing: The clothing program is designed to fill a need
felt by all women and girls who must do their own sewing. It
covers selection and construction, remodeling and renovation,
millinery, costume designing and wardrobe planning. A total
of 6,074 homes in 30 counties are reported as having adopted
improved practices relative to the clothing work.

SUMMARY OF CLOTHING WORK
Individuals adopting improved practices in renovation and remodel-
ing ............................ ................................................... 5,089
Individuals adopting improved practices in millinery ........................ 1,439
Individuals adopting improved practices in costume designing........... 1,624
Individuals adopting improved practices in infant wardrobe plan-
ning ....................................................................... 1,959
Individuals adopting improved practices in adult wardrobe planning 1,251
Dresses and coats made ................ ...............................................29,792
Undergarments made -..................................................... 22,375
Hats made ....... ...... ................................. 2,072

Home Improvement: The outstanding home improvement
work during the year has resulted from home improvement con-
tests under the leadership of Miss Virginia P. Moore, Assistant
State Home Demonstration Agent.
A total of 1,509 homes are reported as having adopted im-
proved practices in home management. This means that women
and girls are learning to plan household work systematically;
the importance of using labor-saving equipment; to arrange
furniture and house plans for convenience; to use improved
laundry practices; to keep accounts and make budgets.
Reports show that some of the labor-saving appliances that
have been added to the homes mentioned above are as follows:







Florida Cooperative Extension


Electric or gasoline irons .... ...- .....- ........ ....... -- 173
D ilvers ............... ........ ........ .... ... 52
Lights ........- .... ........ -. 27
W oodboxes ........ ........... ......- .... ......... ...... .. 17
Electric sewing machine .......... ... ................ 22
Shelves (kitchen) ....... ............................ 22
Tables covered with zinc ....... .... .......................... -. ..- .... 15
Pressure cookers .......................... .... ----...-- ..- ..- ...- .. ... 84
Juice extractors ................ .-........... ...... .... .-----------. 36
Electric refrigerators ........ ..... ...... .. --...-.---- --.... ....... 17
Electric fans, pumps, gas stoves, study tables, fly traps, can
sealers, wringers, built-in ironing boards, tea wagons, heating
outfits, brushes, iceless refrigerators, and electric stoves have
also been added in smaller numbers.
Reports show that 3,453 homes adopted improved practices
in house furnishings. This includes work in selection, arrange-
ment, repairing and remodeling of furnishings; also work in
wall, woodwork and floor treatment.

Number of rooms improved:
B bedroom s ....................... .............- ..... .. ..-.- ..... ... ...... 1,688
Living rooms ....- ... ..-- ........ .............. ... ...... ....... ............. 600
D inning room s ....-- ..................... --. .. ...... ...... ........... 667
Other room s ... ...... .........-.... ........ ............ ..... ............. 575


Fig. 15.-A cheery rural sitting room which has been made by improving
an old room.






Annual Report, 1926


Twenty-three counties report 3,015 homes as having adopted
some of the improved practices in home sanitation-378 sani-
tary closets were installed; 401 homes screened and 575 homes
adopted improved practices in controlling flies, mosquitoes and
other insects, all for the first time.
Considerably more has been done this year toward the instal-
lation of lights and water systems in rural homes and more
farm homes have been remodeled than home demonstration rec-
ords show for any previous year.
Nineteen counties report homes as adopting improved prac-
tices in rural engineering as follows:
Dwellings constructed according to plans furnished.................................. 43
Dwellings remodeled according to plans furnished. ................................. 127
Sewage disposal systems installed according to plans furnished........ 68
Water systems installed according to plans furnished.............................. 71
Heating systems installed according to plans furnished.......................... 20
Lighting systems installed according to plans furnished ........................ 73
Poultry houses constructed, according to plans furnished..................... 166
Homes adopting improved practices in rural engineering.......:................ 487
Miss Motelle Madole, home demonstration agent in eastern
Hillsborough County, says that 50 percent of her senior club
members have electricity in their homes. At "Better Homes
Week" last March the ladies were accompanied by their hus-
bands on an inspection tour, with a view to getting a more mod-
ern and convenient home arrangement in lights, water and
electrical equipment. One club member's husband is the com-
munity electrician, and it is through him that many labor-sav-
ing devices have been introduced to his community.
Beautification of Home Grounds: In beautification of home
grounds, emphasis has been given to the use of native shrub-
bery. Plans and suggestions for planting home and school
grounds furnished by College of Agriculture and United States
Department of Agriculture have been of valuable assistance to
the agents in this connection. Twenty counties report 810 home
grounds planted during the year, according to landscape plans.
Progress in beautification of home grounds in Volusia Coun-
ty is portrayed in the following quotation from Miss Orpha
Cole's report:
"The work of the past two years on beautification of home
grounds is showing all over the county, although there is yet so
much to do. Open lawns are more appreciated than ever be-






Florida Cooperative Extension


fore and there is a very great tendency away from the lawn
whose space is all broken up with shrubbery here and there.
Foundation and border plantings are much more used now. An
effort is made to have continuous bloom throughout the year.
Ten thousand gladioluses, 5,000 narcissi, 3,000 Easter lilies,
2,000 amaryllis and 200 tulips are reported, besides vines, pan-
sies galore, calendula, petunias, snapdragons, etc."
Home Marketing: There is a growing interest in the stand-
ardization and marketing of home products. County councils
are including considerably more along this line in their 1927
programs of work. Escambia, Dade and Pasco county councils


Fig. 16.-Adult club members making the "Florida gift package."

have recently opened markets for club products. Markets in
Volusia and Lee counties continue to grow. Miss Sallie Lind-
sey, home demonstration agent in Lee County, makes the fol-
lowing statement:
"Home marketing has made decided progress the past year.
A number of home demonstration women have made use of the
curb market to sell their products for several years. During
the past year 10 new members were added. One woman has






Annual Report, 1926


standardized guava paste and guava jelly, and is now supply-
ing the local hotels with a high class product. She has designed
an attractive box for her paste, and puts it up in pound and
Quarter packages. Her profit from sales of guava products off
of trees in her own yard was $550 this year. She is now stand-
ardizing roselle products and is supplying two tourist hotels
ivith roselle sauce.
"Two women have standardized candied citrus peels of all
kinds, and are finding a sale for all they can prepare. They
put their products in uniform containers and guarantee all pack-
ages to be alike. One of these women made $700 on such sales
this year. Another woman has succeeded in marketing suc-
cessfully the Florida Gift Package.
"Three club women and one club girl have standardized
hooked rugs, and are marketing them successfully. Mabel Wil-
liams of Alva, a second-year club girl, has completed two rugs
which have been sold for $15 each, and has orders for two
more."
Community Activities: Some idea of the various community
activities undertaken through home demonstration work may
be had from the following extracts taken from home demon-
stration agents' reports:
Lee County: "The Alva Home Demonstration Club took for
its community project the redecoration and refurnishing of the
Methodist parsonage. When the project was selected, a worse
looking house could not have been chosen. There were very
few windows in the house, and they were in the wrong place.
It had been papered many times with dark red and green paper
and that was partly off and hanging down.
"A definite plan of work was then made, and costs worked
out as accurately as possible. The finance committee raised
$200 and the Conference gave $300.
"The workers were divided into groups and a chairman of
each group' was appointed. One group refinished floors, one
made curtains, one worked over the old furniture, and one made
seat covers and pillows.
"The result of the work was a transformation for the house,
and renewed interest in improving their own homes on the part
of the women. Ten women have refinished their floors, 12 have
made fire screens and trash baskets, 11 have refinished old fur-






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 17.-The motion picture show is used by county and home demonstra-
tion agents to help with community entertainment and instruction programs.

niture, 15 have made definite improvements in their kitchens,
and 8 have made new draperies for their living rooms as a re-
sult of the demonstration on the old parsonage. The above fig-
ures represent only one community."
Volusia County: "DeLand club has already started work on
raising funds for a permanent home for their market. They
have arranged a series of suppers and social evenings together
to promote friendliness among rural people around DeLand.
Glenwood has started funds for a community house and placed
signs at the entrances to their city. All clubs have cooperated
in making the county flower show a success. All clubs also
cooperated with other organizations in sending relief to suffer-
ers in the hurricane district."
Taylor County: "Spring Warrior, which is the largest rural
and farm community, has an active organization known as the
Spring Warrior Community Council. Farmers, housewives, club
boys and girls are members. The county and home demonstra-
tion agents are advisers and ex-officio members. This organi-
zation meets once each month for a business hour, pertaining to







Annual Report, 1926


the different problems of the community, and then a social hour
is enjoyed."
Miscellaneous: 279 women and girls in four counties com-
pleted definite work in rag rug making. Three of these coun-
ties report attractive marketing of the home-made rugs.
A total of 1,313 women and girls are reported as having
learned the art of turning such native materials as pine needles
and wire grass into baskets, trays and other attractive articles.

STRENGTHENING THE HOME DEMONSTRATION ORGANIZATION
In addition to the agents' meetings and county and state
councils referred to elsewhere in this report, home demonstra-
tion work has been strengthened through the development of
the following activities:
1. Demonstration Teams: In order to train leaders, develop
efficiency and to encourage club members in giving public dem-
onstrations, teams of two girls each were trained in giving pub-
lic demonstrations in various phases of home demonstration
work. These girls were chosen in the local clubs and counties
because of their efficiency, success as club members, and abil-


Fig. 18.-A Florida home demonstration club canning team.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ity to interest others in home demonstration methods. Home
demonstration agents trained 63 such teams and found them to
be invaluable in interesting other girls and as demonstrations
to the public of the value of club work. There were 27 judg-
ing teams that functioned at fairs and contests during the year.
2. Contests and Rallies: Through contest days when club
exhibits were on display, demonstrations and programs given
by club members, the work was improved, because (1) of oppor-
tunity for county workers and supervisors to determine the
county-wide response, (2) the opportunity of getting the work
before the public, and (3) the prevailing community and county
club spirit. The getting together and club reports given at
the county rallies inspire club members to make a success of
their undertakings not only for themselves but for their com-
munities and counties.
3. Camps: Home demonstration agents conducted 24 camps
during the spring and summer months. Five of these were for
women, five for boys and girls, while the others were for club
girls and local leaders. Club members were required to com-
plete club work up-to-date in a way satisfactory to the agent
before permission was given to attend camp. In some instances
the girls and boys were required to earn the money for camp
expenses.
These camps were excellent for recreation, leadership devel-
opment, and in making it possible to give special demonstrations
and instruction which could not have been presented otherwise.
4. Awards for State Prize Winners: The State Federatiof
of Women's Clubs gave $100, divided into two $50 prizes, one
going to the girl making the best garden record for the year
and the other to the girl making the best poultry record. It
was requested that this money be used for educational purposes.
Five outstanding home demonstration club girls in the state
were given trips to Chicago to attend the International Club
Congress for Boys and Girls. These trips were financed by the
South Florida Fair Association, Florida East Coast Railway,
Seaboard Air Line Railway, Marion County Chamber of Com-
merce, and Montgomery Ward and Company.
5. Scholarships: Interest in extension work in home eco-
nomics led the following counties to make appropriations for
full scholarships for training in home economics at the Florida







Annual Report, 1926


State College for Women: Hillsborough, two; Dade, three; Palm
Beach, one; and Orange, one.
The College for Women gave dining room scholarships to
seven club girls this year, and the business manager was in-
strumental in securing two loan scholarships for other deserv-
ing club girls who impressed him with their ability during the
State Short Course for Club Girls. One of the senators, like-
wise impressed with the work of the girls during the State
Short Course, granted a scholarship.
6. State Short Course: The State Short Course for Club
Girls, held annually at the Florida State College for Women, is
the outstanding event in the club year and proves to be an in-
valuable stimulus in securing the best type of work, as the
short course is attended only by girls who have done outstand-
ing work in their counties. Short Course scholarships are pro-
vided by club members themselves, county commissioners,
school boards, civic clubs, women's clubs, banks, merchants and
individuals interested in the work.
The Short Course consists of instruction, demonstrations, and
contests in the various phases of home demonstration work.
Ample time is given to entertainment and recreation.
Girls who attend the Short Courses realize a desire to go
to college. Many of them, as a result, find a way to become stu-
dents and graduates of the Florida State College for Women.
They develop into the best kind of leaders.
7. Farmers' Week: Just as the State Short Course for
Club Girls was an important event in the year for club girls, so
was Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week for the women. It
gave them an opportunity to spend a week at the University of
Florida, availing themselves of the recreation and instruction
provided by the agricultural and home economics workers.
8. Cooperation With Other Organizations: The home dem-
onstration organization has received and given much valuable
assistance in cooperating with many other organizations. The
press extends splendid publicity to home demonstration work
throughout the state. County and city officials, chambers of
commerce, business men's organizations, county and state fair
associations, the health and educational departments, county
and state federations of women's clubs, and business and pro-
fessional women's clubs have all proven good friends to the
work by giving financial and personal aid and moral support for
its development.






Florida Cooperative Extension


FARMERS' WEEK AND EXTENSION SCHOOLS

Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was conducted on the
University campus during August. While this was one of the
agricultural extension activities, all branches of the College
of Agriculture, including the teaching division, the Florida Ex-
periment Station and the University of Florida in general, con-
tributed in making this successful. Also the State Plant Board
contributed in every possible way to the success in carrying out
the program. The programs were divided into sections where
special, general and entertainment programs were provided
each day. A special section was made for the home demonstra-
tion program, under the supervision of the home demonstration
extension staff.
The dormitories and dining hall facilities were made available


Fig. 19.-This farmer inter-plants potatoes with corn, and gets two crops.






Annual Report, 1926 89

to visitors at actual cost. The auditorium, class-rooms and lab-
oratories of the entire University were utilized in conducting
the program. The attendance for 1926 was the largest on rec-
ord, and numbered 1,248, representing 60 counties.
Citrus schools and field meetings were conducted under the
direct supervision of the district agents and specialists in coun-
ties where the meetings were arranged by the county agents.
These schools were intended to give practical instruction to
farmers and growers and acquaint them with the results of ex-
perimental work by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS (NEGRO WORK)
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
Farm and home makers' club work in Florida was carried on
this year in the following counties: Jackson, Leon, Jefferson.
Madison, Suwannee, Columbia, Alachua, Marion, Levy, Sumter,
Orange, Putnam, St. Johns, Gadsden, Duval, and Hillsborough.
The last three counties dropped out at the close of the past
fiscal year, June 30, 1926. Reports for the agents of those
counties will include only demonstrations carried to date. There
were 16 local agents, eight men and eight women, whose terms
were 9 to 10 months, depending on local conditions.
The work undertaken and carried on under supervision of
agents, had principally to do with farm and home improvement.
However, a definite effort was made to assist farmers to ob-
tain better prices for their surplus products through coopera-
tive marketing. Satisfactory results were obtained in the mar-
keting of truck and garden crops in Sumter, Marion, Alachua,
St. Johns, and Suwannee counties.

COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS

The Negro farmers of Florida have 12 local farmers' coopera-
tive associations organized around central shipping points and
chartered under the Florida State Legislative Act of 1923; all
of which are headed by farmers who stand out as examples
of good business men and leading farmers of their respective
communities. These farmers have, through their local agents,
worked out practical methods of cooperative marketing and co-
operative purchasing, and despite low prices, have obtained very
satisfactory returns from their vegetable crops.

STAPLE CROPS

Farmers in the staple crop counties received low prices for
cotton and peanuts, and many have become discouraged with
the results. A system for the cooperative marketing of cer-
tain staple crops will be tried out next fall with hogs, poultry,
eggs, potatoes, and syrup. Vegetables adapted to North and
West Florida counties will be grown on a small scale as a cash
crop and home supply.







Annual Report, 1926


LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY

Negro farmers marketed their corn and peanuts through hogs
this year to a good advantage; this gave them a market at
home for the surplus crops thus fed.
Members of Farm and Home Makers' Clubs are paying more
attention to poultry raising. Jackson County led the others in
poultry production, increasing their production by 5,000 birds
of the standard breeds. This increase was largely through the
work of the local agent.

DAIRYING

The amount of dairy work done was about the same as last
year. The value of milk for the young chicks and pigs is offer-
ing inducements for a greater milk production in communities
where there are no ready markets for dairy products. This
promises to induce farmers who have not been interested in
cows before to keep cows.

MEETINGS

Aside from the several group meetings held in counties for
training local leaders, two state meetings were held this year
as follows:
1. The state meeting of farmers under auspices of the Flor-
ida Farmers' Cooperative Association met at Jacksonville on
November 26. Staple and truck farmers from nine counties
met and, with the aid of local agents, made their plans for 1927
including: crops to raise, acreage involved, credits and methods
of marketing.
2. The annual Local Agents' Conference met at the Florida
A. & M. College on December 9 and 10, in connection with the
Farmers' Conference which convened on December 8, 1926.
Specialists from the State Agricultural College and the Florida
State College for Women were present and took charge of the
lectures and general instruction. The instructors at the Flor-
ida A. & M. College rendered valuable aid during the Agents'
Conference.
FAIRS AND EXHIBITS

The exhibits of our work at the South Florida Fair at Tampa
and the Florida State Fair at Jacksonville enabled us to present







92 Florida Cooperative Extension

samples of club work done under supervision of agents to the
public for inspection. In each case much appreciation was ex-
pressed by visitors, the Fair management, and the press. Some
county fairs maintain Negro departments which give local
agents an opportunity to exhibit club work.

STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS
December 1, 1925-November 30, 1926
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 80
Voluntary county, community and local leaders ................................ 144
Clubs carrying on extension work .......................... ......................... 106
Memberships ..................... ................................................. 1,267
Farm visits made by local agents ........ ....... ................................ 3,079
Different farms visited .- ................ .. .... ........................ 852
Home visits made by local agents ............................................. 1,602
Different homes visited ...... ......................... ................ 657
Office calls on agents relating to extension work................................ 1,933
Average number of days spent in office... ..................... ....................... 56
Average number of days spent in field.................................................. 166
Official letters written ........................................ ............................. .. 1,394
Exhibits at fairs ................. .... ... .... ........ ............................ 9
County ..................... ......... .. ... .................. ... ...... 7
State ...........-.......... ......... ............ 2
Number Attendance
Farmers' meetings held .................................... 136 3,948
Total attendances club members, junior encampments and rallies...:.... 350

PROGRAM SUMMARY
Of Outlined Projects by Local Agents
Number Days Agents
Communities Devoted to
Participating Projects
Soils ...1...... .......... .. ........................... 18 174
Farm Crops ---...... ............................... 10 82
Dairy Husbandry ........ ... .............................. 10
Poultry Husbandry ................. ....................... 4 40
Total ......................... ............. 42 296

CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats, etc.)
Acreage grown under demonstration methods.............................. .... 6,664
Boys' and girls' clubs .................. ...................... 27
Acreage grown by club members ....................... .................................... 156
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) .............................. 1,750
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices .................................... 28
Farmers who planted selected or improved seed................................... 337
COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Acreage grown under improved methods ............................................. 390
Farms influenced to adopt better practice ....................................... 34
Boys' and girls' clubs .......... ... .................................... 10
Members enrolled ............... ......................... ... 47
Acreage grown by club members ................... ......................... 30







Annual Report, 1926 93

Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) ........................................ 1,200
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed................................ 32
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases......... 26

LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)
Number method demonstrations given ................................................ 174
Number result demonstrations under way .......................................... 165
Number result demonstrations completed .............................................. 164
Acres in completed demonstrations ................................................................. 2,381

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE DEMONSTRATIONS
Method demonstrations ...... ..............-...... ..... ..................... 92
Result demonstrations .................................. ..... ..... ....... ..... 3
Acreage grown under improved methods .................. ........ .......... 199
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices .................................... 61
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed.................... ..... 37

LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrators ................................... ............ ........ 55
Animals in completed demonstrations .......................................... 8,199
Farmers who secured purebred sires and breeding stock................... 11
Farmers culling breeding stock .......................... .............. .......-. 202
Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests ......................--.. 25

RURAL ENGINEERING AND CONTROL OF CROP PESTS
Farms on which buildings were constructed or remodeled................... 4
Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled.............................. 56
Farmers who cleared land ....................................... ................. 2
A cres cleared ......................................... ........ ............................................ 4
Number of farms adopting above practices for the first time.............. 8
Demonstrations to control crop pests ..................................................... 10
Farmers adopting control measures .................................... ........ 10
A cres involved .................. ..... ............ .................. ..... ......................... 200

DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS
Dem onstrations ................................... .... .... ... .............. 10
Farmers adopting control measures ...................... ........ ..... ..... 10
Acres involved ........ .... ... ..................... .. ..... ......... ...... 200

SUPPLIES PURCHASED AND PRODUCTS SOLD
Value Profit
Truck crops, pork and eggs .................................... ...$17,775 $ 5,332
Peanuts and poultry ............................................. ................ 6,000 1,210
Cucumbers ........................ .................. 9,129 3,818

Total ............................... .. ...... ...... ....... $32,904 $10,360









INDEX


Activities of county agents, 12
home agents, 70
Agents, list of, 5
Agricultural economics, 23, 29
Animal husbandry, 21, 27, 39, 47
Aphid, citrus, 53

Barrow clubs, 36
Bean seed inspection trip, 59
work, 58
Beautification, 26, 81
Beef cattle, 21
Blacklock, R. W., report of, 30
Blue mold decay, 50
Board of Control and Staff, 4
Boll weevil, 58
Boys' club work, 30
Brown, Hamlin L., report of, 47
Bulletins published, list of, 11

Calf clubs, 34, 48
Camps, club, 37, 86
Central Florida district, 16
Cereal demonstrations, summary, 13
Citrus clubs, 34
pathology-entomology, 50
work of agents, 18
Clayton, H. G., report of, 12, 16
Clothing work, 79
Club work, boys', 30
Commissioner of Agriculture, coop-
erating, 9
Community activities, 83
Contests, 86
Cooper, J. Francis, report of, 11
Cooperating agencies, 8, 87
Corn, 25
clubs, 32
Cotton boll weevil, 58
clubs, 31
demonstrations, summary, 13
work, 25
Counties, cooperation of, 8, 9
County agent activities, 12
Cucurbit disease control, 54

Dairy cattle demonstrations, sum-
mary, 14
husbandry, 27


Dairying, 22, 47
home, 74
Dairyman, report of, 47
DeBusk, E. F., report of, 50
Demonstration teams, 85
Director, report of, 7
District agents' reports, South.Flor-
ida, 16
West Florida, 24

Economics, 23, 29
Editor, report of, 11
Egg-laying contest, home, 64
national, 28, 68
Engineering, rural, 15, 29
Ensign, M. R., report of, 54
Entomology, 50, 54
Extension schools, 88

Fairs, cooperation with, 8
work with, 24, 29
Farm and home makers' clubs, 90
Farm crops work, 18, 25
Farm management, 15
Farmers' Week, 88
Ferns, two-spotted mite on, 58
Financial statement, 7
Fiscal year, 8
Florida A. & M. College, coopera-
ting, 9
Foods work, 78
Forage crop demonstrations, sum-
mary, 13
Fruits, 26

Gardens, 72
General activities, county agents,
summary, 12
Gleason, Flavia, report of, 69

Handbook on truck diseases, 58
Hog demonstrations, summary, 14
Home demonstration work, 69
Home egg-laying contest, 64
Home improvement, 79
Horticultural demonstrations, sum-
mary, 14
Horticulture, 18, 26







Annual Report, 1926


Irish potato demonstrations, 56
summary, 14

Keown, Mary E., report of, 69

Legume demonstrations, summary,
13
Live Stock Sanitary Board, cooper-
ating, 9

McDavid, Ruby, report of, 69
McGriff, Eloise, report of, 69
Marketing, home, 82
Mehrhof, N. R., report of, 62
Melanose, 50
Mildew, cucumber, 54
Moore, V. P., report of, 69
Mosaic of sugar cane, 57

National Egg-Laying Contest, 28
Negro work, 90
North Florida district, 24
Nutrition, 74


Office organization in
24


counties, 16,


Organization, dairy, 49
poultry, 62
Ornamental clubs, 34

Pasture demonstrations, 39
Pathology-entomology, 50, 54
Peanuts, 25
Pig club, 35
Potato demonstrations, 14, 56
Program summary, county agents,
13
home agents, 70
Poultry demonstrations, summary,
14
Poultryman, report of, 62
Poultry clubs, 36, 64
work, 22, 28, 62, 73
Products sold, 16
Project work, 17, 71
Publications, 11

Rallies, club, 37, 86
Rodent control demonstrations, 15
Root diseases, citrus, 52


Rural engineering, 15, 23
Rust mite, 52

Scab, citrus, 50
Scale, citrus, 53
Scholarships, 86
Schools, extension, 88
Scott, John M., report of, 39
Seedbed disinfection, 57
Settle, Lucy B., report of, 69
Short course, club, 37, 87
Smith, J. Lee, report of, 12, 24
Soil improvement demonstrations,
15
Soils work, 17, 24
South Florida district, 16
Soybeans, 26
Spencer, A. P., report of, 12
Staff, 4
State College for Women, coopera-
ting, 9
State leader, report of, 12
State Marketing Bureau, coopera-
ting, 9
Statistical summary of county agent
work, 12
Negro work, 92
Stennis, Mary A., report of, 69
Storm relief work, 23
Sugarcane mosaic, 57
Summary of activities, county
agents, 13
home agents, 70
Supplies purchased, 16
Sweet potato clubs, 33
demonstrations, 14
work, 25
Swine, 27

Thrift in club work, 38
Thursby, Isabelle S., report of, 69
Truck crop clubs, 33
work of agents, 21
Trunk diseases, citrus, 52
Two-spotted mite on ferns, 58

U. S. Department of Agriculture,
cooperating, 8


West Florida district, 24
Whitefly, citrus, 53