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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal to gover...
 Credits
 Report of director
 County agent activities
 Boys' club work
 Home demonstration work
 Animal industry and dairying
 Plant pathology and entomology
 Poultry work
 Farm and home makers' clubs
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00009
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1925
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00009
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal to governor
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    County agent activities
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Boys' club work
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Home demonstration work
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Animal industry and dairying
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Plant pathology and entomology
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Poultry work
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Farm and home makers' clubs
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Index
        Page 65
        Page 66
Full Text







Cooperative Extension Work in

Agriculture and Home Economics
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1925
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30. 1925













CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR........................................................... 3
BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF ..................................... ........... ............. 4
COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS .............................................. 5
REPORT OF DIRECTOR ............. ......................................... 7
Financial Statement, 7; Relationship with Other Institutions, 8;
Organization, 9; Specialists' Organizations, 10; Appointments and
Resignations, 10; Meetings, Schools and Short CQurses, 10.
PUBLICATIONS ...................................... ............................ ........ ............... 14
COUNTY AGENT ACTIVITIES ........................................ ........................ 15
Corn Culture, 15; Cotton Culture, 15; Sweet Potatoes, 16; Fruits,
17; Insect and Disease Control, 17; Fertilization and Cultivation,
17; Truck Crops, 17; Bulb Growing, 18; Tobacco, 18; Poultry,
18; Hogs, 19; Dairying, 19; Cooperative Purchases and Sales,
20; Soil Improvement, 21; Fairs and Exhibits, 21; County Ap-
propriations, 22; Summary of Activities, 23.
BOYS' CLUB W ORK .................... ...... ......... ......................... .......... 27
State-wide Club Enrollment, 27; Livestock Clubs, 28; Crop Clubs,
29; Horticultural Clubs, 30; Annual Short Course, 30; Club
Camps, 31.
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ................................ ...................... .. 32
Organization, 32; Supervisory Program, 34; Equipment for Coun-
ty Workers, 34; Summary of Activities, 35; Project Activities
and Results, 37; Countywide Events, 42; Statewide Events, 43.
ANIMAL INDUSTRY AND DAIRYING ....................................................... 46
Grass Plot Demonstrations, 46; Dairying, 47.
PLANT PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY ..........................................----------- 49
Citrus, 49; Melanose, 49; Rust Mite, 50; Blue Mold, Green Mold,
52; Citrus Scab, 54; Miscellaneous, 55; Crops Other Than Citrus,
56; Results Obtained, 57; Cayana Cane, 59; Emergency and Mis-
cellaneous Service, 59.
POULTRY WORK ............................-...... --...... -------------. 60
FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS .................. .......................................--...... 63
Main Activities, 63; Meetings, 63; Fairs, 64; Summary, 64.






















Hon. John W. Martin,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agri-
culture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1925, in-
cluding a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1925.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman, Board of Control.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra.
A. H. BLENDING, Tantpa.
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville.
W. B. DAVIs, Perry.
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee.

OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
C. W. WARBURTON, Director.
C. B. SMITH, Chief.
STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, A.M., LL.D., President of the University.
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director.
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader.
J. FRANCIS COOPER. B.S.A.. Editor.
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary.
GRACE C. GREEN. Secretary to County Agent Leader.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor.
RACHEL MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor.
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
H. G. CLAYTON. M.S.A.. District Agent.
E. W. JENKINS, B. Ped.. District Agent (Resigned September 10, 1925).
S. W. HIATT, District Agent (Resigned February 15, 1925).
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent (Appointed February 16, 1925).
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent.
JOHN M. SCOTT, B.S., Animal Industrialist.
HAMLIN L. BROWN, M.S., Dairyman.
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S.. Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
M. R. ENSIGN. M. S.. Pathologist and Entomologist.
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.Agr., Extension Poultryman.
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent.
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, L.I., Assistant State Agent.
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent.
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent.
MRS. EVA RICHARDSON CULLEY, B.S.. Dairy Nutrition Agent.
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, B.S.. Food and Marketing Agent.







Annual Report, 1925 5

COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua ..........F. L. Craft ..............Gainesville ................Mrs. G. F. Warren
Baker .............JR. F. Ward ..............Macclenny ................
Bay ..................R. R. Whittington....Panama City ..........................................
Brevard ..........W G. W ells ............Cocoa .. ................. ............
Broward ........C. E. Matthews ........Fort Lauderdale .........................................
Citrus .........................................-.. Inverness ....................Mrs. E. W. Moore
Collier ............................................. Everglade ................Miss Motelle Madole
Columbia ........C. A. Fulford ..........Lake City ........................Mrs. M. S. Shook
Dade ..............J. S. Rainey ............Miami ..........................Miss Pansy Norton
DeSoto ...... -----------.................................. Arcadia ................Mrs. Nettie B. Crabill
Duval ..............W. L. Watson ........Jacksonville ................Miss Pearl Laffitte
(Asst.) ......J. 0. Traxler ..........Jacksonville ...........Miss Louise Pickens
(Asst.) ......H. B. Lansden ..........Jacksonville .......................
Escambia ........Wingate Green ......Pensacola ...........Miss Josephine Nimmo
Flagler ..........L. T. Nieland ..........Bunnell .. ... .........................
Gadsden ..............................-- .......... Quincy ........................Miss Elise Laffitte
Hamilton ........J. J. Sechrest .........Jasper ................ ................
Hardee .......... J. A. Shealy ......... Wauchula ...................................
Hillsboro ........R. T. Kelley ........... Plant City ................Miss Motelle Madole
Hillsboro ............................................ Tampa ........................Mrs. Mary S. Allen
Holmes ..............................................Bonifay .----..............Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Jackson ............................................. Marianna ....................Miss Albina Smith
Jefferson- .......E. H. Finlayson ..... Monticello ......................................
Lafayette ......D. C. Geiger ........... Mayo ... .................... .. ....
Lake ................E. W. Jenkins ........Tavares ..............................Miss Marie Cox
Lee ................. C. P. Wright ...........Fort Myers ........Miss Sallie B. Lindsey
Leon ........-.......G. C. Hodge ...........Tallahassee ...........Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum
Levy ................N. J. Allbritton ......Bronson ..............................
Liberty ..........A. W Turner ..........Bristol ..........................
Madison ..........B. E. Lawton ............Madison ... .......................
Manatee ........Ed L. Ayers ............Bradenton ................Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion ............C. R. Hiatt ..............Ocala ................Miss Christine McFerron
Nassau ..........-..:............................... Fernandina -----.................Miss Pearl Jordan
Okaloosa .-......R. J. Hart ...............Laurel Hill ........-.............. .....
Crestview ..................-----Miss Bertha Henry
Okeechobee ..H. P. Peterson......... Okeechobee .......................
Orange ..........C. D. Kime .............. Orlando ................Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola .......... R. Gunn ...............Kissimmee ........
Palm Beach....S. W. Hiatt ..............West Palm Beach..Mrs. Edith Y. Morgan
(Asst.) ......M. U. Mounts ..........West Palm Beach ......... .................
Pasco ..............W. T. Nettles .........Dade City ...........Mrs. Harriet Ticknor
Pinellas ..........E. H. Hurlebaus ...Clearwater ........Miss Luella M. Rouse
Polk .................................................... Bartow ........................------Miss Lois Godbey
Polk ....................................................Bartow ....Miss Mosel Preston, (Asst.)
St. Johns ........Phil S. Taylor .........St. Augustine ................Miss Anna Heist
St. Lucie ........Alfred Warren ........Fort Pierce ........ ....................
Santa Rosa ....J. G. Hudson .........- Milton ..................---- Mrs. Mary H. Caldwell
Seminole ....... B. F. Whitner, Jr....Sanford ..................................
Sumter ........ .....................................Bushnell ...................Miss Uarda Briggs
Suwannee .... -.................................... Live Oak ..................Miss Corinne Barker
Taylor ............R. J. Dorsett ............Perry ....................Mrs. Anabel P. Powell
Volusia ............T. A. Brown ...........DeLand ..........................Miss Orpha Cole
(Asst.) ......C. D. Case ...............DeLand ......................
Wakulla ..........H. E. Galloway........Crawfordville ............. ........
Walton ..........J. W. Mathison........DeFuniak Spgs...Miss Josephine Nimmo'
Washington ..L. S. Carter .............---- Chipley ..... .......................
*This list is correct to Dec. 31, 1925.
'Transferred to Escambia near end of year.




















01


0
0'





II F0


Fig. 1.-A Florida County Agent's Office.











REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES

FOR 1925
With
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30, 1925



Hon. P. K. Yonge.
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report
of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1925, and a summary
of the activities of the Division for the calendar year 1925. I
respectfully request that you transmit the same, in accordance
with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Receipts
College of Agriculture Funds-
Smith-Lever, Federal .................. ..........-....-$ 58,872.25
Smith-Lever, State ............. ....................... 48,872.25
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal ........................- 15,496.08
Supplementary Smith-Lever, State ...........................---. 15,496.08
U. S. D. A. Appropriation ...................... ............... .......... 22,500.00
State Appropriations .............. ....................... 12,400.00
County Appropriations .................... ...... .. .... ....... 61,009.10
$234,645.76
Expenditures
Administration ........................................-----------$ 12,249.12
Printing and Publications ............... .................. ............ 3,406.71
County Agents' work ....................-..........-...- ......-- -- 101,706.45
Home demonstration work ........... ........ .............--- 79,736.00
Boys' club work .~... ............ ..... -----. 4,458.55
Animal industry ...................... ..... .............. ....... 4,623.46
Negro farm and home makers' work .................. ............. 13,797.78
Plant pathology and entomology ...............--...-.. ...... 7,155.73
Poultry industry .......................... ....................... 3,892.18
Extension schools ............ ............................ 1,619.78
Exhibits at fairs (upkeep and maintenance) ..............................-.. 2,000.00
$234,645.76






Florida Cooperative Extension


RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER INSTITUTIONS
The Agricultural Extension Division is one of the three de-
partments of the College of Agriculture of the University of
Florida. The work is conducted under the provisions of the
Smith-Lever Act, which provides for cooperative extension work
in agriculture and home economics and consists of the giving of
instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home
economics thru field demonstrations, publications and otherwise
to be carried out in a manner mutually agreed upon by the
Secretary of Agriculture of the United States Department of
Agriculture and the State Agricultural College.
This regulation requires a mutual plan of work between the
two cooperating agencies and the monies expended in carrying
out such work must be accounted for according to the provis-
ions of the Smith-Lever Act.
A budget outlining the expenditures is approved by the coop-
erating agencies, which provides for plan to carry out demon-
stration work intended to cover the entire field of agriculture,
horticulture, livestock and problems in home economics.
The offices of the home economics division of extension work
are located at the State College for Women, Tallahassee, which
institution also provides classrooms and meeting places when it
is desirable to hold home economics extension meetings.
A special fund has been provided by the Legislature of Flor-
ida to conduct extension work by the State College for Women.
This work, too, is under the supervision of the State Home Dem-
onstration Agent and is a part of the home economics exten-
sion program for the state.
The extension service in home economics also receives assist-
ance from the college in subject matter, for it is the policy to
keep the teachings of the home economics extension work in ac-
cord with those of the State College for Women.
The Farm and Home Makers' Clubs division (negro extension
work) has offices at the A. & M. College for Negroes at Talla-
hassee. This branch also works in cooperation with the agricul-
tural department of that college and receives and gives assist-
ance in conducting extension and other meetings that are held at
the negro college. The extension work, however, is under the di-
rect supervision of the Florida Agricultural Extension Division
and the supervisor reports to the State Leader and the State
Home Demonstration Agent.






Annual Report, 1925


The Florida Experiment Station, which is one of the divisions
of the College of Agriculture, works cooperatively in carrying
out the extension program and the Extension Service is largely
dependent on investigational work for subject matter.
The teaching staff of the Agricultural College also works in
harmony and cooperation with extension workers by giving
timely assistance and rendering very direct help in conducting
extension meetings that are held on the campus of the College
of Agriculture.
The State Plant Board, also located at the University of Flor-
ida, has many problems in common with that of extension
agents. There is, therefore, a close working agreement, each de-
partment rendering assistance to the other when requested.
All agricultural departments located on the University cam-
pus combine their efforts in an effective way in carrying out
the programs for Farmers' Week and other similar events.
By an Act of the Legislature a sum of money for the pay-
ment of county agents' salaries is dispensed thru the office
of the Commissioner of Agriculture. That office, too, coop-
erates in a cordial manner whenever requested. Valuable as-
sistance has been rendered, particularly thru the State Market
Bureau, under the supervision of Commissioner L. M. Rhodes.
This service is especially valuable since marketing and pro-
ductive agricultural work are linked closely together.
The Florida Live Stock Sanitary Board has helped county
agents to render valuable assistance to the livestock interests
of Florida, particularly to dairymen and hog raisers.
The Agricultural Extension Division works in close coopera-
tion with fairs, livestock, fruit, truck and other agricultural
associations to promote the development of agriculture thru-
out the state.
ORGANIZATION
Men's Work.-The supervisory staff consists of the Direc-
tor, Vice-Director and State Leader, three district agents,
one club agent, editor, and subject matter specialists in animal
industry, dairying, poultry, citrus pathology and entomology,
entomology and plant pathology.
Women's Work: This staff consists of State Agent, Assist-
ant State Agent, two district agents, subject matter specialists
in nutrition and home dairying, and in conservation and mar-
keting.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Negro Work: One Local District Agent is in charge of
farm and home makers' clubs. This district agent works un-
der the supervision of the State Leader and the State Home
Demonstration Agent. This staff has general supervision of
the entire extension program and carries out the extension
program in counties thru county and home demonstration
agents and negro farm and home makers' club agents.
SPECIALISTS' ORGANIZATIONS
The work of the specialists is to assist the district and the
county and home demonstration agents in carrying out pro-
grams. They work in cooperation with department heads in
the College of Agriculture and Florida Experiment Station so
that the subject matter presented to farmers and growers will
be uniform and according to the best experimental data. Five
specialists are employed in men's work and two in wom-
en's work. There are many lines of work successfully con-
ducted by county and home demonstration agents to which
no specialist has been assigned. It is the policy of the Exten-
sion Service to have the services of as many specialists as
conditions warrant, who will work on the most important
problems confronting county and home demonstration agents.

APPOINTMENTS AND RESIGNATIONS
The following changes have been effected in the personnel:
Ralph Stoutamire, Editor, resigned February 1, 1925 and
was succeeded by J. Francis Cooper, the same date.
M. R. Ensign was appointed entomologist and plant path-
ologist February 16, 1925, succeeding John R. Springer, who
had resigned November 30, 1924.
S. W. Hiatt, District Agent, resigned February 15, 1925,
and was succeeded by J. Lee Smith, former agent in Escambia
County,
E. W. Jenkins, District Agent, resigned September 10, 1925.
MEETINGS, SCHOOLS, AND SHORT COURSES
(a). An annual meeting of all extension workers, which
brings together county and home demonstration agents and
specialists, is held at the College of Agriculture for confer-
ence and making plans for carrying out the year's program.
This event consumes from 7 to 10 days and is under the super-
vision of the supervisory staff. This is the most important






Annual Report, 1925


meeting of the year, in which all extension workers have an
opportunity to take an active part. The agents hold joint
sessions for part of the period and are divided into groups
for conferences and instructions. In handling this program
the Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, State Plant
Board and State College for Women render valuable assist-
ance.
(b). Group meetings for the purpose of completing plans
were held in January. Each agent is required to present a
plan of work to be used as a guide thruout the year. These
plans for the counties are made almost entirely by the agents
themselves, with the assistance of the district agents.
(c). The annual boys' club meeting is held at the Univer-
sity during June. This provides for a week of instruction and
entertainment to boys who have been successful in contests.
This meeting brings together the most successful boys of the
different clubs. The travel expense of the club boys is borne
by local organizations, by railroads, by county boards and in-
dividuals who provide sufficient funds to pay transportation
and living expenses while in attendance. This meeting is un-
der the general supervision of the State Club Agent.

















Fig. 2.-Club girls learning to make hats at the Short Course

(d). The annual girls' club meeting is held at Tallahassee
on the campus of the State College for Women. This program
is under the direct supervision of the State Home Demon-






Florida Cooperative Extension


station Agent and her assistants. Prize winning girls are
selected by the County Home Demonstration Agents and as-
sembled from the counties, these girls having shown proficiency
in various lines of club work and been awarded a scholar-
ship as prize for their efforts. Instruction is given on sub-
jects relating to home economics, sanitation, organization and
entertainment. This is one of the most important girls' club
meetings of the year.
(e). County and home demonstration agents conduct meet-
ings in their respective counties wherever conditions demand
it. Many of these meetings bring together the leadership of
the communities, when direct assistance is given them by the
county agent, with the help of the local leaders. Other meet-
ings more of an instructional nature are arranged from time
to time and specialists and supervisors from the supervisory
staff assist in carrying out the program.
(f). Farmers and Fruit Growers' Week is an annual event
on the campus of the University during August, when a week
of instruction and entertainment is carried out. While this is
a part of the work of the Agricultural Extension Division, all
departments of the College of Agriculture and State Plant Board
take an active part. The programs are divided into sections, per-
mitting visitors to select the program they prefer. The home
demonstration program is under the direct supervision of the
State Home Demonstration Agent and her assistants.
The dormitories and dining hall are made available to visitors
at actual cost. The classrooms and laboratories of the entire Uni-
versity are used during this week in carrying out the various
programs. The day program is given over largely to instruction
while the night meetings are given over to entertainment.
There was an attendance of 768 in 1925, representing nearly
every county in the State.
(g). Citrus schools and field meetings were held in practi-
cally every citrus producing county employing a county agent,
during the year. The total attendance at these schools and meet-
ings exceeded 1,600. By means of method demonstrations, lec-
tures, microscopes, binoculars, charts and fresh specimens from
the groves, growers were instructed in grove pest control from
a purely practical and economical standpoint.






Annual Report, 1925


The specialists' reports show a decrease in attendance. This
might indicate a lack of interest on the part of many engaged
in citrus culture. On the contrary, however, there is an appre-
ciation for better methods in cultural practices, fertilization and
control of diseases and insect pests. Here, again, real estate ac-
tivities have absorbed the attention of many citrus growers.


Fig. 3.-Growers learn best citrus practices thru field meetings under the
direction of the county agent.






Florida Cooperative Extension


PUBLICATIONS
J. Francis Cooper, Editor
The following publications have been issued during the year:
Bulletin No. Title Pages No. Copies
41 Satsuma Oranges in Northern and
Western Florida ..............................20 7,737
42 The Soils of Florida .................................20 20,000
43 Club Work and the Farm Boy...............20 5,000
Annual Report .- ................................ 104 1,500
Yearly Calendar ... ..................... .... 12 10,000
Weekly Agricultural News Service .... 1 26,960
Also the following have been issued from the office of State
Home Demonstration Agent:
Home Improvement Circular.
4-Year programs of work in gardening
4-Year programs of work in cooking
4-Year programs of work in sewing
4-Year programs of work in home improvement
Nutrition programs for women's clubs
Timely suggestions for women's club programs
Community score card
"Florida Pepper": A long-felt need of a paper for club boys
and girls to help maintain their interest in club work and to
keep them informed was at last realized with the establishment
of FLORIDA PEPPER, "A Little Spice for Boys' and Girls'
Club Work." This is a bi-monthly publication, and is distributed
to every club member in the state-about 7,500.
Miscellaneous: An average of from one to six news stories
were sent to the Associated Press each week and released thru
that organization. Special stories were prepared on request and
often without request for farm and grove papers circulating in
the state, and a number of these were published. They con-
tained not only timely information on what to do on the farm,
as suggested by extension specialists, but also news stories of
what is being done by the Extension Service and related organi-
zations.
A special "Farmers' Week" page in the Gainesville DailySun
was granted by. the management of this paper and the material
for the page was supplied by the Extension Editor. Thru the
courtesy of a number of Gainesville business men, copies of the
paper were daily distributed free to all visitors at Farmers'
Week.
Mimeographed Club Short Course News sheets were published
and distributed at Gainesville during the Boys' Club Short
Course and at Tallahassee during the Girls' Club Short Course.






Annual Report, 1925


COUNTY AGENT ACTIVITIES
A. P. Spencer, State Leader.
H. G. Clayton, District Agent.
E. W. Jenkins, District Agent.
J. Lee Smith, District Agent.
The following counties have conducted county agent work
during 1925: Alachua, Baker, Bay, Brevard, Broward, Colum-
bia, Dade, Duval, Escambia, Flagler, Hamilton, Hendry, Hills-
boro, Hardee, Jefferson, Lafayette, Lake, Lee, Leon, Levy, Lib-
erty, Madison, Manatee, Marion, Okaloosa, Okeechobee, Orange,
Osceola, Palm Beach, Pasco, Pinellas, St. Johns, St. Lucie, Santa
Rosa, Seminole, Taylor, Volusia, Wakulla, Walton, and Wash-
ington.
The percentage of counties, without agents is about the same
as that of the previous year, namely, about 40 percent. Five ad-
ditional counties made provision for cooperating in county agent
work.
CORN CULTURE
The season of 1925 was favorable for corn growing and by
good cultural methods Florida farmers produced one of the best
crops in many years. Most of the corn demonstrations this year
were of fertilizing.
Results are shown by citing a case in Madison County. Five
acres not fertilized produced 30 bushels. Five acres beside it,
same kind of soil and cultivated alike, but to which was applied
200 pounds of complete fertilizer analyzing 4-8-4 and 200 pounds
nitrate of soda (as side-dressing) produced 125 bushels. There
were 27 adults and 133 boys conducting corn demonstrations on
343 acres. These demonstrations gave an increase of 202/3
bushels per acre over usual methods.

COTTON CULTURE
This was a favorable year for cotton growing. The rainfall
has been only about %2 of normal. The boll weevil was not a
menacing factor. The cotton demonstrations were intended to
show the value of applying more and higher grade fertilizer. In
most cases from 400 to 600 pounds of complete fertilizer analyz-
ing 3-8-5 was applied at planting time and 100 pounds nitrate of
soda as side-dressing between chopping time and the time
squares began to form.






Florida Cooperative Extension


In Okaloosa County 15 demonstrations averaged 1,207 pounds
per acre, practically double the average yield. In Madison Coun-
ty, 20 demonstrations averaged about 1,450 pounds per acre and
in Taylor County 5 demonstrations made an average increase of
500 pounds per acre. There were 137 demonstrations on 430
acres this year; 151 people used improved seed this year. The
average production for 1925 is about 550 pounds.
Boll weevil control was conducted in all cotton growing coun-
ties according to the recommendations of the Florida Experi-
ment Station and the State Plant Board. The methods used prin-
cipally were the Florida method and the sweetened syrup mix-
ture. On account of the unfavorable year for the development
,of the boll weevil the demonstrations did not show very definite
results as would be the case during years when the boll weevil
was a serious factor in cotton growing.
A large part of the cotton acreage of the state was not treat-
ed and in some cases much destruction was caused by the
weevil in these non-treated fields. It is recognized by county
agents and other extension workers that conditions such as ex-
isted during 1925 will have a tendency to cause growers to omit
the treatment following a favorable year for cotton. They will,
however, persist in control methods, keeping it in mind that dur-
ing an unfavorable growing season boll weevils will continue to
be a serious menace to cotton growers.
County agents also assisted farmers in securing disease-free
seed and in treating seed to control diseases that are carried over
in the seed.
Some excellent results were obtained in Madison, Jefferson,
and Leon counties by club boys who produced upwards of a bale
per acre. In Madison county thru the efforts of B. E. Lawton,
County Agent, 20 boys averaged approximately one bale per
acre. This is the most outstanding record that has been made
by any county agent in cotton work in Florida.

SWEET POTATOES
The contemplated increase in sweet potatoes did not material-
ize because of light rainfall during planting season. Those
planted did not grow well and the production was light, yield-
ing under 80 bushels per acre. There were 77 sweet potato dem-
onstrations that averaged 120 bushels per acre.






Annual Report, 1925


FRUITS
In western Florida the county agents have spent much time
assisting growers in proper methods of setting, cultivating, and
fertilizing satsumas, blueberries, sand pears, and grapes. The
county agents are helping farmers to keep trees clean by spray-
ing regularly. Fruit meetings have been arranged by county
agents and specialists.

INSECT AND DISEASE CONTROL
Insects and diseases are largely controlled by spraying prac-
tices and our agents have been very active in this line of work.
Rust mite control in citrus groves has been stressed to good ad-
vantage this year. The control of scales and whiteflies has prob-
ably ranked next in importance. The control of aphis consumed
a great deal of time during the early summer.
County agents were of much assistance to growers in seeing
they secured good dust and spray materials, in time and meth-
ods of application.
The citrus aphis that has recently spread over the citrus area
has added considerably to the growers' troubles. As control
methods are now being worked out by the Florida Experiment
Station, county agents are following the best known methods
and cooperating fully to hold the pest in check. The Extension
Division assigned one agent to citrus aphis demonstrations,
working in cooperation with the Experiment Station Ento-
mologist.
FERTILIZATION AND CULTIVATION
The county agents in the citrus counties have been active in
an effort to raise the quality of fruit produced and also to lower
the cost of production. Methods of fertilization and cultivation
to these ends have been changed in many groves. The proper
handling of cover crops in citrus groves is another problem allied
to the above in which the agents have been active. The aim is to
improve the soil with cover crops and at the same time to keep
the trees producing good crops of high quality fruit and to hold
the cost of production as low as practical.

TRUCK CROPS
Truck farming is carried on to a greater or less extent in every
county. The largest shipments from one county in 1925 was
6,568 carlots. Trucking is a main industry in some counties






Florida Cooperative Extension


while in other places vegetable crops are grown only for home
use.
Insect and disease control, seedbed sterilization and fertiliza-
tion, spraying materials and methods, seed treatment and crop
rotation are the important problems in vegetable extension
work.
Irish potatoes are the chief money crop in three counties.
Agents have been of most assistance to the growers in disease
control. The growers in each of these sections have cooperative
associations to help with their buying and marketing. These
associations are in good condition and the membership is increas-
ing.
In Volusia County two demonstrations in controlling blight of
potatoes by spraying with Bordeaux mixture increased the yield
50 bushels per acre over the check plots.
BULB GROWING
Bulb growing is a new industry in Florida. County agents
have brought this to the attention of growers. The narcissus
and the lilies seem most promising. In two counties the efforts
put forth by the county agents and the assistance they secured
have been the greatest factors in getting a bulb industry started.
Seminole County farmers have invested $50,000 in bulbs and
planting stock and now have a start of between 25 and 30 acres.
These bulbs were planted and cared for by the best known meth-
ods. Volusia County now has some 30 acres in bulbs. These two
counties have formed a State Bulb Growers' Association.
TOBACCO
Tobacco demonstrators have been employed by growers to give
most of the assistance they needed in producing this crop. The
county agents in two counties assisted growers with their seed-
beds, methods of fertilizing, cultivation, control of insects, and in
curing methods.
POULTRY
County agents have taken an active part in developing the
poultry industry. They have assisted many people in starting
with feeding problems, purchase of breeding stock, disease con-
trol, cooperative buying of feed and supplies, cooperative selling
of eggs and poultry, and have given 151 culling demonstrations
wherein 31,400 birds were culled. The raising of poultry is






Annual Report, 1925


profitable and is destined to increase. County poultry associa-
tions have materially assisted in promoting poultry work. County
agents have assisted the poultry specialist and others in many
meetings where phases of poultry raising were discussed and
have demonstrated the importance of culling poultry flocks.


Fig. 4.-Learning to cull poultry thru a demonstration by the home dem-
onstration agent.

HOGS
The increased price of hogs induced farmers to increase hog
production in a few northern Florida counties. County agents
have given special attention to feeds, pastures and care, in get-
ting better breeding stock, and marketing. Cooperative hog sales
have been held under their supervision with sales showing about
10 percent better than the local prices. There were 226 pigs fed
out by junior demonstrators this year. The county agents have
assisted in placing 93 boars and 83 gilts on different farms.
DAIRYING
The dairy industry in Florida is now undergoing-a period of
change. In the middle and southern parts of the state most
dairies are located near the cities and towns. Recent develop-
ments have increased the land values to such a point that some
dairymen have sold out and disposed of their cattle. This de-


:LTu~~t~L~~






Florida Cooperative Extension


crease in dairy cattle and an increased demand for milk has
caused the price of milk to advance and also large quantities of
whole milk and cream are being shipped into Florida. County
agents have been active in trying to locate dairymen in sections
some distance from the towns. So far only small success has
resulted.
The agents have rendered assistance to dairymen in methods
of handling milk and have saved them money by changing their
rations.
One dairyman in Duval County reports a reduction of $10 per
week in feed cost and an increase of $6 in milk produced by
changing rations at suggestions of assistant county agent.
Smother dairyman reports a saving of 60 cents per hundred
pounds in feed cost by changing his feed mixture.
Another dairyman reports a reduction of $20 to $25 a week in
feed bill by changing rations without decrease in milk produc-
-tton
Still another reports a feed saving of $10 a week and an in-
creased milk flow by changing rations.
COOPERATIVE PURCHASES AND SALES
County agents have assisted farmers in the purchase coop-
eratively of fertilizers, fruit trees, livestock, poultry, spray ma-
terials, seeds, shipping crates and miscellaneous items. These
cooperative purchases have totaled $697,019, at a saving of more


Fig. 5.-Farmers often save money by purchasing fertilizers cooperatively.






Annual Report, 1925


than $74,510. Besides, it has resulted in the farmers getting
and using higher grade materials.
The county agents have assisted their farmers in marketing
truck crops, poultry and eggs, cattle and hogs, and all staple
crops. Thru these cooperative sales farmers have sold products
valued at $1,461,207, at a profit of $354,580. In the other coun-
ties where cooperative marketing is done it is usually handled
thru some association with which the agent works, but the agent
does not handle any of its business direct.
SOIL IMPROVEMENT
"Where the county agent goes, legumes follow" was proven
this year in this territory. Counties that have had agents have
had velvet beans planted with corn. Many others have not made
that their practice. Winter cover crops, principally oats and
rye, were sown. Soybeans and cowpeas are also being grown.
Fifty-five demonstrations were made.
Crotalaria: This is a new summer cover crop and its use in
the state is directly due to the agricultural forces. The United
States Department of Agriculture imported the first seed and
sent them to the Florida Experiment Station and a few farmers
who tested them out. Then they were distributed in small
amounts to farmers largely thru county agents. This cover crop
has now proved its value in 14 counties in this territory for use
in citrus groves and is well on the way to more general distribu-
tion and use. County agents have been of service in promoting
grasses to be turned into the soil to increase the humus content
of the soil.
Terracing: Terracing is advocated on lands subject to wash-
ing. The agent of Okaloosa County put on 49 demonstrations
comprising 1,426 acres.
FAIRS AND EXHIBITS
During the year 11 county contests and 19 county fairs have
been held and 24 county exhibits have been put on at state fairs.
The district and county agents have been the mainspring in
most of these. The district agents assisted in holding the con-
tests and assisted in judging at some of the fairs. Thru the
county agents these fairs and exhibits are becoming more and
more educational each year.
The county agents' annual reports show the usual diversifi-
cation of activities.






Florida Cooperative Extension


On the whole, the crops grown by farmers are being market-
ed at higher than average prices, creating an optimistic outlook
and helping materially in improving the conditions over that of
a year ago.
The horticultural area of Florida has undergone greater
changes than any other section.
COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS
The Legislature of 1925 provided a small increase for exten-
sion work. Not, however, enough to keep pace with the grow-
ing demands. Several counties have made increases ranging
from $300 to $3,000 for the support of the work.
According to the state law counties are permitted to appro-
priate one-half mill on the assessed valuation for agricultural
purposes. This amount is altogether inadequate for some coun-
ties where the assessment is low, while it provides very liberal
amounts for the more wealthy counties. There is an insistent
demand for county agents with good training.
Very substantial increases have been made for carrying on
extension work in some counties and in a few cases county
agents' salaries have been so increased as to make them much
higher than those of the supervising agents or specialists. Ap-
parently, in localities where production has decreased, there is
a definite demand for the promotion of agriculture and horti-
culture and with prospects for permanently increased values in
lands it will require more intensive methods and better agricul-
ture generally to make such properties pay.
County funds have been provided for the employment of as-
sistant county agents in Palm Beach, Volusia, and Duval Coun-
ties. As the work in each of these counties has been proceeding
in a satisfactory manner this additional appropriation was fully
warranted and is enabling the work to be carried on more ex-
tensively in the counties.
Many changes have taken place in the personnel of county
agents due to resignations and change of location. Two dis-
trict agents have been transferred from district to county agent
work due to the better salaries offered in counties. Others have
resigned and entered real estate work. Several new men have
been added to the service that are now gaining their first year's
experience. While these changes have had no appreciable effect
on the interest manifested by the public it does mean renewing
the forces with untrained men, with its disadvantages.







Annual Report, 1925


GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 310
Voluntary county, community and local leaders ...................................... 329
Clubs carrying on extension work ...................... ................................... 134
M em berships .................................................. ...........----- .....---. 2,827
Farm visits made by county agents .......---........--- -....---...................17,333
Different farm s visited ............................. .............................. 6,114
Home visits made by county agents ...........................---......--.........-- 1,391
Different hom es visited .......................................... --. -.....- ............ 977
Office calls on agents relating to extension work ....................................28,139
Average number days spent in office .......................... ........... .... 92
Average number days spent in field .............................. ........................ 201
Official letters written ....................... ... ............. ..... .........-...........--27,754
Exhibits at fairs ..................... .......................-................. 47
Com m unity ...................................... .............. ............ 22
County ............................................................................................23
State .... .. ......... .......... ....................................... 2
Number Attendance
Farmers' meetings held ................. .. ......... .... ........ ..... 922 30,477
Extension schools and short courses held ................................122 1,900
Total attendance club members, junior encampments and rallies........ 446

PROGRAM SUMMARY
Of Outlined Projects by County Agents


Number
communities
participating
Soils ...................................................................................... 82
Farm crops ...................... -- ----- --........................183
Horticulture .....---... -------.....................................197
F orestry ................... ......................................... 2
Rodents, predatory animals and birds ............................ 17
Animal husbandry .............------.......................-- .---.137
Dairy husbandry ............................. ................... ....... 75
Poultry husbandry ........................... .......................... 134
Rural engineering ..............-.........................------. 59
Agricultural economics ......................---------.................. 112
Miscellaneous work ................ --- -----......................135

Total ................ .......................1,133


Days agents
devoted to
projects
297
1.069
1,368
4
55
799
466
648
123
387
1,237

6,453


Cereal Demonstrations
(Corn, Oats, Etc.)
Acreage grown under demonstration methods ........................................
Boys' and girls' clubs .................................................... .................
Acreage grown by club members .................................. ..............
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) ...........................
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices .....---.............................
Farmers who planted selected or improved seed ......--........................
Farmers who treated seed grain for smut ........................................

Cotton Demonstrations
Demonstrators .......................
Acreage grown under improved methods ............................
Farms influenced to adopt better practice ...........................
Boys' and girls' clubs .............................. .......... .........................
Members enrolled .. --------...... ..... .................
Acreage grown by club members ................................ ......


245
283
129
4,691
266
217
8








24 Florida Cooperative Extension

Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) ........................................ 7,324
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed .................................... 176
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases....... 118
Number farms treating seed for disease ............................................... 60
Legume and Forage Crops Demonstrations
(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)
Number method demonstrations given ................................................... 152
Number result demonstrations under way ............................................ 168
Number result demonstrations completed ............................................. 128
Acres in completed demonstrations .........................:................................ 1,788
Orchard Demonstrations
(Mostly Citrus Fruits)
Number method demonstrations given ................................................... 1,408
Number result demonstrations .................................... ....... .................... 154
Result demonstrations completed ...............................-...---...........- -....... 123
Acres involved in demonstrations ..........................-........--.....-............... 2,141
N um ber of boys' clubs ................................................................... ........ 21
Mem bership -............:.................................... .................. 323
Number planting improved stock or seed ...........-............................. 75
N um ber pruning ....................................... ................. ....................... 96
Trees involved ........................................................................... ---19,704
Number spraying or treating for diseases and insect pests................ 183
A cres treated ......................................................... ....... .. ......... ..... 860
Number farms adopting improved practices ........................................ 292
Horticultural Demonstrations

Number method demonstrations given ....................................... ....... 346
Number result demonstrations ...................----...................... .----. 175
Result demonstrations completed during year ...---.......................... ...- ... 126
Acres involved in demonstrations .................-..-... .................... 478
N um ber of boys' clubs ...................................................... ...... ..................... 2
Membership .......................--... ----- ...... -- --..........................- 20
Number planting improved stock or seed ......................---------............-- 189
Number pruning ... --- --............................ ........ ............. ... ............ 10
Trees involved ........................... ............. ................. ..................... 4
Number spraying or treating for diseases and insect pests ..-........--.. 192
A cres treated .............................................................................................. 1,072
Number of farms adopting improved practices ........................................ 313
Sweet and Irish Potato Demonstrations
Demonstrators ..-.................. -----........-..- ---.. ---.. ....------. 85
Acreage grown under improved methods ....................-................. 628
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ....................................... 164
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed .................................... 257
Farmers who treated seed for disease ............................................... 33
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects........ 112
Dairy Cattle Demonstrations
Animals in completed demonstrations ............................................ 1,212
Saving resulting from better practices ... ..................................$10,753
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ........................................ 406
Farmers assisted in securing purebred sires .-.....- ---............................ 40
Farms assisted in securing high grade or purebred females ................ 88
Farmers who culled their herds ............................................................... 34
Animals in these herds .......................... .... ...................................... 1,405
Anim als discarded ................................................................................ 423







Annual Report, 1925 25

Farmers' associations who tested cows for production ..................... 20
Cows tested for production ................................... .................... 262
Farmers who fed better balanced rations ......... ................. 91
Farmers who controlled insect pests .............................. ..... : ...... 41
Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis ........................................ 60
Number of farms adopting more sanitary production methods........... 81

Hog Demonstrations
Demonstations given ...... ..... ...................... .......................... 871
Animals in completed demonstrations ................................ .......... 9,721
Savings resulting from better practices .................................. ...$10,029
Farmers who secured purebred sires ............................... ........ 67
Farmers assisted in obtaining purebred females .................................. 113
Farmers who fed better balanced rations ............................................ 185
Farmers culling breeding stock ...................................... ............. 13
Number of animals culled out ..................... ............. ..... .... 236
Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests ............................. 1,508

Poultry Demonstrations
Demonstrators .............................................. 322
Birds in these demonstrations ............................. ................ 43,509
Saving resulting from better practices ..................................... $4,827
Number of farms assisted in securing purebred breeding stock ........ 123
Poultrymen who culled their flocks .............................. ......... ....... 224
Number of birds in these flocks ........................- ..................... 49,674
Number of birds discarded ............................. .................... 13,925
Number of breed associations formed ........................................... 1
Membership ...................... ......................................... 72

Soil Improvement Demonstrations
Dem onstrations ............................................. .. ................. 724
Acres involved in completed demonstrations ...................................... 2,032
Farmers influenced to change methods soil management ................. 1,168
Farmers following advice in use of commercial fertilizers ................... 995
Tons commercial fertilizer involved ..........................- ....... .............. 5,635
Farmers taking better care of farm manures ............................... 135
Farmers using lime or limestone ........................... ............... 12
Tons of lime or limestone so used ........................................................ 98
Farmers who plowed under cover crops for soil improvement.......... 208
Acres of cover and green manure so plowed under .............................. 2,731

Rural Engineering
(Things Done with Agents' Assistance and Advice)
Acres Number
Drainage systems installed -..................... ..................4,104 60
Irrigation systems installed ......... .....-...... ..-- .....--.... 220 19
Terraces constructed ........................... ......2,056 67
Water systems installed ........................ ................. 24
Heating systems installed ......................... -............ 2
Lighting systems installed .........-... ...................................... 15
Farms on which buildings were constructed or remodeled ........... 102
Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled ..................... 223
Number sewage-disposal systems installed ..........................-.---. 7
Farmers who cleared land ........ .... ......... ...................... 157
Acres cleared ............... .. ...........-------.......3,655
Number of farms adopting above practices for the first time ......... 212







Florida Cooperative Extension


Demonstration in Control of Rodents and Other Pests
Dem onstrations ................................... ....................... ... .................
Farmers adopting control measures .........................................
A cres involved .................................. ........................................
Farm Management

Number method demonstrations given .............................. ....
Farm account books distributed ................................. ..............
Farmers who kept records ........................................... ..
Farmers assisted in keeping accounts .......................................
Farmers who changed methods as result of keeping accounts............
Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming sys-
tems according to recommendations ................................
Farmers advised relative to leases .................................... ..........
Number of junior farm account clubs ............................................
Farmers assisted in keeping cost of production records ........................
Number of farms adopting improved farm management practices....


184
374
5,739


Supplies Purchased and Products Sold
Supplies Purchased Products Sold
Value Saving Value Saving
Fruit & Fruit trees.............$ 3,600.00 $ 750.00 $150,000.00 $ 10,000.00
Poultry products ................ 5,000.00 400.00 115,161.70 34,761.89
Crates, barrels, syrup cans
& feeds ............................ 18,813.49 3,060.32
Fertilizer ............................132,200.00 23,017.00
Cotton & hogs ................... 63,876.00 7,405.00
Seeds .................................... 8,910.00 2,698.00
Dairy products ............... 8,250.00 4,125.00
Potatoes, cucumbers &
corn ................................ 1,207,810.00 305,890.00
Watermelons, cabbage &
other vegetables ............ 6,112.00 500.00
Tobacco .............................. 1,200.00 180.00
Miscellaneous (spray, 1
fertilizer, machinery /606,651.00 57,385.00
& bbls., insecticides
& seeds) J

Total ...............................775,174.49 $ 87,310.32 $1,552,409.70 $362,861.89






Annual Report, 1925


BOYS' CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, Agent, Boys' Agricultural Clubs
The boys' club work has shown marked improvement, particu-
larly in membership. Of the various divisions, pig club work has
created the greatest interest. Practically all of the hogs on ex-
hibit from Florida at the State Fair, Jacksonville, were produced
by members of the pig clubs. Most of these animals were fat
barrows, with several exceptionally fine animals to be used for
breeding purposes.
Club work in the southern part of the state in horticultural
counties remains a difficult problem, due to high values of land,
the speculative nature of the crops grown and the general ten-
dency of the most active boys and girls to interest themselves
in work that to them seems more profitable than farming.
There is a greater interest manifested in poultry club work
as it is adaptable to a larger number of localities.
Because of the great variation in soils and climate between
the northern section of Florida and the southern section, it is
necessary to use different projects. Club projects should fit
into the system of farming practiced by the better farmers.
In the general farming section of the north and west, the crop
and livestock clubs are successful and popular. In the horticul-
tural and trucking section of the southern part, special projects
had to be developed. Citrus clubs were organized and poultry
club work, which had heretofore been handled almost exclusively
by the home demonstration agents, was taken up by some of the
county agents.

STATE-WIDE CLUB ENROLLMENT
While the enrollment for 1925 was an increase of 38 percent
over that for 1924, but a small percent of boys and girls on the
farms were being reached by club work. A state-wide enroll-
ment campaign was put on during the week beginning October
19. All extension workers gave their time during this week to
assisting county and home demonstration agents in reaching as
many farm boys and girls as possible with a message of club
work. The results justified the effort. The enrollment secured
that week gives reason for belief that the final enrollment for
1926 will be double that of the past year.






Florida Cooperative Extension


LIVESTOCK CLUBS
Pig Club: Due to the return of fair prices for pork, the en-
rollment in the pig club was increased 80 percent over that for
1924. The quality of pigs placed
with the boys was better than
in the past. The boys, under
hope of better prices, fed and
cared for their pigs better, re-
sulting in a larger percent of the
animals in good condition at
contest time and the boys were
willing to show them.
Barrow Clubs: The exhibit
of barrows at the 1924 State
Fair brought much favorable
comment from the breeders and
butchers because of the quality
S- of the animals shown. To en-
courage a larger exhibit for
Fig. 6.-Malcolm Hartsfield, Leon 1925 two of the largest livestock
County, prize winning pig
club boy for 1925. dealers in Jacksonville offered
$400 in premium money for the club barrow show. The fair asso-
ciation added $700 to this amount. With the interest of the live-
stock men of the state to encourage them, several county agents
gave added attention in promoting this project. When the 1925
State Fair opened, the club boys and girls had 150 fat barrows
on exhibit. The pigs were sold at the top market price and each
member exhibiting received a profit for his work.
Madison County stands out as the leader in pig club work. For
the past five years at the state club exhibit, County Agent B.
E. Lawton has won first prize for the best 10 breeding pigs
shown by the club members from a county. In three out of the
past five years a boy from this county has shown the grand
champion club barrow. Th6 last three years that the Frank E.
Dennis scholarship has been awarded a Madison County pig club
boy was the winner. At the Madison County Fair in 1925, 150
pigs were shown by the boys and girls. Every available pen was
filled or more would have been exhibited, as 250 pigs were fed by
the boys and girls of that county. The years of pig club work in
this county have resulted in the razorback being replaced by the






Annual Report, 1925


purebred or high grade. Today the raising of swine in Madison
County is on a better basis than in any other county in the state.
Calf Club: The enlarged demand for dairy products due to
rapid increase of population caused some of the county agents to
give attention to calf clubs. The presence of the tick in the
state makes it imperative that care be used in promoting this
project. Duval and Marion counties made a start with calves.
In Duval 11 boys and girls fed out calves. In Marion, four
boys grew out heifer calves which had been imported from Ten-
nessee. The work in Marion County proved that high class dairy
animals can be raised in Florida under ordinary farm conditions.

CROP CLUBS
Corn Club: This project is popular in the northern and west-
ern counties. Hillsboro County is the only county in the south-
ern part which uses this project. The results in 1925 were satis-
factory. The members are using better seed and better fertiliz-
ing methods each year so that a good yield was secured even
under the unfavorable condition of a severe drought at the criti-
cal time.
Santa Rosa County is an example of the result of consistent
effort in corn club work. This club has been in operation in that
county since 1916. A gradual improvement has been made from
an average yield of 14 bushels in 1916 to 44 bushels in 1925.
Large yields have not been the aim but an improvement in all
yields. There were no exceptionally large yields in 1925, 66.2
being the largest; neither were there any small yields, 30 bushels
being lowest reported. Due to increasing costs the average cost
per bushel has risen but the average profit per acre in 1925 was
$32.29 or twice the gross value of the yield for 1916. The use
of better seed has helped but better fertilizing methods, especial-
ly the use of nitrate of soda, appears to be reason for increase in
yields.
Sweet Potato Club: The long drought during usual planting
seasons prevented many boys from planting their crop. In Es-
cambia County, where plans had been made for selling the crop
on the early market, the drought delayed growth until the crop
missed the high prices and trouble was found in selling the po-
tatoes. The yields were below normal and profits were small.
Cotton Club: Due to climatic conditions Florida cotton farm-
ers have never produced high yields. A bale to an acre was very






Florida Cooperative Extension


exceptional before the coming of the boll weevil. Since then the
average has been one-fourth bale per acre or less. The high price
of cotton and more knowledge of how to fight the weevil induced
several western Florida agents to attempt a cotton club. The re-
sults were beyond expectations. Over 20 boys produced a bale per
acre. Russel Henderson of Madison County, gathered 1,994
pounds of seed cotton from his club acre. The season was favor-
able to cotton and unfavorable to the weevil, and the yields were
remarkable. The boys are showing the way in cotton production
in Florida.
HORTICULTURAL CLUBS
Citrus Clubs: This project is going into its third year. The
study of citrus insects and their control holds the interest of
the boys. In Lake County, each local club planted seed and bud-
ded the seedlings to add profit. The possibilities of this club
have not been realized by as many counties as was hoped.
ANNUAL SHORT COURSE
This is the big event of the club year. The winning boys in
every county gather at the University. They receive practical
instruction in agriculture but the greatest good derived is from
the inspiration to go to college which gets hold of the boys. Two
members of the Agricultural College judging team this year are
old club boys who got their inspiration to go to college by attend-
ing a short course five or six years ago. Each year the number
of former short course students that enter the University in-
creases. All these boys do not enter the College of Agriculture;
but better a successful lawyer or doctor than an uneducated, dis-
satisfied farmer.
A total of 135 boys attended the 1925 short course. This is our
largest enrollment. The instruction was divided into two sec-
tions: one for those attending for the first time, which covered
seven subjects; and one for those who had won trips in previous
years, which was specialized work in the subject of most interest
to the boy. To help inspire the boys to attempt a college course,
the short course boys attend the commencement exercises of the
University and the first year boys are given a trip over the cam-
pus under the guidance of a graduate of the institution who tries
to show the boys that the University offers training in any work
in which the boy may be interested.






Annual Report, 1925 31

CLUB CAMPS
The need of supervised recreation for the farm boys and girls
is the big reason for holding club camps. A four day outing
where swimming can be had is the usual course. An instructor
in swimming licensed by the Red Cross is employed to assist.
Every boy and girl attending a camp is given an opportunity to
learn to swim. The life-saving work is a regular part of camp
activities. The recreational side is stressed, still enough practi-
cal instruction is given that every boy can carry home something
of practical value in farm life.
Nine camps were held in 1925 which were attended by over
200 boys. Escambia held the last camp where 43 boys spent four
days on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico.






Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Miss Flavia Gleason, State Agent.
Miss Virginia P. Moore, Asst. State Agent.
Miss Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent.
Miss Ruby McDavid, District Agent.
Miss Isabelle S. Thursby, Foods and Marketing Agent.
Miss Mary A. Stennis, Dairy and Nutrition Agent.

ORGANIZATION
State Staff: To organize and supervise home demonstration
work in Florida and for subject matter instruction there is on
the state staff in addition to the state agent and 34 county work-
ers, an assistant state agent, two district agents, home dairy and
nutrition agent, foods and marketing agent, and a poultry spe-
cialist who works with both the farm and home demonstration
agents.
Organized Territory: The year 1925 closed with 31 counties
financially supporting home demonstration work in Florida.
These counties were divided into two districts, 17 in the south
and east district, supervised by Miss Lucy Belle Settle, and 14 in
the northern and western part supervised by Miss Ruby Mc-
David. This number shows an increase of one county over 1924.
Duval, Polk and Hillsboro counties continued to support two
home demonstration agents each, making a total of 34 county
workers.
Home demonstration work for negroes was conducted in eight
counties.
Plan of Organization: Organized home demonstration clubs
for women and girls in the rural communities constitute excel-
lent machinery for developing plans of work. These clubs meet
monthly and the members take part in phases of work according
to the needs of the various communities. With each member tak-
ing an active part in the program, the home demonstration agent
is enabled to present systematic work, and to measure the prog-
ress of her club members. There are 581 girls' clubs and 227
women's clubs with a membership of 10,944 girls and 4,592 wom-
en; 8,463 girls and 3,359 women completed the year's work as
outlined.
Home Demonstration Councils: After clubs have been organ-
ized in a county the agent brings together a council of represen-
tative women from each club who act as an advisory board, and







Annual Report, 1925


meet with the agent, usually once a month, to give reports and
make future plans. For instance in Hillsboro County where
there is a growing need for year-round home gardens, as a result
of the sentiment created by the county council, 116 Hillsboro
County women are growing them.
The junior home demonstration councils have grown even
more rapidly than the senior councils. Every county having a
home demonstration agent has or is developing plans for this or-
ganization.
State councils consisting of two representatives from each of
the county councils meet annually, the juniors holding their
meeting and reporting during the State Short Course for prize
winning club girls and the seniors report during Farmers' and
Fruit Growers' Week.
Program of Work: Main objectives during 1925 were revising
and putting into operation a four-year-plan of work for club girls
and a long time program for women, establishing and strength-
ening county councils in every organized county; increasing pro-
ductive work; standardizing and marketing Florida home
products.
While varied conditions make many exceptions necessary,
every club girl must conduct a living growing.demonstration. She
must therefore elect either gardening, home dairying, poultry
work or beautification of home grounds. She also receives assist-
ance in food preparation, food preservation, nutrition, develop-
ment of health and sanitation, clothing and home improvement.
The following score card is being used for a long period of
work with the women.
Production ............ ............................................ ............... 350
Gardening ......................................................................... 100
Poultry --......................................... ................. 100
Dairying ...................................... ................... 100
Bees ..................... ......................... ......... .... 50
Food Conservation ....................- ...... ........ .....- .......... 100
H health .................................. ............ ......... ..... ... ..... 200
Nutrition ...................... ................................... 100
Sanitation ....................................................... 100
Exterior Beautification ...................... ....... ... ..... ....... 100
Interior Beautification ................. ..... -.........-. ...- 100
Profits .............. ....................................................... 50
Expenditures (personal and household) ........................ ......... .... 50
Bank deposit .................................. .................. 50
TOTAL PERFECT SCORE ......... ..................... ..................... 1,000







Florida Cooperative Extension


Methods: Instruction is given principally by the home exten-
sion agents. However, women and girl leaders who have gained
experience in giving demonstrations, give valuable assistance.
Plans for demonstrations are so arranged that club leaders may
occasionally conduct a club meeting in the absence of the agent.
Certificates: After a club girl has satisfactorily completed
four years of home demonstration work a certificate is awarded
her; 280 girls received these certificates in 1925.
SUPERVISORY PROGRAM
The actual field supervision is done by the district agents.
Agents' Annual Meeting: In order that a knowledge of sub-
ject matter might be thoro, instruction uniform, and methods
of instructing leaders approved, the home demonstration agents,
district agents and specialists were brought together for 10 days
the latter part of September. The annual meeting of county and
home agents was given over largely to instruction in the major
subjects in extension programs. A two-hour period each day
was given to conferences on administrative matters dealing with
methods, results and plans for future work. An hour each day
was spent in joint conferences with county agents, discussing
phases of the work which both men and women were undertak-
ing to carry out jointly.
Group Meetings: Four group conferences were held in Janu-
ary to make plans for the year. At these meetings each agent
submitted a program of work showing goals set. These pro-
grams were discussed and shaped into an agreeable working
plan in which specialists, county and home demonstration agents
could fully cooperate.
State Staff Conferences: Once a month the supervisory staff
was called together for conference when reports of county visits
were given followed by discussion of the status of the work; just
how well the agent was carrying out her plans; cooperation she
received from local organizations, and individuals; state of coun-
ty finances, office administration policies, plans and general
progress of home demonstration work.
EQUIPMENT FOR COUNTY WORKERS
Office Records: Each county worker has a field book con-
taining plans of work, project outlines, and sheets for recording
demonstrations given and results accomplished under each
project.







Annual Report, 1925


Office Organization: Office equipment is furnished by some
county organization, usually by the board of county commission-
ers. In two instances women's clubs assisted in making the neces-
sary office equipment possible.
Several county workers are well equipped with a demonstra-
tion kitchen for the use of the agent and her demonstrators. In
Pinellas County there is a community kitchen maintained by the
women's club of Clearwater, that is the source from which hun-
dreds of pounds of crystallized fruit and dozens of containers of
preserved Florida products spring.
Clerical help is available to several agents which increases the
efficiency of the office. These stenographers are on hand to an-
swer phone calls, give general information when the agent is
attending field work, distribute bulletins, handle correspondence,
reports, etc. In Volusia County $500 is set aside to be used to
meet emergencies.
Marion County has a motion picture projector provided by the
County Chamber of Commerce.
Cooperation with Other Agencies: In cooperation with many
other agencies in the state the home demonstration organization
has received and given much valuable assistance. County and
city officials, chambers of commerce, business men's organiza-
tions, county and state fair associations, health and education
departments, the press, women's clubs, county and state federa-
tions of women's clubs, business and professional women's clubs
and other agencies have all proven good friends to the work by
giving moral support and financial and personal aid.

Agents' General Activities
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked
out ............................................... ... ......................... ........ .. 581
Voluntary county, community and local leaders actively engaged in
forwarding the extension program .......................... ............... 486
Clubs carrying on extension work,
Junior ...................................................... 581
A dult .......................................... .................... .................... 227
Club members completing year's work,
Girls ............ ................... ......................... .. ...... ........... ..- 8,463
W om n ............................................................................................ 3,359
Girls judging or demonstration teams trained .............................-.... 67
Club girls entering college ................................... ......... ............ 59
Farm visits made ........................................ ........... 1,515
Different farms visited .......................................................... 624
Home visits made .................................................... ................. .......... 9,425
Different homes visited ............ ....................... .......... 4,128
Office calls relating to extension work .................................. ........... 15,844
Telephone calls relating to extension work ..................................... 8,515







Florida Cooperative Extension


Average number of days spent in office ....---...................-...........-...... 67.2
Average number of days spent in field .--....... --------........... .............. 189.6
Official letters w written ........................................................... 51,536
Exhibits at fairs ... ...................-.................................... 91
Com munity ......................... -- ----------..................... 28
C county ............................................-................. 27
State .........................--------........... .............. 3
Interstate .................. -- ---- --...................... 3
Number Attendance
Training meetings for local leaders................................ 122 1,881
Method and result demonstration meetings held.... 5,991 106,639
Institutes held ...-..............-.---...... ----.. ... ---..- 19 306
Extension schools and short courses held .........--...... 34 1,265
Junior club encampments held ..................-- ......-........ 28 1,907

Program Summary
Communities Days agent
Participating devoted to
project
Horticulture-home garden, beautification of
home grounds .....-................-- -- .. ...... ..... ... 242 428
Hom e dairy ............................. ....................... 68 40
Hom e poultry ..-....................................... .........- 349 542
Rural engineering- home ............---..-.. ......... ..... ..... 66 72
Home marketing .................-........ ......... .. ....... 77 86
Food ----......... ....-------- ---- ....-- ....---- 391 879
Nutrition ...............-------------...--..--..-.--.... 407 459%
Clothing ............................-- ---..-..---...-- 440 1,273
Home management ....................--- ...........--. 129 117%
House furnishings ...................---...... ... ............ 369 539%
Home health and sanitation .........-.............................. 368 277
Community activities ....-...... .------.........~ ......-........ 175 201%
M miscellaneous ....................................... ................ 219 279%1


Fig. 7.-Club girls learn how to make bread, how to prepare and cook
balanced meals.







Annual Report, 1925


PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS
Foods: Food work includes food preparation and preserva-
tion. Thru it and nutrition work women and girls are learning
how to use farm products to the best advantage for the health,
happiness and wellbeing of the family. All home demonstration
club members are given some work with foods. Records show
that 1,650 women and 1,972 girls completed food preparation
demonstrations as outlined for the year. These women and girls
have learned how to use fruits and green vegetables in the diet;
the value of more milk and other dairy products; and the im-
portance of poultry and poultry products as well as of unrefined
cereals in the proper planning of meals for the family.
Individuals adopting improved practices in bread making............ 2,497
Individuals adopting improved practices in meat cookery ............ 1,780
Individuals adopting improved practices in vegetable cookery........ 4,649
Individauls adopting improved practices in preparation of
dairy product dishes ..........---------..............- 808
Individuals adopting improved practices in meal preparation
and service ........ .... ...- .. ---. .................... 3,823
Homes budgeting the family food supply ...................................... 323
Number different homes adopting improved practices in food
preparation .......................... ...... ..... .. .... 5,369
Number homes providing better food storage for first time........ 289
Number different homes adopting improved practices relative to
the food-preservation ............ ......... ... ................ 4,621
The amount of food they have preserved is as follows:
Quarts fruits and vegetables canned ...............--.............. 304,057
Quarts meats and fish canned ................-.......... ...- 28,681
Quarts jelly and preserves made ...................................121,146
Quarts fruit juices made .......... .....................- 11,915
Quarts pickles made ........ --...-..........-----......... 36,911%
Pounds fruits and vegetables dried ............... ................ ...... ..... 821
Pounds meats cured .......... ..---.............. ........... 90,448
Nutrition: The interest aroused among club members to
reach a normal physical condition and a requirement of same
before being considered A-1 club members has been one of the
important factors in the wide spread of nutrition enthusiasm
among teachers, parents and students in general, and an increase
in the desire to improve conditions. During the year 1,420 wom-
en and 6,799 girls completed definite demonstrations involved in
the home demonstration nutrition program.
This means that not only better meals have been prepared and
better food practices adopted in the homes, but that the im-
proper school lunches are being replaced with food that helps
instead of hinders normal development. Teachers have reported
gratifying changes in the children as the result of hot school
lunches. Thirty-five of these were established in schools for






Florida Cooperative Extension


the first time during 1925. This number is reported as serving
15,158 children.
Home Dairy: Home demonstration agents will give more at-
tention to increasing the number of homes with a good dairy cow
during the ensuing year. The value of the home dairy is seen
in the reports of food selection and meal planning. Five coun-
ties reported 404 homes adopting improved practices in better
feeding; sanitary production and care of milk; butter and cheese
making.
Clothing: The clothing work consisting of improved methods
in selection, construction, remodeling, renovating and millinery
is a part of the home demonstration program in each county and
appeals to every woman and girl, as she realizes a direct need for
it. A total of 1,704 women and 3,439 girls completed the year's
work while 6,101 homes adopted improved practices in this
project.




VV















Fig. 8.-Club girls learn how to sew and make dresses and other wearing
apparel.

Individuals adopting improved practices in renovation
and remodeling ............................. ......... ........ 2,884
Individuals adopting improved practices in millinery .......................... 3,701
Individuals adopting improved practices in costume designing.......... 1,861
Individuals adopting improved practices in infant wardrobe
planning ........ ... ........ .............. .................................. .............. 159
Individuals adopting improved practices in children's
wardrobe planning ........................... .............. ...................... ...... 1,251
Individuals adopting improved practices in adult wardrobe
planning ....................... ~........................... ................... 980






Annual Report, 1925 39

Dress form s made ...................................... ....................................... 269
Dresses and coats made ................................... ........ .. 25,996
Undergarments made ....................... ................. ....... 26,803
Hats made ................................................ 4,909
Home Management: In 24 counties home management
formed a part of the program of work for the home demonstra-
tion clubs. As a result the women and girls are learning to plan
household work in a systematic way, rearrange equipment for
convenience, improving laundry practices and making budgets
and keeping accounts. Some of the labor saving appliances
added to the homes are as follows:
Washing machines ...................... ...................... 44
Fireless cookers .... ............................................. .................... 177
Steam pressure cookers ........................................... 121
Dilvers ............................................................ 43
Sanitary can sealers ................................................................. .................. 27
Kitchen sinks .... .............................................. 147
Vacuum cleaners ............. ...................................... ................ 39
Kitchen cabinets ..... ............ ................ .................... 151
A total of 654 different homes in 14 counties showed marked
improvement along this line.
House Furnishing: Women and girls are all enthusiastic over
making and working over house furnishings. Most interesting
have been the home improvement campaigns that have been con-
ducted. Tours to the homes entered in the county and state con-
tests have created additional enthusiasm.
Individuals adopting improved practices in selection and
arrangement of furnishings ............ ......................................... 2,606
Individuals adopting improved practices in the repairing
and remodeling of furnishings .................. ............................. 1,580
Individuals adopting improved practices in wall, woodwork,
and floor treatment .... ............. ........................................ 772
Number of rooms improved:
Bedroom s .......... ............ ............................................... 2,515
Living room s ........... .................................................................. 381
D ining room s ............................................................................... 407
Other rooms ....................................... ...................... 363
Number homes improving house furnishings ...................................... 3,043
Home Health and Sanitation: Home demonstration agents
work with state and county health authorities and have been the
means of many other than club members observing health habit
rules and sanitary practices in school and home.
Homes installing sanitary closets ........................................................... 89
Homes screened ........................................... 212
Homes following other methods of controlling flies,
mosquitoes and other insects ................................... .................. 335
Homes adopting improved practices in sanitation work .................. 3,111






Florida Cooperative Extension


Rural Engineering in the Home: The statewide home im-
provement campaign and demonstrations given during Farmers'
and Fruit Growers' Week have been instrumental in the remodel-
ing of 66 homes, the installation of 38 water systems, 4 heating
and 37 lighting systems all according to plans furnished. Inter-
est in better poultry has caused the construction of 132 modern
poultry houses.




















Fig. 9.-This is the home which Lanie Padgett, a Darlington club girl,
decided to improve. She entered it in the home improvement contest.
She had $200 saved up which she could afford to put into it, and her
father helped her with the rest.
Beautification of Home Grounds: Planning and planting of
home grounds finds a place on almost all home demonstration
programs. This work demands more attention because of the
interest that clubs and state organizations are taking in land-
scape gardening, community and highway beautification. While
2,000 definite demonstrations in beautifying home grounds by
the women and 1670 by the girls were completed during the
year according to landscape plans.
Home Gardens: All of the organized counties report work
in the garden project that a variety of vegetables may be had
for the family table and the surplus used in canning and market-
ing. Reports show twice as many gardens by girls as in 1924.
1,663 women and 1,983 girls report planting part-year gardens
and 1,239 women with 1,067 girls all-year-round gardens.







Annual Report, 1925


Fig. 10.-Do you recognize it as being the same home shown in Fig. 9 ? It
is. Just done over with the help of the home demonstration agent, as-
sistant state home demonstration agent, and members of the family.
The expense was small.

Individuals adopting improved practices in growing fruit trees........ 841
Individuals adopting improved practices in growing bush and
small fruit .........................-- ..........----------...... .----------..... 615
Individuals adopting improved practices in growing grapes---............. 229
Individuals adopting improved practices in growing vegetables........ 2,809
Individuals saving improved stock or seed .......................................... 68

Home Poultry: Poultry work is being done thru the home
demonstration clubs in all of the 31 organized counties and is
one of the most popular productive projects. During 1925 four
times as many women and almost three times as many girls car-
ried definite poultry demonstrations thru the year as in 1924.
The profit on these result demonstrations in 19 counties amount-
ed to $157,822.00.
Home Marketing: During the year 408 women have marketed
home products thru cooperative marketing associations as fol-
lows:
Kind of Association No. of Women Value of Products Profits
Curb Market ...............-------.........................168 $ 9,269.23 $6,196.54
Egg Circles .-.....----...--.. .......--- 67 19,178.70 5,998.75
Home Demonstration Shoppe............150 1,500.00 850.00
Woman's Exchange ............................ 25 750.00 500.00

408 $30,697.93 $13,545.29






Florida Cooperative Extension


The income earning feature has made it possible for rural
women to supply themselves with comforts and luxuries they
could not have otherwise hoped for.
Much interest prevails in standardizing fig and pecan products
in northern Florida and citrus products in southern Florida for
"Home Demonstration Gift Packages."
Handicraft: Most of the agents report handiwork, including
basketry, rug making and miscellaneous articles. Beautiful bas-
kets, trays and vases were made by 1,453 women and girls from
pine needles, wire grass and palmetto. Artistic rugs are being
made from old clothing and other discarded materials.
Community Activities: Among the outstanding demonstra-
tions as to the value of each organized woman's home demon-
stration club including in the year's program something of mu-
tual interest to the community one can see church buildings,
church yards, school grounds and driveways improved; parks
created or improved; new community pride created thru socials
and picnics; hot school lunches established and community club
houses built.
COUNTYWIDE EVENTS
Tours: Nothing seems to have created more interest in con-
ducting demonstrations than visits made in a body by club mem-
bers to demonstrations under way. Groups of people from var-
ious sections made trips to all the homes being improved and
others have visited properly planted home grounds and well kept
home dairies with much enthusiasm and obtained many splendid
ideas.
Training Meetings: 122 meetings have brought together
1,881 people who have succeeded especially well with certain
phases of the work and interested in receiving additional instruc-
tions in order to serve as local leaders and to assist with exten-
sion activities in their various communities. Fifty-three short
courses and institutes have been held with an attendance of
3,571.
Contest Days: All home demonstration agents are requested
to hold county contests for juniors. Club products, record books
and stories of the year's work were on display and judged. Coun-






Annual Report, 1925


Fig. 11.-Women doing home demonstration work learn about foods and
food preparation.

tywide campaigns are brought to a close on that day. Demon-
strations by individuals and club teams that have excelled and
other interesting features proved attractive to the parents, club
members and others.
Camps: In 1925 there were held two camps for women, 23
for girls and three for boys and girls with an attendance of 1,907.
Camps are productive of club spirit and the enforcing of rules
and strictness of the discipline furnish the best kind of training
for club leaders. Women's camps are invaluable in furnishing
rest and recreation as well as a decided change from the regular
routine of work for the busy farm woman.

STATEWIDE EVENTS
Work in the counties was strengthened thru-
Contests: Winning county contestants in various phases of
home demonstration work compete in the following state con-
tests:
1. Statewide garden contest. The winner to be awarded $50
by Florida Federation of Women's Clubs for educational pur-
poses.
2. Statewide poultry contest. The winner to be awarded $50
by Florida Federation of Women's Clubs for educational pur-
poses.





Florida Cooperative Extension


3. For trip to Boys' and Girls' Club Congress awarded by
South Florida Fair.
4. For trip to Boys' and Girls' Club Congress awarded by
Florida East Coast Railway.
5. For trip to Boys' and Girls' Club Congress awarded by
Montgomery Ward & Company.
State Short Course for Club Girls: The State Short Course is
the outstanding event in the club year and proves to be an in-
valuable stimulus in securing the best type of work, as the short
course is attended only by girls who have done outstanding
work in their counties. Short Course scholarships are provided
by club members themselves, county commissioners, school
boards, rotary clubs, women's clubs, banks, merchants and indi-
viduals interested in the work. Thirty counties were represented
with 410 girls at the Short Course in 1925. Of this number 56
were fourth year girls who were given a special course in lead-
ership training. All of the girls received instruction in garden-
ing, poultry raising, nutrition, home improvement, clothing in
relation to health, and recreation. Demonstrations given by
county teams of two girls each, contests in bread making, can-
ning, selection of girl with most perfect foot and the one scoring
highest in health contest along with games which could be taken


Fig. 12.-Club girls get their feet measured and learn how to correctly fit
shoes while at the short course.






Annual Report, 1925


back to various communities and the reception given by Gover-
nor Martin during the visit to the capitol were among the high
points in the short course program.
Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week: In order that farm men
and women may come together from all sections of the state and
enjoy a week's instruction and recreation the fourth annual
Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was held on the campus of
the University of Florida. Appropriate programs were arranged
to cover various phases of home demonstration work. The wom-
en selected the courses they wished. University professors,
speakers from other states and the United States Department of
Agriculture with friends of the work in the state gave valuable
assistance in the development of the program.
Fairs: During the year home demonstration exhibits were on
display in 28 counties and 27 county fairs. The nutrition booth
in the form of a beauty parlor was the outstanding home demon-
stration feature of the South Florida Fair. Demonstrations in
poultry judging, canning and bread scoring given by county
teams of two club girls each and the dress review in which the
girls wore appropriate dresses which they had made for school,
sport, or graduation, caused many people to take special interest
in the home demonstration exhibits displayed at the Florida
State Fair.






Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL INDUSTRY AND DAIRYING
GRASS PLOT DEMONSTRATIONS
J. M. Scott, Animal Industrialist
The work undertaken a year ago, which was supervision of
the planting of permanent pastures, has been continued thru
1925. The extension service, in cooperation with the railroads,
supplied grass mixtures to seed five-acre plots and gave definite
instructions for managing. This has been successful only on
dairy farms. Those plantings and mixtures were recommended
on the advice of the Grass and Forage Crops Specialist of the
Experiment Station.
Establishing and inspecting permanent pasture grass demon-
strations has been the chief work of the year. The demonstra-
tions conducted have been based on results of experiments con-
ducted by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
The question of permanent pastures has been kept before
dairymen constantly as being one of the solutions of more eco-
nomical production. The permanent pasture work has been con-
ducted along the same lines as given in the last report.
During the present year, with the assistance of the county
agent, one farmer in each of four counties (Alachua, Bay, St.
Lucie, and Okeechobee) was selected and on his farm a five-acre
demonstration permanent pasture was established. The follow-
ing mixture of grass seed was used: carpet grass 30 pounds,
Dallis grass 20, lespedeza 15, and Bahia grass 10 pounds. A to-
tal of 75 pounds of the mixture per demonstration was sown,
this being at the rate of 15 pounds of the mixture per acre.
In all cases this seed was sown on a well prepared seedbed,
and the seed covered with a light toothed harrow.
As soon as these demonstration pastures are well established,
with the assistance of the county agent, meetings of farmers
in the county will be held at these demonstration pastures so
that farmers can see for themselves, and instructions will be
given as to how the pastures were established.
The pastures established last year in most cases are showing
up well. The dry weather in the spring of 1925 retarded the
spread and growth of the grass in some places. However, those
located in the flatwoods have made a very satisfactory growth
and in some instances have made a complete sod.






Annual Report, 1925


There is, however, a marked difference in the germination se-
cured on these different pastures. In some demonstrations the
carpet grass seemed to have germinated and grown best. In
others a larger percentage of the Bahia germinated.

DAIRYING
H. L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
This project has been confined to a limited number of coun-
ties where dairying offered the greatest opportunity for de-
velopment. Wherever the Extension Dairyman could work
with those supplying local markets there was no particular dif-
ficulty in rendering direct assistance. However, some counties
that a year ago seemed promising for the development of dairy-
ing have not made progress; in fact, many farmers have sold off
their dairy cows. The uncertainty of labor and the improved
conditions for supplying dairy products from outside of the state
has not been conducive to dairy farming in outlying sections
where transportation was difficult.
The unprecedented boom in real estate and the extensive sub-
division campaigns put on around all the large consuming cen-
ters of the state have completely reversed some of our dairy
problems this year. Our major project for the years 1923-1924
was the surplus milk problem during the summer months. This
has been removed entirely for the present.
Many dairymen that owned the land where they were operat-
ing dairies have sold their property at good prices and retired.
Dairies that were operated on rented lands are having to move.
Wages are high and many dairy laborers are getting into other
work. This rapid change in dairy conditions around the con-
suming centers has created a milk shortage thruout the state.
This has greatly increased the shipments of milk into the state
from outside.
Central distributing plants are getting well established in all
of the larger centers of population. These wholesale plants of-
fer a market for milk produced in the agricultural areas.
The counties of northern and central Florida are taking ad-
vantage of this market for fluid milk.
The creameries or butter factories have had to turn their at-
tention to the fluid milk and ice cream business and give up
practically all butter making.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Dairy Records: In order to have some definite informa-
tion for dairy management and feeding operations, records were
gathered on milk production from 34 dairies with 1,018 cows.
These records show that the ratio of grain fed to the pounds of
milk produced is running entirely too close. The cows consume
one pound of grain feed to each 11/ pounds of milk produced.
The best record comes from Duval County, showing 3 to
31/2 pounds of milk to each pound of grain ration.
Feeding Demonstrations: With the development of dairying
in agricultural counties where home-grown forage and pasture
are used we have a greater interest in feeding problems.
Dairymen in Leon, Jefferson, Duval, Columbia, Hamilton,
Alachua, Marion, and Pasco counties have shown the greatest.in-
terest in proper feeding. Fifty-seven dairymen in Duval County
are giving more attention to better feeding.
Two communities in Marion County have organized dairy as-
sociations and plan to build 12 silos cooperatively. Thru their
associations, they will buy materials for silos and this will en-
able them to cut overhead cost for silo machinery. They will
buy feeds in carlots at wholesale prices.
Leon County dairymen made a motorcade to a successful dairy
in Jefferson County to secure information on the use of home-
grown feeds. This herd of 55 milking cows was receiving a
grain ration consisting of ground corn and cottonseed meal. The
roughages were peavine hay and ensilage. The average produc-
tion was 21 gallons per day.
Duval and Marion County Agents did systematic calf club
work. The Duval County Agent fitted a judging team for the
State Judging Contest at Jacksonville.
There were four club members in the Marion County Club.
All had purebred Jerseys from Tennessee. Three of these calves
were exhibited at the County Fair, one of which won the cham-
pion ribbon for best female.
We have received good cooperation from all the club agents in
the state. The Extension dairyman gave one week of special
dairy training in the laboratory and field to a group of 13 boys
during the State Club Week, touching on the fundamentals of
judging dairy animals, feeding, and the methods of handling
milk commercially. At the annual meeting of 400 club girls,
methods of handling milk in the home were discussed.






Annual Report, 1925


PLANT PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY
CITRUS
E. F. DeBusk, Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
The Extension activities in citrus disease and insect control
have been directed largely toward the following: Melanose, rust
mite; blue mold decay, citrus scab, and citrus aphis.
Because of the low prices received for citrus fruits during the
seasons of 1923-24 ard 1924-25, especial attention has been
given to the economic phases of all grove pest control.
MELANOSE (Phomopsis citri)
Present Situation: Approximately 20 percent of all the citrus
fruit shipped from the state is melanose-russeted and conse-
quently lowered in value 70 cents per box, on an average; about
30 percent is slightly affected and lowered in value 30 cents per
box by this disease. An additional loss is sustained thru size
reduction, culls and stem-end rot. The citrus industry suffers
a total loss of around $5,000,000 annually because of this disease,
which is distributed thruout the entire citrus belt of the State.
Work Undertaken and Results: Demonstrations with the use
of Bordeaux-oil in the control of melanose were planned for
each citrus producing county having a county agent, to be con-
ducted cooperatively with county agent and grower. A 3-3-50
Bordeaux mixture plus 1 percent oil emulsion was used, being
applied largely during the first half of April or when the fruit
was about the size of a pea, and at only one application.
To stress the economic phases of melanose control Table I
has been prepared. This table is an accumulation of data
on melanose control spraying demonstrations of the last four
years. It represents about the average commercial spraying;
with results that any grower with proper equipment can readily
attain. Profits and losses are based on the total cost per box
of spraying and a five-year average price of fruit by grades.
For the average size tree, with a normal crop, the total cost of
spraying for melanose control should not exceed 7 cents per box.
This includes one follow-up oil spraying.
The results attained during the last four years by spraying
with 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1 percent oil emulsion, at
the proper time, and followed with an oil spraying the following






Florida Cooperative Extension


June, justify the conclusion that the state average percentage
of melanose russet fruit can be reduced from 20 percent to 12
percent economically under average crop and market conditions.

TABLE I. WHERE PROFITS AND LOSSES BEGIN ON SPRAYING FOR
MELANOSE CONTROL

Costly Percentage of Russets on Unsprayed Trees
per
Box 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Cts.
6 --1 9 20 31 42 53 110 161 215 268 320 375
7 -7 3 12
8 -2 6 14
9 --6 2 40
10 --9 23 58
11 -17 15 43
12 -5 31 57
13 --7 21 45
14 --14 12 35
15 -4 26 47
16 --5 16 38
17 --8 11 30
18 -13 .5 23
19 -.5 16 33
20 -5 14 26
21 --6 5 20
22 -.2 15 29
Note: Numbers diagonally distributed across the page represent the
percent profit or loss to be expected on the spraying operations. For ex-
ample, when the total cost of spraying is 6 cents per box a profit of 20
percent should be realized when the fruit is running 12 percent melanose
russets on the unsprayed plots. A minus sign before a number indicates a
percent loss on the spraying.

RUST MITE (Eriophes oleivorus, Ash.)
Present Situation: Approximately 12 percent of all the citrus
fruit shipped from the state is classed as russet because of rust
mite injury and consequently lowered in value 70 cents per box
on an average; about 17 percent is slightly affected and lowered
in value 30 cents per box. The citrus industry suffers a total
loss of around $3,000,000 annually because of this pest, which is
distributed thruout the entire citrus belt of the state.
Fine sulphur applied as a dust is rapidly replacing liquid lime-
sulphur in rust mite control. It can be applied more rapidly and
more economically than the liquid spray and gives satisfactory
control at a lower cost per box.
Work Undertaken and Results: To call attention to the eco-
nomic phases of rust mite control, data accumulated from rust







Annual Report, 1925


mite spraying and dusting demonstrations of the last seven years
is submitted in Table II. This table represents results that any
grower with proper equipment can readily attain. Profits and
losses are based on the total cost per box of spraying or dusting
and a five-year average price of fruit by grades:

TABLE II. WHERE PROFITS AND LOSSES BEGIN ON SPRAYING AND DUSTING
FOR RUST-MITE CONTROL

Costly Percentage of Russets on Unsprayed Trees


1 2 3 4

-43 12 75
-13 19
-21


5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30


47 75 110 145 180 215 243 281
.7 13
-9 5 22 40 57 73 91 107 126 141 232 320 410
-2 12 26
-7 5 16
-1 9 18
-5 3 13
-8 .3 7
-3 33 68
-11 21 53
-20 11 40
-26 4 30
-5 20 45
-11 12 36
-20 5 27
-1 20
-7 13
-12 7
-16 2


Note: Numbers diagonally distributed across the page represent the
percent profits or loss to be expected on the spraying operations. For ex-
ample, when the total cost of the rust mite spraying is 4 cents per box a
profit of 22 percent should be realized when the fruit is running 8 percent
rust mite russets in the unsprayed plots. A minus sign before a number
indicates a percent loss on the spraying operation.

In our demonstration work of the last two years the average
cost of spraying with lime-sulphur was 2 cents per box for each
application, while the average cost of dusting was 11/3 cents per
box. The total cost of rust mite control was slightly less than 4
cents per box, being about 30 percent less where the dusting
method was employed.

The citrus growers of the state are investing approximately
2 cents per box in rust mite control thru the use of liquid lime-
sulphur and sulphur as a dust. The results of our spraying dem-


Per
Box
Cts.



51
61
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18 |
19
20





Florida Cooperative Extension


onstrations justify the conclusion that, if this investment is in-
creased 1 cent per box and the treatment applied in an approved
commercial manner, the state average of 12 percent rust mite
russets can be reduced to 6 percent, with a profit to the growers
of more than 200 percent on the investment, under average mar-
ket conditions.


















Fig. 13.-Cultivation plays an important part in citrus production. This
Lake County club boy keeps his grove well cultivated.
BLUE MOLD, GREEN MOLD (Penicillium spp.)
Present Situation: The citrus fruit growers of Florida are
losing annually $3,500,000 as the result of blue mold and green
mold decay. This disease is due to species of fungi (Penicillium)
which do not have the power of penetrating the rind of a sound,
healthy citrus fruit. The decay, therefore, depends upon dif-
ferent kinds of cuts and abrasions on the fruit, thru which
spores of the fungi enter and develop the disease. These wounds
in the rind of the fruit are largely the result of careless handling,
and are traceable in a very large measure to the picking and
handling of the fruit from the tree to the field crate. It is this
phase of the problem to which attention has been directed.
In picking, the rind of the fruit-the natural seal against blue
and green mold decay-is broken by clipper cuts, long-stem
punctures, plugging by pulling, finger-nail scratches and various
forms of bruises and minor punctures. These result in decay
and will be regarded hereinafter as "picking defects."






Annual Report, 1925


With the common method of paying pickers by the box and
no premium on the quality of the work done, and with the usual
loose supervision of picking, picking defects are running ex-
tremely high, not only entailing a heavy loss to the grower from
decay, but greatly endangering the reputation of the industry
and leading to various difficulties in the transportation and
marketing of our fruit.
Work Undertaken and Results: To stress the importance of
proper picking supervision, demonstrations with six picking
crews were conducted this season and the results noted as fol-
lows:
Average Percentage of Picking Defects per Picker
Picking Crew, With the Usual Poor Su- With Proper Supervision and
No. (Average pervision and no Picking Systematic Picking Inspec-
9 Pickers) Inspection. tion. (No bonus)
1 11.0 2.6
2 20.1 5.4
3 13.4 4.0
4 14.0 3.9
5 13.2 5.1
6 18.3 3.6
Average of
all Crews 15.0 4.1
Picking crews in the above demonstrations were made up of
about the average pickers. It was noted that the percentage of
picking defects of individual pickers ranged from 4 to 48.9, and
that the highest and lowest were each being paid 10 cents per
box and picking about the same number of boxes per day.
The six crews or 54 pickers that averaged 15 percent picking
defects, working under the usual poor supervision and being paid
10 cents per box for picking, actually cost the growers 43 cents
per box for picking, as 80 percent of these picking defects re-
sult in decay and consequent discount on the price of the fruit.
The six crews properly supervised, receiving the same price for
picking and otherwise working under similar conditions actually
cost the growers on an average 10.3 cents per box for picking.
The cost of picking supervision was only .3 cent per box more in
the latter case. Four percent picking defects were tolerated and
taken as a basis.
CITRUS SCAB (Sporotrichum citri, Butler)
Present Situation: The grapefruit industry of the state is
sustaining a loss of around a million dollars annually from scab,
thru dropping of young fruit and marring the appearance of the
fruit sold.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The Agricultural Extension Division has demonstrated to
growers that this disease can be satisfactorily and economically
controlled by spraying with Bordeaux-oil and that fairly satis-
factory results may be attained by spraying with lime-sulphur
where conditions warrant its preference.
The cost of scab control is slightly more per box than that of
melanose control because, in cases of heavy infection, two ap-
plications of Bordeaux-oil only a few weeks apart are necessary
to produce the most economical results. This fact, added to con-
ditions mentioned under melanose situation, has resulted in less
spraying for scab control this year than in 1924. But here again
the high prices received for grapefruit during the early part of
this season is stimulating interest in scab control for the com-
ing year.
Work Undertaken and Results: Spraying demonstrations in
scab control were planned for the citrus producing counties in
which scab is an important factor in the production of quality
grapefruit. Except for a few cases, in which conditions seemed
to warrant the use of 1 to 40 lime-sulphur, 3-3-50 Bordeaux mix-
ture plus 1 percent oil emulsion was used. As high as 300 per-
cent profit on the spraying investment has been reported. In
no case this year where the fruit has already been marketed has
spraying for scab control, when done properly, failed to net an
attractive profit to the grower on the spraying cost.
CITRUS APHIS (Aphis spiraecola Patch)
Situation: In the early spring of 1925 a severe outbreak of
the citrus aphis appeared thruout the citrus belt. It attacked
the young leaves, twigs, blossom and very young fruits. Mil-
lions of dollars damage resulted to the citrus industry of the
state during the spring and early summer from this pest. Per-
haps due to parasites and the scarcity of succulent growth, the
pest disappeared in June and July until only traces are now
(December) found hanging over.
Work Undertaken and Results: During the months of Febru-
ary to May the efforts of citrus growers generally, the extension
forces operating in the citrus belt, the State Plant Board, and
the state research staff in entomology, were all directed toward
checking the ravages of this voracious pest. Being a new in-
sect in the state, little was known generally about the most
practicable and most economical method or methods of controll-
ing it. Spraying with nicotine sulphate and dusting with the






Annual Report, 1925


nicotine-lime dust gave fairly satisfactory results when applied
at the proper time and in the proper manner. Fumigating under
tents with nicotine-lime and calcium cyanide dust and dipping
young trees gave good control.
A field assistant was employed by the Extension Division for
the months of February to May, who devoted his whole time to
citrus aphis control, using 3 percent nicotine-lime dust; a report
of his work in seven different properties is given in Table III.
In aphis control by dusting, wind is the limiting factor. For
this reason the best results were obtained by fumigating or
dusting the trees under tents. The growers were not generally
equipped for using this method at the beginning of the season.
MISCELLANEOUS
Scale and Whitefly: An effort has been made thru method
demonstrations and in a general educational way to bring about
more thoro fall and winter clean-up spraying for whitefly and
scale. More general use of the red Aschersonia in whitefly con-
trol has been encouraged. The necessity of the extra oil spray-
ing in June following an application of Bordeaux-oil for melan-
ose, to keep down scale infestations, has been stressed thru the
press and otherwise.
CROPS OTHER THAN CITRUS
M. R. Ensign, Entomologist and Pathologist
Two main factors determined what the sub-projects should
be for this year, namely, (1) Extent of the economic losses due
to plant disease and insect pests; (2) the extent to which the
Experiment Station had developed practical and profitable con-
trols.
With the foregoing factors as a guide the following sub-proj-
ects were chosen:
1. Seed Treatment and Spraying for the Control of Cucurbit
Diseases. Goal for the year, 36 demonstrations in five counties.
2. Spraying Irish Potatoes for the Control of Phytophthora
Blight. Goal for the year, five demonstrations in two counties.
3. Control of the Bean Jassids or Leaf Hoppers. Goal for the
year, five demonstrations in one county in the fall and 10 demon-
strations in two counties for the spring crop.
RESULTS OBTAINED
Seedbed Sterilization: Where eggplants, peppers, celery and
tomatoes are grown the seedbed diseases, together with root-knot














TABLE III. RESULTS OF CITRUS APHIS CONTROL WORK, 1925, USING 3 PERCENT NICOTINE-LIME DUST


Age of Number of Time Method of
Trees Variety Treatments Covered Application

10 Mixed 7 3/3-4/14 hand dusted
6 Tangerines 7 3/3-4/10 hand dusted

8 Temple 10 3/4-4/13 hand dusted

7 Mixed 10 3/4-4/13 hand dusted
2 Mixed 10 2/25-4/9 hand dusted


2 i Grapefruit 8 3/3-4/10 hand dusted


5 Orange 10 2/25-4/14 hand dusted


13 Orange 3 3/11-3/20 (power dusted
I at night


Lbs. Dust Ave. Cost Per Tree
Per tree Dust Labor Total Remarks:
ICts. Cts. i Cts. Fair control. Surround-
1.6 32 11 43 ed by untreated groves.
.8 16 5 21 Fair control.
Fair control. Surround-
1.7 34 13 47 ed by untreated groves.
Fair control. Surround-
1.8 36 13 49 ed by untreated groves.
.3 6 3 9 Good control. Not ad-
jacent to untreated
groves.
.3 6 3 9 Good control. Not com-
pletely surrounded by
untreated groves.
1.0 20 9 29 Good control. Surround-
ed by large seedling
trees.
.9 9 3 12 Excellent results. Used
home-made dust.






Annual Report, 1925


difficulties, are serious problems. Phomopsis of eggplant and
damping-off fungi of various species are responsible for the
major portion of the losses. Two demonstrations were con-
ducted, one at Ft. Myers and the other at Sanford. Three steril-
izing substances were used in each case. At Ft. Myers, live
steam, formaldehyde and Semesan were used. Preliminary re-
ports indicated that on the steamed beds Phomopsis caused only
a 10 percent plant mortality, while on the untreated or on those
treated with the chemicals the disease caused a 90 percent loss.
At Sanford the use of live steam could not be staged since no
boiler could be secured. However, where formaldehyde diluted
at the rate of 1 gallon of 40 percent farmaldehyde to 50 gallons
of water and applied at the rate of one-half gallon to the square
foot, the plants were 400 percent more vigorous and larger than
the plants in the checks. Semesan and cyanide (calcium) pro-
duced sterile beds where even weeds would not grow.
Spraying: Arrangements were made with a few cucumber
growers at Williston, who were already spraying to leave some
checks and to do more efficient work. The very dry weather
cut the crop so short that most of the growers picked but
a few hampers of cucumbers so that it made the securing of
comparative data impossible. On three unsprayed rows, 12 few-
er hampers of cucumbers were picked than on the three adjoin-
ing rows that had been sprayed twice.
Four demonstrations were started with the growers of fall
beans in three communities of Marion County. Three of these
were abandoned on account of the very dry hot weather. Hun-
dreds of acres of fall beans died for want of moisture. One grow-
er at Citra was able to carry on the demonstration as outlined.
When the beans were from three to five inches high, a 3
percent nicotine-lime dust was applied by the use of a two-row
traction duster designed for the dusting of cotton. A hood made
of light canvas was fastened to each side of the machine under
which the dust was delivered. The second application of 3 per-
cent dust was given eight days after the first but by this time it
was evident that the control was not effective. Therefore, a sim-
ple spray rig consisting of a barrel sprayer mounted upon a cart
used to carry bean hampers from the field was put into opera-
tion. (Fig. 15.) A boom carrying four nozzles to cover two rows
was attached. The same outfit is being used to spray other
crops. A 3-6-50 Bordeaux mixture with "Black Leaf 40" at the





Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 14.-Simple spraying outfit which proved
of bean leaf hoppers.


effective in the control


rate of 1-600 was used. To this was added 1 pound of lead arsen-
ate to the 50 gallons, for at that time the leaf rollers had shown
some activity. With this outfit a 60 percent kill of the hoppers
was obtained in one application and the leaf rollers were entirely
wiped out. The check in this instance was a field similarly lo-
cated in which the cultural conditions were practically the same.
The check field was a total failure.
Control Cost Per Acre
Dusting Lime 3% N. S. dust ....-..... ......- ................ $4.75
One spraying Bordeaux 3-6-50 plus
"Black Leaf ," 1-600.......... -........... .. .............---- 2.04
$6.79
The bean jassid is one of the limiting factors in fall bean pro-
duction in the central part of the state. There is still some rea-
son to believe that the dust can be used effectively, for that used
in the above test was old. A 5 percent dust was tried on a small
scale and the kill was about 98 percent. At the rate this was
used, it would cost about $4 per acre for the material.

CAYANA CANE
About 60 growers in five western Florida counties used seed of
Cayana 10 cane, a variety resistant to mosaic, as a result of
meetings held by the Agricultural Extension Division. The re-
sult of the distribution of this cane will not be available until the
1926 crop is harvested.






Annual Report, 1925 59

EMERGENCY AND MISCELLANEOUS SERVICE
The celery leaf-tyer was one of the emergency problems
worked on. In Seminole County the growers were shown that
the poisons were being misdirected and some 25 to 30 growers
had new spray booms made so that this fault might be corrected.
Some progress has been made to secure improved bean seed
from some of the Western states where aridity naturally lessens
the infection from anthranose, bacterial leaf spot and other
fungous diseases. The pathologists of Idaho, Utah, Colorado,
and California are developing strains of disease-free seed or con-
template doing work in this direction as a result of the demand
for better seed in Florida. A small quantity of improved seed
from at least two of the above named states will be tried out this
coming year in various parts of the state in comparison with seed
coming thru the regular channels of trade.






Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY WORK
N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
The work of this project is carried on by county and home
demonstration agents and the Extension Poultryman. There
has been decidedly increased demand for poultry work from
every section.
Two assistant county agents have been employed, principally
for poultry work. These are located in Duval and Volusia coun-
ties.
The project for the development of the poultry work consisted
of the following: Standardization of poultry flocks, standardi-
zation of poultry products, organization of state, county and
community poultry associations, boys' and girls' poultry clubs,
home egg-laying contest, extension poultry schools, poultry
tours of inspection, culling demonstrations, caponizing demon-
strations, and miscellaneous work.
During the current year the development of the poultry indus-
try has been very rapid. People have realized that poultry prod-
ucts are in demand and the supply of these products has just
about been one-half of the consumption. Hence, the great ma-
jority of people engaged in poultry production have found it
profitable.
Standardbred flocks were greatly increased this year by means
of hatcheries and poultry breeders. Farmers are rapidly dispos-
ing of mongrels and replacing them with Standardbred poultry
of high quality.
Organization: Poultry associations, state, county, and com-
munity, have been a means of presenting poultry information
to a greater number of people. Many of these organizations are
grading and marketing poultry products for members.
Six new poultry associations were organized during the year
and 29 poultry associations in 22 counties were kept up and work-
ing. Thirteen of the associations report marketing eggs for their
members.
Junior poultry club work was started with a revision of the
poultry club record book and requirements. Also at first,
monthly letters were sent to poultry club members, but later a
club paper was formulated in which poultry hints were included.
Breeders of high quality poultry have helped materially in the
development of this project.





Annual Report, 1925


Fig. 15.-Champion girls' club poultry judging team.


Boys' and girls' poultry clubs proved an interesting phase of
the county and home demonstration agents' program. Contests
were held at which the juniors exhibited their poultry. Also
they exhibited at state and county fairs.
The Home Egg-Laying Contest: This new project was formu-
lated and started Nov. 1, 1925. Attempts are being made to
have contestants located in every county. Approximately 150
contestants are entered in the first contest and such contestants
are located in representative counties. The contest is so arranged
that it will take care of back-yard flocks, farm flocks, and com-
mercial flocks.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Poultry extension schools were held to present practically all
phases of the industry. At these schools it is aimed to discuss
problems confronting the producer.
There were four poultry extension schools conducted during
the year, all of which appeared to be very successful. During
the current year no specific number were attempted.
Poultry tours of inspection are another means of having the
producer appreciate better methods of management. One poul-
try tour was conducted with about 30 people participating.
Culling demonstrations stressed culling as a means of saving
money to the producer. In one flock of 60 birds, Rhode Island
Reds, which were handled, 26 culls were taken out. These were
kept by owner to test the result. Report shows that two eggs
were obtained from the culls in five days.
Caponizing demonstrations were not stressed this year, but
the few given proved profitable and interesting.
The project headed miscellaneous includes work with com-
mercial poultry farms, hatcheries, breeders, and at fairs. Con-
siderable assistance was given to the commercial poultrymen.
In addition to the above, better practices in poultry raising
were emphasized thru meetings, demonstrations in management,
boys' and girls' short courses, monthly circular poultry hints,
articles for Agricultural News Service and farm papers, and
Farmers' Week.






Annual Report, 1925


FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS-(Negro Work)
A. A. Turner, Local (colored) District Agent
Negro work was conducted in 14 counties, employing 7 local
agents and 8 local home demonstration agents. These agents
were paid almost entirely by the agricultural extension service.
Four counties made small appropriations for negro home agents.
Both men and women were supervised by the Local District
Agent, who worked under the direction of the State Leader and
the State Home Demonstration Agent.
















Fig. 16.-This home demonstration exhibit of canned goods at the fair
showed what can be done in the way of food preservation.
MAIN ACTIVITIES
The women confined their work mainly to rural home making,
featuring the use of labor-saving devices in the home, which
members of the family are taught to make from material already
on hand. The men have centered their activities more directly
around projects intended to "make the farm pay." The use of
better seed of varieties adapted to the community, soil and mar-
ket demands, together with better care given swine and poultry
are some of the ways by which the agents were successful in
helping during the past year to increase the earning capacity
of farms and to make farm life more convenient and comfort-
able.
MEETINGS
There were three state meetings and several group meetings.
Two state meetings were held at the Florida A. & M. College,
viz: The Agents' Annual Conference, December 9, 10 and 11,







64 Florida Cooperative Extension

1924; the Agents' Annual Short Course, June 15 to 25, 1925.
The third meeting was of the staple and truck farmers, at
Ocala on July 14, 1925, under the auspices of the Local Farmers'
Cooperative Association. On each occasion representatives from
the Extension Division, the Florida A. & M. College, the Flor-
ida State College for Women and the Florida State Marketing
Bureau were present to assist in the instruction.
FAIRS
The Farm and Home Makers' Exhibits at both the South
Florida Fair at Tampa in February and the Florida State Fair
in Jacksonville, in November, won many favorable comments
which encourage us in the belief that each year an improvement
in the work is made in the variety and quality of exhibits. Four
county exhibits were made by local agents that were very credit-
able, viz: Orange, Madison, Alachua and Marion.
STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUB
December 1, 1924-November 30, 1925
Work Accomplished Home Makers' Clubs Farm Makers' Clubs
Months worked ........................... 10-Avg. 9-Avg.
Communities worked ................ 94 54
Number completing work ........1,351 357
Club members in College ........ 50 11
Total visits made ......................3,363 2,329
Club leaders ............................. 135 109
Total enrollment ........................2,864 702
Number calls at office ................3,423 1,529
Days worked in office .............. 322 211
Days worked in field ................1,599 996
Letters written ..........................3,254 1,620
State, County fairs .................... 24 14
Leaders' meetings held ........... 32 21
Attendance .................................. 172 72
Short courses held .................... 5
Attendance ........................ ........ 629
Number demonstrations ............1,167 130
Attendance ..................... ........13,655 934
Acres corn planted ................... 222 9,005
Bushels harvested ......................4,440 190,100
Acres peanuts planted ................ 425 2,283
Bushels harvested ....................12,700 68,490
Acres sweet potatoes planted.... 258 237
Bushels harvested .................25,800 23,700
Total Gross Receipts for 1925
Home-made articles sold ............................. ...............................$ 475.00
Staple crops sold ..................................... .... .... .................. 98,305.10
Truck crops sold ....................... ..... ..................... 96,000.00
Farm poultry sold .. ..................... ......... ....... 6,672.20
Dairy products sold ................... ....................... ..................... 8,236.95
Sw ine sold .. ............................ ............................................................ 12,559.75
Fruits sold .......................................................................................... 2,225.00
Total ......... ........ ..................................$224,474.10









INDEX


A. & M. College for Negroes, co-
operating, 8
Agents, list of, 5
Agriculture Commissioner, cooper-
ating, 9
Animal industry, 46
Aphis, citrus, 56
Appropriations, county, 22

Barrow clubs, 28
Bean leaf hopper control, 58
Beautification of home grounds, 40
Blacklock, R. W., work of, 27
Blue mold, 52
Board of control, 4
Boll weevil control demonstrations,
16
Boys' club work, 27
Brown, H. L., work of, 47
Bulb growing, 18
Bulletins, 14

Calf clubs, 29
Camps, club, 31, 43
Caponizing demonstrations, 62
Cayana cane, 58
Celery leaf-tyer work, 59
Cereal demonstrations, 23
Circulars, 14
Citrus clubs, 30
Citrus pathology and entomology,
49
Citrus scab, 54
Citrus schools and field meetings,
12
Clayton, H. G., work of, 15
Clothing work, 38
Club work, boys, 27
poultry, 60
College of Agriculture, cooperat-
ing, 8, 9
Commissioner of Agriculture, co-
operating, 9
Community activities, 42
Contests, 42, .43
Cooper, J. Francis, appointed, 10
work of, 14
Cooperating institutions, 8, 35


Cooperative purchases and sales,
20, 26
Corn clubs, 29
Corn culture, 15
Cotton culture, 15, 23
Council, home demonstration, 32
Counties conducting extension work,
5, 15
County agent activities, 15
summary of, 23
County agents, list of, 5
Crop clubs, 29
Crotalaria demonstrations, 21
Cucumber spraying, 57
Culling demonstrations, 62
Cultivation, 17

Dairy work of agents, 19, 24, 38
Dairy specialist's work, 47
DeBusk, E. F., work of, 49
Disease control, 17
District agents, work of, 15

Editor, work of, 14
Egg-laying contest, 61
Engineering, rural, 25, 40
Ensign, M. R., appointed, 10
work of, 57
Entomology, 49, 55
Experiment Station, cooperating, 9
Extension staff, 4

Fairs, cooperation with, 8
exhibits at, 21, 45, 64
Farm makers' clubs, 63
Farm management demonstrations,
26
Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week,
12, 45
Feeding demonstrations, dairy, 48
Fertilization, 17
Financial statement, 7
"Florida Pepper," 14
Foods project, 37
Forage crops demonstrations, 24
Fruit work, 17

Garden work, 40
Gleason, Miss Flavia, work of, 32







Florida Cooperative Extension


Grass plot demonstrations, 46
Green mold of citrus, 52

Handicraft, 42
Health and sanitation, 39
Hiatt, S. W., resigned, 10
Hogs, 18, 25
Home demonstration agents, activi-
ties of, 32
list of, 5
Home demonstration work, 32
Home egg-laying contest, 61
Home makers' clubs, 63
Home management, 39
Horticultural demonstrations, 24
House furnishing work, 39

Insect control, 17
Irish potato demonstrations, 24

Jenkins, E. W., resigned, 10
work of, 15

Legume demonstrations, 24
Livestock clubs, boys', 28
Live Stock Sanitary Board, coop-
erating, 9

McDavid, Miss Ruby, work of, 32
Marketing, 40
Meetings, 10, 34, 42, 64
Mehrhof, N. R., work of, 60
Melanose, 49
Moore, Miss Virginia, work of, 32

Negro work, 63
Nutrition projects, 37

Orchard demonstrations, 24
Organization, supervisory, 9

Pathology, 49, 55
Pest control demonstrations, 26
Pig clubs, 28


Potato demonstrations, 24
Poultry specialist's work, 60
Poultry work of agents, 18, 25, 40
Products sold cooperatively, 26
Publications, 14
Purchases, cooperative, 20, 26

Relationship with other institu-
tions, 8
Rodent control demonstrations, 26
Rural engineering, 25, 40
Rust mite, 50

Sales, cooperative, 20
Scab of citrus, 54
Scale of citrus, 55
Schools, 10, 62
Scott, J. M., work of, 46
Seedbed sterilization, 57
Settle, Miss Lucy Belle, work of, 32
Short Courses, 10, 30, 44
Smith, J. Lee, appointed, 10
work of, 15
Soil improvement, 21, 25
Spencer, A. P., work of, 15
Staff, extension, 4
State College for Women, cooper-
ating, 8
Stennis, Miss Mary A., work of, 32
Stoutamire, Ralph, resigned, 10
Supervisory organization, 9
Supplies purchased cooperatively,
26
Sweet potato clubs, 29
Sweet potatoes, 16, 24

Terracing, 21
Thursby, Miss Isabelle, work of, 32
Tobacco, 18
Tours, 42, 62
Truck crops, 17, 57
Turner, A. A., work of, 63


Whitefly, citrus, 55