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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal to governor...
 Credits
 Report of director
 Report of vice-director and county...
 Report of district agent, central...
 Report of district agent, northern...
 Report of district agent, eastern...
 Report of boys' club agent
 Report of dairy specialist
 Report of entomologist-plant...
 Report of extension entomologist-plant...
 Report of home demonstration...
 Report of negro extension work
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00007
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1923
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00007
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal to governor of Florida
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Report of vice-director and county agent leader
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Report of district agent, central and southern district
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Report of district agent, northern and western district
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Report of district agent, eastern and northeastern district
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Report of boys' club agent
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Report of dairy specialist
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Report of entomologist-plant pathologist
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Report of extension entomologist-plant pathologist
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Report of home demonstration work
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Report of negro extension work
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Index
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
Full Text






Cooperative Extension Work in
Agriculture and Home Economics
(Acts of May 8 and June 30,1914)
Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida,
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1923
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1923












Cooperative Extension Work in
Agriculture and Home Economics
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida,
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1923
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1923



















CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA..................................... 3
BOARD OF CONTROL, STAFF, SPECIALISTS, SPECIAL LECTURERS.................... 4
COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS, LIST OF................................ 5
LETTERS OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD OF CONTROL........................ 7
REPORT OF DIRECTOR ............................ ....------ ......-------- .. 7
Introduction ....... ------------......--........ .......--------- 7
Organization ..... .................. .---. -.... ...--------... .. 8
Outline of Projects .......... ........------.................. 8
Publications ......... ...... ............................ ......... 10
Extension Schools .................................... ............... ....... ................ 11
Changes in Staff ............................ ........ ................................... ............ 14
Plans of Work .......................................----- ...---..- 15
Conferences for Extension W orkers....................................................... 15
Committee Recommendations for Extension Work.............................. 15
Extension W ork for Negroes.................................................................. 16
Outlook for 1924........................... ..................... .... 16
Financial Statem ent .......... .... ........... .................................... 17
REPORT OF VICE-DIRECTOR AND COUNTY AGENT LEADER................................ 18
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA.................. 28
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, NORTHERN AND WESTERN FLORIDA................ 33
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, EASTERN AND NORTHEASTERN FLORIDA.......... 38
REPORT OF BOYS' CLUB AGENT.................................................... ..................... 43
REPORT OF ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST-..........-...................................................... 50
REPORT OF EXTENSION DAIRYMAN.............................................................. ..... 52
REPORT OF EXTENSION ENTOMOLOGIST & PLANT PATHOLOGIST.................... 56
REPORT OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ................................. .......... 63
REPORT OF NEGRO EXTENSION W ORK.................................. ...................... 78






















Hon. Cary A. Hardee,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agri-
culture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1923, in-
cluding a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1923.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman of the Board of Control.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra.
A. H. BLANDING, Leesburg.
JOHN C. COOPER, JR., Jacksonville.
W. L. WEAVER, Perry.
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee.
OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
C. W. WARBURTON, Director.
C. B. SMITH, Chief.
STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University.
WILMON NEWELL, Director.
A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader.
RALPH STOUTAMIRE, Editor.
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor.
RETTA MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor.
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
E. W. JENKINS, District Agent.
H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent.
S. W. HIATT, District Agent.
R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent.


COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, State Agent. 1
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, Assistant State Agent.
MAY MORSE, Assistant State Agent.
MINNIE M. FLOYD, Assistant State Agent. Resigned be
AGNES I. WEBSTER, District Agent.
ELLEN LENOIR, District Agent.
GLADYS SMITH, Assistant State Agent.
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent.
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent.
LOUISE CARTER, Dairy and Nutrition Agent. Appoin
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent. July
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent.
LucY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent.


fore July 1, 1923,




ted on or after
1, 1923.


SPECIALISTS
JOHN M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist.
HAMLIN L. BROWN, Dairyman.
ED L. AYERS, Entomologist and Plant Pathologist (resigned August 31,
1923).
JOHN R. SPRINGER, Entomologist and Plant Pathologist (appointed Octo-
ber 1, 1923).
E. F. DEBUSK, Citrus Pathologist (appointed September 1, 1923).
H. B. LANSDEN, Poultryman.
SPECIAL LECTURERS
J. R. WATSON, Entomology.
O. F. BURGER, Citrus Diseases.
R. W. RUPRECHT, Soils and Fertilizers.
C. H. WILLOUGHBY, Animal and Dairy Husbandry.
W. L. FLOYD, Horticulture.
E. L. LORD, Horticulture.
FRAZIER ROGERS, Farm Machinery.
A. L. SHEALY, Veterinary Science.
G. F. WEBER, Vegetable Diseases.
J. E. TURLINGTON, Farm Management.






Annual Report, 1923


COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua............F. L. Craft.................Gainesville........................Lou C. Hamilton
Bay....................R. R. Whittington.....Panama City ............................................
Brevard..-........P. M. Childers-..........Cocoa .................... .......
Columbia..........C. A. Fulford............Lake City..:.............Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Dade................J. S. Rainey..............Miami ........................................
DeSoto................................................ Arcadia.............Mrs. Nettie B. Crabill
Duval................W. L. Watson............Jacksonville............................Pearl Laffitte
Elise Laffitte, Assistant
Escambia......... J. Lee Smith ..-.........Pensacola ......................Josephine Longley
Gadsden...........................................ui .................... ..........Eloise McGriff
Hamilton..........J. J. Sechrest............Jasper .....................
Hernando.........J. T. Daniel................Brooksville....................Mrs. W. J. Palmer
Hillsborough...R. T. Kelley...............Plant City................Mrs. Blanche G. Shore
Tampa..........................Mrs. Mary S. Allen
Jefferson...........H. H. Rothe...............Monticello ..................... .............
Lake .................. Leo H. Wilson-......... Tavares ....................................... Marie Cox
Lee.....................H. E. Stevens............Ft. Myers................................Lynn McNutt
Leon..................J. A. Mackintosh......Tallahassee........................Mrs. A. H. Peay
Levy.................N. J. Allbritton..........Williston .......... ........... .
Liberty.............A. W. Turner.............Bristol .........................
Madison ............B. E. Lawton............ Madison .........................................
Manatee...........W. R. Briggs.............Bradentown..........................Margaret Cobb
Marion..............K. C. Moore...............Ocala............................Christine McFerron
Okaloosa...........R. J. Hart..................Laurel Hill
Crestview...............................Bertha Henry
Orange............C. D. Kime.................Orlando....................Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola............. J. R. Gunn-................Kissimmee ....................................
Palm Beach.....J. A. Dew...................West Palm Beach..Mrs. Edith Y. Morgan
Pasco.................J. A. Shealy...............Dade City.................Mrs. Harriet Ticknor
Polk...................William Gomme........Bartow ........................... .....Lois Godbey
Putnam.............D. A. Armstrong......Palatka ..............................Floresa Sipprell
St. Johns..........J. 0. Traxler..............St, Augustine......................Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie-...........Alfred Warren.......... Ft. Pierce ........................................
Santa Rosa......John G. Hudson........Milton................Mrs. Winnie W. McEwan
Seminole........... B. F. Whitner, Jr.....Sanford .......................................................
Sumter ...................................................Bushnell................................ae Morris
Suwannee.........C. E. Matthews.........Live Oak............................Luella M. Rouse
Taylor...............R. J. Dorsett.............Perry ....................................Anabel Peaden
Volusia............. T. A. Brown......... DeLand...... ..... .........Orpha Cole
Wakulla............G. C. Hodge................Crawfordville ......................
Walton..............J. W. Mathison.........DeFuniak Springs-..........Josephine Nimmo
*This list is correct to December 31, 1923.

































FIG. 1.-Some of the farm folk who attended Farmers' Week at the University of Florida in August, 1923.









Report of General Activities for 1923
with
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30, 1923



Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report
of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1923, and a summary
of the activities of the Division for the calendar year 1923. I re-
spectfully request that you transmit the same, in accordance with
law, to the governor of the State of Florida.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.
INTRODUCTION
During 1923 the Agricultural Extension Division of the Uni-
versity of Florida conducted extension work in 44 counties of
the state, having in each county either a county agent, home
demonstration agent, or both. Twenty-two counties employed
one county and one home demonstration agent, 20 counties had
one agent only and two counties had three agents. That is,
approximately two-thirds of the counties in the state are con-
tributing to the salaries of county extension workers.
During the year the largest number of county agents em-
ployed was 38 and the largest number of home demonstration
agents employed at one time was 32. Efforts were made to
have both county and home demonstration agents in a larger
number of counties. This, however, was not accomplished
for the reason that those counties not employing agents did
not levy an assessment to pay for the service. With the present
funds available it would not be possible to carry out extension
work in Florida in all the counties on the present basis of
county allotment.






Florida Cooperative Extension


As extension work advances, county workers are confronted
with more new and complex problems. With the progress in
agriculture and horticulture and advancement in improving
rural homes, there continually comes a demand for unusual
service on the part of agents. The Division is required to
know intimately the needs of Florida's agricultural home life
and to be able to locate the men and women of the communities
who are rural leaders and, with the assistance of these leaders,
to organize and direct county and community forces for the ad-
vancement of all phases of farm life.
There are agricultural interests in every county that are only
indirectly related to agricultural extension work as now organ-
ized. County extension workers often can assist in such work,
and usually do unless it requires a neglect of their regular
duties. In fact, extension workers always endeavor to promote
the best interests of their counties.
Where both county and home demonstration work is carried
on in the same county, the plans of work must harmonize so as
to strengthen the work of both agents. For this reason county
and home demonstration agents usually have a joint office
where they can keep in close touch with the work of each other.
In these counties the general plans of work are designed for
the ultimate good of both farm and home and of the county
generally.
DIVISION OF THE WORK
The extension work for 1923 was divided into nine separate
and definite branches. This necessarily required a division of
funds and well-defined projects.
1. County Agent Work.-The state is divided into three
districts, with a district agent in charge of each. Northern and
western Florida, with H. G. Clayton as district agent, constitute
one district. This territory comprises the general farming and
livestock areas of the state. The problems of these counties are
similar in many respects.
The next district, consisting of the central and southeastern
portion of Florida, is largely horticultural, having some general
agriculture in the northern counties. This district is under the
supervision of E. W. Jenkins.
The counties of northern Florida and the each coast constitute
another district. It is under the supervision of S. W. Hiatt.






Annual Report, 1923


This comprises a greater variety of problems, extending from
the sub-tropical area of the state into the cotton area.
In each case the county agents look directly to the district
agents for supervision and assistance.
2. Boys' Club Work.-This branch is supervised by R. W.
Blacklock, boys' club agent, and has to do with the direction
and management of boys' agricultural clubs. These clubs are
organized by county agents. District agents assist in super-
vision, so that projects 2 and 3 are closely related. In the
different areas of the state club work naturally varies. To
illustrate, in counties where citrus and winter trucking are the
main industries, the clubs are directed into these types of agri-
culture or horticulture.
3. Home Demonstration Work.-Home demonstration work
is under the direct supervision of State Agent Flavia Gleason
and Assistant State Agent Virginia P. Moore. The state is












FIG. 2.-Home demonstration agents studying basketry at the 1923 con-
ference.

divided into two districts, the northern and western being in
charge of Ruby McDavid and the southern in charge of Lucy
Belle Settle. The district agents have direct supervision over
home demonstration agents and assist them in carrying out
their various projects. Home demonstration work also has
specialists in nutrition, dairy work, marketing and clothing,
who assist home demonstration agents in carrying thru their
plans of work.
4. Dairy Husbandry and Forage Crops.-The livestock work
of the year was confined principally to dairying, hog raising
and the production of feed crops. This work is headed by






Florida Cooperative Extension


John M. Scott, animal industrialist, and Hamlin L. Brown, ex-
tension dairyman. This work reaches into the greater part
of the state. It is intended to develop the livestock industry
according to the most imperative needs and with a view to as-
sisting farmers and livestock owners who will benefit and who
will carry out demonstrations designed to help their communities.
On account of the lack of interest in beef production, little
was accomplished during the year in this project.
5. Entomology and Plant Pathology.-The constant demand
for assistance in the control of insects and diseases of plants
made it advisable to make this a special feature of extension
work. County agents in the horticultural areas have many
calls for such assistance, principally with citrus fruits and
winter vegetables and to a lesser extent with farm crops. As
the horticultural interests increase in importance and extent
county agents are called on more often to give expert assistance;
they look to the specialists for such help.
6. Poultry.-The demands on the poultry extension spe-
cialist have increased as poultry raising has expanded. Home
demonstration agents have made poultry a special feature in
their programs. In counties not employing home demonstration
agents, county agents take an active interest. This is a state-
wide project.
7. Negro Extension Work has been confined to 14 counties
and is under the supervision of a local district agent, A. A.
Turner. The counties getting the greatest benefit from this
are in the northern part of the state, where the negro population
is largest. The program of work for men is for economical pro-
duction and some cooperative marketing. The women's work
deals with poultry raising, gardening, cooking, foods, clothing
and sanitation.
8. Publications.-The demand for bulletins and published
literature requires that a supply of this be available for county
workers. County and home demonstration agents distribute
large quantities of agricultural literature from their offices, as
they keep a supply of bulletins appropriate to the needs of their
counties. This causes a constant demand on the bulletin supply
furnished them from the Agricultural Extension Division, the
Florida Experiment Station and the United States Department
of Agriculture.






Annual Report, 1923


The following publications were issued during the year:
Bulletin 36, "Irish Potatoes in Florida"................10,280 copies
37, "Diseases and Ailments of Cattle"....10,000
38, "Florida Poultry Production"........--....25,000
The 1922 Annual Report.............................................. 2,040 "
The 1923 Farm and Home Calendar.......................... 6,880 "
Weekly News Service (52 issues)............................28,515
Bulletin 45, "Club Song Book"....---.....-.............-......... 5,000
46, "Hand Book for First Year Sewing"._ 5,000
Nutrition Leaflets..........................--..............-............200,000
Bulletin 47, "Pickles and Relishes" ........................--25,000
29, "Milk" (Reprint) ................................... 5,000
31, "Home Canning with Picnic Dinner".. 5,000
The Agricultural News Service, issued weekly and supplied
to the newspapers and farm journals, contains timely news and
informational farm articles. This service is also sent to county
and home demonstration agents and others interested in agri-
culture and home development in the state. Approximately
700 copies are mailed out each week.
Distribution of Agricultural Literature and Information.-The
Division supplies the state press with timely articles on agri-
cultural subjects. This is directed from the office of the editor
of the Agricultural Extension Division. County and home
demonstration agents are given assistance in supplying their
newspapers with such material as they can use. County work-
ers are encouraged to give every possible assistance to the' press
in supplying community newspapers with such agricultural in-
formation as will be most beneficial to farmers and farm women.
In some instances, an agricultural column is maintained, its
editing being done thru the cooperation of county and home
demonstration agents.
Division Cannot Meet Demands.-It is impossible for the
Agricultural Extension Division to give personal attention (or the
personal visit of a specialist or county or home demonstration
agent) to every request-for such service made upon it. It is,
therefore, felt that the service rendered by the assistance of the
state press greatly enhances the active service of the Division.
9. Extension Schools.-This project was planned to provide
for various schools. For the most part, these were arranged
by county and home demonstration agents or by specialists.
During the year the schools in northern counties were princi-





Florida Cooperative Extension


pally to instruct farmers on the Florida method of boll weevil
control. These were carried out in cooperation with the State
Plant Board of Florida. Thirty-three meetings were held with
an attendance of 1,722. These meetings were diversified in
some cases, other interesting farm activities being included.
Citrus Field Meetings were conducted in the citrus area of
the state, principally to instruct growers in the control of insect
and disease pests, particularly melanose and stem-end rot. There
were 39 citrus field meetings held; the attendance totaled 1,140.
Miscellaneous Schools covering other important phases of the
1923 program, principally dairying, livestock, hog raising and
general crops were held. In all, a total of 48 miscellaneous
meetings were held, with an attendance of 8,500.
The meetings held in the field were the most satisfactory and
effective. Method demonstrations were emphasized in each
field or grove and this was followed up by inspection work by
county agents, also bulletins and circulars issued from the
county agents' offices or from the main office at Gainesville.


FIG. 3.-Scott (Prof. John lv) hands Fulford (County Agent C. A.) the
"bull." This purebred calf was won by Columbia County for having
the largest registered attendance at Farmers' Week last summer






Annual Report, 1923


' During the year county agents conducted and took an active
part in 2,000 farm meetings. The attendance at these totaled
34,006.
The Second Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was held on
the campus of the University, August 6-11. This consisted of
instruction and entertainment to farm people. An appropriate
program was carried out.
Those contributing to the program and to the success of the
entire week were members of the staff of the College of Agri-
culture (including Experiment Station, Agricultural Extension
Division and college proper) and of the State Plant Board and
growers and farmers in the state. Representatives of the Uni-
ted States Department of Agriculture took active part.
Farmers and their families were permitted the use of the
University dormitories, paying a maximum charge of $1 a
day for board and room. The plan called for a general session
each day, followed by sectional meetings. A special program
was prepared for .the farm women under the direction of the
home demonstration staff.
In carrying out this week the cooperation of other organized
bodies interested in farm life was secured and valuable assist-
ance rendered in making it a success. The expenses incidental
to Farmers' Week were borne by direct appropriation by the
Legislature. The registered attendance was 707.
10. Administration deals with all phases of extension work,
the distribution and expenditure of funds, plans and policies and
the working relationships of the various departments and
projects.
Workers in Organization.-In conducting various phases of
agricultural extension work during the year the following people
were employed: a director, a county agent leader and vice-
director, three district agents for men's work, a boys' club agent,
an extension dairyman, an animal industrialist (part time), a
plant pathologist and entomologist, an extension poultryman and
an editor.
For home demonstration work the following workers were
employed: a state home demonstration agent, an assistant state
home demonstration agent, two district agents, a poultry club
agent, a home dairy agent, a nutrition specialist, an assistant
clothing specialist (part time).






Florida Cooperative Extension


One district (supervising) local agent for negro work was em-
ployed also by the Division.
ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS
The service is reinforced with assistance from the Florida
Experiment Station, the College of Agriculture, the Florida
State College for Women, the State Plant Board of Florida and
the United States Department of Agriculture. The service from
each is principally advisory but is definite and valuable.
There are other institutions such as the State Livestock Sani-
tary Board and State Marketing Bureau which, while having no
official relation to the Division, cooperate under a working re-
lationship that is mutual and beneficial to all institutions coop-
erating.
CHANGES IN PERSONNEL OF THE STAFF
During 1923 changes in personnel of the staff were as follows:
Gladys Smith, nutrition agent, resigned February 28.
On April 1, Isabelle S. Thursby was appointed assistant in
nutrition and Madge Horn was appointed assistant in clothing,
both working until June 30.
At the end of the fiscal year, June 30, the following agents
resigned: Sarah W. Partridge, state home demonstration agent;
Harriette B. Layton, assistant state home demonstration agent;
Agnes I. Webster, district agent; Ellen LeNoir, district agent;
May Morse, home dairy agent; Minnie Floyd, home poultry
agent. This required the appointment of an entirely new staff
to begin work on July 1, 1923.
These positions were filled by the following: Flavia Gleason,
state home demonstration agent; Virginia P. Moore, assistant
state home demonstration agent; Ruby McDavid, district agent;
Lucy Belle Settle, district agent; Isabelle S. Thursby, food and
marketing agent; Louise Carter, dairy and nutrition agent.
On July 1, N. W. Sanborn, extension poultryman, was as-
signed for full-time duty to the College of Agriculture and was
succeeded by H. B. Lansden.
Among county and home demonstration workers various res-
ignations, new appointments and transfers took place, most of
these occurring between July 1 and October 1. These changes
were relatively few and in each case the new agent appointed
had qualifications equal to, if not better than, those resigned.
It is the policy of the administration to secure specially equipped






Annual Report, 1923 15

agents who have had training in an agricultural college. How-
ever, instances arise where this is not practical, owing to the
limited amount of money available for the employment of agents.

PLANS OF WORK FOR THE YEAR
All extension workers are required to have a plan of work
at the beginning of the year and are expected to carry out defi-
nite, organized extension work. As individual counties have
their local problems it is important that the county plan be
formulated largely by county and home demonstration agents.
District or supervisory agents submit their recommendations
for the year's work, and specialists and leaders submit outlines
to govern the work. These plans are assembled for consider-
ation and conference at the beginning of the year.
County and home demonstration agents were assembled into
three groups at convenient places for two-day sessions. As
these group meetings bring together both county and home
demonstration agents, they provide an opportunity for the cor-
relation of these two sides of the work. It is expected that
each extension worker will give these problems preferred at-
tention and alter his or her plan as little as possible.
At the conclusion of the group conferences the plans for the
year are tabulated with recommendations from the supervising
forces. This has been found helpful in correlating the various
branches and projects and in bringing the greatest good to the
whole in the end.
ANNUAL CONFERENCES OF COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRA-
TION AGENTS
All extension workers meet in annual conference for instruc-
tion and correlation of work. The programs divide the agents
into sections, with leaders for each, and bring them into joint
sessions to discuss state-wide problems and policies. Assistance
with these programs is given by the College of Agriculture,
State Plant Board, United States Department of Agriculture
and others. This conference is planned to last one week and is
held at the University of Florida. It brings together all exten-
sion workers of the state and serves to correlate all phases of
the work.
COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS
During the annual conference committees made up largely
of county workers are assigned to submit recommendations con-






Florida Cooperative Extension


cerning problems in which they will be interested. These are
brought together in the form of recommendations to be used
as a guide in formulating plans for the coming year.
CONFERENCES FOR NEGRO WORKERS
Negro extension work is a branch of the Division, designed
particularly to meet the needs of rural negro people. It is sys-
tematized and so directed that it results in the general better-
ment of negro farmers and farm women.
The negro agents are called together once a year to discuss
and arrange plans. The attention of the negro agents is brought
to the fact that their work is educational rather than the giving
of individual service. It is, therefore, emphasized that so far
as conditions permit the work be done thru organized clubs,
principally with the boys and girls living on farms, assisting
them in the most important farm problems of the community.
At these negro agents' conferences subject matter is presented
by members of the staff of the College of Agriculture, including
the Experiment Station.
OUTLOOK FOR 1924
For 1924 the plans have not been modified to any great extent
from those of 1923, except that there will be a reduced acreage
of cotton, due to the generally unsatisfactory crop of 1923.
As there is a possibility of better prices for hogs, farmers in the
cotton-growing area will be urged to pay special attention to
the production of hogs and feed crops, particularly where hogs
can be marketed during September. Emphasis will be placed
on increasing dairy products and providing home-grown feeds.
Special emphasis will be given to the importance of poultry as
an adjunct to every farmer's operations. Agents will stress
the importance of increased plantings of fruit trees, both for
home and commercial uses. Special attention will be given to
the new satsuma interests of northern and western Florida.
The program of each agent will emphasize diversification for
farmers, emphasizing in particular dairying, poultry and hogs.
In the citrus and vegetables areas county agents will give special
attention to the control of insects and diseases that affect the
marketing of citrus fruit. A specialist has been added to the
staff to deal entirely with citrus pathological problems. He
will work with citrus growers thru county agents, assisting
them in the best and most economical methods of spraying.







Annual Report, 1923


County agents also will give due attention to reducing produc-
tion costs of all crops by increased yields and by economic
methods in producing and handling crops.
In home demonstration work emphasis will be placed on
poultry production, the home dairy, nutrition, conservation and
the by-products of the farm, in addition to the recreational side
of farm life. It is noteworthy that the increased financial sup-
port of extension work by counties indicates an enthusiastic
interest on the part of the people receiving the benefits of this
service.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
RECEIPTS
College of Agriculture Funds-
Smith-Lever, Federal ................................................................ $ 58,872.25
Sm ith-Lever, State .......................................................................... 48,872.25
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal ......................................... 15,496.08
Supplementary Smith-Lever, State ............................................. 15,496.08
U. S. D. A. appropriations................................................. ...... 22,500.00
State appropriations ................................................ .... ....... 9,506.85
County appropriations .......................................................................... 73,830.44

Total.................................. .......................... $244,573.95
EXPENDITURES
A dm inistration ......................................................................................... $ 13,287.70
Printing and Publications....................... .......................... .. 3,199.61
County agents' w ork............................................................................. 113,687.64
Home demonstration work...................................... ... -.... ------ 80,007.69
Boys' club work-....................................-- -- ..............------.--. 5,457.44
Animal industry .....-------..............................-........... --...-- ---- 4,772.73
Negro farm and home makers' work..........................------.........-- 15,033.83
Plant pathology and entomology..-------................... ---......... ------- 4,211.16
Poultry industry ...................................................................................... 4,310.45
Extension schools .....-----------................................... -...... --- 569.66
Balance ...............-----........ ----..-------..----..........................-- 36.04
Total- -- ----................... .................... .. ......... $244,573.95






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF A. P. SPENCER, VICE-DIRECTOR AND
COUNTY AGENT LEADER

At the beginning of the calendar year 1923 the county agents,
supervisory agents and district agents mapped out plans for
the year's work and at group meetings brought these together
for discussion, so that the year began with definite things under
way thruout the state. These plans involved a few major proj-
ects and several minor ones. These. major projects involved:
(1) General farm crops and operations, (2) livestock interests,
(3) citrus fruit, (4) vegetables, (5) organization, (6) boys' club
work. In some counties all of these were involved, but in most
cases there was specialization which required much of the
agents' time.
General farm crops and operations involved the production
of corn and other cereals, hay crops, soil-improvement crops,
land preparation and marketing.
The livestock interests involved principally dairy and hog
production, with special emphasis on establishing dairies and
finding a market for dairy products. In hog production it was
largely a matter of producing meat hogs, as there was relatively
little interest in the production of purebred breeding stock.
The work in citrus fruit comprised principally the production
of high-grade fruit, improving the grade and quality by holding
diseases and insects in check, proper fertilization and cultivation.
In vegetable crops the main work consisted of proper ferti-
lization and cultivation, checking diseases and insects and grad-
ing and packing the crops for shipment.
In organization work, the main feature was organizing prin-
cipally for cooperatively purchasing and selling.
Club work consisted of the usual club organization work with
boys in staple crops and livestock and the study of citrus cul-
ture, principally of insect arid disease identification and control.
It would not be possible to compare the relative importance of
these major projects, inasmuch as they differ in importance,
depending on location and county.
Between January 1 and December 31, there was county agent
work under way in 44 counties. Nine carried on the work for
only short periods. The number of months total 4182/3.
Farmers in the general farming area had an unsatisfactory
year in both production and marketing. Their program first






Annual Report, 1923


called for the largest acreage of cotton grown for several years.
But disaster came during the spring months; heavy rains in-
jured the crop to such an extent that the lowest yield in the his-
tory of the state was produced.















FIG. 4.-Irish potatoes grown by one of County Agent J. O. Traxler's farm
demonstrators.

In view of the excellent prospects for cotton, many farmers
neglected to provide feed and other crops and to diversify.
As a result, cotton failing, the sugar cane crop being short,
feed for hogs being unprovided, these farmers have had a hard
year. Consequently, the county agents in these counties have
had one of the most trying of years.
Nevertheless, in spite of these unfavorable circumstances,
there was the same strong demand for county agent service,
many boards of county commissioners levying even a larger
amount than prescribed by law in order to continue the service.
The experience of the year has, therefore, demonstrated the
importance of a well-rounded, diversified program in such areas.
This has been so thoroly impressed on all that many counties
which, a year ago, were inclined to fall back on the one-crop
system are now backing a diversified program, emphasizing
particularly hogs, dairying and poultry.
Counties in the southern part of the state have had a more
prosperous year. With much activity in practically all lines
of horticulture, with a large influx of winter tourists distrib-
uting large amounts of money, and with much road building in
progress, the counties are in a prosperous condition. This has
reflected on county agent work in this area. It has called for






Florida Cooperative Extension


the agents to give assistance to newcomers, to direct in the
production of high-grade fruit and to assist in conducting fairs
and exhibits.
COMMUNITY WORK
The time has passed when county extension workers can serve
their counties in a satisfactory way thru individual service.
Therefore, it is necessary to work by communities. Programs
of work are carried out thru community centers; in many cases
the community programs differ but little. However, effort is
made to secure leaders in these communities, so that the county
agent's time may be conserved, he working thru the centers
instead of with individuals. Even this has not sufficiently re-
lieved the county agent from individual service, but it has
simplified his work in that a greater number of people are
reached with the same effort.
The agent in Lee County reports that 14 communities are
making a study of citrus problems under his supervision and
direction. He has arranged to meet each community at its
center at regular intervals with a well-prepared program devoted
to its particular citrus problems.
In the cotton-growing areas the agents use the communities
as centers for assembling farmers, principally for the coopera-
tive purchase of supplies. In Palm Beach County, communities
in the Everglades have worked with the county and home dem-
onstration agents in such a way that the efficiency of these
workers has been increased.
Community programs of work are difficult to arrange, on
account of the variety of interests and the lack of any commu-
nity organizations for this purpose already in existence.
COOPERATION FROM OUTSIDE AGENCIES
County and home demonstration agents have had assistance
from various boards and departments for the mutual benefit
of all concerned. The State Marketing Bureau has worked in
close cooperation with them, helping farmers to dispose of their
produce. This is a service the farmers highly appreciate, par-
ticularly the small farmer. Poultry, eggs, sweet potatoes, water-
melons, etc. were sold for satisfactory prices and in large quan-
tities by such cooperation.
The State Livestock Sanitary Board cooperated with the
agents in the control of animal diseases, principally diseases of






Annual Report, 1923


hogs and dairy cattle. In the case of tubercular inspection, by
mutual arrangement between the Livestock Sanitary Board and
the county agents, many herds were tested. County agents
were called upon also in reference to the movement of livestock
from outside of their counties and, thru their connection with the
Livestock Sanitary Board, they were able to give farmers val-
uable service in this way.
County agents worked in close cooperation with the State
Plant Board, first in the application of the Florida method of
boll weevil control. This work was directed by the Plant Board
and put into the counties by county agents thru meetings,
demonstrations and observations upon results of the application.
The agents cooperated with the State Department of Agri-
culture in sampling fertilizers for farmers, in giving definite
information regarding the agriculture of the counties and in ex-
plaining the fertilizer inspection law.
There has been close cooperation between the Experiment
Station and the county agents in many ways, the Station giving
definite help in subject matter, assisting in conducting meetings,
distributing grasses and in locating experimental work.
There has also been a definite cooperative relationship be-
tween the agricultural agencies of various railroads, in each
case agricultural interests being bettered.
SUPERVISION OF WORK
The county agents were supervised by the state leader and
three district agents. They were assisted by specialists in
dairying, livestock and forage crops, also disease and insect
control. During the year 625 visits, of from one to five days
each were made to counties having agents by these supervisors
and specialists.
FAIRS AND EXHIBITS
Altho county fairs and community exhibits have been con-
sidered a minor project in county agent work they have occupied
much of the agents' time. Between November 1 and April 1
these fairs are in progress in many counties and practically all
of them call on the Division for assistance in arranging ex-
hibits and in judging. District Agent S. W. Hiatt has given
special work of this nature, stressing educational features and
working out a score card system which places proper emphasis
on different displays in order to make the exhibits most edu-
cational and instructive. In the larger fairs county and home






Florida Cooperative Extension


demonstration agents were largely responsible for the success
of county booths. This has given them an opportunity to
bring their work before their people and arouse greater interest
in agricultural production and home life.
Fair associations cooperated liberally in allowing spaces for
displaying boys' and girls' exhibits and allowing prizes for club
members who exhibited hogs, poultry, canned products and
domestic art.
State fair associations have looked to the extension offices
for guidance in making up their catalogs, with a view to making
satisfactory awards and maintaining the proper proportion of
values on farmers' exhibits.
INCREASING EFFICIENCY OF COUNTY AGENTS
Increasing the efficiency of county agents is a constant con-
sideration of supervising officers. Their main purpose is to
assist county agents in rendering the best possible service.
County agents are called together for training and instruction
by specialists who can assist them in their work. It has been
found good practice for county agents to visit places outside of
their counties where they can receive special instructions. In
a few instances these visits took them outside of the state.
They are kept in close touch with officials of the Experiment
Station and the College of Agriculture, who also cooperate in
carrying out demonstration work.


FIG. 5.-Demonstration grove observed and reported on by County Agent
Wm. Gomme of Polk.







Annual Report, 1923 23

New agents are frequently placed with experienced county
agents for a short time before taking up their work. This is
done primarily to acquaint the new men with extension work.
It has been the practice for certain county agents to come
together two or three times a year when they have problems
in common to study the best methods of carrying thru particular
pieces of work. The county agents' offices are supplied with
bulletins and illustrative material, which makes them the centers
of agricultural information in the counties.

STATISTICS
The following statistics will give some idea of what was
accomplished in the major projects. As there are many minor
projects that come into county agent work, much that took
place during the year cannot be so reported. It has been empha-
sized that extension work is primarily educational and, there-
fore, cannot be correctly estimated in money values.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 295
Voluntary county, community and local leaders................................. 2,618
Clubs carrying on extension work --..-....... .....................---.....- ..-- 164
M em bership ................................... .................................... ................ 3,698
Farm visits made by county agents..............................................................22,078
Different farms visited.........................---------....... ..................... ......... ..... 8,192
Home visits made by county agents.............................................................. 4,116
Different hom es visited................................................................................... 1,284
Office calls on agents relating to extension work-----------....................................30,270
Average number days spent in office...................--..........--...... .....---- 97
Average number days spent in field............................................................. 203
Official letters written.... -- -----.................... ...................... ..... 25,481
Newspaper articles prepared for press .............. ................................ 1,430
Circular letters sent out--............................................................................ ... 1,598
Community buildings established..................................................... ..... 77
Exhibits at fairs ................................................... ............ 61
Com m unity .................... ................ ................................... .. 32
County ................................................................................... .. 17
State ....................... ................. ............................................... 10
Interstate ........................................................................... 2
Number Attendance
Demonstration meetings held......................................... 607 15,395
Farmers' institutes held.............................................. ..... 105 2,296
Extension schools and short courses held.....................-------.... 15 1,021
Total attendance club members, junior encampments and rallies.......... 279
Club boys entering college ........................................................................... 16
PROGRAM SUMMARY
Communities participating in various projects.......................................... 1,077
Demonstrations ................................. .......----------------------... 5,561
Boll w eevil control ............................................................. .. 361
-Dairying ...-----------------....................................... 96
Poultry .................. ........... .......................................... 249
-Citrus --...... ------- ------.................................... .----- 2,185
-Other fruits .........................................-----------------............. 329







24 Florida Cooperative Extension

-Cooperative purchases and sales............................................ 201
-- Truck crops .......... ............................................................. 929
Organization .......................................... ............................. 6
Soil im provem ent ................................................................... 446
-Livestock -... ............ .......... ....-...........- 255
-Community and county exhibits............................................ 14
-Club work ......------------...-...............-----------...... 490
Meetings held for definite project work........................................................ 1,107
Attendance .........----....... ...................-----------13,667
General meetings held .--- ----------------..... 893
Attendance .... ......... .............. ......... ................. 21,339
Voluntary community leaders ... ....................... ..................................... 989
Days assistance by voluntary leaders........................................................... 1,206
Cereal Demonstrations
(Corn, Oats, Etc.)
D em onstrators ....................................... .................. ..................................... 72
Acreage grown under demonstration methods............................................ 532
Boys' and girls' clubs........................... .................. ................................... 69
Acreage grown by club members----................................------ ---................... 137
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels)................................. 4,956
Value ............................................. ........................................... $3,728
Cost .....-----................................... ............----..------....... -----.......$1,136
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices...................................... 232
Farmers who planted selected or improved seed.................................... 1,305
Farmers who grew selected seed for sale.-....................... ----- 100
Farmers who tested seed for germination............................................. 26
Farmers who treated seed grain for smut--------............................ --........ 50

Cotton Demonstrations
D em onstrators .. .............................................................. .. .......... .. ........... 264
Acreage grown under improved methods...................................................... 1,045
Farms influenced to adopt better practice................................................... 1,121
Boys and girls' clubs.......................................................................................... 4
M em bers enrolled ............................................................................................. 97
Acreage grown by club members.................................................................... 42
Value of crops grown by club members......................................................$1,787
Cost ........................................... ................. ............. ............. .. ............... $ 735
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed..................................... 351
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases---.......... 690

Legume Demonstrations
(Cowpeas, Soybeans, Velvet Beans, Etc.)
D em onstrators ............................. .............................................. ................. 354
Acreage grown under improved methods---............................-- ..... ---- 4,444
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices.............................................. 537
A create in these farm s................................................................................... 7,526
Farmers who planted selected seed................................................................ 687
Farmers who grew selected seed for sale-----------.................................... .. 3
Farmers who inoculated for these crops...................-..........------......-- 9

Orchard Demonstrations
Dem onstration orchards .................................................................................. 1,212
Acreage of these orchards........................................ ..................................12,703
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices.................................. 1,262
Farmers who planted selected or improved stock-................................... 453
Farmers who pruned-..-- --.. ----..... ---.-....-............................... ...------ .... 1,527
Farmers who sprayed or otherwise treated to control disease and
insect p t -................. ....... .................. ............................... 1,172
Farmers who followed other improved cultural practices........................ 1,234







Annual Report, 1923 25

Truck and Garden Demonstrations
Demonstrators ........ .... ...... ............................. ........................ 283
Acreage in these demonstrations.... ........... ...............2,457%
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices.............................................. 280
Farmers who planted selected or improved seed....................................... 220
Farmers who pruned .....------........--------.... ......2......................................... 253
Farmers who sprayed or otherwise treated for disease and insect pests 769
Farmers who followed other improved cultural practices........................ 756
Irish Potato Demonstrations
D em onstrators ............................................................ ................................... 21
Acreage grown under improved methods.................................................... 121
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices.............................................. 28
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed........................................ 56
Farmers who treated seed for disease-......................................................... 52
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects............ 151
Crop improvement associations organized at suggestion of extension
service ..... ....................................................... ................................. 1
Membership ...... --........ ......................................... .. 42
Sweet Potato Demonstrations
Demonstrators ....... -----------.... ....-............. -----............4................................. 44
Acreage grown under improved methods................................................... 96
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices..............-............................... 60
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed....................................... 227
Farmers who grew improved or certified seed for sale............................ 33
Farmers who treated seed to prevent disease............................................ 28
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects............ 30
Storage houses constructed .................................................... .......... ........ 1
Capacity this house (bushels) .................. .......................... ........ 1,000
Dairy Cattle Demonstrations
Demonstrations ...... -----....... ----......... ............ ................... ................ 78
Animals in completed demonstrations........................................................... 540
Saving resulting from better practices...................-...- ----9 percent
Value of animals raised by club members.................................................... $750
Cost of such animals and products............................ $500
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices .......... .. ............ 123
Anim als on these farm s.................................................................................. 2,136
Farmers assisted in securing purebred sires................................................ 34
Purebred fem ales secured................................................................................ 86
Farmers who secured purebred animals for the first time........................ 36
Farmers who culled their herds.................................................................... 65
A associations organized ...................................................... ...................... 2
M membership ............................................................ ....... ........................ 140
Breed associations or clubs organized............................................................ 2
Membership ...........................----------............ .............. .....----- 49
Farmers not in associations who tested cows for production...-.............. 13
Cow s so tested ................ ............. ........................................... .......... .... 152
Farmers who fed better balanced rations...................................................... 124
Farmers who controlled insect pests............................................................ 68
Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis.............................................. 331
A nim als tested ................................................... ........................ 10,342
Farmers who controlled other livestock diseases..........:........................ 298
Animals treated and cured.................................. .......................... ....... 6,637
Herds accredited this year for the first time............................................... 28
Homes assisted in making butter and cheese.............................................. 27
Hog Demonstrations
Demonstrators ..----.... .......---......... ....................--.---------.......--- 35
Animals in completed demonstrations.......................................-- .. ---- 245
Savings resulting from better practices.....................................10 per cent
Farmers who secured purebred sires................................. ................... 57






26 Florida Cooperative Extension

Purebred females secured ................................... ............. ........ 61
Farmers who secured purebred animals for the first time.................... 43
Farmers who fed better balanced rations.................................. ........ 75
Farmers who controlled insect pests...................................... .......... 60
Farmers who controlled livestock diseases.............................................. 1,267
Animals treated and cured............................ ...... ..................37,648

Poultry Demonstrations
Dem onstrators .............. ........................... .................................... 1,295
Birds in these demonstrations ......................................19,438
Farms influenced to adopt better practices...... ---...............-........ 449
Birds on these farms .................................... .. ......... ........... .24,000
Saving resulting from better practices ................... ................6 per cent
Purebred roosters secured ....................................... ........... 194
Purebred hens secured ............-- ............................... .... .........-. 9,505
Farms securing purebred poultry for the first time............................ 109
Farmers who culled their flocks-........................................................- 512
Breed associations organized ..................... ........ ............................ 2
Membership these associations ...................................... .................. 68
Birds under test ......................................... ..... ... ..-........... 1,200
Farmers who fed better balanced rations ................... ............ 238
Farmers who controlled insect pests........................ ................... 272
Farmers who controlled poultry diseases................ ...................... 360
Birds treated and cured..........................-............-........17,191

Soil Improvement Demonstrations
Demonstrations started or under way ............................. ........... 1,023
Demonstrations completed ........................................... 607
Acres involved in completed demonstrations.......................... ...... ...11,2411/
Farmers influenced to change methods soil management ...-.................. 1,127
Acreage of farms changing methods...................... ...............................38,178
Farmers following advice in use of commercial fertilizers.............. 2,705
Acreage of these farms...............................................................51,208
Farmers who home-mixed fertilizer.................. .... ................... 398
Tons of fertilizer so mixed ................................... .. ................ 2,452
Farmers taking better care of farm manures --................................ ..- 727
Farmers using lime or limestone............ ......... ................ 147
Tons of lime or limestone so used.................................................... 596
Farmers who plowed under cover or other green manure crops for
soil improvement ....................... ......... ................ 909
Acres of cover and green manure so plowed under.................................14,722

Miscellaneous Citrus Report, County Agent Work
Citrus properties visited ..................... ...... .... ........................ ..... 2,680
Citrus properties upon which extension work was conducted............. 1,490
Acreage these properties.................................... ........................................20,071
Citrus properties where extension programs were carried out.............. 1,095
Land owners visited before setting citrus................................................. 379
Growers who consulted agents before planting.......................................... 485
Money saved growers by fertilizer recommendations of agents............$1,500
Demonstrations to control scab.......................................................... ...... 72
Demonstrations to control melanose........................... ....... 112
Demonstrations to control foot rot......................... .................... 127
Demonstrations to control dieback or frenching................................... 288
Demonstrations to control scale................................ ............... .. 433
Demonstrations to control whitefly............................ ..... 371
Demonstrations to control rust mite....................................................... 477
Demonstrations to control other insect pests........................................ 35







Annual Report, 1923


Farm and Farmstead Improvements
(Things Done with Agents' Assistance and Advice)


Demonstrations .........................
Acres in these demonstrations


Number Acres
Drainage systems installed.................. ...................... 476 6,511
Irrigation systems installed................... ........................ 22 4,767
Terraces constructed ..................... ............................ 109 1,245
Water systems installed.............- ...................................................
Heating systems installed............................... .............................
Lighting systems installed.................................... ......................
Farms on which buildings were constructed or remodeled-...................
Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled ............................
Farmers assisted in care and operation of machinery. ....................
Farmers who cleared land ........... ......... ..... .. ......................................
Acres cleared .. .......................................... ...................


42
156



9
1
24
34
192
124
298
3,132


Demonstration in Control of Rodents and Other Pests
Demonstrations ....................... ---............ .................. 240
Farmers adopting control measures...................... ................... ...... 691
Acres involved .............................................................. 12,272
Pounds of poisoned bait used ................................................. 45,632

Farm Management
Farm account books distributed ................................... .... 134
Farmers who kept records....................................... ............. ........... 86
Farmers assisted in keeping accounts....................................... 37
Farmers who changed methods as result of keeping accounts........... 69
Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming sys-
tems according to recommendations............................ 120
Farmers advised relative to leases ................................................ 42
Farmers assisted in keeping cost of production records.......................... 34
Farmers who made better use of labor.................... .............. 163
Farmers who secured tractors, sprayers, milking machines or other
machinery to economize labor.............. ............ .......... 512

Supplies Purchased and Produce Sold


Seed .............................
Seed and Calcium .................-
Seed and Dustguns ..................
Feed, Fertilizer, etc ................
Fertilizers .. .............
Crates, Fillers and Feed..........
Crates and Fertilizer ..............
Truck and Crates ....................
Tomatoes, Crates, etc. ...........
Bluestone ...............................
S p ra y ................... .......... .........
Spray .....................................
Truck .. .........
Strawberry Cups .....................
Fruits (Tree and Small)..........
Wool .............................
Poultry, Feed, etc. ...................
Livestock .......... ....................
Poultry ..................................


Supplies Purchased
Value Saving


$ 1,624
1,500
13,777
6,100
56,865
256
440
780

2,000
1,200

300
9,500

100


TOTALS...................... $94,642


$ 339
150
2,677
1,113
16,906
20
45
180

200
100


Products Sold
Value Profit


$ 7,500
25,000
2,098
800
1,250
58,000


4,000
600
4,500
75,000
20
16,900
3,000

$26,250 $194,148


$ 2,647
5,000
393
210
61
25,000

1,500


7,500

1,760
360

$44,431


........................................................................
................... ....................................................






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF E. W. JENKINS, DISTRICT AGENT, CENTRAL
AND SOUTHERN DISTRICT

The Supervisory Program of Work for 1923 for the counties
of Alachua, Hernando, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Levy, Manatee,
Marion, Osceola, Orange, Pasco and Polk included work in citrus,
truck, livestock, poultry, corn, sweet potatoes, pastures, organi-
zation and club work.
Citrus work included plans for holding citrus meetings, organ-
ization of boys' citrus clubs and demonstrations and the control
of diseases and insects. The work planned for truck crops in-
cluded disease control and preparation for market. The usual
work with hogs and cattle was included in the program. This
consisted of control of diseases, introducing better blood and
growing more feed and pastures. Organization and marketing
were given all the assistance possible.
County Agents' Equipment.-Each county agent's office ex-
cept one, is supplied with a typewriter. All offices have letter
files and bulletin racks. Four counties furnish stenographic
help which keeps the offices open while the agents are in the
field, distribute bulletins, answer telephone calls and record
all requests made of the county agents. All of the agents keep
on file copies of their weekly reports and monthly time cer-
tificates. With the exception of two or three counties a card
index system is used for recording daily visits to farmers and
growers. These cards also are used to show assistance given
to individuals and organizations in making purchases and sales.
Three agents have sampling tubes which they use in taking
samples of fertilizer to be analyzed for their demonstrators.
Two agents are supplied with soil acidity testors.
Soil Improvement.-The most effective soil improvement
work was done in citrus groves. In Lake and Orange demon-
strations were carried out with grove irrigation -which proved
successful and created much interest. Large acreage was plant-
ed thruout the citrus area to cover crops. This is especially
true with young groves. It sometimes takes several years to
demonstrate the real value of cover crops to a grove. It is an
admitted fact among experienced growers that such cover crops
as velvet beans, beggarweed and cowpeas are essential in mak-
ing a successful grove on high ridge land. Some work was done
in growing cover crops in connection with regular field crops.






Annual Report, 1923


Cotton.-The work with cotton consisted largely of demon-
strating how to control the boll weevil. This work was carried
out in Marion, Levy and Alachua. In each county the work was
given publicity thru the newspapers, by circular letters and by
holding field meetings. The Florida method was used. In some
cases, even tho the cotton had been planted at the specified
time, when time came to treat the farmers thought the cotton
too large and were unwilling to remove the squares from the
plants as the method required. They thought that the expense
of taking off of the plants the large number of squares which
had already formed would be more than profits would justify.
However, a number of demonstrators followed the method as
closely as possible. Due to the heavy rains which occurred while
the cotton was being poisoned it was impossible to get a thoro
test.
Livestock.-County agents cooperated with the Bureau of
Animal Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, in
testing cattle for tuberculosis and in treating hogs to control
cholera. This work was carried out in practically every county
in the district. In Hernando, Marion and Alachua, the county
agents assisted farmers in improving the grade of dairy cattle.
This was done by purchasing better-bred cows and grading up
the native cows by the use of well-bred sires.
The county agent of Alachua, assisted by the district agent,
gave a demonstration in cutting and curing pork on the farm.
The sugar-cured method, described in Farmers' Bulletin 1186,
was practiced, the amount of each ingredient used in the cure
being increased by 50 percent. From former experience it seems
that the amount of each material suggested in this bulletin is
not sufficient in the warm climate of Florida. By increasing
the amount no difficulty in curing the meat, where cold storage
was used for cooling, was experienced.
Corn.-Little work was done with corn. However, in most
of the counties some attention was given to the selection of seed.
This was especially true of Marion, Levy and Alachua.
Sweet Potatoes.-The county agent of Marion carried out six
demonstrations with sweet potatoes. These demonstrations
have been conducted for two years. The purpose has been to
show how the yield could be increased by the selection of seed.
The work is not yet complete and actual results are not obtain-
able. However, the Marion County Fair Association offered






Florida Cooperative Extension


a prize for the best bunch of sweet potatoes exhibited at that
fair. Each of these demonstrators exhibited a bunch of potatoes
which had been taken from the demonstration plot. The best
bunch contained 20 well-formed potatoes.
Citrus.-A series of citrus meetings were arranged by county
agents in each of the citrus counties, which includes every
county in the district except Alachua and Levy. The purpose
of these meetings was to assist the growers in producing better
fruit. Diseases, insects and their control were studied. Better
methods of cultivation and fertilization were also discussed.
Practical demonstrations in the control of melanose were car-
ried out in Lake, Marion, Manatee, Orange and Hernando. The
bordeaux-oil solution recommended by the plant pathologist of
the Florida Experiment Station was used according to directions
for this purpose. Some good results were obtained but, from
the amount of scale on the fruit where this material was used,
the necessity of following the melanose treatment with appli-
cations of oil to control scale was demonstrated clearly. Some
work was done to control dieback, which consists largely of
soil treatment, the use of bluestone and cultural methods.
The three insects which received the most attention of county
agents in their citrus work were rust mite, whitefly and scale.
In a few cases demonstrations were carried out along this line.
However, in most cases the work consisted of cooperation with
the grower by assisting him in mixing his sprays and applying
them properly.
Truck Crops.-The main work with truck crops was the con-
trol of insects and diseases. Special efforts were made to help
Williston farmers to control downy mildew and angular leaf
spot of cucumbers. A 4-4-50 bordeaux mixture was the spray
used for this purpose. The intention was to show the cucumber
growers by a few demonstrations that it was both practical and
profitable to control these diseases. Six farmers who had equip-
ment were enlisted as demonstrators and worked with. In some
cases the spraying was not done early enough. However, when
used properly, even after the disease appeared in the fields,
results were satisfactory. One man increased his acre yield
from 15 to 170 hampers. Another farmer made seven hampers
to the acre on the unsprayed portion of his field and 220 ham-
pers to the acre on the sprayed portion. In each case the spray-
ed plants were green and produced fruit from 15 to 20 days






Annual Report, 1923


longer than where unsprayed. This work was conducted with
the spring crop.
About 100 acres were planted in cucumbers for a fall crop.
As a result of the work which had been done in the spring 98
percent of the total acreage in the fall was sprayed with even
better results than were obtained in the spring. Another evi-
dence of the effect of this work is that the Williston growers
purchased more than 25 power sprayers to use in spraying
their crops in the future. Some work along this same line was
carried out in Marion and Alachua.
The county agent of Manatee did some effective work in in-
ducing farmers to disinfect seed and seedbeds. This work was
also carried on by other agents. The agent of Osceola was suc-
cessful in starting farmers in the vicinities of Kissimmee and St.
Cloud to growing strawberries. It was largely due to his efforts,
working thru the two local organizations of growers at these
points, that the strawberry industry was established in those
areas.
Dairying.-Three counties in the district-Alachua, Marion
and Hernando-have dairies or creameries which handle the
milk produced in those respective localities. The creamery at
Gainesville was established during the year. Here it is planned
to use sour cream and make butter only .
Poultry.-In some counties, especially those that had not
home demonstrations agents, the county agents were active
in promoting poultry work. This is especially true of Marion.
The county agent here held demonstration meetings showing
how to cull and care for the flock. In Alachua the Alachua
County Creamery Company purchased and installed a 10,000-
egg incubator. The purpose of this is that the farmer may get
chickens hatched at a reasonable cost. (See poultry specialist's
report.)
Pastures.-The county agents of Marion, Hernando, Levy and
Alachua, by cooperating with the forage crops specialist of the
Experiment Station, provided the farmers with such grasses as
were thought best for a permanent pasture. The plants sent
out were Bahia and Carpet grasses and lespedeza. Small
amounts of the grass or seed were sent out to a few farmers to
be used for demonstrations. The county agent of Marion re-
ported about twenty farmers growing Napier grass.





Florida Cooperative Extension


FIG. 6.-Club boys planting a permanent pasture at the University.

Organization.-Some organization work has been done in sev-
eral different counties. In Alachua the LaCrosse Potato Grow-
ers' Association was organized. The members of this associa-
tion purchased seed and fertilizer and marketed their potatoes
cooperatively. The association is composed of 15 members who
are growing 150 acres of potatoes. They will sell thru one sales
agent and have entered into a five-year contract. In this same
county the Alachua County Marketing Association was formed
along similar lines. Marion, Lee, Manatee, Osceola and Hills-
borough have cooperative associations among their farmers.
Club Work.-The three principal lines of club work conducted
in the district consisted of corn, pig and citrus clubs. Hills-
borough, Alachua and Hernando held boys' club contests. Citrus
club work was carried out in Osceola, Orange and Lake.
While the citrus club work was undertaken this year for the
first time and the plans are not completely worked out, it gives
promise of being one of the most popular clubs for the boys in
this district.





Annual Report, 1923


REPORT OF H. G. CLAYTON, DISTRICT AGENT,
NORTHERN AND WESTERN DISTRICT

Supervisory Program for 1923.-The district agent made out
a general plan of work for the district and county agents se-
lected from this such items as they expected to push in their
counties during the year and incorporated them into their plans
of work.
This plan included such items as: corn culture, sweet potato
culture, boll weevil control, hogs, dairying, cooperative selling
and buying, satsumas and other fruits, club work, poultry work,
watermelons and other truck crops, insect and disease control,
organization, fairs and exhibits, soil improvement, records and
reports.
Seasonal conditions were unfavorable for growing crops, it
being the wettest season for many years.
County Agents' Equipment.-Of eleven county agents in this
territory, one has clerical and office help, seven have type-
writers, seven have offices at their court houses, two have spec-
ial offices and two have offices in their homes. Demonstration
equipment is confined to a few terracing levels, pruning shears,
spray pumps and hog cholera vaccination outfits.
Program Supervision.-County programs of work were super-
vised by the district agent, who rendered help wherever possible.
Assistance in development of county programs was given county
agents by assisting them in studying needs of their counties and
suggesting and outlining ways and means of developing them.
This year, several counties tried fall trucking on a small scale,
hoping to find a new money crop which would add to the farm
income.
Boll Weevil Control.-Inasmuch as these northern and western
counties are the cotton-growing counties of Florida, most of
the boll weevil control work by the Florida method was carried
out in this district. With a definite plan for carrying out this
method in the counties growing cotton, a series of meetings was
arranged well in advance of the planting season to give the
farmers first-hand information as to methods of application and
results to expect. George D. Smith, of the State Plant Board,
gave valuable assistance in presenting'the method to the farm-
ers. Owing to the publicity that had been- given the method,
it was possible to put on demonstrations in all the cotton coun-






Florida Cooperative Extension


ties, the Plant Board and Washington office supplying workers
during May and June in counties that did not have agents.
Weather conditions were unfavorable for growing cotton and
varying results were secured from the treatment. However, on
an average, the Florida method showed up well.
Satsuma Culture.-As this is a new industry, assistance by
representatives of the College of Agriculture and Experiment
Station and county agents was valuable to many inexperienced
growers. Growers' meetings were arranged and it was thru
these that much help was given. These field meetings proved
particularly helpful in getting the growers together to discuss
problems as they occurred in the new plantings.
Other assistance to agents in this district was in judging
county fairs, holding club contests, holding club and farm meet-
ings on fertilizer, boll weevil control, satsumas, fruit growing,
trucking, etc. In all, 51 farm and club meetings were attended
by this agent, at which there was a total attendance of 3,140.
Publicity.-The newspapers are the best means in the counties
of informing the people. They have cooperated with county
and home demonstration agents by furnishing space in their
columns for giving notice of meetings and for articles on farm
and home topics.
Other Accomplishments of the year may be summarized as
follows:
Corn Culture.-Due to the unfavorable growing season and
the increased acreage to cotton, it was a bad corn year. In this
territory, 341 acres were included in demonstrations. About
167 farmers used improved seed and 85 began growing selected
seed for sale. In all, 35 adults and 181 boys were enrolled to
conduct demonstrations, which showed a small increase in pro-
duction.
Sweet Potatoes.-The acreage in sweet potatoes was materially
reduced this year, the late wet spring and low prices being main
causes. One new storage house was constructed in the district.
A hundred sixty-eight (168) farmers used improved seed, and
46 farmers and club boys completed demonstrations.
Hogs.-Due to high cotton prices and low hog prices, not as
much was accomplished as was anticipated, especially in summer
marketing of hogs. In Madison County cooperative selling
seemed to be on a stable basis; nine carloads were shipped in a
satisfactory manner.





Annual Report, 1923


Demonstrations were carried on with 115 farmers and club
boys in the district, in which 305 hogs were involved. County
agents helped farmers bring in 50 purebred boars and 64 pure-
bred sows. About 15,570 hogs were inoculated against cholera
on 994 farms.
Cooperative Sales and Purchases.-This movement is showing
a steady increase; $24,699.46 was saved to the farmers this
year, the agents being largely responsible. In addition to this,
various cooperative associations saved their members much.
Immediate financial savings are not the only returns; espec-
ially in fertilizers, higher-grade goods are being used. In
one county only one farmer insisted on a 10-2-2 fertilizer
formula, while only a few years ago this was the only one
used. In some localities cooperative buying is being encouraged
by business men.
Satsumas and Other Fruits.-Approximately 100,000 satsuma
trees were set out in the western counties during January and
February. Figuring 70 trees to the acre, this would amount
to 1,428 acres. Up to this time, there were about 1,700 acres,
most of which were set in 1922. About 200,000 trees were sold
this year for planting early in 1924. This will give an idea of
the growth of this industry during the last two years.
The season of 1923 was favorable for growing young trees and
practically all of the plantings made good growth. The few
bearing groves produced heavy crops of good-quality fruit.
The satsuma industry is new to these growers and they are
eager for information and advice. Grove inspections, fertilizer


FIG. 7.-Escambia is one of the foremost counties in boys' club work.
Here are shown a few of the boys gathered at the club camp.






Florida Cooperative Extension


information, planting advice, advice on cover crops, cultural
methods, spraying information and aid in securing trees are
principal aids given the growers. It was largely individual
work; county agents did it in a fine manner.
Good progress was made with sand pear and blueberry plant-
ings. It is the district agent's opinion that for small plantings
of from one to two acres to the farm, the blueberry offers at-
tractive possibilities. Some large plantings were made and their
future will be closely watched.
Ninety-eight fruit meetings with an attendance of 7,474 peo-
ple were held in the district. The purpose of these was to inter-
est farmers in growing fruit and to instruct them in varieties
and cultural methods. Officials of the State Plant Board and
industrial agents of the railroads rendered assistance at many of
these meetings.
Watermelons and Other Truck Crops.-Excessive rains and
anthracnose made the watermelon crop almost a total failure.
Other truck crops did fairly well. Fall truck crops of beans,
cabbage, beets, pepper and cucumbers and tomatoes were tried.
This was a new venture for this part of Florida. Beans and
cucumbers did well. Frost killed most of the peppers and to-
matoes and some beans. Beets are being shipped as the year
ends and cabbage will be ready in January. The shipping was
handled largely by truck growers' associations organized by ef-
forts of county agents. The members of these associations agree
to plant only small acreages. Varieties and times of plantings,
etc., are agreed upon and products are shipped cooperatively.
From results already secured, it is known that there will be more
of this next year.
Fairs and Exhibits.-This was a successful year for fairs. In
this territory, there were held seven county fairs and the Inter-
State Fair and Satsuma Festival. Four counties showed at the
State Fair in Jacksonville and four others showed at Pensacola
in the Inter-State Fair. There were three new county fairs
this year in this territory.
Soil Improvement.-In almost every county some work was
done in the growing of legumes as soil-improvement crops.
Terracing demonstrations were conducted successfully in two
counties.
Miscellaneous.-Little fertilizer sampling was done. Home-
mixing is on the increase in about half the territory. Coopera-






Annual Report, 1923 37

tive buying has lessened the margin that formerly existed be-
tween mixed and unmixed goods.
Budding and grafting were taught club members and farmers
thruout the satsuma areas. Most of this work was done with
satsumas. Nursery stock was scarce and there are a number
of farmers in every county growing their own nursery trees.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF S. W. HIATT, DISTRICT AGENT, EASTERN
AND NORTHEASTERN DISTRICT

Supervisory Program for 1923.-The program for this district
in brief included corn, potato, cotton and peanut culture, hog
raising, cooperative sales and purchase of farm supplies, improv-
ing citrus and other fruits and vegetables, soil improvement,
organizations, fairs and exhibits, poultry, dairying, club work
and the control of insects and diseases.
From this general program for the district, each county se-
lected such projects as were peculiarly adapted to its soil and
climatic conditions and good work was done in all, altho adverse
weather conditions were responsible for poor results with such
crops as corn, cotton and peanuts.
County Agents' Equipment.-One county agent was supplied
with an office assistant who served as secretary of the county
farm bureau, and who worked under his direction. Two counties
furnished their agents with stenographic help. Six counties
furnished their agents with filing cases, typewriters, etc. One
county furnished a complete office and equipment, including
library and laboratory appliances. Three counties supplied their
agents with little or nothing in the way of assistance or equip-
ment. All agents are supplied with card-index filing systems.
Vacancies and new positions were filled as far as possible by
men selected for special fitness for such position by reason of
technical and practical training and personality, etc.
The county agents in this district were supplied with direct
assistance from specialists of the College of Agriculture and
State Plant Board.
Boll Weevil Assistance.-A series of meetings were conducted
in the cotton-growing counties to acquaint farmers with the
Florida method of boll weevil control. Later field meetings were
held and demonstrations were given under the supervision of
district and county agents. Special assistance was given by the
State Plant Board, under whose direction the Florida method was
demonstrated.
Citrus Work.-Field and other meetings were held for the
purpose of arousing interest and giving information principally
on controlling insect and disease pests of citrus. Field meetings
were advertised and held in some centrally located grove best
suited to the kind of meeting planned. Specimens were collected
and explained to the growers. A microscope was used and proved






Annual Report, 1923


valuable in identifying specimens that could not be readily seen
with the naked eye. Attention was also given to fertilization
and cultural methods. Specialists of the Experiment Station
were particularly helpful in carrying out these programs.
Dairy Work.-The assistance of Experiment Station special-
ists was valuable in carrying out the work in dairying. They
supervised grass plantings and assisted in formulating rations
for dairy herds. Some excellent progress was made in dairy
work, one county making decided improvement in the sanitary
conditions of its dairies.
Considerable improvement was made in the whole-milk dairy
situation in at least four counties. Better dairy equipment was
secured, better sanitation observed and better markets secured.
Milk demands during the tourist season cannot be supplied
locally and large quantities are shipped in.
Farm dairying, particularly among small farmers, with the
sale of sour cream as a basis of revenue, received attention
in several counties. A number of farmers were induced to ship
cream and were well pleased with results. Several permanent
pastures were established.
Small Fruits.-The growing of small fruits was stressed and
faculty and staff members of the College of Agriculture gave
valuable assistance. Much interest was aroused in grape culture
and some valuable aid was rendered to those starting vineyards.
Project Activities, as undertaken and carried out, are listed
below:
1. Corn Culture.-Demonstrations in this project were inter-
fered with by continuous rains which resulted in total losses in
many instances. Reports show an increase in number of farmers
selecting seed, and in the use of carbon bisulphide to destroy the
corn weevil.
2. Potatoes-Sweet and Irish.-Some progress was made in
seed selection and grading of sweet potatoes. Much was accom-
plished in the Irish potato areas thru a campaign for the use of
only high-grade seed. There was an increase of about 40 percent
in the plantings of leguminous crops on Irish potato land this
year and considerable improvement was made in drainage sys-
tems.
3. Cotton.-Five counties growing cotton made a consistent
effort to increase production by the use of better seed, the use
of high-grade fertilizer and the application of the Florida method
of boll weevil control. However, owing to adverse weather con-





Florida Cooperative Extension


editions, results as a whole were unsatisfactory. Only on a few
well-favored fields were profitable yields reported.
4. Peanuts.-Three counties growing peanuts report an in-
crease in acreage, mostly planted for hog feed. Heavy continu-
ous rains during the blooming period cut the yield materially.
5. Hogs.-Three counties raise many hogs and in these much
work was done to prevent hog cholera thru the use of the serum
and virus treatment. A slight increase in hog pasture crops was
shown and more hogs than usual were marketed during spring
and late summer months. Low prices for the last two years
have slowed up hog production.

















FIG. 8.-Club boys learning the "why of a corn planter" at short course.
6. Cooperative Sales and Purchase of Farm Supplies.-Five
counties have active organizations thru which a certain amount
of farm supplies; such as, fertilizer, calcium arsenate, dust guns,
barrels, crates, seed, etc.; are purchased and thru which the mar-
keting of potatoes, watermelons, hogs, poultry, etc., are handled
extensively. Three counties alone showed a net saving to
farmers of $60,215.19. In some counties this work was handled
thru the farm bureau and in others thru commodity organiza-
tions, being done effectively in both cases.
7. Citrus Fruits.-Seven counties in this territory grow cit-
rus fruits on a commercial scale. Demonstrations in controlling
diseases and insects, fertilizing and better cultural methods were
conducted in these counties with more or less definite results.
A series of citrus field meetings were conducted in all counties.






Annual Report, 1923


8. Vegetables.-Eleven counties specialize in the commercial
growing and shipping of truck crops, particularly tomatoes, Irish
and sweet potatoes, watermelons, cucumbers, celery, lettuce, pep-
pers, eggplants and green beans. Assistance is being rendered
the grower thru county and district agents and specialists, par-
ticularly in controlling insects and fungous-diseases, and in mar-
keting. Uniformly good results were obtained, altho there are
many problems yet to be solved. The Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, United States Department of Agriculture, cooperated
in improving grades and packing.
9. Soil Improvement.-In the general-farming area, efforts
were made to increase the planting of legumes and cover crops.
In the trucking area there was a noticeable increase in acreage
of legumes planted following the winter and spring vegetable
crops. Some increase was also noted in cover crops in citrus
groves. More work is needed along this line.
10. Organizations.-Three counties have farm bureau organi-
zations thru which fertilizers, seed, calcium arsenate, etc., are
purchased cooperatively and farm products are sold. Five com-
modity organizations in four counties satisfactorily handle a
large amount of Irish potatoes, celery, lettuce and other veg-
etables.
Two new associations were organized recently on the lower
east coast. They are the Avocado Association, Dade County, and
Pineapple Growers' Association, West Palm Beach.
The following is an example of the benefits derived from or-
ganization: The Hastings Potato Growers' Association, the
inception and organization of which came thru the county agent's
efforts, saved its members $44,527.19 last season in the purchase
of supplies and in the selling of produce. The success of the
organization was so marked that its membership and acreage is
expected to increase 100 percent next year.
11. Fairs and Exhibits.-During the year there were held in
this district three community fairs, four county fairs and one
state fair (Jacksonville). Four counties exhibited at the State
Fair, six at the South Florida Fair, Tampa, and one at the Tri-
County Fair, Orlando. A county fair association was organized
in Volusia and buildings are being put up for a fair in January.
This district agent judged the agricultural and horticultural
exhibit at nine county fairs and the State Fair, and agricultural
products and county booths at the South Florida Fair. He is
chairman of the exhibit committees of both State and South Flor-






42 Florida Cooperative Extension

ida Fairs and was called in conference by officials of eight fairs
during the year.
He has endeavored to bring out the educational feature of
fairs, making them of increased value to the agricultural inter-
ests of the state.
12. Poultry.-Increased interest is being manifested thruout
the district in poultry production. This work was encouraged
by extension workers in all counties thru personal efforts, tours
and the organization of poultry associations. Improvements were
made in breeds, culling and marketing. However, much more
work is needed along these lines.






Annual Report, 1923


REPORT OF R. W. BLACKLOCK, BOYS' CLUB AGENT

Supervisory Program.-The supervisory work with boys' clubs
was divided between the boys' club agent and the three district
agents. The former had general supervision over all club work
and looked after state contests and annual short courses.
Development of Organized Clubs.-The rural districts being
thinly settled, the county agents formerly had decided organized
club work impractical. The need of teaching organization to the
boys is so great that the 1923 program attempted organized clubs
in at least three counties, to determine if it really is impractical.
Clay, Alachua and Escambia Counties were selected in which
to attempt this work. Of these the work in Escambia was the
most successful. J. Lee Smith, county agent, was interested in
organization and gave it the necessary thought and time. The
results were all that had been expected. The work will be carried
still further next year.
The development of a county club program is best illustrated
in Escambia; Mr. Smith laid out a definite program. It consisted
of organized clubs for certain communities, a county club camp,
community club contests and a county contest in connection with
the Inter-State Fair. Local leaders were made the key of the
local club programs. Every detail of this program was carried
out. Community club contests were held, but were successful
only where the local leaders were active.


FIG. 9.-Club boys learning how to prune a citrus tree.






Florida Cooperative Extension


A Typical Community Program as Formed and Carried out
in Escambia County.-Byrnville is a small community in the
northern part of Escambia County. There are not over 20 farms
in this particular community. Mr. Smith visited the school and
explained the plans for a club organization. The boys who were
interested were divided into two teams for a contest in securing
more members for the organization. This contest lasted until the
next meeting when the club was organized and officers elected.
The club, with the advice of the county agent, elected O. 0.
Tisdale as local leader and began work. Each member was en-
rolled in at least one club project and was expected to report at
each meeting on the work done since the last meeting. The
record books were brought to meetings for inspection and in
this way were kept up-to-date.
The club as an organization decided to work for perfect at-
tendance at the club camp and county contest and for 100-percent
reports. Under the leadership of Mr. Tisdale, all these aims were
accomplished.
Office Organization.-County agents report names and prni-
ects of club members to the boys' club agent. These names are
kept on file in both the Gainesville office and the county agents'
offices. Many county agents are improving in their methods of
keeping club records.
Program Development and Analysis.-Efforts were made to
assist county agents in laying out suitable plans for their respec-
tive counties and assistance was given whenever asked. The
extension dairyman helped organize and promote a calf club in
St. Johns County. In the cotton club, assistance in boll weevil
control was given by the assistant entomologist of the State
Plant Board. All the boys were taught to use the Florida method.


FIG. 10.-"Learning by doing." Club boys applying the Florida method
of boll weevil control.






Annual Report, 1923


Project Activities and Results.-Work was carried on under
the following projects: Corn, cotton, Irish potatoes, sweet po-
tatoes, peanuts, pig breeding, pig feeding, bee, calf and citrus.
In the corn club a boy selected an acre of land and produced
as many bushels of corn as possible. Results varied with the
seasons in different localities. The best and largest corn clubs
are in the western counties.
Cotton work was begun this year under the expectation that
the new Florida method of boll weevil control would enable the
boys to produce a fair yield. The method of weevil control was
handicapped by excessive rainfall at the crucial time. A few
demonstrations proved exceptionally good.
Irish potato club members were restricted to St. Johns County
in the so-called Hastings area. The results were good. It does
not seem advisable to attempt this club in other localities under
Florida conditions.
Sweet potato club work is usually the most profitable to the
member. Yields are uniformly high with costs comparatively
low.
The pig clubs, both feeding and breeding, were reduced in
number, due largely to the general tendency of the farmer to
quit livestock because of low prices. Many fine animals were
raised last year.
Calf clubs were not encouraged because of tick conditions. A
small dairy calf club was started in St. Johns County with results
still to be determined.
Plan of Organization for Citrus Clubs.-Citrus clubs were
attempted for the first time in four counties. The increasing
number of growers depending upon oranges and grapefruit for
their living makes it imperative that some training in citrus cul-
ture be given their sons. The method of carrying on this work
is still undetermined. Several plans were tried and all appeared
to offer good ideas. This promises to become the largest and
best club. It will take another year at least to decide how best
to conduct it.
Club Prizes.-The question of prizes is still unsettled. The
agents could not agree whether to give several small prizes or a
few large ones. It seems advisable to offer small prizes in the
counties and leave the larger ones for the state. The best prizes
in the counties are scholarships to the annual short course. In
the state, prizes are either scholarships to the College of Agri-
culture or educational trips.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Publicity.-The state press was always anxious for stories of
club work. County papers published lists of prizes and prize
winners. The Agricultural News Service carried club items
which were copied by papers thruout the state.
The value of publicity to club work is great. Community news-
papers seem the best agency for this purpose, and county agents
were urged more and more to take advantage of this method of
reaching the reading public.
Club Enrollment.-The accompanying chart gives facts and
figures concerning the boys' clubs of the year:

CLUB Enrolled Reported Acres Yield Value Cost
Corn ............ 252 152 152 5,700 $5,700.00 $2,433.00
Cotton ...........121 27 27 6,291 lbs. 629.10 471.70
Peanuts ............. 30 18 18 544 bu. 680.00 182.54
Potatoes .............. 20 14 1% 331 bu. 495.00 297.00
S. Potatoes ........ 71 22 2% 726 bu. 544.00 145.00
There were 150 boys enrolled for citrus club work. This is a
new club. Plans have not been worked out whereby results can
be tabulated. It promises to be a long-time club, one hard to
get definite money results from. Miscellaneous enrollments re-
ported by county agents number 92. Several agents also enrolled
boys in truck and garden clubs.
Boys' Short Course.-Attendance at the short course is limited
to the prize-winning boys in the counties and is the highest
reward given in a county contest. One hundred of the best farm
boys in Florida spent the week of May 28 at the University,
carrying away with them a better knowledge of the value of the
College of Agriculture and the Experiment Station.
"To learn by doing" is a motto in club work, and this underlay
the plan of the short course of 1923.
The boys who attended received practical training by doing
actual work on the College and Station farms, hearing lectures
on each subject before starting the work. They went into the
dairy barn and mixed feed for the College herd; they went into
the horticultural grounds and put buds into seedlings, they
planted a part of the College campus to grass, they studied farm
machinery by actually working on them.
Leadership and cooperation are prime essentials in agricul-
ture. To develop these qualities, the boys were divided into
squads, each electing its leader. The squads worked as units at
work and recreation. Care was taken to see that boys from






Annual Report, 1923


different parts of the state were together so as to foster a spirit
of state-wide consciousness rather than of sectionalism.
The short course has proved a strong incentive to boys to go
to college. The boys see the University, talk with the profes-
sors, realize something of the value of college training, and many
go home determined to return as regular students. The number
of club boys in the University is increasing yearly.
Recreation is a part of the course and precautions are taken
to keep all play under the supervision of competent leaders. The
evenings are used for moving pictures, stunts and games.
Club Camps.-The club camp is one of the best means of popu-
larizing club work. The unit is usually the county, altho two
or three counties held joint camp. When attendance at the camp
is placed on the merit basis, it serves as a reward for work
accomplished. The enjoyment of three or four days spent at a
camp is a worth-while break in the monotony of country life.


FIG. 11.-Club boys receiving instruction in diving at one of the camps.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The camps were carefully supervised that a healthful, social
atmosphere might be maintained. In 1923 an instructor (Leland
Hiatt) was employed to teach swimming and life-saving. This
feature was a valuable addition and every boy who wished to
learn was taught swimming and diving. Prizes were awarded
to those showing the greatest improvement. Various games were
taught and a spirit of good sportsmanship maintained.
Enough instruction along agricultural and home-making lines
was given to make the boys' time profitably spent. Seven county
camps were held with a total attendance of over 200; Alachua,
Taylor, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Escambia, Bay and Clay Counties
held camps.
Scholarships.-The State Bankers' Association annually gives
three $100 scholarships to students attending the College of
Agriculture to be awarded club boys in western, central and
southern Florida. The bankers have been giving these scholar-
ships for several years and the winners have made enviable
records. They are urged to remain in school until they graduate.
Of the boys who have entered college on a bankers' scholarship,
not one has failed to pass all the work taken. The first scholar-
ship boy to receive his degree will be Milledge Baker of Suwan-
nee County, one of the first to win a scholarship. Baker will
graduate in June, 1924, an honor man of his class, having been
elected to Phi Kappa Phi, the highest scholastic honor a student
can win here.
The bankers are giving the state three college-bred men every
year. The winners for 1923 were, for western Florida, Jesse
Spurlin of Okaloosa County; for central Florida, Pete Leivonen
of Alachua County; and for southern Florida, Ernest Sanders of
Volusia County.
Exhibits.-To bring the value of club work before the people
and to improve agricultural displays, farm products of club boys
were shown at the State Fair and at the South Florida Fair.
The pig club exhibit at the State Fair attracted attention and
prizes were won in the open ring on the club pigs. A Poland-
China barrow fed out by Charles Reams, a Madison County club
boy, was declared grand champion of the 1923 show. This was
the first grand championship won by a club member.
The boys met in competition in county contests for county
championships in the various clubs. Contest day is a big event
in many counties.






Annual Report, 1923


Team Demonstrations.-The boys' club agent attended the
National Dairy Show at Syracuse to study the team demonstra-
tion idea as developed in northern states. While these demon-
strations were restricted to dairy lines, the method of holding
the demonstrations was illustrated and valuable information
gathered.













FIG. 12.-Showing club boys how to resuscitate the drowned, one of the
many practical things taught at the club camps and short courses.
An attempt will be made to add this form of work to Florida
club projects. The citrus club appears to offer a splendid oppor-
tunity for team demonstration.
Story of Charles Reams of Madison County.-Charles Reams
of Madison County has been a member of the boys' pig club for
three years. Last year he fed out and showed at the State Fair
a pen of Duroc-Jersey barrows. He produced pork at a profit
and also won first prize in class on his pigs.
This year he decided to do better and asked his county agent,
B. E. Lawton, to buy him three barrows of the type to make
prize winners. Mr. Lawton bought three purebred Poland-China
barrows from the College of Agriculture farm for Charles and
told him how to feed and care for them.
Charles entered his barrows in the club show of the State Fair.
They were so good they were entered in the open ring. When
the judge had finished, he had awarded first prize to Charles'
pen of three and champion over all breeds to his best pig. Of
course, he won in the club show and was awarded the Armour
& Company trip to the International Livestock Show.
One of the big breeders bought the three barrows at the State
Fair and showed them at the International. They stood third
in a big class. This shows that Florida pigs can win, and that
Florida club boys can win.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF JOHN M. SCOTT, ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST
The work of the year closing was similar to that of previous
years. This may be outlined as follows:
(1) Attending farmers' meetings and making personal visits
to farmers on the farm.
(2) Advising farmers and dairymen, thru county agents, re-
garding the feeding and care of livestock and the growing of
grasses and forage crops.
(3) Distributing seed and propagating vegetative material of
a number of pasture grasses that promise to become of value as
permanent pasture grasses.
Meetings and Lectures.-During the year meetings in a num-
ber of counties were attended and lectures were given as follows:
Alachua: at Waldo a meeting in interest of the Alachua
County Creamery on "Necessity of Home-Grown Feed for Eco-
nomical Milk Production."
Columbia: at Lake City on "Feeds for Dairy Cows." The
group meeting of county agents was attended at this time and
grasses and forage crops were discussed with them.
Duval: at Jacksonville at a meeting of the livestock men of
the state; assisting in the organization of a state livestock asso-
ciation.
Hillsborough: at Tampa, discussing feeds and forage crops
for the dairy cow with a number of farmers and dairymen.
Jefferson: at Monticello; attended county fair and gave a talk
on "The Outlook for Dairying and Poultry in Jefferson County."
Leon: visited a number of farmers and dairymen with the
county agent, looking over grass demonstrations.
Marion:. attending county fair and judged the livestock on
exhibit.
Palm Beach: attended a meeting of the State Dairy Associa-
tion and spoke on "The Importance of the Purebred Sire." Vis-
ited a number of dairymen in the county, advising them regard-
ing the handling of their herd, etc.
Seminole: attended group meeting of county agents.
St. Lucie: visited two dairymen who were just starting in
the dairy work. Advised them as to crops to grow and where
they could buy additional dairy stock.
Suwannee: in company with the county agent, visited eight
farmers in the county who were trying out some of the new and
promising grasses. In nearly every case the grass was found






Annual Report, 1923


growing well and the farmers were pleased with them; Bahia
grass was most promising.
Volusia: attending meeting of the cattle raisers' association
and spoke on "What the Experiment Station can do for the cattle
raisers of Florida."
Advice to Farmers.-During the last six months more farmers
made inquiries regarding the feeding of dairy cows than at any
time during the last two years.
The animal industrialist had an active part at the annual meet-
ing of the county agents.
The answering of correspondence required much time. This
correspondence dealt almost entirely with forage crops, the feed-
ing of livestock and the handling of milk, etc.
Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week.-The animal industrialist
was in charge of the livestock program for Farmers' and Fruit
Growers' Week.
The Animal Husbandry Department of the Experiment Sta-
tion offered as a prize to the county having the largest registered
attendance, a registered Jersey bull calf. Columbia County won,
having an attendance of 113.
Distribution of Grasses.-Arrangements were made with the
Bureau of Plant Industry, thru C. V. Piper, to distribute a lim-
ited amount of grass seed. In nearly all cases the seed were
distributed thru county agents.
Material was sent to 35 counties in the state, 9 different states
and 3 foreign countries. In some counties as many as ten
farmers received this material. In other cases, one and two
farmers in a county received it.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF HAMLIN L. BROWN, DAIRY SPECIALIST

Main Dairy Problems Undertaken.-The two main dairy prob-
lems were to develop farm dairying and to work out practical
methods of consuming the summer surplus of milk in tourist
centers. The former of these problems is common to all states
of the South, while the latter is essentially a Florida problem.
Farm Dairying-where the milk is skimmed on the farm, the
skimmilk fed to calves, poultry and pigs and the cream sold
to a creamery-is proving successful in many communities of
the South and has entered Florida in certain counties.


















FIG. 13.-Learning some of the fine points in judging the dairy cow.

Visits to Dairies.-Crisp and Turner Counties, Georgia, having
made a success at farm dairying and being convenient to the
northern counties of the state, five motorcades were conducted
from Leon, Suwannee, Columbia and Alachua Counties to study
dairying conditions there. In all, 128 people, representing lead-
ing farmers and business men, went on these motorcades to
study conditions first hand.
It is the policy of the dairy specialist to get local leaders inter-
ested in dairy possibilities by such visits to communities where
farm dairying is being done, and finally to get these local leaders
to deliver the message to the bulk of the people rather than to
give so much personal advice and publicity directly. In many
cases local people were assisted in preparing articles for the






Annual Report, 1923


newspapers, which articles appeared under or over their own
names.
Dairy Development in Florida.-In Alachua County there has
just been -completed a creamery and cold storage plant with a
large number of Alachua County business men and farmers sup-
porting it. In this same county plans are now completed for
organized bull-club-association work and cow-club work with the
organized boys' clubs. These come within the 1924 dairy
program.
Columbia and Suwannee Counties have shipped sour cream to
Georgia and Florida creameries. The farmers here have fol-
lowed the advice of their county agents, secured better cows and
will continue to ship cream until they are able to support a
creamery of their own.
Washington and Jackson Counties are without county agents
but showed interest in farm dairying. A packing plant and a
wholesale poultry market is at Chipley in Washington County,
and these have interested local farmers in establishing a cream-
ery in connection therewith to develop their dairying program,
"the cow, the hen and hog," along with their general agricultural
development.
Prices and Supplies.-The supply and demand for liquid milk
as produced in Florida will not control the price of milk here.
Much whole milk and two solid carloads of 40-percent cream are
shipped into Florida every day during the winter or tourist sea-
son, plus approximately $14,000,000 worth of condensed milk,
powdered milk, butter and cheese, and this imported supply is
what is going to govern the prices Florida farmers will get for
their milk and milk products.
This problem becomes greater each year as the state increases
in population, justifying the establishment of more central milk-
distributing plants like those at Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa,
St. Petersburg, Miami, West Palm Beach and Pensacola. These
plants buy a portion of Florida milk locally and supplement their
needs with unsweetened condensed milk and milk powders, also
with sweet unsalted butter.
Icecream plants are using dairy products produced outside of
Florida almost entirely. Central distributing plants, with equip-
ment for homogenizing these concentrated, imported, elemental
dairy products into liquid milk were established but recently,
not exceeding five or six years in any of the cities or towns in
the state and within the last two years in most of them.






Florida Cooperative Extension


A successful cooperative creamery was completed at Brooks-
ville (Hernando County) in January, 1923. It paid local farmers
a net wholesale price of over $4 a hundred pounds during the
last 12 months by utilizing the summer surplus of milk in making
icecream, chocolate milk, butter and buttermilk. This plant
exceeded expectations the first year. The farmers were well
pleased.
Cooperative work along production lines has proved successful
with Brooksville farmers. They purchased seed oats coopera-
tively to plant 300 acres, and are buying concentrated dairy feeds
cooperatively in carload lots, paying cash. They purchased seven
carloads of cows cooperatively. A committee of three trained
dairymen personally selected the cows. They were auctioned off
as a method of placing values. Six purebred bulls were pur-
chased.
One of the banks of Brooksville financed the purchase of the
cows and are financing other dairy loans. The president highly
commends the dairy undertaking.
This is expected to prove a demonstration plant. Dairy farm-
ers of neighboring towns will be interested and instructed by
seeing this plant. This Hernando community has plenty of good
hammock land, suited for growing corn, cane, Napier grass, Para
grass and cowpeas for silage, and for growing soiling crops and
hay. Its lands are ideal for permanent pastures of Dallis, Carpet,
Bermuda and Bahia grasses and lespedeza.
Dairy Club Work.-The most successful club work was carried
on in cooperation with a Smith-Hughes school at Lemon City, in
Dade County. The teacher in charge, John L. Butts, is an agri-
cultural graduate of Mississippi A. & M. He took direct charge
of the work and successfully completed it. His records show
cost of feed, care and other items of expense, as well as income
and net profits. There were seven grade cows in the club. They
were purchased at rather high prices. One of the local -banks
and private individuals assisted in financing the project.
A Jersey calf club, with 37 purebred Jersey calves, was organ-
ized in St. Johns County under the supervision of County Agent
J. O. Traxler as a part of a program to develop dairying on a
large scale in that county.
The dairy work was started under the plans of the St. Johns
County Agricultural Advisory Committee. One of the members
of this committee possessed considerable dairying experience
and had the money and ability as an individual to operate a dairy






Annual Report, 1923


successfully. He insisted that a county program be tried out on
the same scale that had been proposed for his particular farm.
The committee supported him. The first carload of calves was
brought into the county months ago and it seems that about 75
percent of them will make good.
Improving Dairying Conditions.-Dairy associations of St.
Johns and Volusia Counties put on campaigns with their local
dairymen to improve the quality of milk and to increase con-
sumption, hoping thereby to do away with the summer surplus.
Thru these local dairymen's associations, barns and dairy
equipment were improved. St. Johns dairymen spent something
like $10,000 for such improvements.
Educational Work at Fairs.-The dairy specialist judged con-
tests at the State Fair in Jacksonville where 145 club boys were
interested and at the South Florida Fair in Tampa where these
boys numbered 60. This was in cooperation with the College
of Agriculture and Smith-Hughes vocational agricultural schools,
teaching students how to select dairy cattle.
An attempt was made to create interest in educational fair
exhibits, cooperating in this attempt with Fred L. Craft, county
agent of Alachua County. An educational exhibit was arranged
to show the farm dairy program as connected with a general
farm program. This gave effective results in advertising the
dairy program.






Florida Cooperative. Extension


REPORT OF ED L. AYERS, ENTOMOLOGIST-PLANT
PATHOLOGIST'

Due to the mild winter and the early beginning of the summer
rainy season, the insect and plant disease problems of the year
were numerous. A number of definite projects for the control
of insects and plant diseases were begun and completed with the
assistance of district and county agents.
Vegetable Schools.-During the year three successful schools
were held, at Bradentown (Manatee County), at Samsula (Volu-
sia County) and at Davie (Broward County). The attendances
of these schools averaged over one hundred, and much enthusi-
asm was displayed. The schools consisted of lectures and the
exhibiting of some serious insects and diseases with directions
for their control.
Citrus Schools.-Thirty citrus schools were held, with a total
attendance of more than fifteen hundred actual citrus growers.
Most of these schools were held in April and May, or early
enough in the season for the grove owners or managers to fol-
low instructions during the ensuing year in the control of insects
and diseases, particularly melanose (Phomopsis citri) and rust
mite (Phyllocoptes oleivorus).
These meetings ranged from a few hours to all day, and in
most instances two or three lecturers were present. High-
powered microscopes and binoculars were carried along and the
growers were taught to recognize different diseases and insects
and were shown some of the smaller ones, like rust mite, under
high power, so they could get clearly in mind the appearance of
the insect. These meetings met with much enthusiasm wherever
held, and in a number of instances the work was commended by
resolutions and the desire expressed for other and more compre-
hensive meetings in the future.
Spraying Methods.-Experience of the previous year showed
a need for better spraying methods, particularly for truck crops.
The failure of recommended remedies had often been due to the
use of poor spraying machinery and improper methods of appli-
cation. Efforts were made this year to improve spraying methods
as follows: (1) To increase the power of spraying machines in
use, thereby increasing the pressure. It is impossible to do
efficient spraying with less than 100 pounds pressure to the
'This report is for the period beginning December 1, 1922, and ending
August 30, 1923.






Annual Report, 1923


nozzle. Effort was made to induce growers to procure machines
delivering from 125 to 200 pounds pressure. (2) Assisting
growers to know the proper spraying material to use. They often
use materials which do not give satisfactory results. (3) To
assist growers in studying and procuring proper equipment, ex-
tensions, nozzles for their spraying machinery, etc. For example,
in cucumber spraying some growers were found trying to spray
with an extension ten feet long and the nozzle set straight on the
end of the extension. Nozzles for this particular type of spray-
ing should be set at an angle of 90 degrees on the end of a three-
foot extension, thereby making it easy to reach all portions of
the plant.
Watermelons.-The most important troubles of the water-
melon were aphis (Aphis gossypii) and anthracnose (Colleto-
trichum lagenarium). The aphids came on early during the
season but were readily checked by spraying with:
Nicotine sulphate (40 percent solution)..................... % pint
Laundry soap ......... -- --.................................. ............. 5 pounds
W after .................-- -............-- ........................................ 50 gallons
Dusting with various forms of nicotine dust also gave good
results. Anthracnose increased rapidly after the beginning of
the rainy season, and regardless of the fact that more growers
were prepared for spraying than ever before, due to previous
campaigns of extension plant pathologists from the United States
Department of Agriculture and the Florida Agricultural Exten-
sion Division, the melons broke down early because of continued
rains.
Cantaloupes.-The principal cantaloupe diseases were anthrac-
Snose (Colletotrichum lagenarium) and downy mildew (Pseudo-
peronospora cubensis). Of the two downy mildew was the more
serious. Good results were obtained from early spraying but the
crop was a failure because of heavy rains.
Cucumbers.-The work on cucumber diseases was centered
in the vicinity of Williston, in Levy County, and as a result the
growers purchased more than twelve power spraying machines.
Their chief diseases were angular leaf spot (Bacterium lachry-
mans) and downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis). Of
the two, the latter was more abundant but was more easily con-
trolled. There were six definite demonstrations in the control of
cucumber diseases and the demonstrations showed a production
of 175 crates to the acre on sprayed plots, while the unsprayed
plots yielded only from fifteen to twenty crates. The spraying
material used was 4-4-50 bordeaux mixture.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Dusting experiments were observed in Sumter and other coun-
ties where copper lime was frequently and freely used, but the
results did not compare satisfactorily with those of spraying.
Celery.-In cooperation with the entomologist of the Florida
Experiment Station, two and a half acres of celery seedbeds were
treated to control nematode (Heterodera radicicola) with sodium
cyanide and with calcium cyanide. The beds treated with sodium
cyanide showed splendid results, while the calcium-cyanide ex-
periments needed to be repeated, due to some improper handling
of the seedbeds.
The celery leaf tyer (Phlyctaenia ferrugalis) did thousands
of dollars worth of damage in the Sanford area and destroyed
most of the late crop of celery. The adults (moths) lay their
eggs on the outer portion of the celery leaves. These eggs hatch
into worms or caterpillars, which begin feeding first on these
outer leaves and then go downward into the heart of the celery
stalk. Soon after the eggs have hatched, spraying with arsenate
of lead, using high pressure, is an effective control measure. But
it is next to impossible to do effective work after the worms have
reached the inside of the bunches. Most of the growers waited
until too late before asking for assistance. They immediately
began to spray with low-pressure machines (in most cases) and
obtained poor results. A number of growers also tried trapping
the moths by putting out bright lights over shallow pans of
kerosene. They caught many, more than half of which were
females, but the number of eggs which these females contained
was not determined. There is doubt, therefore, as to the effec-
tiveness of this method of control. A number of old moths with
battered and broken wings are readily attracted to the light,
while the younger, egg-laying moths are not.
The garden flea-hopper (Halticus citri) is always a serious
pest of celery. It can be controlled reasonably well in the seedbed
with kerosene emulsion but cannot be controlled with the nicotine
sprays so commonly.used. This pest proved troublesome in the
fields this year and efforts were made to control it by the use of
calcium-cyanide dust. This dust killed about 75 percent of the
flea-hoppers present, when applied with a power dusting machine,
but there were traces of the cyanide on the celery a week after
the dusting and it is, therefore, not a safe method.
Tomatoes.-There was a large amount of nail-head rust in
most of the tomato-producing areas. Some headway was made
in the control of this disease with bordeaux mixture, but heavy






Annual Report, 1923


rains interfered and the results obtained were not entirely satis-
factory. There were also many worms present. Among these
the tomato fruit worm (Heliothis obsoleta) and the horn worms
(Phlegethontius sp.) were serious, but they were controlled by
dusting with calcium arsenate.
Lumber Yard Disease.-Early in the year there was a call for
assistance from a Pinellas County lumber yard in which the lum-
ber was being destroyed by a fungus. This fungus was identified
by the associate plant pathologist of the Experiment Station as
Poria incrassata. The following recommendations were made:
(1) Destroy all lumber showing fungous infection. (2) Treat
the soil immediately beneath and around the yard with formalde-
hyde. (3) Replace wood piling with concrete. (4) Raise the
floor two feet from the ground. (5) Remodel the building con-
taining the lumber so as to afford the greatest possible amount
of sunlight and air.
Asparagus Plumosus Nanus.-A survey of this industry for
the year showed 3271/2 acres planted to it. There were numerous
requests for assistance and several days were spent in making a
survey of the different producing areas and giving instructions
for treating various insects and diseases. Various specimens of
grasshoppers, cutworms and caterpillars were found in abun-
dance, but they were readily controlled by the use of the Kansas
bait, made as follows:
Bran ............................................... ................................ 20 pounds
Paris green or sodium arsenite.................................... 1 pound
Water ........................ ................ .. 2 gallons
Lemons, oranges or cantaloupes.................................... 3 or 4
Syrup ........ .... ........................... ..... ..... ............ 2 quarts
The paris green and bran should be thoroly mixed (dry). The
lemons (rind, pulp and juice) should be thoroly grated or chopped
and added to the water. Moisten the bran with the water until
the whole is damp, not sloppy, so that when sown broadcast
over the land it will fall in small flakes. Last of all add the syrup
and thoroly knead it into the bran.
A disease was also found, the cause of which has not been
determined, but spraying witt bordeaux mixture and ammoniacal
copper carbonate proved effective. This disease is called by
the growers either rust or anthracnose. Red spider is another
serious pest which is controlled by spraying with lime sulphur
at the rate of 1 gallon to 60 gallons of water, or by dusting with
sulphur. In dusting it is important not to use an excess of






60 Florida Cooperative Extension

sulphur; some growers have used from 200 to 400 pounds to the
acre at each application. To what extent the soil will stand
this element no one knows, for sulphur greatly increases soil
acidity.






Annual Report, 1923


REPORT OF JOHN R. SPRINGER, EXTENSION ENTOMOLO-
GIST AND PLANT PATHOLOGIST

The work of this specialist was started October 1.
Bean Jassid Control.-Three counties-Alachua, 'Marion and
Putnam-specializing in the growing of fall beans were vis-
ited, and thru the county agents, many growers were helped in
controlling the bean jassid (Empoasca mali), probably the most
serious pest of fall-grown beans.
The control recommended consisted of applications of 4-4-50
bordeaux mixture which acted as a repellant and carrier, with
the addition of 2/5 of a pint of 40 percent nicotine-sulphate
solution to each 50 gallons of bordeaux mixture. The spray was
applied in most instances with a power sprayer, covering three
or four rows at a time.
Cucumber Diseases.-Spraying fall cucumbers to control
downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) was of importance
in three counties-Alachua, Levy and Osceola Counties, special-
izing in this crop. Considerable time was spent in these counties
assisting the county agents with their demonstrations. Bordeaux
mixture (4-4-50) was applied every ten days and oftener if
weather conditions made more frequent applications necessary.
Thoro wetting of the plants, particularly the under surface of
the leaves, was emphasized.
Land Crab Control.-The first ten days of November were
spent in Dade County, cooperating with the United -States Bio-
logical Survey, conducting demonstrations to control land crabs
on the low coastal tomato lands. This work was the surveying
of conditions relative to land-crab infestations and demonstrat-
ing a practical method of control. The method was demonstrated
at five convenient points. The method consists of squirting
approximately ten drops of carbon bisulphide into each crab
burrow and covering the entrance of the burrow with earth.
The newspapers gave excellent cooperation and carried be-
tween twenty and thirty articles bearing on the campaign. A
check as to the results of this method of control and the extent
to which the plans were adopted will be made in the spring.
Seedbed Disinfection.- The necessity of producing thrifty,
healthy plants in seedbeds for field transplanting and the elimi-
nation of much wastage due to damping-off fungi are apparent,
and three demonstrations in different localities were started with
this end in view. Fifteen days before the seed were planted






62 Florida Cooperative Extension

the beds were disinfected with formaldehyde. One part of for-
maldehyde was added to 50 parts of water and half a gallon
of this solution was applied to each square foot of seedbed
surface. The treated surface was immediately covered with can-
vas or sacks to confine the gas. This covering was left on for
48 hours. Diseased spots in seedbeds were also treated with
corrosive-sublimate solution, 1 part to 1000 parts of water. This
latter treatment was given to prevent further spread of the
damping-off fungi, which had developed in seedbeds not disin-
fected.
Some interest also was created relative to seed disinfection.
A general survey of areas in which Asparagus plumosos nanus
is grown was made for the purpose of outlining a program
leading to an economical and successful control of insects and
diseases on this crop.






Annual Report, 1923


REPORT OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
By FLAVIA GLEASON
State Home Demonstration Agent
Status of Home Demonstration Work.-Beginning work in
Florida on July 15, the state agent found well-organized and
well-established home demonstration work. All vacancies on the
state staff were filled and the workers began work on the fol-
lowing dates: district agent for southern and eastern Florida,
August 13; district agent for northern and western Florida,
August 15; assistant state agent, August 25; food and marketing
agent, October 1; dairy and nutrition agent, December 1.
Due to the work of the former home demonstration staff,
county home demonstration agents, and assistance from the
county agent staff, county officials, women's clubs and the pres-
ent home demonstration workers, all counties supporting the
work at the time the present staff took up its duties, continued
their appropriations, with the exception of Washington, which
had only a short-time appropriation, and Jackson County, which
had failed to appropriate at a previous meeting. The agent of
the latter county worked thru August, being furloughed in July.
An appropriation was made by the county commissioners of Mad-
ison County but, since the school board did not appropriate funds,
it was not sufficient to support a worker.
In September, Marion County, which had not had a home dem-
onstration agent for several years, made an appropriation pro-
viding for one. Pinellas and Collier Counties made appropriations
for agents to begin work January 1. Thru the cooperation of
the county commissioners of Duval and the Duval Anti-Tubercu-
losis Association an assistant home demonstration agent was
placed in that county to begin work October 1.
The year closes with 28 counties providing for home demon-
stration work with 30 home demonstration agents (two agents in
both Duval and Hillsborough). The state staff is composed of
six officials and specialists and of three clerical assistants. Alto-
gether, there are 47 persons engaged in this phase of extension
work.
Responsibilities of State Staff.-The state office is responsible
for the securing of county appropriations, appointing satisfac-
tory agents and the general supervision of the work thruout the
state. Assistance is given along such lines as developing com-
munity, county and state organizations, working out programs,










17* 1


X ij


FIG. 14.-Prize winners gathered at the Florida State College for Women for the 1923 short course.


r






Annual Report, 1923


in furnishing subject-matter assistance, training leaders and
helping with fairs.
Agents in food conservation and marketing, poultry and dairy-
ing and nutrition are responsible for the subject matter given to
agents. During the year they assisted in developing these pro-
jects in the state. The supervisory force often gave subject-
matter assistance. District conferences or group meetings will
be held early in January to make definite plans for the year's
work. State meetings for subject-matter assistance and to begin
formulation of plans of work for next year were held -in Sep-
tember.
Equipment of Agents.-Agents are supplied with loose-leaf
note books in which are recorded individual enrollments and
records, community and county organizations, agents' yearly
programs of work, results obtained, letters of instruction and
other useful material. Weekly, monthly and annual reports are
kept on file in county and state offices.
Most home demonstration agents have offices and equipment
in county court houses. One agent has an office in the city hall.
Two have offices with their chambers of commerce and one is
located in the women's club house. These offices are equipped
for filing records, bulletins and other supplies. Five counties
furnish clerical help. Demonstration kitchens are equipped for
the use of the agents in five counties. Agents in four counties
have access to kitchens in women's federation club houses. Cars
are furnished to agents in five counties.
Limited funds are provided for demonstration material in 24
counties. Well-equipped demonstration kitchens and clerical help
greatly increase the efficiency of agents' work.


FIG. 15.-Club girls learning how to can fruit and vegetables.














PROGRAM SUMMARY


Voluntary No. re- Meeting at demon-
Counties Commu- special- Method suits stations and in
Title of project report- cities ist demon- demon- relation to
ing partici- No. Days as- helped stations stra- projects
pating assist- distance tions Attend- Number
Sing rendered ance
Poultry ...................................... 25 1,176 71 105 31 626 458 618 11,407 t
Horticulture ............................. 23 60 22 50 2 210 1,190 175 1,088
Dairying ......................... ..... 6 9 2 40 3 17 118 97 695 .
Food conservation ................. 20 146 68 110 61 403 1,689 333 4,524
Home improvement ................ 11 108 36 146 1 292 886 173 3,616
Foods and nutrition ............. 26 185 81 330 41 479 1,248 796 26,865
Sewing ...................................... 20 288 291 1,063 24 1,186 4,221 1,752 21,455
Millinery and clothing............ 18 137 96 75 26 229 5,221 1,306 4,965
Basketry .................................... 8 29 17 25 6 37 60 26 350
Miscellaneous ................... 5 58 22 35 ...... 35 304 62 250 '
TOTAL ......................................I 162 2,196 706 I 1,979 1 195 3,514 15,395 I 5,338 75,215






Annual Report, 1923


Summary of Work.-The report which follows has been com-
piled and written according to information contained in annual
reports from home demonstration agents and supervisory staffs
for both the first and second parts of the year. It has been the
purpose of the present state staff to carry forward during the
last six months of 1923 the great program of work already start-
ed. Only the most definite results obtained and supported by
records are dealt with in this report.
General activities covering reports of 30 home demonstration
agents for terms of service averaging 101/2 months follow:

Farm visits made in conducting extension work.................. 7,297
Different farms visited ......................... .............................. 2,935
Home visits made in conducting extension work..................10,776
Different homes visited ............................................................... 4,926
Office calls relating to extension work..................................13,893
Days agents spent in office.......................................................... 1,846
Days agents spent in field .......................................................... 5,445
Letters written .............................. .....................................18,014
Circular letters prepared and sent out............................. 1,043
Copies of such circular letters.......................................................13,793
Extension articles written by agents and published in
community newspapers ...................................... 1,441

PROJECT ACTIVITIES
Foods and Nutrition.-Food and nutrition work a carried on
by home demonstration agents included the following:
1. Food selection and body requirements. Special emphasis
was given to reasons for using fruits, vegetables, unrefined
cereals, poultry and dairy products in the diet. Reports show that
1,744 women served better-selected food at home as a result of
this work, and that 1,490 girls have demonstrations under way
in this phase of the work.
2. Food preparation and utilization developed thru demon-
strations and the study of principles of cookery.
"Interest in bread making is growing. Santa Rosa, Columbia,
Duval, Madison and Walton Counties stressed this work. A tri-
county contest in which bread teams from Madison, Duval and
Columbia competed was held April 26 at Lake City. General
cookery was taught in all counties but usually as a minor pro-
ject."' Twenty-seven school lunches were established during the
year.

'Unless otherwise indicated, passages of this report set off by quotation
marks are from the report of Miss Sarah W. Partridge, who resigned as
state home demonstration agent June 30, 1923.






Florida Cooperative Extension


3. Child feeding and care thru which study is given to bring
children to normal weight and health received emphasis from
the workers.
"Nutrition programs were established and clinics were held
in many of the counties in cooperation with the State Board of
Health, with women's clubs and school authorities, resulting in
such corrective work as treatment for hookworm, dental work
and the adopting of a nutrition program for study." Reports-
show 616 mothers in 18 counties as having changed practices in
child feeding and care.
4. Food preservation was stressed so as to preserve food for
home use, thus practicing thrift, to reduce cost of transporting
food from a distance, to insure a varied diet all thru the year,
and to put surplus products into marketable shape.
Twenty-eight counties reported that 1,804 women and 873 girls
during 1923 canned 58,543 quarts of fruit, 70,013 quarts of vege-
tables, 10,519 quarts of meats and fish, 62,845 glasses of jelly,
27,962 quarts of preserves, 16,176 quarts of pickles, 8,294 quarts
of fruit juices, and 3,763 quarts of vinegar.
"During June special fish work was done at a group meeting
of the agents at Cedar Keys under the direction of specialists
from the Washington office. Eighteen fine products were made
from nine varieties of fish. Among the fish used were some for
which there is no market."
Clothing. Twenty-six counties reported 1,469 women and
3,364 girls as carrying clothing work consisting of selection, con-
struction, remodeling and renovating millinery and other articles.
Millinery proved to be one of the most popular phases of the
clothing program. Six hundred twelve women were reported as
making 2,119 hats and 520 girls as making 953 hats during the
year at an average value of $3.50 each hat.
The millinery work was developed the first part of the year
thru schools conducted by the district agent of the northern
and western district, by county agents, and for three months
by an experienced milliner, appointed as assistant clothing spe-
cialist. The agents were given a special course at the annual
meeting in September by an expert milliner employed for this:
purpose.
Other articles numbering 1,183 were made or remodeled by
women; and 6,059 other articles were made, remodeled or reno-
vated by club'girls participating in the clothing project.




































FIG. 16.-Home demonstration agents brushing up on the fine points of making hats at the 1923 conference. o






Florida Cooperative Extension


Household Management and Home Furnishings.-As a result
of the higher standards of living which developed with home
demonstration work was the work with household management
and home furnishings. Three hundred seventy-two women and
1,218 girls were enrolled and as a result, according to budget
accounts and reports kept during the year, 750 household fur-
nishings were made or refinished, 1,668 kitchens were rearranged
and 1,504 rooms were improved thru furnishings and decora-
tions. Twenty-six counties reported that 175 homes were in-
fluenced to change practices in keeping budgets and accounts,


















FIG. 17.-Some of the women and girls taught to make hats by Home Dem-
onstration Agent Bertha Henry in Okaloosa County.

215 to improve equipment, 81 to plan work more carefully and
809 to improve furnishings. Twenty-three dwellings were con-
structed and 219 remodeled according to plans furnished by home
demonstration agents. The following labor-saving devices were
installed:
Hand washing machines..........- .................. ...-----.................-....... 20
Power washing machines-................... -.............................-..-- -- .-- 13
Fireless cookers ....................................... ....... -------------- 100
Hand sweepers .......................... ...---.---- ------- 66
Power vacuum cleaners ........-...-........ ----------.....--- 24
Kitchen cabinets .............................---...............------ ..------- 58
Wheel trays .....--...-...-- --------- ------------ 68
Iceless refrigerators ...................................................................... 78
Electric or gasoline irons --------------........... 140
Home Health and Sanitation.-Fifteen counties reported that
86 homes were given instruction in home nursing and first aid;
that 1,010 homes were influenced to adopt better sanitary prac-






Annual Report, 1923


tices; that 75 sanitary closets were installed; that 236 houses
were screened, and that 2 sewerage-disposal systems were in-
stalled.
Horticulture.-The figures below indicate the results of work
done along horticultural lines:
Club members who planted fruit trees..................................... 565
Club members who planted bush or small fruits...................... 587
Club members who planted grapes.............................................. 102
Club members who planted part-year gardens.......................... 434
Club members who planted all-year gardens............................ 635
Club members who planted flowers and shrubs................1,563
Club members who planted by a plan................................... 165
Club members who marketed garden and canned products..- 756
Club members who saved seed and stock ............................. 430
Club members who sprayed or otherwise tried to control
disease or insect pests................................. .. 448
Interest is growing rapidly in the beautifying of home and
school grounds, planting of flowers, evergreens and small shrubs
being made according to plans.
Home Dairying.-The object of home dairy work is to increase
the quantity, improve the quality and stimulate greater use of
dairy products in Florida. The figures below indicate the extent
of results attained in this project:
Club members carrying on demonstrations in milk produc-
tion ........................................... 223
Club members making butter.............................................. 146
Club members making cheese.... ............................................ 114
Club members standardizing dairy products for market ..... 41
Cows purchased for home use...................................... ..... 75
Club members increasing the use of milk and other dairy
products in the diet during the year.................................2,400
Schools establishing milk lunches............. .........-.... 22
"A dairy club in every county and a dairy cow on every farm"
is the slogan adopted for 1924 home dairy work. Dairy club
project lessons adopted to be conducted under the supervision
of the home dairy and nutrition agent are as follows:
January-Value of Keeping Dairy Records.
February-Hints on Feeding Dairy Cows.
March-Proper Handling of Milk and Milk Utensils.
April-Nutritive Value of Milk and Milk Products.
May-Raising Dairy Calves.
June-Value of Purebred Bulls.
July-Breeds of Dairy Cows.
August-Making Choice Farm Butter.
September-Simple Farm Remedies for the Dairyman.
October-Selecting Dairy Cows.
November-Making Cottage and Cream Cheese.
December-Don'ts for the Dairyman.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Poultry.-Poultry is a chief source of income to farm women
and girls. Reports from a number of club members show that
juniors not only made and saved money for educational pur-
poses but helped support their families by means of this phase
of extension work. The following report given by Cecil Rowan,
a first-year poultry club member in Gadsden County, shows his
accomplishments in 1923:
"A hundred ninety-nine eggs set; 174 chicks hatched; 146
chickens raised to maturity; 72 chickens sold for $49.15; 1,720
eggs produced; total value $203.89; cost $60.50; net profit
$143.39. Have on hand 50 well-selected chickens. Any boy or
girl who lives on the farm can raise poultry enough to buy their
books and clothing as I do. I also give my mother some spending
money."








-' __ Mi* '"
..r~L b. E. -- ",. f .











FIG. 18.-This club girl and demonstration flock are boasts of Mrs. Nellie
W. Taylor, home demonstration agent of Orange County.
The number of club members who kept poultry records and
reported during the year were:
Purchasing standard-bred eggs .....- -.- ........ ..... 1,286
Purchasing standard-bred fowls .......... ........... ............ ...... 1,029
Securing m ales to im prove flock ..............-..... .......--.......... 785
C ulling flock ........4..................-.. .......... .... ...... 408
U sing incubators .............---- .........---.....- .... .... .... 253
An egg-laying contest was conducted in the state beginning
November 1, 1922, and continued thru October, 1923. The ave-
rage egg production from the ten highest flocks reported was
169.9 eggs for each female. The individual flock which was re-
ported each month and ranked highest in the contest, had an
average of 211.84 eggs for each female.
Marketing.-Home demonstration agents in 15 counties report
marketing of dairy and poultry products; 10 reported marketing






Annual Report, 1923


of vegetables; 10 canned fruits and vegetables; 3 crystallized
products; 8 showed marketing of miscellaneous products such
as baskets, and other articles made from pine needles, honey-
suckle, wire grass and palmetto. Four hundred forty-nine women
and 95 girls were reported as. working during the year to
standardize products for markets.
Home demonstration products were sold thru egg circles, poul-
try associations, women's exchanges and curb markets. Interest
in standardizing and marketing products grew.
Community Improvement.-That community spirit was de-
veloped thru home demonstration work is proved by the fact
that organized clubs studied the needs of their communities and
worked on community problems. The following, as reported un-
der this project during the first part of the year by the agent of
Lee County and the former state agent, is a good example of the
result of such work:
"At Ft. Myers a market for women's articles that are pro-
duced at home and for which money can be obtained has been
maintained. Some of the things sold cost only time to produce
and bring in pin money when marketed properly.
"At East Ft. Myers a lunch room where a well-planned meal
can be served to children at cost has been established. The work
was begun by the teachers. When they needed help the local
home demonstration club gave it. They bought scales and gave
a nutrition course. Next year they intend adopting the school
as a community project.
"The Australian pines set out at Tice will enhance the beauty
of the highway and the value of property. On this project $125
was spent.
"The Bonita Springs community has been aided. The home
demonstration club made $500 by food sales, entertainments, etc.,
to build a road to the beach. The men did the work and the
women furnished the money."
Additional extracts from the report of the Lee County agent
follows:
"The clubs made money for scholarships. The cook book pro-
ject was begun last year. We have pushed the sale of the books
this year and used the money for scholarships.
"In this way we may give back to the county college-bred wo-
men. The Home Bureau made up money ($300) enough to send
four girls and a cht'perone to Tallahassee for the Short Course."






Florida Cooperative Extension


Organization.-Figures tabulated below indicate the scope of
home demonstration club work:
Commun-
Women Juniors ities
Clubs doing home demonstration work...... 212 '546 127
Membership ................................................. 3,805 5,136 597
Excellent county organizations were and are being developed
as a result of a broader outlook engendered. This came as a
result of the activities of wide-awake community organizations.
County councils of women's clubs, home bureaus and home
demonstration councils with home demonstration boards of direc-
tors helped to develop home demonstration work. For example,
in Hillsborough County there were 18 adult home demonstration
clubs organized into a county council which assisted in working
out club problems and home demonstration plans. Their pro-
gram for the year's work was worked out as follows: The
women discussed in their local meetings the subjects on which
they were especially anxious to have help. The subjects re-
ceiving the greatest number of requests were chosen.
The president and one member from each club formed the
board of directors. At the regular board meeting each list of
subjects was discussed. Those for which there were the greatest
number of requests from the clubs were included in the county
program. This county council held a rally once every two months,
bringing together members of the home demonstration clubs
from all over the county. The program for the day consisted
of songs, demonstrations by members of the clubs as well as
by the agents and a picnic dinner. Reports from each club were
read with enthusiasm and a banner awarded to the leading
club.
Junior County Councils.-Junior home demonstration councils
in Palm Beach and Volusia Counties proved a great source of
help in developing home demonstration work with the girls and
boys. In four counties the junior clubs were represented in the
women's club councils.
Contests.-County contests in girls' work were held in almost
all counties where there were home demonstration agents. Ex-
hibits showing the different phases of work as carried out by
club members were on display and judged. These contests were
well attended and aroused much interest among adults as well
as juniors.
Rallies and Camps.-Thirteen junior camps and 20 rallies were
held with an attendance of 2,611 girls. Camps were popular and






Annual Report, 1923


proved excellent for recreation and a means of giving special
instruction and training to club members in groups that could
not be given otherwise. Regular programs were carried out, and
the honor system, which always added to the success of the
camps, was observed.












FIG. 19.-Club girls prepared for a swim at the club camp in Orange
County.

Short Courses and Scholarships.-"The state Short Course for
prize-winning girls was held at the State College for Women in
April. Ninety-two prize-winning scholarship girls attended. It
is said that this was not only the best attended, but also the best
short course for club girls yet held in the state. Scholarships
were provided by county boards, organizations of men or of
women, by banks, business houses and interested individuals."
As encouragement to club girls the Florida Federation of Wo-
men's Clubs gives annually two $50 scholarships for educational
purposes. These are awarded to the girls doing the best work
in poultry and gardening, and are helpful in developing the pro-
ductive side of the work.
Montgomery Ward & Company gave $140 to defray the ex-
penses of the state's outstanding club girl to attend the Boys'
and Girls' Club Congress held in Chicago, December 2-8. Gene-
vieve McCallum of Palm Beach County won and made this trip.
"As a result of home demonstration work in Polk County, the
federation of women's clubs of that county maintains a club
scholarship to Montverde Industrial School.
"Palm Beach County gives a home economic scholarship to
the Florida State College for Women.
Orange County has established a full home economics scholar-
ship to the Florida State College for Women.






Florida Cooperative Extension


"Where home demonstration work was established, interest
in the local schools was intensified. Clubs were active in pro-
viding better equipment for schools and assisting in providing
longer school terms. In communities where there are no high
schools, many club girls found a way to attend the county high
school as a step toward a college education. In one county alone
there are ten country girls in high school as a result of club
work."
The short course for women during Farmers' Week at the
University of Florida was attended by 173 women who took ad-
vantage of the courses offered.
Traveling Libraries.-During the early part of the year 475
well-selected books were donated to this branch of extension
work to be used as a nucleus for traveling libraries. Fifteen
cases for the transportation of these books in the counties were
provided. Those who used these libraries show marked appre-
ciation of them.
Fairs.-Home demonstration exhibits were made at 38 com-
munity, 25 county and 2 state fairs during 1923. Each county
seemed keenly interested in developing the fairs of the state
thru good exhibits. Fair associations were liberal in their ap-
propriations for premiums offered for home demonstration work.
Publications.-The following publications went to press during
the first part of the year:
Bulletin 44-Handbook for Second Year Sewing.
Bulletin 45-Florida Club Songs.
Bulletin 46-Handbook for First Year Sewing.
Bulletin 47-Pickles and Relishes.
A nutrition demonstration (20 leaflets) pamphlet also was
published.
Publicity.-Newspapers of the state are liberal in printing
-timely articles and in using space for the support of home dem-
onstration work. Many of the home demonstration agents main-
tained news columns in their local newspapers. Others report
that the newspapers always publish articles when supplied by
them. Much publicity was given to home demonstration work
thru community, county, district and state fairs, Farmers' Week,
the girls' Short Course, contests, camps and the Florida Fed-
eration of Women's Clubs.
Outlook.-In counties where there is no home demonstration
agent there seems to be a lack of understanding of the work
which, together with a lack of county funds, hinders the exten-






Annual Report, 1923 77

sion of home demonstration work. However, taking the state
as a whole, it is most encouraging to find the interest and support
which home demonstration work is receiving from state offi-
cials, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, state, county and
local organizations and people in general. There are splendid
possibilities for future development.
Much time, thought and work will be given during the ensuing
year to food conservation, standardizing and marketing by-
products from Florida fruits and vegetables. Living at home and
home improvement will be stressed largely thru poultry raising,
gardening, dairying, household management, health and sanita-
tion, nutrition and the use of Florida products.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF A. A. TURNER, LOCAL (COLORED) DISTRICT
AGENT, IN CHARGE OF NEGRO EXTENSION WORK

Negro extension work thru farm and home makers' clubs was
conducted in 14 counties during 1923. Alachua, Columbia, Su-
wannee, Jackson, Washington, Gadsden, Madison and Marion
Counties employed farm agents and St. Johns, Orange, Jeffer-
son, Duval, Leon, Sumter, and Madison Counties employed home
agents.
The terms of agents were for nine or ten months, depending
on local conditions. The work accomplished had principally to
do with production and farm and home improvement. However,
a definite effort was made to assist in cooperative marketing; in
this satisfactory results were secured, particularly in marketing
truck and garden crops.
The control of boll weevils by the Florida method was carried
out systematically but, owing to adverse weather conditions, a
low yield of cotton was produced. The agents were supplied with
calcium arsenate and dust guns and given definite instruction for
carrying out the demonstrations.
Poultry work was especially emphasized, the local agents, es-
pecially the women, making this a major project.
The following paragraphs give the accomplishments of the
several main projects:
1. Field and Garden Clubs.-An attempt was made last year,
as in past years, to teach practical methods of farming, garden-
ing and trucking by demonstrating on small plots how to grow
certain crops best adapted to the needs of the people in the com-
munity where grown. It was found in some counties that truck
crops and even some fruits can be raised along with staple crops,
thereby bringing the farmer more ready cash. The growing of
truck crops in connection with staple crops has reached the
northern counties and is being tried out to supplement the cash
from staple crops which come off later in the year. The truck
crops are planned for early markets.
Heavy rainfall not only ruined cotton, but did untold damage
to the corn crop, the average yield for boys being around 29
bushels and for men 16 bushels. The average yield of sweet
potatoes was 85 bushels for boys and 70 bushels for men and
women. The average yield of peanuts was 44 bushels for boys.
2. Pig Clubs.-There was little interest in pig work from the
standpoint of purchasing purebreds. Owing to a low price for






Annual Report, 1923


market hogs, there was a tendency to use purebred boars and
grade sows. However, the usual amount of pork was produced
and put on the market. Cholera was checked by the active inter-
est of the agents by having hogs inoculated at the proper time.
3. Poultry Clubs.-One outstanding result accomplished in
the poultry club was the plan by which club members in western
Florida (where markets were poor) sold chickens, eggs, and tur-
keys at good prices in Orlando. Arrangements were made for
handling club produce during the tourist season. For instance,
turkeys shipped from Chipley to Orlando sold for 50 cents a
pound live weight when they were selling for only 25 cents,
f. o. b., Chipley. Chickens and eggs were sold in many cases on
the same basis.
4. Dairy Clubs.-Some progress was made in interesting col-
ored farmers in owning and keeping two or more good dairy
cows. Dairy work develops slowly in Florida on account of the
Texas cattle tick, yet more farmers are building fences and
making pastures in which they can keep up their cows and
protect them from the open range and the tick.
A Leon County farmer perhaps did more in dairying than any
other negro in the state. He has built his dairy herd up to 40
cows and receives 30 cents a gallon for his milk shipped to Jack-
sonville. His receipts averaged $115 a week. Leon, Alachua,
Marion, and Jackson made great progress in dairying.
5. Farm and Home Improvement Clubs.-Along with the les-
sons in better farming and livestock and poultry raising, the
agents taught the fundamentals of good health, comfort and
convenience on the farm and in the home. The home was taken
as the basis of operation and every effort was made to make it
a better place in which to live.
Teaching industry and thrift among the club members and
patrons was an important work. Results along this line were
accomplished by improving the home and its premises. This
work consisted of planting fruit trees, screening, whitewashing,
repairing houses and outbuildings, cleaning wells, building sani-
tary toilets and making household supplies and conveniences.
Fairs and Exhibits.-The greatest opportunity to make the
farm and home makers' club movement popular is thru county
and state fairs. Exhibits of the work done by club members and
patrons were displayed and inspected and examined by white
and colored. Nothing did more toward gaining sentiment in fa-
vor of the work than these exhibits; and nothing did more toward






Florida Cooperative Extension


developing the educational side of the work in all its phases than
these exhibits at state and county fairs.
The following statement was made in the Jacksonville Journal
on November 23, by Oscar Mills, President of the Southeastern
Fair, Atlanta, Georgia: "The colored department of the Florida
State Fair is a revelation to me. It is something we have been
trying to get in Atlanta for a number of years. The building,
filled as it is with unusual accomplishments under the direction
of Superintendent Turner, reflects much credit upon the colored
people. If there were more southern fairs that would interest
themselves in this way, there would be a considerable decrease in
migration of ngroes to the north."
Cooperating Agencies.-Most cooperation was from the Negro
Farmers' Union, a cooperative marketing association operating
among negro farmers in several counties. During the year negro
farmers of Marion County sold cooperatively $52,000 worth of
truck crops.
The business manager of this association and a widely known
trucker and shipper of Ocala volunteered to supervise the grad-
ing and packing schools to be held in.the various counties next
season. A successful colored potato grower of Hastings also did
much to interest his people in better living and farming. It was
thru this medium that club members and patrons were able to
market their truck crops in carlots. This phase of the work
made good progress.
Meetings.-Two meetings were held to train local agents. Many
important subjects were presented by lecturers and thru dem-
onstrations by subject-matter specialists from the University
of Florida and the Florida State College for Women. Nine hun-
dred forty-nine field meetings were held, with a total attendance
of 20,276.
Length of Term.-The local agents worked this year, on an
average, nine months, both men and women; and, there being
only one agent in a county, each was taught to work among the
clubs of both sexes. This plan enables them to be more useful
in the community, but handicaps them in reporting all the work
done.
From 1,292 boys' and girls' club reports of things done the
following tables have been compiled to show the scope of the
work:







Annual Report, 1923


1. Field and Garden Clubs: ACRES YIELD VALUE

Corn harvested ......................-........ 224 6,496 bus. $6,496
Sweet potatoes harvested ............. 172 14,445 bus. 10,844
Irish potatoes harvested ............... 43 1,510 bbls. 5,185
Peanuts harvested .......................... 130 5,850 bus. 8,775
Treated cotton harvested .............. 56 7,000 lbs.- 2,100
Tobacco harvested ..................... 2 2,214 lbs. 1,107
Tomatoes harvested ....................... 49 3,521 crts. 8,802
Beans harvested ........................... 36 1,080 hprs. 1,350
Watermelons harvested .................. 13 1 carload 338
Cucumbers harvested ...................... ,9 358 crts. 753
2. Pig Clubs: NUMBER POUNDS VALUE
Hogs sold on foot.......................... 140 19,191 $1,151
Cured pork sold ................................ 25 1,250 250
3. Poultry Clubs: NUMBER POUNDS VALUE
Chickens sold ............................. 2,524 7,527 $1,909
Eggs sold .......................................... 630 doz. 189
4. Dairy Clubs: NUMBER GALLONS VALUE
Cows kept ............. ......... ... 19
Milk produced .................................. 930 $187
Cream sold ....................................... 243 166
Pounds butter made ....................... 91 36
5. Farm and Home Improvement
Clubs: NUMBER
Fruit trees planted ........................ 541
Grape vines planted...................... 194
Houses screened ........................... 87
Houses whitewashed ................ 274
Houses painted .............................. 47
Homes remodeled ........................... 19
Homes purchased ........................... 8
Pieces handicraft made .................. 413
Bars soap made .............................. 1,051
Wells cleaned and covered............. 5
Sanitary toilets made .............. 10
Fireless cookers made ................ 53
Containers filled (qts.) ----.........____. 21,140__
TOTAL VALUE ....-..................$49,638







Florida Cooperative Extension


A thousand and seventy-two men and women, who did dem-
onstration work sent in interesting reports, from which the
following tables have been compiled:

1. Field and Garden Clubs: ACRES YIELD VALUE
Corn harvested ....................... 688 11,114 bus. $11,114
Sweet potatoes harvested .......... 332 23,660 bus. 17,745
Irish potatoes harvested ............ 96 2,904 bus. 9,364
Peanuts harvested ..................... 250 10,000 bus 15,000
Treated cotton harvested ............. 314 31,400 lbs. 9,420
Tobacco harvested .................... 3 3,660 Ibs. 1,830
Tomatoes harvested ........................ 223 15,610 crts. 39,025
Beans harvested .......-................ 361 10,830 hprs. 13,537
Melons harvested ..................... 578 35 cars 8,816
Cucumbers harvested ..................... 78 2,337 crts. 4,928
2. Pig-Clubs: NUMBER POUNDS VALUE
Hogs sold on foot ...................... 586 82,000 $4,920
Cured pork sold ...--... .. 80 8,660 1,732
3.Poultry Clubs: NUMBER POUNDS VALUE
Chickens sold .............................. 2,356 8,594 $2,283
Turkeys sold .................................. 175 1,925 770
4. Dairy Clubs: NUMBER GALLONS VALUE
Cows kept ....... .......... w_ ...... ... .. 185
Milk produced ............. 49,850 $9,970
5. Farm and Home Improvement
Clubs: NUMBER
Fruit trees planted ..................... 1,423
Grape vines planted .................. 712
Houses screened ............... ...... 315
Houses whitewashed ................... 515
Houses painted ............................ 168
Homes remodeled ..................... 299
Homes purchased ....................... 43
Pieces handicraft made................ 635
Bars soap made ........... ........ ....... 3,604
Wells cleaned and covered ........ 16
Sanitary toilets made................. 16
Fireless cookers made...... ...... 268
Baths installed in farm homes... 11
Containers filled (qts.) ............... 54,385
Total value..........$150,454.00








INDEX


Administration as project, 13
Agricultural News Service, 11
Alachua County Creamery, 31
Appointment of workers, 14
Asparagus plumosus nanus, 59, 62
Ayers, Ed L., report of, 56

Bean Jassid control, 61
Blacklock, R. W., report of, 43
Blueberry culture, 36
Boll weevil control, 12, 33, 38, 44
Boys' citrus clubs, 45
club enrollment, 46
club exhibits, 48
club prizes, 45
clubs, organization of, 43
club work, 9
short courses, 46
Brown, Hamlin L., report of, 52
Bulletins issued during year, 11

Camps and rallies for girls, 74
for club boys, 47
Cantaloupe troubles, 57
Cantaloupes, work with, 57
Carter, Louise, appointment of, 14
Cereal demonstrations, 24
Celery leaf tyer, 58
troubles, 58
work, 58
Citrus clubs for boys, 45
demonstrations, 26
field meetings, 12
production, 40
schools, 56
work, 30, 38
Clayton, H. G., report of, 33
Clothing, work in, 68
Club boys' exhibits, 48
camps, 47
enrollment, 46
prizes for boys, 45
work, 32
work, dairy, 54
work, projects, 45
Clubs, colored persons, 78
organized, development of, 43
College of Agriculture, cooperation
of, 14


Community improvement in home
demonstration work, 73
work of county agents, 20
Committee recommendations, 15
Conferences of negro workers, 16
of white workers, 15
Cooperation among negro farm-
ers, 80
of other institutions, 14
Cooperative organizations, 41
sales and purchases of farmers,
40
Corn culture, 39
work, 29, 34
Cotton culture, 39
demonstrations, 24
work, 29
County agents, activities of, 23
increasing efficiency of, 22
number employed, 7
work in communities, 20
County agent work, 8
extent of, 18
projects of, 8
Creamery, cooperative, establish-
ment at Brooksville, 54
organization of, 31
Cucumber troubles, 57, 61

Dairy cattle demonstrations, 25
club work, 54
conditions, improvement of, 55
development in Florida, 53
husbandry, 9
problems worked on, 52
products of Florida, supply of
and demand for, 53
visits by farmers, 52
work, 31, 39
Demonstrations, cereal, 24
citrus, 26
cotton, 24
dairy cattle, 25
hog, 25
Irish potatoes, 25
legumes, 24
orchard, 24
poultry, 26
rodents, etc., to control, 21






Florida Cooperative Extension


soil improvement, 26
sweet potato, 25
truck and garden, 25
Diseases of plants, to control, 30
Disinfecting seedbeds, 61

Educational work at fairs, 55
Egg-laying contests, 72
Entomology, 10
Equipment of county agents, 28,
33, 38
of home demonstration agents, 65
Exhibits and fairs, 21, 36, 41
of club boys, 48
Extension agents, work of, 7, 8
projects, 8
schools, 11, 12
work, division of, 8
work, statistics, 23
workers, 13

Fairs and exhibits, 21, 36, 41
and exhibits, negro extension
work in connection with, 79
Fairs, educational work at, 55
home demonstration participa-
tion in, 76
Farm dairying, 39, 52
Farmstead improvements, 27
Farmers, meetings of, 34
Farmers' Week, 13, 51
Fertilizer, home-mixing of, 36
sampling, 36
Field meetings, 12
Financial statement, 17
Florida State College for Women,
cooperation of, 14
Floyd, Minnie E., resignation of, 14
Forage crops, 9
Fruits, small, work with, 39
Funds received and expended, 17

Garden demonstrations, 25
Girls' contests, 74
rallies and camps, 74
short courses, 75
Gleason, Flavia, appointment of, 14
report of, 63
Grasses, distribution of, 51


Hiatt, Leland, instructor in swim-
ming, 48
S. W., report of, 38
S. W., work with fairs, 21
Hog demonstrations, 25
raising, 34, 40
Horn, Madge, appointment of, 14
Horticulture, home demonstration
work in, 71
Home demonstration agents, equip-
ment of, 65
employed, 7
project activities, 67
Home demonstration staff, appoint-
ment of, 63
Home demonstration work, 9
report of, 63
status and scope of, 63, 66
summary of, 67
Home dairy work, 71
furnishings, 70
health and sanitation, 70
Household management and home
furnishings, 70

Improvements, farmstead, 27
Irish potato culture, 39
demonstrations, 25

Jenkins, E. W., report of, 28

Land crabs, control of, 61
Lansden, H. B., appointment of, 14
Layton, Harriette B., resignation
of, 14
Leaf tyer of celery, 58
Legume demonstrations, 24
LeNoir, Ellen, resignation of, 14
Libraries, traveling, 76
Livestock work, 29
Lumber yard disease, 59

Marketing in home demonstration
work, 72
McDavid, Ruby, appointment of, 14
Meetings of negro farmers, 80
Millinery work, 68
Moore, Virginia P., appointment
of, 14
Morse, May, resignation of, 14







Annual Report, 1923


Negro extension work, 10
scope of, 81, 82
report of, 78
Negro workers, conferences of, 16
Newell, Wilmon, report of, 7
Newspapers, cooperation of, 11
as help to extension work, 34

Orchard demonstrations, 24
Organization of county agent work,
18
Organizations, cooperative, 41
Organization work, 32
among women, 74
Outlook for 1924, 16

Partridge, Sarah W., resignation
of, 14
Pasture work, 31
Peanut culture, 40
Plan of work, 15, 33
Plant Pathology, 10
Poultry, 10
demonstrations, 26
home demonstration work in, 72
Poultry work, 31, 42
Projects of county agent work, 18
Publications, 10
Home demonstration, 76
Publicity, 34, 46, 76
Purchases and sales of farmers, 27

Reams, Charles, story of as club
boy, 49
Resignations of workers, 14
Rodent control demonstrations, 27
Sales and purchases of farmers,
27, 35, 40
Sanborn, N. W., transfer of, 14
Sand pear culture, 36
Sanitation in the home, 70
Satsuma culture, 34
plantings, 35
Scholarships for club boys, 48
for club girls, 75
Schools, citrus, 56
vegetable, 56


Scott, John M., report of, 50
Seed beds, disinfecting, 61
Settle, Lucy Belle, appointment of,
14
Short courses for boys, 46
for girls, 75
Smith, Gladys, resignation of, 14
George, D., assistance of, 33
J. Lee, club leadership of, 43
Soil improvement work, 26, 28, 36,
41
Spencer, A. P., report of, 18
Spraying methods, 56
Staff, changes in, 14
State Livestock Sanitary Board,
cooperation of, 20
State Marketing Board, coopera-
tion of, 20
State Plant Board, cooperation of,
14, 21
Statistics of work done, 23
Supervision of work, 21, 33, 43
Sweet potato culture, 39
demonstrations, 25
work, 29, 34

Thursby, Isabelle S., appointment
of, 14
Tisdale, O. O., local club leader, 44
Tomato troubles, 58
Tomatoes, work with, 58
Truck crops, 36
Truck crop work, 30
Truck demonstrations, 25
Turner, A. A., report of, 78

United States Department of Ag-
riculture, cooperation of, 14

Vegetable production, 41
schools, 56

Webster, Agnes I., resignation of,
14
Watermelon culture, 36
troubles, 57
work with, 57