• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Charles Kennedy McQuarrie
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Board and staffs
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics, report of general activities
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00005
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Alternate Title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division,
The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1921
Copyright Date: 1917
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075774
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Charles Kennedy McQuarrie
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 5
    Board and staffs
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Main
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
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    Index
        Page 100
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        Page 104
Full Text










Cooperative Extension Work in
Agriculture and Home Economics
.iAcs of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida,
and United States Department of
Agriculture, Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director


REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1921
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1921















Cooperative Extension Work in

Agriculture and Home Economics
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida,
and United States Department of
Agriculture, Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1921
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1921

























































FIG. 1.-Charles Kennedy McQuarrie


v/'v-,,^'-*












Charles Kennedy McQuarrie was born in Glasgow, Scotland,
October 12, 1851-a direct descendant of the McQuarries of
Ulva's Isle. Losing his father when very young, he went to live
with his maternal grandfather in the Highlands near Oban where
he attended school taught by a "Stckit Minister" or "Dominie."
Later he returned to Glasgow where he entered a technical col-
lege.
After finishing his education he became a cloth manufacturer
but, suffering financial losses thru a bank failure, he came to
America in 1888. He engaged in diversified farming in Walton
County, Florida, near DeFuniak Springs, for twenty-five years,
during which time he was an active promoter and member of
the West Florida Agricultural Society, an association that did
much for agriculture in that section. He also served with the
College of Agriculture as a worker and lecturer of the Farmer's
Institute. He was favorably known by every farmer and busi-
ness man as a promoter of scientific, better agriculture.
In 1902 he leased his farm and was appointed assistant super-
intendent, Farmer's Institutes. Four years later he resigned to
become county agent of Escambia County. He served in this
capacity until 1914, when he was elected by the Board of Control
as state agent of Farmers' Cooperative Demonstration work to
be in charge of all county agents in the state. This position he
held until his death, which occurred November 16, 1921.
Under his able leadership agricultural demonstration work de-
veloped from a small, meager beginning to what it is now-a
state-wide service embracing every phase of agriculture in Flor-
ida.
Mr. McQuarrie was beloved for his genial and kindly nature,
and his strong personality attracted co-workers to him. His
name is written on the pages of history as one of the South's
greatest agriculturists.













CONTENTS
PAGE
CHARLES KENNEDY MCQUARRIE............ ....... -.........-...--- -------------...-.. 3
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA....-................................. 5
BOARD AND STAFFS.............. ...----.. --....-------------------- ------- --------------- 6
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD OF CONTROL--------.......................... 9
REPORT OF DIRECTOR......................------------------ ---------------------- 9
Introduction ............................................ ...... -..-.....-- .....------------------- 9
Extension Work, Citrus Fruit and Winter Vegetables.......................... 10
Organization ........................................................... 10
Conferences .. --...... ...................... --- -............----------------- 11
Financial Statement .............. ------------------ .......... 12
Changes in Staff...................... .......................... ........................... 12
Outline of Projects................................ ................... ..................... 13
Subject Matter..----------------.............---.................. 14
Extension Schools ....................... .................................. 15
Annual Meetings of Extension Workers..-----................... ......... 17
State Fair Exhibit---....................------.. ................................. 17
Expansion of the Work for 1922-..................----- -----............... 18
REPORT OF VICE-DIRECTOR AND COUNTY AGENT LEADER-----------............................... 19
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, SOUTH AND CENTRAL FLORIDA........................ 27
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, WEST FLORIDA ----...........................-----........ 31
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, EAST AND NORTHEAST FLORIDA............-------........ 36
REPORT OF BOYS' CLUB AGENT-..............---- ... --. ---------........ ......... 40
REPORT OF ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST_...... ....... ...-- -------.................... 48
REPORT OF FORAGE CROPS SPECIALIST .......... ----------------.................. 50
REPORT OF POULTRY SPECIALIST..-----........................................ ----------- 52
REPORT OF WATERMELON DISEASE SPECIALIFT........................ .................... 55
REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION ArENT--------------.................................. 57
REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT.............-----.......... 69
REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, SOUTH AND EAST
FLORIDA ............................-- -- ------ ---......... .................................. 73
REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST
FLORIDA ...................-------..........------...... --------------............ .................. 76
REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, DAIRY
SPECIALIST ........................---------................---.............------ ----- ----..................... 81
REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, POULTRY
SPECIALIST ...................................... .. ......--- ............................................ 84
REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, FOOD
CONSERVATION SPECIALIST ..................... ................... .................... 91
REPORT OF LOCAL DISTRICT AGENT (COLORED) .......................................... 94
























Hon. Cary A. Hardee,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agri-
culture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1921, in-
cluding a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1921.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman of the Board of Control.






Florida Cooperative Extension


BOARD OF CONTROL

P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra.
J. B. SUTTON, Tampa.
JOHN C. COOPER, Jacksonville.
W. L. WEAVER, Perry.
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

C. B. SMITH, Chief.
H. E. SAVELY, Agriculturist and Field Agent.
O. B. MARTIN, Extension Specialist in Teaching Methods.
I. W. HILL, Field Agent, Extension Methods in Organization.

STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University.
WILMON NEWELL, Director.
A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader.

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
C. K. McQUARRIE, State Agent (died November 16).
E. W. JENKINS, District Agent.
H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent.
S. W. HIATT, District Agent.
R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent.

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, State Home Demonstration Agent.
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent.
MAY MORSE, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent.
MINNIE M. FLOYD, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent.
ESTELLE BOZEMAN, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent.
GLADYS SMITH, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent.
AGNES I. WEBSTER, District Home Demonstration Agent.
LONNY I. LANDRUM, District Home Demonstration Agent.

SPECIALISTS IN AGRICULTURAL WORK
J. M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist.
N. W. SANBORN, Poultry Husbandman.
HAMLIN L. BROWN, Dairy Specialist.
J. B. THOMPSON, Forage Crop Specialist (resigned June 30).

SPECIAL LECTURERS AND OTHER OFFICIALS
J. R. WATSON, Entomology.
O. F. BURGER, Plant Pathology.
R. W. RUPRECHT, Soils and Fertilizers.
C. H. WILLOUGHBY, Animal and Dairy Husbandry.
W. L. FLOYD, Horticulture.
E. L. LORD, Horticulture.
FRAZIER ROGERS, Farm Machinery.
A. L. SHEALY, Veterinary Science.
RALPH STOUTAMIRE, Editor.
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor.
RETTA MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor.
















Annual Report, 1921


COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua........C. D. Gunn.............Gainesville.................. Miss Ora Odom
Bay...............R. R. Whittington.Panama City.................................... ...............
Brevard.......H R. Tribble..........Cocoa.................. ..................... ....................
Citrus...........R. E. VanNess.......Inverness....................Miss Beulah Pipkin
Clay..............H. A. McDonald.... Green Cove Springs..............................
Columbia......................................Lake City.................... Miss Marie Cox
Dade............. J. S. Rainey..........M iami.................... .......................................
DeSoto......... G. W. Scally........Arcadia........................ Mrs. Nettie B. Crabill
Duval............W. L. Watson......Jacksonville................ Miss Ellen LeNoiv
Escambia....J. Lee Smith..........Pensacola.................... Miss Dorothy Mitchell
Flagler .........L. T. Nieland-.........Bunnell ........................................................
Gadsden.......D. L. Campbell......Quincy......................... Miss Ruby McDavid
Hamilton.....J. J. Sechrest........Jasper.........................Miss Virginia Branham
Hernando....Jas. Mountain........Brooksville---............. Mrs. W. J. Palmer
Hillsboro.....R. T. Kelley............Tampa.............-..-. Miss Stella M. Wiley
..................................Plant City................... Miss Lucy Belle Settle
Lake.............E. F. DeBusk.........Tavares......................................
Lee...............H. E. Stevens........Ft. Myers.................... Miss Pansy Norton
Leon........... ......................Tallahassee.................Mrs. Mary S. Russell
Liberty......... A. W. Turner .........Bristol .............. ............................. .
Madison.......B. E. Lawton..........Madison............-.....Miss Audrey Scott
Manatee.......W. R. Briggs..........Bradentown.............. Miss Margart Cobb
Marion-.........K. C. Moore............Ocala .................. ................... .................. ....
Orange.........C. D. Kime.............Orlando....................... Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola.........Leo H. Wilson.......Xissimmee..................Miss Albina Smith
Palm BeachJ. A. Dew................West Palm Beach......Mrs. Edith Y. Morgan
Pasco...........F. G. Merrin...........Dade City-................... Mrs. Harriet Ticknor
Pinellas-......... ... .............Clearwater................. Miss Isabelle Thursby
Polk..............Wm. Gomme.........Bartow.................... Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam........D. A. Armstrong...Palatka........................ Miss Floresa Sipprell
St. Johns....J. 0. Traxler..........St. Augustine............. Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie.....A. Warren............ Ft. Pierce................................... ................
Santa Rosa John G. Hudson.....Milton.......................... Mrs. Winnie W. McEwen
Suwannee....C. E. Matthews......Live Oak..............................................................
Taylor.........R. J. Dorsett..........Perry.......................... Miss Pearl Laffitte
Volusia........W. E. Dunaway.....DeLand...................... Miss Orpha Cole
Walton........J. W. Mathison......DeFuniak Springs.... Mrs. Grace F. Warren
































FIG. 2.-County and home demonstration agents of Florida, assembled at the University of Florida for their tenth annual
session. Members of the staffs of the Agricultural Extension Division (which includes the home demonstration
extension workers of the State College for Women, Tallahassee), of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
and of the State Plant Board also appear in the illustration.







Report of General Activities for 1921
with
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30, 1921


Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of
the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture, Uni-
versity of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921, and a summary of the
activities of the Division for the calendar year 1921. I respect-
fully request that you transmit the same, in accordance with
the law, to the governor of the State of Florida.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.


INTRODUCTION
During 1921 the Agricultural Extension Division of Florida
has endeavored to keep in advance of the changing agricultural
conditions. In dealing with agricultural problems there neces-
sarily must be a forecasting of possible changes. In past years
county and home demonstration agents have striven for a greater
production of farm crops. They have worked to eliminate un-
profitable crops and to encourage the growing of those which
will give the greatest returns for money and labor invested.
During the last year and a half crops have not brought ex-
pected returns. It would be unwise to increase acreage, partic-
ularly of staple crops, because of low prices. The problems of
the farm have become more complicated than at any time within
the last ten years. The cost of producing farm crops is greater
than their value. The value of most farm crops and livestock
has decreased to 50 or 60 percent of that of 1920; whereas the
cost of labor, fertilizer and other supplies has decreased only
20 percent. This condition has been further intensified by the






Florida Cooperative Extension


fact that a large amount of the farmers' surplus products were
and are not readily salable at any price. In cotton-growing
areas some cash crops had to be substituted for cotton. These
and many similar conditions have contributed to modifying the
plans of extension field workers. Marketing is demanding more
attention now than production.

EXTENSION WORK IN CITRUS FRUIT AND WINTER VEGETABLES
As the products of the citrus grove and the truck farm con-
tribute largely to the incomes of farmers in South Florida, our
workers are giving these crops careful study. The control of
diseases and insect pests is becoming a greater factor in the
production of these crops. During the year county agents have
undertaken vigorously the control of diseases and insect pests
and the solution of fertilizer problems.

ORGANIZATION
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
is one of the three branches of the College of Agriculture, Uni-
versity of Florida. Supervising staffs are located as follows:
Of county agents, at the University of Florida, Gainesville; of
home demonstration agents, at the Florida State College for
Women, Tallahassee; and of negro agents, at the Florida A. &
M. College for Negroes, Tallahassee.
County and home demonstration agents usually have head-
quarters at their county seats. Their office equipment is pro-
vided by the county, and as these agents' problems are closely
connected and related, they usually work together and from the
same office, using the same bulletin files and stenographic assist-
ance, when such help is provided.
The specialists work with the district and county agents, not
being restricted to special territories. They attempt to work
wherever most needed. In counties where there are no agents,
these specialists work with individual farmers and growers.
However the best results are secured when they can work with
county workers. The extension specialists coordinate their work
with various departments of the Florida Experiment Station and
thus keep the county workers in close touch with what the Ex-
periment Station is doing.
When specialists of the United States Department of Agricul-
ture visit Florida for particular work thev. too. work with the





Annual Report, 1921


district and county agents, being directed to localities most in
need of their services or best suited to their purposes. Thru the
cooperation of the College of Agriculture and the United States
Department of Agriculture, various bureaus, departments and
state agencies are so organized that duplication of effort may be
reduced to the minimum.
County agents are under the direction of the state leader and
the district agents. Boys' club work is under the direction of
the boys' club agent and the district agents. Boys' clubs in
various counties are organized by the county agents with such
assistance as they can secure from their counties. Specialists
are responsible for the subject matter in their particular lines,
as it applies to agricultural work.
Home demonstration work is under the direction of the state
home demonstration agent, her assistants and the district home
demonstration agents. This work also has assistant specialists
in home dairying, poultry, and food conservation. These special-
ists work principally with home demonstration agents, giving
them assistance in their particular projects. The home demon-
stration agents work mainly thru organized clubs of women and
girls.
Negro extension work is under the immediate direction of a
local district agent. He has assistants, known as local county
agents and local home demonstration agents, who work in sev-
eral counties. The assistant club agents (colored) are employed
for only a portion of the year. Their program is planned partic-
ularly to encourage thrift and has improved materially the con-
ditions of the colored farmers of the state.

CONFERENCES
An agricultural conference is called by the director on the
third Monday of each month to discuss programs of work and
other matters affecting all branches of the College of Agricul-
ture. The work under his direction is so wide in scope that
everyone should be acquainted thoroly with it and the organiza-
tion is such that the closest cooperation must be maintained.
Conferences are also held at stated times with county agents
to plan the carrying out of special projects.
The district agents and specialists hold conferences with
county and home demonstration agents to plan all phases of
county work. and. wherever it is advisable, outsiders are invited






12 Florida Cooperative Extension

to attend and take part in the discussions and plans. During
the annual meeting of the agents, committees are appointed to
make plans and submit recommendations.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT

The receipts and expenditures of this division of the College
of Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921, were
as follows:
RECEIPTS
College of Agriculture Funds-
Smith-Lever, Federal..... ........................ ..... .................... 43,515.89
Smith-Lever, State----...............---------................... 33,515.89
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal-...............---- ....-.---. 16,217.37
Supplementary Smith-Lever, State ................ .................. 16,217.37
U. S. D. A. Appropriation .....---........ ..-------......----- 22,500.00
State Appropriations................ ..... ............ ........ 6,820.31
County Appropriations..................-............. 62,728.40
Total...............----------...---------..--$201,515.23
EXPENDITURES
Administration ........................----------------------.---- 10,849.46
Printing and Publications................... .---- ..-..........-------.. 3,453.09
County Agents' Work.-............-...-----------.....-............. 98,773.20
Home Demonstration Work -----................ ~ .. ........... 62,335.04
Boys' Club Work ......................--........... ------------------.------ 7,765.84
Animal Industry--.............. ------------ ---.............. -................... 3,824.51
Negro Farm and Home Makers' Work -----------................. ................... 11,999.18
Poultry Husbandry... .............. ........... ...--- ---........... 1,824.71
Extension Schools....---.............--------...... ..... 690.20
Total.......................................................... $201,515.23

CHANGES IN STAFF
Director P. H. Rolfs resigned December 31, 1920, to accept a
position with the Brazilian government in South America. From
that date till January 15, 1921, Vice-Director A. P. Spencer as-
sumed the executive duties of this division. On this latter date
Wilmon Newell was appointed as director by the Board of Con-
trol.
Estelle Bozeman was appointed assistant state home demon-
stration agent, effective January 1. Her work has been prin-
cipally in nutrition and food conservation.
G. W. Dansby did watermelon disease and insect control work
for three months of the year, beginning March 15 and ending
June 15. His title was assistant district agent.
J. B. Thompson resigned June 30 as grass and forage crops
specialist to accept the directorship of the agricultural experi-
ment station in the Virgin Islands.






Annual Report, 1921


S. W. Hiatt was appointed assistant club agent on January 15
He resigned this position on July 1 to accept appointment as
district agent for East and South Florida.
W. K. Makemson entered upon the duties of extension plan
pathologist and entomologist October 1, but resigned November
24 to take up more remunerative work elsewhere.
In addition to the changes mentioned above a number have
taken place among county and home demonstration agents, by
transfers to other counties, resignations and new appointments.

OUTLINE OF PROJECTS

The expenditure of extension funds for the fiscal year end-
ing June 30, 1921, was for nine projects as follows:
Project I-A-Administration.-This provides for the expenses
of the offices of the director and vice-director, salaries of clerical
help and for such miscellaneous expenses and emergencies as may
arise.
Project I-B-Publications.-The expense for publications and
the distribution of bulletins, circulars, weekly press matter and
annual reports is provided for and is covered by this project.
Project II-County Agents.-The salaries and traveling ex-
penses of district agents, salaries of county agents, expenses of
county agents' meetings, and supplies and incidentals incurred
in connection with county agent work are cared for by this pro-
ject. Considerable portions of the funds for this project are
appropriated by counties to supplement the salaries paid county
agents by the Division. That portion of the agent's salary paid
directly by counties is not accounted for by our state offices.
All other expenditures in this project are paid from .funds of
the University of Florida.
Project III-Boys' Clubs.-This project has to do with the
direction and management of boys' clubs. As boys' clubs are
organized by county agents, Projects II and III are closely allied.
Funds for this project are applied to the salary and expenses
of the club agent, supplies, record books and other incidentals
of club work.
Project IV-Home Demonstration. Home demonstration
work, including gardening, food conservation, nutrition, textiles,
poultry keeping, home dairying, beekeeping and home improve-
ment come within this group. The largest expenditure of funds
for this nnirnn, in for the Rfllanries of homn dpmonstrf 1i non rrnt





Florida Cooperative Extension


Since counties are required to contribute to the salaries of these
agents, only that part of an agent's salary paid by the Univer-
sity of Florida is accounted for.
Project V-Animal Husbandry and Forage Crops.-The ani-
mal industrialist, who belongs jointly to the staffs of the Experi-
ment Station and this Division, carries on work under this
project. The project contemplates the improvement of beef
cattle, provides assistance in the management of dairy cattle and
hogs, and makes surveys of the conditions of forage and pasture
crops. The Florida Experiment Station and the Bureau of Ani-
mal Industry, Washington, D. C., cooperate in this work.
Project VI-Farm and Home Makers' Clubs.-This is agricul-
tural extension work among negroes and from its funds the
salaries of the local district agent and assistant local county
agents are paid. The expenses of the local district agent's office,
stenographic help and travel expenses of the negro agents, men
and women, when in attendance at state meetings, are also paid
from these funds.
Project VIII-Poultry Work.-In this project funds are pro-
vided for a half-time poultry specialist, salary and expenses.
This work contemplates improvement of farm poultry, finding
better market for poultry products, assisting county and home
demonstration agents in securing better stock, culling demon-
strations, feeding problems and poultry problems in general.
Project IX-Extension Schools.-This is for the conducting
of schools in agriculture and home demonstration thruout the
state. It also provides for such schools at the University of
Florida and the State College for Women, and for such other
meetings as the best interests of the work demand.

SUBJECT MATTER
All subject matter advocated by the Agricultural Extension
Division is expected to be in accord with the subject matter of
the various departments of the College of Agriculture and of
the United States Department of Agriculture. These are based
either ofi knowledge gained by the Experiment Station or prac-
tices that have given best results in the hands of good farmers.
In order that this subject matter shall be uniform, all extension
workers are supplied with the results of the work of the Experi-
ment Station. At various intervals conferences are held in order
that subject matter specialists and the county agents may get





Annual Report, 1921


together. Thru these conferences, the faculty and staffs of the
College of Agriculture are naturally benefited.
As county workers are located thruout the state, dealing with
different crops and types of soil, their observations are partic-
ularly valuable to research workers and teachers. It also en-
ables the teachers and investigators to keep themselves familiar
with changing conditions and problems of the farm, grove and
garden.
Subject matter worked out in any state when applicable to
Florida is utilized, as far as possible, by our workers. Practices
advocated by the United States Department of Agriculture are
adopted by our extension workers, when found applicable. Thus,
valuable information issued by the United States Department of
Agriculture and the research staff of the College of Agriculture
is available to county agents, who pass it on to our farmers and
growers.

EXTENSION SCHOOLS
Extension schools were conducted during the year at several
points thruout the state, each with a view to bringing farmers
and growers together to study problems vital to them.
County and home demonstration agents are responsible for
local arrangements and the publicity for all such meetings. With
a growing demand for organization in the more progressive sec-
tions, these schools are well attended by the leading citizens who
assist agents in carrying out their programs.
Those who took leading parts in these schools were specialists
of the Experiment Station, the United States Department of
Agriculture and this division. The agents are largely respon-
sible in making the meetings successful.
Dairy Schools.-In cooperation with the Florida Dairy Asso-
ciation, dairy schools were conducted in six counties during the
year. Among the many problems confronting the dairymen and
requiring better organization are marketing problems in partic-
ular. These schools were held to encourage cooperative market-
ing, to reduce the cost of producing milk and to increase the
number of purebred cows. The Florida Dairy Association has
called on our forces for assistance and is looking to us for definite
help and instruction on questions vital to the industry.
Citrus Schools.-In the citrus section, county agents are giv-
ing special attention to citrus problems. The agents, assisted by





Florida Cooperative Extension


pathologists and entomologists of the Experiment Station and
the United States Department of Agriculture, conducted citrus
schools at several points in Central and South Florida early in
the year. Later in the season this citrus work was followed
up by field meetings where demonstrations and instruction in








U-.-






FIG. 3.-A young citrus grove-2% years old-fertilized under supervision
of county agent, Polk county
spraying to control diseases and insect pests were given. At
various intervals, later in the season, individual faculty and staff
members of the college spent one or more days with the county
agents, going over the various citrus problems needing atten-
tion.
Organization Schools were conducted by county and home dem-
onstration agents wherever there was a tendency for the farm
people to perfect an organization. L. M. Rhodes, state marketing
commissioner, contributed largely to the success of these meet-
ings. Where community councils of agriculture and home eco-
nomics have been established, this organization work is made
much simpler thereby. At these meetings definite programs are
prepared and carried out.
General Meetings and Schools.-From time to time county and
home demonstration agents arrange for local extension schools,
primarily for the purpose of bringing farm people together.
Speakers from the University of Florida and the State College
for Women appear on the programs at these schools. These
meetings are usually considered forerunners of permanent organ-
izations and serve to interest the communities in the work of
the county and home demonstration agents.





Annual Report, 1921


ANNUAL MEETINGS OF EXTENSION WORKERS
In order to correlate and acquaint all agents with every phase
of extension work, it has been customary to call the agents to-
gether at various intervals, usually once or twice a year.
The regular annual meeting for county agents was held at
the University of Florida, September 3-10. The home demon-
stration agents met at the State College for Women, September
1-7. All agents met at the University of Florida, September
8-10. For all of these meetings special programs were prepared
with a view to having the agents take part and to give them an
opportunity to present their plans and recommendations from
their viewpoints. Much time was taken up with executive mat-
ters, leaders directing the discussions.
Much time is given in these conferences to the state and fed-
eral plans of work. This is usually handled by the director, state
leaders and supervising agents of the United States Department
of Agriculture. Committees of agents were appointed to make
recommendations on the following phases of extension work:
Citrus, trucking, marketing, boys' and girls' club work, records,
purchasing, breeding and selection of seed, poultry, publicity,
fairs and exhibits, organizations, dairying, and resolutions. Re-
ports of the committees were submitted to the conference on
the closing day. Copies of these reports have been made and
placed in the hands of all agents.
The negro agents-men and women-met at the Florida A.
& M. College for Negroes in Tallahassee, February 22-25.


STATE FAIR EXHIBIT

All branches of the Agricultural Extension Division showed
exhibits-six large booths in the University building and one
booth in the negro building being assigned to this work-at the
State Fair in Jacksonville. The exhibits were arranged in four
groups; namely, county agent work, boys' club work, home dem-
onstration work and negro work. These exhibits were intended
to show the nature and progress of extension work in the state.
These exhibits drew heavily on the time of our forces and funds,
but did much good by enabling thousands of people to visualize
th.e ndprtaking and accomplishments of this work.











Florida Cooperative Extension


EXPANSION OF THE WORK FOR 1922
The plans for 1922 contemplate new lines of work in addition
to the expansion and modification of various others already
started.
Dairy work will receive more attention. A dairy specialist
has been employed to assist county agents and dairymen and to
carry out special dairy plans. The home demonstration dairy
specialist will intensify her efforts. The tendency for greater
dairy production has been stimulated by the work of this organ-
ization and the Florida Dairy Association, so that the field of
service in this particular direction offers greater possibilities
than in any former period.
Due to increased interest in the control of diseases and insect
pests, this division contemplates adding to the staff an extension
pathologist and entomologist. It is planned that he work in the
usual way with county and home demonstration agents. He will
conduct definite extension work among farmers and growers and
render assistance when and where there is a demand for such
services.
A conservation specialist was added to the staff during the
year and her work will be extended, especially with home demoni-
stration agents. She will work with a view to utilizing farm
and home products that heretofore have been practically worth-
less.
In planning for 1922, the Division will work hand in hand
with the other branches of the College of Agriculture and with
the State Plant Board in an effort to render the best service
possible for the agricultural people of Florida.
More detailed reports of this work-made by subordinate of-
ficers and special workers of the Division-constitute the follow-
ing pages of this volume.





Annual Report, 1921


REPORT OF A. P. SPENCER, VICE-DIRECTOR AND COUNTY
AGENT LEADER

On December 1 there were 33 county agents at work. Another
agent has been employed to commence work January 1, which
will make a total of 34 for the beginning of the new year. Of
this number 22 have continued in their present places thruout
the entire year. In all counties where agents have been trans-
ferred or new men appointed, most of these changes took place
between July 1 and October 1 and were due to promotions or
resignations.
Three counties have discontinued their support of the work;
in one case due to the activity of the county agent in cooperative
buying and selling farm products, thus. interfering with mer-
chants' profits; in the other cases due to a policy of retrench-
ment on the part of local county commissioners. In the two
latter instances the deposed agents were transferred to other
counties with increased salaries. Four new counties have been
added to the work since July 1. All of these counties in previous
years had employed county agents. So, on the whole, the num-
ber of county agents has increased slightly over last year.
At present there are 13 college graduates on our county agent
staff. This is equivalent to about 40 percent of the staff, a
decided increase over any former year, which is an indication
of the growing demand for well-trained men. This requires in-
creased salaries, and counties have made sufficient appropria-
tions to make this possible in practically all cases.
The training and personnel of the non-graduate agents is
above the average. Most of those who are not college graduates
are men who have been in the service for two or more years. These
men by persistent efforts, good judgment and good executive
ability, have made themselves strong in their counties and in
most cases they are receiving increased recognition and in-
creased salaries.
Changes in Club-Work Supervision.-On July 1, it seemed ad-
visable to turn over a large part of the responsibility of club
work to the district agents. This meant increased duties for
district agents and less direction from special club agents. As
a result, S. W. Hiatt, formerly assistant club agent, was ap-
pointed district agent. This gave the staff three full-time dis-
trict agents where formerly we had only two full-time district
agents and one half-time district agent.






Florida Cooperative Extension


So far the change made seems to be a wise one, as it avoids
duplication of effort on the part of club and district agents, at
the same time not increasing our supervisory force. Under the
present system district agents are responsible for club work in
their districts, as carried out by county agents. The club agent
in cooperation with the district agents, supervises all club work
conducted by county agents.
Cooperation in Counties.-With but few exceptions the co-
operation on the part of county boards has been excellent.
Agents appointed have generally given satisfaction. Tax payers
seldom complain of the expense of county-agent service, and fre-
quently petition their county commissioners for the continuation
of the service. This is particularly gratifying, since there has
been a tendency toward retrenchment on the part of county
officials, due to general business depression, for it is felt that
the agricultural interests of these counties must be fostered even
at the expense, if necessary, of other things.
In the newer agricultural sections the county agents' services
have been of immense value, particularly to newcomers. It is
now a well-established fact among farmers that county agents,
thru the extension system, provide a direct communication be-
tween them and the United States Department of Agriculture
and the College of Agriculture, University of Florida.
L. M. Rhodes, state marketing commissioner, has given us as-
sistance, particularly on marketing problems, and has been in full
sympathy with every phase of extension work. He has been par-
ticularly helpful in delivering addresses at meetings arranged
for by county and home demonstration agents.
General Summary of County-Agent Work.-As the statistical
report of the county agents is herewith attached and the dis-
trict agents are reporting general conditions in their districts,
it is sufficient here to summarize briefly the work carried out
by county agents. With changing agricultural conditions some
general changes have come about that have affected the plans
of county agents during the past year. In each former report,
emphasis has been placed on the amount of effort given by
county agents to crop production.
During this calendar year general conditions and business in-
terests have brought it forcibly to our attention that production
was not the question uppermost in the minds of farmers. In
fact. manv of them had stocks of wvrun livps.qock annd noher





Annual Report, 1921


farm products on their hands which they had not been able to
sell at satisfactory prices. Therefore, our attention has been
turned largely to marketing and some excellent results have
been accomplished in this direction, particularly in the co-
operative sale of sweet potatoes. In some cases the farmer
has received 25 to 50 cents a bushel more than he would have
gotten otherwise. Hogs have also been sold cooperatively at a
better price than local markets would pay. The same is true of
citrus fruits, vegetables, peanuts and poultry products.
During the last three years county agents have made a spe-
cial effort to stock their counties with a much better class of
hogs. This has been a very definite accomplishment of this
work, so much so that purebred and high-class hogs are found
on practically all farms in Florida. While the number of hogs
has not been increased materially, yet the amount of pork pro-
duced on the average farm has increased. This in itself has
proven satisfactory to the farmers, altho declining prices have
proven unsatisfactory. Many former club agents and farmers,
who had purchased registered breeding stock at quite a high
price had the increases from these purebred animals for sale.
They expected to sell these at purebred prices, and naturally
called on county agents for assistance. However, there was
practically no demand for this stock, and it proved disappointing
that these animals could not be sold as breeders. However, it
strengthened extension work, particularly in hog production, to
the extent that farmers have been convinced that it pays to
raise purebred hogs for meat purposes.
Dairy and Beef Cattle Work.-County agents, particularly in
the general farming sections, are considering the matter of dairy-
ing. One creamery is now operating and a second one is being
built. Milk stations have been established in six places and there
is a general tendency toward increased dairying.
County agents are fostering this industry wherever it is prac-
tical. One agent has given most of his time this year to dairy-
ing and his efforts have been sufficiently successful to induce
local capital to undertake the operation of a creamery; local
capital was subscribed and there are sufficient cows in sight to
warrant opening this creamery before spring.
As there is a large demand for dairy products, particularly in
the tourist centers, many dairymen are shipping their products
100 miles or more to the centers of population.





Florida Cooperative Extension


There is little to be said regarding beef-cattle interests. Nearly
every county has from 25 to 100 dipping vats ready for opera-
tion when sufficient laws are in effect to bring about systematic
dipping for eradication of the cattle tick. Until this is done
there is no inducement for people to engage in the production of
beef and, consequently, little inducement for the improvement of
herds of beef cattle. Many thousands of cattle thruout the state
will be carried over the winter because there has not been suffi-
cient market to warrant their sale.
Citrus Work.-In South Florida county agents are called upon
to give help in the citrus groves. Spraying, pruning and ferti-
lization are definite things accomplished. Such work requires
experienced and well-trained men. This is fairly well recognized
by the people in the counties, and there has been a gradual in-
crease of county agent appropriations, due to a demand for high-
class work.

















FIG. 4.-Spraying a young grove with tractor power, Polk County

Plans for County-Agent Work.-Each county agent plans his
year's work. This is required so that he will have in mind some
definite, important things to accomplish during the year. These
plans are made to correspond, as far as practical, with the plans
of the state office. After the specialists and state supervising
staff agree on a plan of work for the state, their plans are sub-
mitted to county agents for incorporation with their own,






Annual Report, 1921 23


insofar as prevailing conditions permit. These plans are finally
approved at a conference of state and county workers. These
conferences permit of a free discussion of the work to be under-
taken by each county agent, giving him the benefit of the ex-
periences of other agents and unifying the entire system.

FIGURES SHOWING GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Visits made by county agents......... ................-------------------- 31,829
Miles traveled-.....-- ---......-------------.-----250,914
Calls on agents relative to work--------......... ...........-----------.......... 28,377
Farmers' meetings held.... ........... .---------------------- 863
Addresses made at meetings..---- -----------------............ 1,147
Total attendances-..-..........--- ---..--- .-------- --------.... 58,934
Field meetings held by agents---------....................----------- 215
Total attendance at these meetings.........--------...........- 10,318
Percentage of time spent in office work --------------.................... 26
Percentage of time spent in field work................ .......---------- 74
Official letters written........................ -------------------24,629
Articles prepared for publication .........------------..------ 1,896
Circular letters issued----.... -- .....................------------- 1,607
U. S. D. A. bulletins distributed- .... ................-... .............. . 23,201
Bulletins or circulars from state sources distributed------........................ 17,946
Visits to schools................. .------................... .---- -- --------. 599
Schools assisted in outlining agricultural courses......-------............... .... 46
Short courses assisted in ...........---------------------....------ 7
Total attendance................--------------- -- ----. ----------- 414

Miscellaneous

Farmers attending short courses at college as result of agents' efforts 111
Boys attending agricultural or other schools or colleges as result
of club work-----.......... .-------------------------.......................... 52
Times visited by specialists from college or departments........................ 528
Demonstrators, cooperators and club members making exhibits-...... 627
Prizes won--.........--.....-...............-....---......------.--..----............ 245
Demonstrations in truck or small fruit........... ------......................... 190
Farmers keeping cost records at agents' instances............................... 425
Farmers practicing fall plowing as result of county agents' work.... 1,284

Farm and Homestead Improvements
Buildings erected-............... ...... .......... ....... ........ .... ............. ... 117
Farm buildings improved-.......---....-......................--.........---. 82
New building plans furnished -.................................. 53
Farm buildings painted or whitewashed-----------...................... 67
Home water systems installed or improved ------.............----................. 442
Home lighting systems installed......................------....... 393
Home grounds improved ...................................................--- --- .. 303
Farm and home sanitary conditions improved----------......................... --... 147
Homes screened against flies and mosquitoes......--------.................. ... 58
Sanitary privies erected............................. ....... ..-----------. 31
Farmers induced to adopt a systematic rotation---..... ---.......................... 631
Total acreage in systematic rotation..................... ..... ..................... 9,749
New pastures established........................................... 130
Old pastures renovated........................------------------- 37
Acreage comprised in these pastures ----------........................ ---- 2,091
Drainage systems established -........---------........ ..------- 58
Farmers induced to drain their lands..... .................. ................. 120






24 Florida Cooperative Extension


Land drained:
By tile, acres-.............................--.... ................ -............... 10
By ditch, acres---..----------- ---- ---------.............................. 1,863
Farmers who removed stumps-----.........................----------- 216
Total acreage stumped..... --------------..............--.. ---...- 3,693
Farmers induced to terrace sloping land.........................----------... 80
Total acreage terraced -------------.......................------ 4,500
Home gardens planted. -------............ --.---- ...------ .----. 933
Farmers turning under cover crops.................................. ... ............... 1,003
New implements and tools bought -----------------....................... 1,526

Corn Demonstrations
Demonstrators ---------.................. --- ---------- 129
Demonstrators reporting.............. ............ ------------------... 68
Total acreage grown under improved methods--.........................--------- 1,751
Average acre yield, bushels.....................---------------------- 22
Farmers planting selected seed............... --------------............ ........... 380
Farmers who fall-plowed their demonstration plots........................---- 109
Farmers who turned under their cover crops on demonstration plots.. 43
Acres harvested for silage--........................-.. ....--.....-------------- 65
Farmers using better methods in growing corn this year.................... 907
Farmers so influenced since county agent work started........................ 1,700

Cotton Demonstrations
Demonstrators --------------------......................-- ---- 10
Demonstrators reporting---....-........-........... -------- -----.... 10
Total acreage grown under improved methods----..........................---.......... 50
Average yield seed cotton to the acre, pounds--.............-----------........-.... 1,050
Demonstrators who planted selected seed............. ......--------------- ......10
Farmers field-selecting seed for next year's crop---..........................-------........ 20
Farmers who fall-plowed their demonstration plots------................................ 10
Farmers who turned under cover crops on their demonstration plots.. 10
Farmers using better cultural methods------............ ---.. ..-. ------.... 275

Small-Grain Demonstrations
(Oats, Rye, Rice)
Demonstrators .............------------------------....... 46
Demonstrators reporting---........----.....-------------......... .-.............. 41
Total acreage grown under improved methods.....................----....--....-- 35
Acres thrashed for grain................... ---------------------.... 56
Acres cut for hay---................----........ -------------...---. ... ........... .. 80
Farmers influenced to use better methods---................---------....... 381

Summer-Legume Demonstrations
(Cowpeas, Velvet Beans, Peanuts)
Demonstrators .....---.......-----------------------.... 206
Demonstrators reporting.---. ..............--------- --..... ............... 113
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods............................-- 3,917
Average bushels of seed produced to the acre-----------...............---..... 14
Average tons of hay produced to the acre.. ---------....................... 1
Total acreage hulled for seed--- --------......................... 743
Total acreage cut for hay-...---........---------- ...........-... 8,175
Number of acres grazed off------------------................................ 10,402
Acres turned under for soil improvement-----....................... ....... 7,310
Farmers influenced to adopt better cropping methods.-.......................... 2,290
Estimated acreage planted in the state thru county agents' influence 7,680






Annual Report, 1921 25


Sweet-Potato Demonstrations
Demonstrators ............................ ......--............ .. -193
Demonstrators reporting..----------------.......................... -------.............. 92
Total acreage grown by demonstrators.................. .---------........... 529
Acreage treated for diseases and pests................................... ............. 89
Estimated increase in acreage........................--------------------................. 980
Storage houses built this year.............................. ......... ..... ....... .. 8
Bushel capacity............--- --------------.................... .. 11,076

Irish-Potato Demonstrations
Dem onstrators ................................................................... 99
Demonstrators reporting...............------............. .. .............-..--50
Total acreage grown by demonstrators ........................... ...................... 966
Acreage treated for diseases and pests....................... ............. ....... 1,409

Fruit Demonstrations
Demonstration groves......................... ------.............------ ..-- 1,030
Total number of trees in these demonstrations.................................... 657,391
Groves inspected -------------...............................3,480; number of trees 271,965
Groves pruned.................................................... 718; number of trees 442,418
proves sprayed.................................................. 940; number of trees 873,715

Totals ........................-- ...........----- 5,138 1,588,098

Dairy-Cattle Demonstrations

Purebred dairy cattle introduced thru county agents' influence:
B ulls .............................. ......... .............. ............ .... ......... .. 24
Cows and heifers-.........-............--..... ................. 176
Cows tested for production.................................... ... ..... .......... 202
Farmers induced to feed balanced rations --------....................................... 200
Cattle fed ...........................------........ ..................... .... 1,432
Demonstrations in dairy work supervised................................................ 9
Cows in these demonstrations........................................-- --------.. ...... --..... 26
Purebred dairy bulls now in state ---------..............-----..... .............. 1,300
Purebred dairy cows now in state .....................------------------.... 6,000

Beef-Cattle Demonstrations

Purebred beef cattle bought thru county agents' influence:
Bulls ................................. ......................... .............-- --------- 4
Cow s or heifers ............................. ............................................ 4
Beef breeding herds started.. .. .....................------......................... 2
Estimated number of beef cattle handled according to methods
advocated by county agents.................... .......... ......................... 4
Number purebred bulls in state............................................... 500
Number purebreed beef cows in state ----------...........................-- 1,000

Hog Demonstrations
Purebred hogs brought into the state this year due to county agents'
influence:
Boars ........................ ..................... ....... ........ 49
Sows or gilts .................................... .......... ----------- --- 178
Hog feeding demonstrations supervised by agents............................... 208
Number of hogs...........................................- ----------------....--. 625
Farmers induced to grow grazing crops for hogs.................................... 680
Estimated number of hogs cared for according to methods advo-
cated by county agents.............................................. ......................... 9,084
Number purebred boars now in state................................................. .... 2.317
















26 Florida Cooperative Extension

Poultry Demonstrations
Poultry demonstrations supervised............................................................ 188
Poultry cared for according to methods advocated by agents.............. 37,340
Farms on which poultry management has been improved.................... 489
Birds on these farm s.................................................................................... 25,545
Livestock Disease and Pest Demonstrations
Farm animals treated at instigation of extension workers:
Cattle ............................................................... ..... ....... ............. ....... ... 16,378
H ogs .............................................. ... .......................... ..... 71,756
H horses ..................................... .... .... ............. 126
Fertilizer Demonstrations
Farmers advised regarding proper use of fertilizers ........................... 6,003
Fertilizer demonstrations...................................................... 404
Tons of fertilizer used.................................................................................... 20,126
Communities buying fertilizer cooperatively........................................... 68
Farmers home-mixing fertilizers...................................... ................... 710
Amount saved by cooperative purchasing.... -..............................--$25,596
Manure Demonstrations
Farmers induced to take better care of manure...................................... 684
Number who provided sheds................................................................. 89
Number composting farm manure................................. .................... 273
Manure spreaders in state............................................ -102
Farmers mixing raw phosphates with farm manure...............................---------. 505
Silo Demonstrations
Silos built in state this year............................... ..................... .............. 24
Silos built as result of county agents' advice........................................... 18
Silos in state now.......................................----- ........ .. 664
Lime Demonstrations
Farmers using lime due to county agents' influence----------................................ 73
Quantity of lime used, tons..........................------------------.........-- 336
A cres lim ed........................................................................................................ 410
N um ber carloads used.................................................................................... 18
Number farms where soil was tested for acidity...................................... 108





Annual Report, 1921


REPORT OF E. W. JENKINS, DISTRICT AGENT, SOUTH
AND CENTRAL FLORIDA

Territory.-From January 1 to July 1, 1921, this district in-
cluded the counties of Alachua, Marion, Citrus, Hernando, Pasco,
Hillsboro, Polk, Osceola, Orange, Seminole, Lake, Volusia and
Putnam. On July 1, Putnam, Volusia and Seminole Counties
were taken off and Manatee, Lee and DeSoto Counties added.
County Appropriations.-On July 1 appropriations by county
commissioners were raised from the January appropriations of
$26,055 to $30,910. Since July, or the date of the change of
the district, appropriations totaling $34,310 have been made for
another year. This includes $1,100 for office help and supplies
by Alachua County and $700 for upkeep and running expenses
by Osceola County. The balance of the total appropriation is
for salaries of county agents.
Farm Organization.-There are three main organizations in
the district thru which farmers work and cooperate; namely,
the farm bureau, the farmers' union and the citrus exchange.
These organizations aid in creating a spirit of social cooperation
and activity, but the main work accomplished thru them is mar-
keting. A great deal of work has been done in several counties
in assisting the farmers to market their crops and purchase
supplies thru their local organizations. For example, in one
community 29,284 crates of cucumbers were sold thru an or-
ganization, bringing $72,138.90 to its members. This work has
proven so popular that many of the communities in the county
are making an effort either to cooperate with this local organ-
ization or to market their crops by a similar plan.
Club Work.-The usual interest has been maintained in club
work thruout the different counties. Citrus, Hernando and
Osceola Counties held club camps for their boys, those of the
first two being jointly for boys and girls.
Special Activities.-Special effort was put forth to create in-
terest in dairy work among farmers thru the northern part of
the district. Pasco and Hernando Counties having cooperative
creameries already organized, campaigns were carried on therein
in order to stimulate keener interest in purebred cows, more
feed and sanitation. In Marion County a cooperative creamery
has been organized and a building for it is now under con-
struction. It is expected that more than 500 cows will furnish
milk for the creamery at the beginning.





Florida Cooperative Extension


Crops.-Besides assisting in growing and marketing staple
crops, county agents have given valuable assistance in fertiliz-
ing, spraying, cultivating and marketing citrus and truck crops.
The following paragraph from the report of County Agent H.
E. Stevens will give an idea of the kind of work done by agents
in the trucking and citrus counties:
"With the citrus work I have followed the plan of selecting
certain groves in each locality and visiting these about once a
month, for the purpose of observing conditions in regard to
insect pests, diseases and necessary cultural operations. I advise
the owners of these groves of just what I have found and just
what in my judgment is the best thing to do. The conditions
in these groves reflect fairly well conditions that might be ex-

















FIG. 5.-A citrus grove, sprayed, cultivated and fertilized under demonstra-
tion methods, Polk County

pected in other groves in this same locality. In this way I can
keep in touch, in a general way, with the conditions of the
groves of the county and give timely advice in regard to insect
and disease control or any cultural practices necessary. This
I have been able to do in the past by press articles. The
Fort Myers Press has extended me the courtesy of a column or
more in its weekly issue which is designated as the 'County
Agent's Column.' The other two papers in the county print the
same articles the same week. The first of the month I generally
summarize the work that should be done during the month.





Annual Report, 1921


Other articles follow on timely subjects. If it is the best time
to spray for rust mites, I have an article on this, telling when,
how and with what to spray. In this way I can reach more
people than thru personal visits. For special diseases or special
cases I am constantly called upon to visit and inspect various
groves and give advice.
"I have groves at various points thruout the county, repre-
senting about two thousand acres, that I use for my observations.
"I try to visit these groves at regular intervals of a month
to six weeks. In addition to this I have visited and inspected
on special requests groves of several thousand acres in area. I
have tried to follow the same plan with the truck growers, more
particularly in regard to insect and disease control. Certain
fields were kept under observation during the year and form
the basis for my recommendations."

Livestock.-County agents have given farmers assistance in
buying and selling livestock and in the control of diseases. Spe-
cial emphasis has been placed on the growing of feeds and pas-
tures, and giving better care to farm animals. Several cars of good
dairy cattle have been purchased and shipped into the district
for the farmers.
Marketing.-Most of the county agents report that about 15
percent of their time is devoted to organizing and marketing.
Each county has one or more organizations which render valu-
able assistance in marketing crops and livestock, also in the
purchase of supplies. The value of cooperative marketing is
shown by the work accomplished in Lake County. There are
several organizations in that county thru which this work was
done. The county agent was instrumental in organizing a por-
tion of these, while others were in existence before he came to
the county. This agent reports that thru these organizations
the following articles were purchased and the following savings
realized by the farmers.

Fertilizer, 71 cars, saving......................................................... .... $10,500
Crate material, 3,600 packages, saving.............................. ................... 8,000
Insecticides, 2 cars, saving................. .................... 200
Seed, 3 cars, saving........................... .. ............................ .............. 800
Miscellaneous, 1 car, saving-............................ .. ...... ................ ... 200
The same county agent reports that thru the same organ-
izations there were sold in his county:





Florida Cooperative Extension


1,000 cars of citrus fruit, saving..........-......... ....... .......................$95,000
30 cars of vegetables, saving........................... ................. ........... 3,000
6 cars of peaches, saving............................ ........................ 800
600 cars of melons, saving........... -- .......-... ......................... 15,000
1 car of miscellaneous, saving........................ ...... ....... 100
Poultry.-Interest in poultry has increased thruout the dis-
trict. The poultry market has been good the entire year. As-
sisted by N. W. Sanborn, poultry specialist, the agents have
given the poultrymen much help in culling their flocks and in
selecting proper feed and making their yards sanitary.
Farm Implements.-The reports of agents thruout the dis-
trict show that there has been a large number of improved
farm implements, such as sprayers, tractors, cultivators, mow-
ars, hay presses and grain drills, purchased during the year, due
largely to the influence of the agents.
Meetings.-Three group meetings of agents were held dur-
ing spring, one at Ocala, another at Lakeland and a third at
Sanford. Chief J. A. Evans and Agriculturist and Field Agent
H. E. Savely, both of the States Relation Service, United States
Department of Agriculture, Washington, attended these meet-
ings. They were also attended by the state and district agents
from Gainesville and by county agents of nearby counties. The
county agents presented plans of their work for the year for
discussion.
During the year a number of field meetings have been held
wherein farmers were taken to the field or grove and had pointed
out to them certain diseases, insects, etc. Experts attended
these meetings and gave the farmers advice and practical dem-
anstrations along the line of disease and insect control, as well
as the correct use of fertilizer and the proper methods of culti-
vation.
Fairs and Exhibits.-Alachua, Marion, Citrus, Manatee and
Lee Counties held county fairs. In February the South Florida
Fair was held at Tampa, to which a number of the counties
sent exhibits of their agricultural and horticultural products.
Other counties exhibited at the Mid-Winter Fair which was held
in Orlando during February.
Statistical Report.-During the year the district agent in
charge of this district traveled 10,478 miles by rail and 4,011
miles by automobile, a total of 14,489 miles; made 104 official
visits to county agents; attended 38 farmers' meetings, which
were attended by 4,040 farm people; and visited 124 farmers.





Annual Report, 1921


REPORT OF H. G. CLAYTON, DISTRICT AGENT, WEST
FLORIDA

Territory and Appropriation.-Previous to July 1, 1921, this
territory embraced all counties north and west of Gainesville,
and Clay and Bradford Counties east of Gainesville. On Jan-
uary, 1, there were agents in Escambia, Santa Rosa, Walton,
Holmes, Bay, Liberty, Gadsden, Leon, Madison, Taylor, Suwan-
aee, Columbia and Duval Counties. Leon County dropped out
Af the work in February, the agent resigning to take up more
remunerative work, and the county commissioners failing to sup-
port a new agent. Holmes County has had no agent since
October, due to a reduction of county appropriation below fig-
ires necessary to keep a good agent. Okaloosa County has pro-
vided funds for county agent work to begin January 1, 1922.
On July 1, this territory was changed to include only those
counties west of the Suwannee River and the following report
:overs just that section of Florida.
There has been scarcely any increase in county appropriations
For these counties over those provided last year. The nine coun-
ties provided a total of $12,620 in support of the work.
Farm Organizations.-Escambia, Walton and Madison Coun-
ties have county farm bureaus. A number of farmers' coopera-
tive associations organized for marketing purposes have been
4uite effective in selling farm produce. Certain farm agencies
have been perfected for social welfare and educational advan-
tages. Those in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties have done
much good work. Holmes County has two local organizations
)f the farmers' union, both of which are making substantial pro-
gress. The agricultural committee of the Gadsden County Cham-
ber of Commerce has done much good work this year.
In general the work of the organizations has been to unite
the farmers to solve their most pressing problems. Grading,
standardization, cooperative buying and selling, assisting in
holding community and county fairs, and fostering club work
and a better general understanding of their particular problems
have been stressed as never before. Some excellent results have
been obtained.
Club Work.-Much time has been devoted to club work this
year, assisting with the boys' short course and coaching the
:lub boys in livestock judging. I assisted in holding three club
zamps, conducted six club contests and assisted in others; be-





Florida Cooperative Extension


FIG. 6.-A Madison County boy with foundation stock for a future herd

sides helping to handle the club show at the State Fair and
visiting club members with county agents in order to instruct
and encourage the boys. Club work as a whole has been suc-
cessful thruout the district. This is indicated by a big im-
provement in quality of exhibits shown and by better reports
and improved records of club boys. Corn yields were not as
good as last year in most counties, but this was due to sea-
sonal conditions. Sweet potato yields were exceptionally good.
Special Activities.-The Escambia County agent showed the
best agricultural exhibit at the State Fair, winning first prize
for his county. The county agent of Madison showed the best
10 club pigs at the State Fair. One of his club boys won first
on a Poland-China junior yearling boar in the open class against
all breeders. The county agent of Santa Rosa had the best
corn-club exhibit at the State Fair of any club of 25 members.
County agents have given personal instruction to 1,000 farmers
regarding the use of fertilizers.
Much good work has been done by county agents in getting
farmers to plant new home orchards and to spray and take




Annual Report, 1921


better care of old ones. Special efforts by the Escambia and
Walton agents have resulted in big increases in plantings of
Satsuma oranges and blueberries. Marketing has been stressed
by the agents as never before and splendid results have been
obtained.
Crops.-Satisfactory crops on a substantial acreage were pro-
duced thruout the district. Dry weather late in the growing
season reduced somewhat the total production of peanuts, corn,
cane, hay and, in a few counties, sweet potatoes, especially where
planted late. The hay crop, while reduced in tonnage, was of
exceptionally fine quality. The sweet potatoes in extreme west-
ern counties made good yields and were of good quality and
marketable size. Those put in curing houses went in under
almost ideal conditions.
Livestock.-Along with agriculture in general the livestock
industry has suffered from low prices and high freight rates.
1. Dairy Cattle.-Much interest is being shown in dairying
in several counties. Proper facilities for producing higher qual-
ity dairy products and for marketing them are two big
problems. Coupled with these is the inability to bring in suc-
cessfully good cows from tick-free territory. A few good cattle,
mostly young animals, have been brought in. Efforts of dairy-
men at Tallahassee with a newly formed cooperative creamery
are being watched with much interest by the farmers in other
counties. Their success would be a big factor in increasing
dairying in West Florida. County agents report bringing into
this district three purebred dairy bulls and twenty-four pure-
bred cows.
2. Hogs.-The quality of hogs marketed continues to im-
prove and farmers are learning better methods of taking care
of this improved stock. One disturbing factor which will in-
fluence the 1922 hog crop is the low market price, coupled with
a change in demand by our principal markets for light rather
than heavy hogs. This, it is hoped, is only temporary. Better
breeding stock is still being sought by farmers. County agents
report 25 purebred boars and 96 purebred sows and gilts brought
into this district. They also report having assisted their farm-
ers, who are breeding good stock, in selling 336 purebred hogs
to other farmers in their respective counties.
3. Poultry.-In cooperation with extension poultry special-
ists, county and home demonstration agents have aroused





Florida Cooperative Extension


considerable interest among the farmers of West Florida ir
keeping more and better poultry. Poultry meetings and culling
demonstrations have been held in practically all nine counties
of the district and more men are becoming interested in poultry
Several commercial poultry plants have been established in Wal-
ton County. Escambia County has a wide-awake poultry asso
ciation.
Marketing.-The cooperative marketing of farm crops, to
gether with the purchase of certain necessary farm items, was
stressed by agents this year. Agents have assisted their va.
rious cooperative organizations in buying 53 carloads of fer.
tilizer (over 1,400 tons), syrup cans, fruit trees, seed potatoes
etc., and in selling 87 cars of watermelons, 77 of sweet potatoes
and 6 of Irish potatoes, wool, hogs, etc. The total savings t<
the farmers in these cooperative transactions amount to $41,038
Farm Implements.-Improved farm implements are constantly
being purchased by farmers. More corn planters and plow,
were purchased than any other implements. County agents re
port the purchase by farmers in this district of 75 corn planters
83 plows, 3 hay presses, 27 two-horse cultivators, 15 hay rakes
21 disc harrows, 4 grain drills, 25 spray machines, 3 manurt
spreaders and 353 small tools of various kinds.
Meetings.-Group meetings of county agents were held in th<
spring. Three or four agents from adjoining counties, having
similar problems, were called together for a day. At thes(
meetings the problems of each agent were gone into and plan.
made for carrying out certain projects. Each agent submitted
a written plan of the work he expected to carry out for th(
year. Now that the year's work is over we see that the world
has been carried out on these definite plans and the reports
show conclusively the value of a carefully thought-out plan t(
use as a guide, as it makes definite results more certain.
West Florida county agents held in their respective counties
a total of 45 field meetings and 338 farmers meetings, attended&
by 7,158 persons. It is at these meetings that the farmers
problems are discussed and plans made for producing and mar.
keting certain crops. Several farm meetings were in the nature
of trips to adjoining counties where some special activity was
being carried out. In this way farmers were enabled to sec
just how the work is being done and what results are being
obtained.
Two extension dairy schools were held during the year.










Annual Report, 1921


FIG. 7.-Grand champion pig-club pig in the breeding class, 1921; raised by
Kenneth McMullen, Madison County

Fairs and Exhibits.-County fairs were held in Escambia,
Walton, Madison and Taylor Counties. These fairs showed im-
provement over last year's, both in quantity and quality of
products displayed. Many community fairs were held thruout
the district. Escambia and Gadsden Counties put on county
displays at the State Fair. The boys' club exhibits of Liberty
and Santa Rosa Counties are entitled to especial mention this
year as they were exceptionally fine.
Statistical Report.-During the year I traveled 16,084 miles
by railroad and 2,925 miles by automobile, making a total of
19,009 miles. Ninety-six official visits were made to county
agents. Forty-five farmers' meetings, at which there were
3,975 persons, were attended. Forty-two visits were made to
demonstration farms, besides numerous other visits to farmers
and club members.





Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF S. W. HIATT, DISTRICT AGENT, EAST AND
NORTHEAST FLORIDA
Territory.-The territory covered in this district is comprised
of the following counties: Suwannee, Columbia, Hamilton,
Baker, Union, Bradford, Nassau, Duval, St. Johns, Putnam,
Flagler, Volusia, Seminole, Brevard, St. Lucie, Palm Beach,
Broward and Dade. Of these counties Broward, Nassau, Brad-
ford, Union and Baker have had no county agent at any period
during the year.
County Appropriations.-Columbia and Seminole Counties fail-
ed to make appropriations for agricultural extension work for
1922. Hamilton, St. Johns, Clay and Flagler made appropria-
tions beginning with September. The appropriations of the 12
counties having county agents at the end of the year total
$24,650, as compared with $19,860 from 10 counties in the same
territory last year.
Farm Organizations.-The farm bureau movement is gaining
ground in this district, being most active in Palm Beach, Su-
wannee and Columbia Counties. Several counties are making
preparations for county organization, initial work of same hav-
ing already started.


FIG. 8.-Grand champion club fat barrow, 1921; raised by W. L. Rogers, Jr.,
Suwannee County





Annual Report, 1921


In Palm Beach County community councils have been very
active, with the result that the communities concerned have
materially benefited. This is especially true of the Lake Okee-
chobee section where roads, schools, churches and better social
conditions have been brought into each community during the
year. Another result of organization in this county is a mar-
keting association which is preparing to handle all kinds of farm
produce.
Owing to peculiar conditions in the lower East Coast Counties,
regular club work is not considered entirely practical., There-
fore, stress has been laid on bee clubs and with splendid results
in Brevard and Palm Beach Counties. In the northern portion
of the district, pig, corn and sweet potato clubs are making fair
progress. A fat-barrow club, organized in Suwannee County,
fed out and showed a car of purebred Poland-China hogs at the
Suwannee County and State Fairs.
Club camps were held in Suwannee, Duval and Columbia
Counties.
Special Activities.-Due to the fact that this district extends
the full length of the state, the activities of county agents cover
practically every phase of agriculture from general farming and
livestock production in the northern portion to sub-tropical
fruit and vegetable growing in the southern portion. It also
includes such highly specialized sections as the Irish potato
section of St. Johns, Putnam and Flagler Counties; the celery
and lettuce section of Seminole County; and the pineapple and
early tomato section of the lower East Coast; all of which pre-
sent peculiar problems. The production of citrus fruits is one
of the largest industries of this district and special attention
is being given to spraying, fertilization and care of these groves.
Livestock.-Livestock, principally hogs and dairy cattle, is re-
ceiving increased attention, especially in Suwannee and Colum-
bia Counties. Splendid dairies are being developed in Duval,
Dade and Palm Beach Counties. Increased interest is being
shown in poultry thruout the district and some excellent work
is being done by county agents. Home demonstration agents
likewise, are doing much splendid poultry work.
Marketing.-The marketing of citrus and truck crops of the
East Coast is largely handled thru cooperative agencies and
associations. In the general farming section the marketing
problem is a vital one, and as yet is not being handled satis-





Florida Cooperative Extension


factorily. As an example of what cooperation will do in this
section may be cited the results of the county agent's work in
cooperative marketing in Columbia County:

4 cars of hogs brought...........$4,800, or $700 increase over local prices
14 cars of sweet potatoes.......... 8,400, or 2800 increase over local prices
7,000 pounds of meats.................... 1,700, or 350 increase over local prices
Total ................................. $14,900, or $3858 net increase

From these transactions the farmers were netted an increase
of 28 percent over local prices. Six hundred dollars was also
saved on the purchase of three carloads of fertilizers. Several
other counties will buy and sell farm supplies and products
cooperatively next year.
Meetings of a nature to interest and instruct farmers, truck-
ers and fruit growers have been held thruout the district under
the direction of county agents. These were usually under the
auspices of the farm bureau and other farm organizations.
Fairs and Exhibits.-County fairs were held in Dade, Palm
Beach, St. Lucie, Suwannee and Columbia Counties. The out-
standing feature in most of these was community exhibits, some
of them surpassing many of the county exhibits at the State
Fair. Volusia and Seminole Counties exhibited at the Orlando
fair, and Columbia exhibited at the South Florida Fair, Tampa,










FIG. 9.-It's not all work and no play at the club camps. Scene at the
Duval-St. Johns-Putnam club camp, 1921

in February. Suwannee, Columbia, Clay, St. Johns, Putnam,
Flagler, Duval and Dade Counties exhibited at the State Fair,
Jacksonville, in November. County fairs are indebted almost
entirely for their success to county and home demonstration
agents. County exhibits at state and sectional fairs were super-
vised by one or both of these agents. The great success of
agricultural fairs in Florida is due undoubtedly to the county
























Annual Report, 1921 39

agents' making this one of their special means of distributing
agricultural information and stimulating interest in agriculture.
Statistical Report.-During the year I traveled 14,762 miles;
made 93 official visits to county agents and attended 53 farm-
ers' meetings, at which there was a total attendance of 14,000
persons; assisted with four club camps; and judged the agri-
cultural products at eight fairs.





Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF R. W. BLACKLOCK, BOYS' CLUB AGENT
Club work was pushed actively in 25 counties this year. Much
good work has been done, made particularly noticeable by the
percentage of reports received. By a determined effort the
county agents have received reports from 49.4 percent of all
club members enrolled, as against 24 percent in 1920.
Corn Club.-The value of the corn club as training for future
farmers is being demonstrated not only in increased yields, but
also by quality of the ten-ear exhibits shown by boys at county
and state contests. These exhibits compared favorably with
the exhibits by adults at the larger fairs. The boys are learn-
ing that seed selected from true-to-type corn pays. The boys
are learning how to select corn and how to prepare exhibits.
The bushel-cost of producing corn remained about the same
as last year, being $0.423 as against $0.493 for 1920. The acre-
profit shows a material reduction due to the great decline in
market value of corn.
Sweet-Potato Club.-The sweet-potato club was given a big
boost by the offer of the State Plant Board to supply draws
from selected seed to a limited number of club boys. The re-
quest for draws was greater than the supply. The sweet-potato
club enrollment increased from 29 in 1920 to 269 in 1921. The
boys were located in 15 counties and each received sufficient
draws to plant an eighth of an acre. Many of them are saving
seed for another year which means better potatoes thruout the
state. The need of higher yielding strains of sweet potatoes
has been apparent in all sections of Florida and the 1921 sweet-
potato club has helped materially in supplying this need. The
exhibits of potatoes shown at the club contests were far superior
to those shown before.
The reports of sweet-potato clubs show a larger profit to
the club member than those of any other crop-growing clubs,
and a larger enrollment for them is expected next year.
Peanut Club.-The peanut club showed a decided decrease in
membership, due to many of last year's members being unable
to dispose of their peanuts. The yields were about the same,
but quality, as shown by the exhibits, was better. Alachua
County, for the second time, led the state in this club, having
an enrollment of 27.
Bee Club.-The bee club was started a year ago to give South
Florida boys and girls a chance to enjoy the benefits of club





Annual Report, 1921


work. This work has been successful in Brevard County. The
work has spread into Orange, Osceola and Palm Beach Counties
and the enrollment grew from 14 in 1920 to 38 in 1921. This
promises to be a good club project in the counties of the lower
East Coast.
Pig Club.-The enrollment in this club was affected somewhat
by the big drop in hog prices. Many club members, who paid
high prices for their pigs in 1920 and who were forced to ac-
cept much less during 1921, were discouraged. The enrollment
this year is 356 against 618 in 1920. The quality of pigs
was better and some exceptionally good animals were shown at
contests. The boys are beginning to regain confidence and the
enrollment for 1922 promises to be up to normal.
Fat-Barrow Club.-In order to demonstrate that the purebred
hog is a more economical pork-producing machine than the scrub,
the two should be fed out under identical conditions. When the
farmer sees the purebred pig gain faster than the scrub, when
fed from the same trough and in the same field, he has no fur-
ther argument in behalf of the scrub.









FIG. 10.-Carload of fat barrows fed out by Suwannee County club boys,
1921; shown at State Fair

In order to prove the superiority of the purebred in producing
pork, the Suwannee County barrow club was organized. The
club was backed by the Florida Black Poland-China Association
and only purebred Poland-Chinas were used. Fifty-seven pigs
were put out with 26 boys and girls. Some members fed three
barrows and some only one. Initial weights of these 57 pure-
bred barrows, their gains and pound costs of gains are given in
the following table:

Total final weight, 10,453 pounds; av. final weight, 190 pounds.
Total initial weight, 4,124 pounds; av. initial weight, 74.9 pounds.
Total gain, 6,329 pounds; av. gain, 115.1 pounds.
Number days fed, 85; av. daily gain, 1.35 pounds.
Average pound cost of gain, 5.2 cents.






42 Florida Cooperative Extension

The interesting part of this experiment is found in the stories
written by the boys and girls. One.boy said: "I am thoroly
convinced that to raise scrub hogs is a waste of time and feed."
Another boy said: "With almost the same attention and feed
my purebred pigs are more than as large again as the scrubs."
The superiority of the purebred pig was demonstrated in every
case.
In 1922 an attempt will be made to have the members, feeding
breeding pigs this year, grow out barrows which are the progeny
of their 1921 club pigs. Prizes will be offered to the club mem-
ber showing the best pen and best single barrow, being the
product of their club breeding animals.
By means of the fat-barrow club, we hope to be able to dem-
onstrate the value of better blood and to increase the profits of
club work.
Summary of Club Work.-Below are figures which show the
importance of the various clubs in the state.

Corn Club-
Enrollment ..............................-.. ............. 509
Reported .................................---- ............ 258
Bushels reported....-............................ ........ ... 8,952.6
Average acre yield in bushels....... ................. ...... 34.7
Average bushel cost..........----.............................. 0.423
Total value of crop, @ 50c a bushel ---....................$4,476.30

Sweet-Potato Club-
Enrollment ........-.............. ................. 269
Reported ....................... ............ .............. 138
Bushels reported............................... ........ ......3,567
Average yield to % acre........... ................... 25.12
Average bushel cost...................... ................ ....$ 0.25
Total value of crop, @ 50c a bushel..................$1,783.50

Peanut Club-
Enrollment ......................... .............. 90
Reported ....-.................. - ............. 37
Bushels reported.................. .............................. 1,391.2
Average acre yield in bushels (nuts).................. 37.6
Average acre yield in pounds (hay)........................ 1,000
Average bushel cost............................$ 0.44
Total value of crop--................ ..................-$1,413.40

Bee Club-
Enrollment .............. .................... 38
Reported ..................... .... ...................... 19
Colonies added................... ...... ..... .... ........ 18
Value of products......................... ........................ $ 441.29
Total value........................................................... $1,271.29






Annual Report, 1921

Breeding-Pig Club-
Enrollment ........... ----........ -.......... -... 318
Reported .......... .-----.....~...... .... ......... 151
Animals raised ........... ----....... ......... .......... 151
Average cost of gain, pound----.................................$ 0.098
Total value of pigs raised, @ $50...........................-$7,550.00

Fat-Barrow Club-


Enrollm ent .........-..-...... .. ... .. .................
Reported ...--.......... ----..... -------------
Pigs fed out................--........--.---- --- -...
Average cost of gain, pound...................................$
Total value animals sold, 8s a pound..........--.........$


40
38
63
0.052
855.60


Value of Products or Animals Raised-
Corn .................. ------...... ..----- .--- $ 4,476.30
Sweet-potato ........................... ........ .... 1,783.50
Peanut .......... ....... .... .................. 1,413.40
Bee .................................... ... 1,271.29
Breeding-pig .....--................................. ...... 7,550.00
Fat-barrow ........................... -............ 855.60
Miscellaneous ........--........--.. ................. 650.00
Total............. ......-.... ...............$18,000.09

Livestock Judging.-The training of club boys to judge live-
stock is essential to the livestock development of the state. The
value of better blood is becoming more appreciated. However,
boo many farmers consider the registration paper as a guar-
antee of excellence and neglect the individuality of the animal.
The livestock farmer cannot prosper as he should until he can
judge every animal as an individual as well as by his pedigree.
During the year over 100 club boys were given some training
n judging livestock, 18 were given intensive training and four
were taken on a three weeks' trip thru Florida and Georgia to


FIG. 11.-Training the team that represented Florida in the international
club-iudving contests. Atlanta. 1921





Florida Cooperative Extension


visit the best herds of cattle and hogs to be found. Three of
the boys represented Florida in the international club judging
contest in Atlanta.
State Fair.-The club exhibit at the State Fair showed marked
improvement over last year. The corn exhibit was larger and
of better quality. The sweet-potato exhibit was remarkable for
the quality of the potatoes shown. The exhibits of honey from
Brevard and Palm Beach Counties were excellent.
In the pig club 96 pigs were shown, being the largest exhibit
ever shown at the State Fair. The outstanding feature of the
exhibit was the carload of purebred Poland-China barrows shown
by the Suwannee County barrow club. The quality of these
hogs was such that the manager of a big packing plant said no
packer could ask for better hogs. Out of this car came the
grand champion pen of Poland-China barrows in the open show
and the grand champion pen and grand champion barrow for
the pig club.
For the first time in Florida, a pig club pig was placed first in
the open class over pigs shown by breeders. The first prize
junior yearling Poland-China boar was shown by a pig-club boy.
The quality and condition of club pigs won much praise from
breeders. These breeders stated that the club pigs had not been
"fed off their feet" but came into the show ring in proper con-
dition.
Club Camps.-All work and no play makes country life unat-
tractive. Believing that club members are entitled to some good
time in connection with their work, club camps and one-day
picnics were held during the summer. The one-day picnics were
usually community affairs where the neighborhood club boys and
girls came together for a good time.
At the camps, members from one county, and in some cases
several adjoining counties, came together for from two to four
days. The main idea was to give the boys an opportunity to
become acquainted and to enjoy themselves. Work along club
lines was given at every camp. Instruction and practice in
judging livestock was the principal work. The club camp has
become one of the big events of the year and every boy wants
to win a trip to it as well as to the state short course.
In Escambia, Santa Rosa, Madison, Taylor, Suwannee, Duval,
Putnam, Alachua, Hernando and Citrus Counties, boys and girls
were taken to the same camp. In Columbia, a boys' camp was






Annual Report, 1921


FIG. 12-"Kitchen police" at boys' and girls' club camp


held. In Bay and Gadsden Counties one-day community clul
picnics were held.
Cooperation.-An attempt is being made to secure local as
distance in promoting club work. In Gadsden County local mel
have given assistance. These men have been of great help ti
the county agent in holding picnics and in raising prize money
as well as in visiting club members and carrying on routine worli
Possibly the best example of local cooperation is in Suwanne,
County where local members of the Florida Black Poland-Chin;
Association assisted in putting over a fat-barrow club. Th,
committee that did this work was composed of L. S. Harvard
Jacob Johnson, Sid Hinley, Henry Grant and A. R. Maddox
What they did is a convincing example of what active local co
operation can accomplish in club work. These men not onl:
gave their moral support to. the county agent but gave thei
time as well. They not only assisted in enrolling the member
but took charge of locating the pigs and bringing them to th,
county seat for delivery, looked after the weighing, made al
arrangements for financing the boys, raised prize money, visit,
the members and helped hold the county contest. This was th,
most successful county club in the state. All but two member





Florida Cooperative Extension


reported. After the county contest a carload of the best bar-
rows were sent to the State Fair. It is hoped that local breed-
ers in other counties will follow this example.
At the July meeting of the State Swine Growers' Association
a committee of five was appointed to act with the state club
agent as an advisory committee in pig-club work. The members
of this committee have been of much service at fairs and con-
tests. It is planned to broaden the scope of the work of this
committee next year so as to enable them to aid further the
livestock development of the state.
Patrons of Club Work.-The support given club work by busi-
ness men of Florida is proof that the work has won recognition.
Our friends are many, and there are many who have shown
their appreciation by liberal donations of money.
Williamson & Dennis, a.livestock commission firm of Jackson-
ville, has contributed annually a $250 scholarship to the College
of Agriculture as a prize to the club member showing the grand
champion in the breeding classes at the state pig-club show. In
addition to this, Mr. Dennis handled the carload of fat barrows
at the State Fair and has assisted in many ways toward making
the work successful.


FIG. 13.-County agent helping a club boy with his record book





Annual Report, 1921


The Florida Bankers' Association gave three $100 scholar-
ships to the College of Agriculture and $100 toward paying the
expenses of the Florida team to the international club judging
contest in Atlanta.
The Model Land Company of St. Augustine contributed $200
toward the expenses of this judging team.
The Ft. Pierce Bank and Trust Company gave $100 toward the
expenses of the team.
Armour & Company donated two trips to the international
livestock show at Chicago, valued at $150 each. One of these
trips went to the state champion corn-club boy and one to the
boy showing the grand champion fat barrow at the state club
show.
The Florida State Fair Association is always liberal and the
premiums offered in the boys' club department at the State Fair
are the largest offered by any state fair in the South. In ad-
dition, they gave $50 toward the expenses of the Florida judging
team and gave one county agent a trip to the international live-
stock show in Chicago.
State Champions.-Gervin Pringle of Duval County is state
champion in the corn club, having made 105 bushels on one acre
at a cost of 20 cents a bushel. He won a trip, given by Armour
& Company, to the international livestock show.
W. L. Rogers, Jr., of Suwannee County won the trip, given by
Armour & Company, to the international livestock show on his
grand champion club barrow.
Kenneth McMullen of Madison County showed the grand
champion club pig in breeding classes at the State Fair and won
Williamson & Dennis' $250 scholarship to the College of Agri-
culture, University of Florida. Kenneth has the distinction of
being the first club boy in Florida to win a first prize in the open
ring at the State Fair.
Stewart Martin of Brevard County, Ernan Fraser of Alachua
County, and Buel Roche of Washington County, won the three
$100 scholarships to the College of Agriculture given by the
State Bankers' Association.
Madison County won first in the pig-club show at the State
Fair for having the best ten breeding club pigs. Alachua County
won second. County Agents B. E. Lawton and C. D. Gunn won
trips to the international livestock show on the showing made
by their counties.





Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF J. M. SCOTT, EXTENSION ANIMAL
INDUSTRIALIST
Advising farmers thru county agents regarding problems of
feeding and of growing forage crops and grasses, particularly
for hogs and dairy cows, and impressing upon dairymen the im-
portance of keeping better animals, were the principal works done
this year by this department.
One of the big problems in our dairying is to increase the
milk production of the average cow. This requires constructive
educational work along lines of economic production, emphasiz-
ing selection, feeding and general care of the dairy herd. Our
most reliable data indicates that the average dairy cow of Flor-
ida produces about three hundred gallons of milk in a year, or
about a gallon a day. At this rate dairying is not profitable.
There are now official records of a number of purebred dairy
cows in the state that have produced from 1,000 to 1,500 gallons
of milk in a year. This is sufficient evidence to prove that, with
proper management, good cows can be made to produce satis-
factory yields of milk in this state. Information, intended to
raise the average production, has been given to county agents
in lectures and letters and to the public thru the press.
Some Results.-Results that may be attributed to extension
work is the creamery at Tallahassee and the one about to be
started at Ocala. Both of these were organized within the fiscal
year and both are stock companies, financed locally.
We assisted district and county agents in holding dairy schools
in Leon, Suwannee, Hernando, Pasco, Marion and Hillsboro
Counties. Two or more meetings were held in each county.
Dairy management, grass and forage crops and marketing dairy
products were the subjects stressed. We also arranged the
programs and details of the Livestock Roundup held on the
University campus. A main feature of the Roundup was an
auction sale of registered dairy calves consigned by southern
breeders. In the sale were 12 Jerseys, 6 Holstein-Friesians, 2
Guernseys and 1 Ayrshire, a total of 21, 15 heifers and 6 bulls.
The 21 sold for a total of $1,885. The expense of the sale, pro-
rated among the animals sold, equaled $7.85 a head. Practically
all of the calves were sold to beginners in dairy work, which
means that these men are starting with good foundation stock.
We made surveys of those counties likely to develop dairying,
and found that with but few exceptions, there are not sufficient






















Annual Report, 1921 49

dairy products to supply the local demands. The Texas fever
tick is a tremendous handicap to dairying. It is impossible to
bring in dairy cows from tick-free areas, and very difficult to
develop dairy herds on tick-infested farms. When Florida eradi-
cates the tick, dairying will develop more rapidly and substan-
tially.
While the beef cattle industry has shown a marked improve-
ment within the last few years, due to importations of cattle
since 1917, little progress was accomplished this year. This
stand-still is due to the lack of a demand for beef cattle at any
price.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF J. B. THOMPSON, FORAGE CROP SPECIALIST*
The problem of producing a constant supply of good rough-
ige continues a leading feature in Florida's livestock develop-
nent. Farmers are realizing more and more that a constantly
adequate supply of good forage is absolutely essential to a prof-
table and prosperous industry. There is a growing demand for
lata on the various phases of forage production; and the mem-
bers of the extension staff are being called upon with increased
regularity to supply this information.
Better Pastures and Production of Forage Crops.-The im-
provement of pastures and the production of forage crops, prin-
cipally for cattle, have been important problems and projects of
my work.
Methods of Handling Problems.-These problems were handled
principally by getting in direct contact with farmers, thru their
county agents, and advising them as to the kinds of grasses
suited to their particular soils and livestock. The general
use of silage crops, in particular corn, Japanese cane and
Napier grass, was recommended wherever there was suffi-
cient stock and wherever conditions warranted. Due to the
heavy expenditures of Florida dairymen for the purchase of
roughages, the importance of having a continuous supply of
forage crops that could be used for soiling purposes was urged.
During recent months livestock interests have suffered, due
to low prices for livestock products. This has made it necessary
that greater economy be practiced, if livestock is to be kept on
the farm at all. This applies particularly to the farms of the
state, not to range conditions.
A second method of attacking the problem was to make
grass surveys in cooperation with county agents. This was done
for three purposes; first, to gain a more accurate knowledge as
to types of soil naturally adapted to our best native grasses;
second, to determine in what sections of the state these native
grasses grow naturally; and, third, to instruct county agents in
the identification of grasses so that they may intelligently
recommend the kind to plant on various soils for various live-
stock.
In making a survey, two or three days were spent in a county,
the county agent and I traveling together, making collections

*This report is for the period beginning January 1 and ending June
Rn 1991










Annual Report, 1921


and finally rendering a report to be filed in the agent's office for
his information and reference.
The Agricultural Extension Division and the Experiment Sta-
tion cooperated in putting over this project, the latter maintain-
ing experimental grass plots on its farm. Bulletins were dis-
tributed and the press supplied with special articles on this
work, as a means of informing the public of the importance of
our undertaking.
Between January 1 and June 30, I did survey work in seven
counties as follows: Columbia, Gadsden, Hernando, Lake, Mar-
ion, Osceola and Taylor. In this survey work specimens of about
three hundred of our grasses were collected and mounted on
standard herbarium sheets. These are available for comparing
and identifying grasses sent in by county agents and farmers.
The grass survey work was a most important project. Thru
it a number of county agents were acquainted with the merits
and demerits of certain native grasses, and informed as to the
kind of grasses that should be grown on different soils.
I also delivered lectures on forage crop subjects. In all, 19
lectures were given to a total of 1,250 people. Twenty-four
articles were supplied to the press and one bulletin, "Some
Florida Grasses," issued. This bulletin contains 42 pages with
15 illustrations.
Due to demonstrations by county agents and grasses intro-
duced by the Florida Experiment Station, a number of valuable
grasses have been brought to the attention of stockmen. County
agents have assisted farmers and rangemen in improving the
native pastures by selecting grasses and advocating better pas-
ture practices. Dairymen have been taught that much forage,
formerly bought, can be grown on their farms at material sav-
ings. This has led to the building of many silos, the growing
of crops for silage and soiling purposes and the establishment
of winter pastures. These things are becoming general prac-
tices thruout the state.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF N. W. SANBORN, POULTRY SPECIALIST*

The work of the year has been carried out in cooperation with
the county and home demonstration agents. It has been fur-
ther extended and made effective by material furnished the state
press, by publications issued by the College of Agriculture, by
direct correspondence with poultrymen, culling demonstrations,
by delivering addresses at schools, clubs and public meetings,
and by personal consultation with poultrymen seeking help in
the solution of their special problems.
Program of Poultry Extension Work, 1921-22.-At the annual
meeting of county and home demonstration agents, a committee
of which the poultry specialist was a member, reported back to
the convention the following suggestions to be followed in poul-
try work:

1. Encourage farm people to keep purebred poultry.
2. Select breed for specific purpose.
3. Cull carefully, constantly, keeping records before and after.
4. Feed better.
5. Try to solve marketing problems by:
a. Using the marketing agencies of the farm bureau where prac-
tical.
b. Grading products in order to get best prices for best products.
c. Producing infertile eggs for table use.
6. Encourage fall hatching for winter broilers.
7. Take advantage of publicity:
8. Encourage organization of county poultry associations.
a. Use newspapers.
b. Show at State Fairs.
c. Hold county poultry shows and, where possible, use score cards
for their educational value.
Three lines of information have been emphasized thruout the
year:
1. The getting of more eggs.
2. The rearing of better chicks.
3. The rigid culling of chicks and hens.
Thru correspondence, newspaper articles, lectures and con-
ferences with poultrymen, I have tried to encourage methods
that will produce, for the least expenditure of time and money,
more and better eggs and chickens, by discarding the slacker
chickens.
The most important piece of poultry extension work under-
taken has been the statewide culling of growing chicks and lay-

*This, the fourth annual report for this particular work, is for the
period beginning July 1 and ending December 31, 1921, and for two short
trips in June, 1921.





Annual Report, 1921


ing hens. This has been accomplished by the county and home
demonstration agents calling people together for instruction
and actual practice in culling poultry flocks. The idea has been
to so teach and illustrate culling methods that those who come
to these meetings may go home and cull their own stock. In
August six culling demonstrations were given in Escambia
County.
A week after these demonstrations the county agent was in-
vited by a man, who had attended one demonstration, to cull out
the good layers from the poor ones of his flock. This was done
of course. They had no legbands to properly mark the good
layers, so they tied a string around the shank of every bird that
seemed to be in the good-layer class. Several days later the
farmer said to County Agent Smith, "I notice that the hens
with strings on the legs are doing the most scratching." He
was convinced of the importance of culling. The hen that lays
lots of eggs enjoys active life; she gets up early, is busy all the
day and goes to roost late.
Five years ago poultry keeping was considered largely a
"woman's play." Today it is being looked upon as a "man's
work." Farmers, who only a few years ago could not tell how
many hens were on their farms, are asking-poultry questions,
coming to meetings in larger and larger numbers, because, as
they say, "there may be money in poultry." Until recently there
was but little purebred poultry stock on the average Florida
farm; and this stock got little care and less feed.
But today it is different. Florida does not begin to produce
enough eggs and poultry for its own use. There are less than
fifty laying hens on the average farm. The amount of our poul-
try could be doubled, if for no other purpose than to supply the
markets within our own state. If we should produce more poul-
try than needed in Florida, the markets of Cuba and other nearby
countries are open to us. Florida is naturally adapted to the rais-
ing of poultry. Its clear days and nights, its open growing sea-
son of 12 months, fit it for growing good chickens and get-
ting large egg production. Without trapnests, without extend-
ing the working hours of the hens by artificial lighting, one
farm flock in a neighboring county has averaged yearly, for the
last two years, 160 eggs each from 1,000 hens. This means two
and a half dollars to the hen for the owner's time and knowledge,
all charges paid.

























54 Florida Cooperative Extension


Statistical Report.-The following figures are indicative of the
work I have done during the period covered by this report.

Miles traveled by rail and boat-...................................5,431
Miles traveled by auto-...........-....- ........................---1,903
M meetings held .... .............. ..................... ....... .. 123
Attendance at these meetings................... ..................2,860
Poultry shows judged ...............-- ................. 4
Conferences in. office.........----- ------...... ................ 71
Letters written.................... -----....--- .........-.. 843
Circular letters mailed....--.----.................. ...... ....1,500
Bulletins m ailed- ... ...... ............ .... .....................1,413
Conferences outside of office.----......................--- ........ 54
Office hours in county agents' offices......................... 16
Poultry farm s visited......................................................... 157
Backyard flocks visited................................-----------------. 49
Culling demonstrations........................ ............... ....... 61






Annual Report, 1921


REPORT OF THE WATERMELON DISEASE SPECIALIST*
The control of diseases and insect pests of watermelons was
undertaken by directly helping individual growers and by giving
instructions at mass meetings of farmers. Anthracnose and
stem-end rot and certain insects, all of which are usually pre-
valent in watermelon fields during spring, received special at-
tention. The work undertaken and the results accomplished
were due to the joint efforts of the specialist and county agents.
Watermelon growers were furnished with definite instructions
direct from the central office. This was made possible thru the
cooperation of the railroads, which furnished a list of the grow-
ers along their lines. Knowing them and their location made it
possible to furnish information to practically every grower of
watermelons in the state.
Results of Work.-The following figures give a summary of
the results of our work:
Acres of watermelons in Florida, 1921................................................. 19,244
Acres visited by specialist................---.... ----.... ------- -...................... 9,000
Acres sprayed (approximately 12 percent)....----.. -- ..--................ ......... 2,309
No. of cars shipped from sprayed fields.................-.....-..-- ...................... 461
No. of cars personally inspected by specialist while being loaded........ 300
Data regarding the condition of these cars at destination was
not secured, as it was not possible to inspect at destinations.
The Stem-End Treatment.-The most important work accom-
plished under this project was getting growers and shippers to
use the bluestone paste treatment for the control of stem-end
rot. It was estimated that 80 percent of all cars leaving the
state were treated, a good part of which may be credited to the
efforts of county agents. However, it is due mostly to a ruling
of the railroads which requires the application of this remedy
before melons are accepted as freight, unless freight charges
are prepaid. At some loading points this treatment was applied
carelessly, but at many places it was applied properly, the
growers having been convinced that it is to their interests, as
well as to the interest of the railroads. Growers are not yet
well enough informed on all the phases of stem-end rot control.
They desire to know the WHY of the remedy. The remedy has
been practiced now for only three years. Prior to that time no
cars had been treated with stem-end rot paste for the control

*This report is for the period beginning March 15 and ending June
15. 1921.












Florida Cooperative Extension


FIG. 14.-"Culls," bad-shaped and small melons pulled from the vines and
thrown into the spray rows to be hauled out of the field

of stem-end rot. As the railroads are vitally concerned, their
freight solicitors have been helpful in the application of the
remedy.
Anthracnose.-The spraying of watermelons with bordeaux
mixture for the control of anthracnose is not yet generally prac-
ticed, growers claiming that the expense is greater than con-
ditions warrant. It is also true that during some seasons the
disease is very prevalent. This was true in 1920, whereas in
1921 there was little anthracnose in the state.
Pruning Off Inferior Fruit.-Cutting off inferior melons, leav-
ing only one or two of the best ones to the vine, is being prac-
ticed more generally each year. This change has come about
as a result of the efforts of county agents and the influence of
the more progressive growers in each locality.





Annual Report, 1921


REPORT OF SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, STATE HOME
DEMONSTRATION AGENT
In making this report the plan and purpose of home demon.
station work has been borne in mind. In general, this plar
and purpose means helping others to help themselves by assist-
ing them in the solution of their home and community problems
and teaching methods and practices that make for happier, more
comfortable homes and higher standards of living.
The year just closing finds home demonstration work, froir
the standpoint of individual demonstratori enrolled, strength ol
organization and extent of influence, and from definite results
obtained, advanced well beyond the attainmients of last year.
This report briefly summarizes the following points in oui
work: Project IV, organization, offices and equipment, territory
plans, achievements and outlook.

PROJECT IV
Home demonstration work for the sake of convenience in book.
keeping, is listed as "Project IV." Under this has been developed
the following well-defined projects:
Gardening.-This embraces work in home gardens, home or-
chards, club plots, grape work and flower gardens. This project
is under the general supervision of the assistant state agent anc
the two district agents.
Food Conservation.-This embraces conservation of foods foi
home use and development of a home industry for women anc
girls thru the manufacture and sale of such products. The state
conservation specialist is leader.
Nutrition.-This project includes work \in elementary nutri.
tion, nutrition clinics for underweight children, bread clubs, fooc
preparation and service. The state nutrition specialist is leader,
Poultry.-This project includes a general farm poultry pro-
gram with special references to improving breeds, increasing
production and profitably marketing the output, the organiza-
tion of poultry clubs, egg circles and poultry associations. The
state home demonstration poultry specialist is in charge.
Home Dairying.-This project is developed from the home
standpoint rather than from that of the commercial dairy.
Florida's great need of the home dairy cow and an adequate
supply of milk for home consumption has led to the fostering
if this nrnipof The hnmP diirv apont. in Ilndpr_





Florida Cooperative Extension


Beekeeping.-This is a well-defined program in but two coun-
ties. The agents in these respective counties have entire super-
vision of the work. Home demonstration agents and county
agents, alike, are devoting much of their time to this work in
several counties.
Home Improvement.-This includes home building and re-
modeling, artistic and convenient furnishing, and landscape gar-
dening.

ORGANIZATION

In addition to the supervising staff there are 29 home demon-
stration agents employed. There are enrolled 5,818 girls as
club members and 3,707 women as demonstrators. There are
395 girls' clubs, 122 women's clubs, and 13 county organizations
as a result of our work and thru which we work.
In Florida the initial step in organization is frequently the
enrollment of the individual demonstrator. Due to the exten-
sive area of the average Florida county and the comparatively
small and scattered population, this often seems the only way
in which this work can be done. This method, tho slow, is not
without its advantages. The close contact established between
the agent and the farm family gives to the agent a rare oppor-
tunity to win the confidence of those with whom she works
and to carry the individual club member, and often the entire
family, into community and county organization.
Such organizations, even when crude in type, are proving in-
struments for the development of a finer type of rural life. They
enable the communities to work out many of their own prob-
lems; such as better marketing, better schools, wholesome rec-
reation and child welfare.
Local Leaders.-In the year just closing seven "leadership
schools" were held. The value of the local leader has been recog-
nized for a long time. The proposition always is to find the
leader. Slowly, but none the less surely, is this leader being
developed. In these schools small groups of women, believing
they can fill this place, meet in conference with state and county
workers from time to time to study methods of leadership on
special projects. With this help and the carefully assembled
subject matter furnished thru monthly programs this work has
gone forward encouragingly so far.





Annual Report, 1921


OFFICES AND EQUIPMENT
The state staff is located at present in orie large office. The
clerical force of three is located some distance from the staff
office. This requires constant passing to apd fro thruout the
day. The office of the clerical force must serve the dual pur-
pose of office and bulletin room. Two small rooms are used for
storage. There is an experimental kitchen, where recipes are
tested, and a research laboratory for more extensive work in
this field. In addition to the researches conducted here this
department furnishes much valuable illustrative material for
field work.
County Offices and Equipment.-Each county in the work, ex-
cept one, provides an office for its agent. F ur counties provide
stenographic service. Nine counties provide automobiles. Mate-
rial and equipment for demonstration purposes are provided by
the counties.
TERRITORY
Our work has been maintained in 28 counties in which home
demonstration agents are employed. In sec ring appropriations
from county boards for the continuance of the work for another
year the general financial depression in the country has been
perceptibly felt. But never before have the people of the coun-
ties so readily come forward to demand the continuance of this
service. The few changes made are shown below:


Territory for fiscal year closing
June 30, 1921


Territory for fiscal year closing
June 30, 1922


North and West Florida
Escambia, Santa Rosa, Calhoun, Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa,
Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, Madison, Walton, Gadsden, Leon, Madison,
Suwannee, Columbia, Taylor, Du- Suwannee, Jefferson (1 mo. only),
val, St. Johns, Putnam. Columbia, Taylor, Hamilton, Duval,
St. Johns, Putnam.

South and East Florida
Alachua, Orange, Osceola, Polk, Alachua, Qrange, Osceola, Polk,
Citrus, Hernando, Pasco, Pinellas, Citrus, Hernando, Pasco, Pinellas,
Lee, Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, Lee, Palm Beach, Volusia, Hills-
Elillsboro, Manatee, DeSoto. boro, Manatee, DeSoto.

PLANS
At the agents' annual meeting each agent was asked to confer
with her district agent and the specialists then to state the
lumber of prospective demonstrators under each project, re-





Florida Cooperative Extension


porting the actual enrollment under each, and later to check
the monthly progress toward the goal established. By this
monthly check the progress of the work was kept before county
and state workers.
Junior-club members are being advised to so choose their
program of work that within their club membership they will
have work in gardening, dairying, poultry, beekeeping, foods,
sewing and home beautification. Clubs are urged to unite on
one program for a year. Monthly club programs center about
the activity thus chosen. Individual members may enroll under
other projects to be carried under the direction of the agent.
If a club elects but one year's work under a chosen project, in-
dividuals may and do carry any project for a longer period.
Under this plan junior-club members averaged 1.65 for number
of projects pursued.
Enrollment according to individual membership was 5,818
girls. Enrollment according to activities was 9,661. Of the
5,818 members, 3,898 completed their work. Some of the achieve-
ments of the work under the various projects follow:
ACHIEVEMENTS
1. Gardening.-A Florida garden calendar, prepared by former
State Agent C. K. McQuarrie, has been used as a guide in plant-
ing. Bulletin 29, issued by the Agricultural Extension Divi-
sion, will be of material assistance in the future development of
this work. In garden, orchard and grape work 1,393 girls and
2,421 women were enrolled. In work with flowers 410 girls
and 289 women were enrolled. This latter project is usually a
part of a home-beautification program, tho it is done for profit
occasionally.
2. Canning.-No one phase of club work has been more gen-
erally developed than canning. The possibilities of developing
special products is leading to the building up of a home-indus-
try project under which are enrolled skilled workers interested
in marketing such from the home kitchen. The canning of meats
and fish also falls under this project.
A number of clubs have fitted up canning kitchens for them-
selves. The number of containers reported filled with fruits and
vegetables by girls are 141,961; by women, 578,211. A con-
servative estimate of the monetary value of this work would
be $290,500. Beautiful products from this phase of the work
have been exhibited at county and state fairs.





Annual Report, 1921


FIG. 15.-"Mrs. Byrd has just canned three pigs and two yearling beeves"

The canning of meat and fish is done almost exclusively by
women. Uniformly satisfactory products have been obtained.
[n teaching this, the problem is not merely one of methods in
:anning, but how to cut up a carcass and so handle it that an
entire carcass may be processed in a day in a small home cooker.
When the carcass is that of a beef,it takes skillful manipulation
;o do this. According to reports, 33,945 pounds of fish, meat
md poultry, valued at $19,958, were canne this year.
3. Nutrition.-A general program of food preparation and
service has been given in a number of junior and senior clubs.
Bread-club work undertaken last year was popular in many lo-
:alities. Under this project 490 girls and 400 women were en-
rolled. The nutrition phase of the food program aroused great-
3st interest. It was made the subject of s udy in a number of
women's clubs. More than eight thousand Florida Food Calen-
lars, which offer a practical method of che king up on the food
habits of the family and furnish a simple study in nutrition,
were distributed by requests to housekeepers. A number of
letters on file in the office from some of these housekeepers
speak appreciatively of this work. Hot lunches were estab-





Florida Cooperative Extension


lished in 13 rural schools in which 1,178 students were served.
Nutrition clinics were established in eight communities. Many
requests are on file in the office for similar work in other places
in the state. The conservation specialist has been called on
frequently for special work in nutrition. So numerous are these
calls that a full-time specialist has been added to our staff.
In the health survey and child welfare program, being put on
in the state by the State Board of Health, this department of
extension work and other forces will cooperate. This depart-
ment will direct the work in nutrition.
4. Poultry.-No phase of productive work is more popular
than poultry, as a result of persistency and systematic work on
the part of our extension poultry specialists. When a request
for the appointment of the home demonstration poultry special-
ist was made six years ago no extension work was being carried
on in this field. Poultry raising in the state was represented
in a majority of cases, by ill-kept mongrel flocks on farms and
by a few commercial poultrymen whose business few people
took the trouble to understand. Recognizing poultry raising as
the farm woman's chief source of income, from the beginning
poultrymen of the state have given all possible encouragement
to this work. The introduction of better stock, the teaching
and practice of better feeding, breeding and marketing and,
this year, of careful culling, has shown that Florida farm poul-
try is a profitable investment. There were 2,735 demonstrations
with purebred stock, under the supervision of the home-poultry
specialist, on the same number of farms and yards this year.
Dorothy Hubner of Putnam County, starting with 300 pure-
bred baby chicks, raised 279 to maturity at a cost of $111.45.
Her profit from this year's work is $462.42. Dorothy hopes to
pay her expenses to high school next year with the money she
has earned on poultry. One poultry-club member in Putnam
County cleared $700 by selling eggs cooperatively with the other
women of her community.
5. Home Dairying.-Development of home dairying was al-
most coincident in point of time with that of home-poultry work.
The great need of milk in the diet of the child and the inadequate
supply was evident on every hand. This led the state legisla-
ture in 1917, thru the Florida State College for Women, to make
provision for the support of a home-dairy specialist. The greater
part of the expense of this service has always been provided





Annual neport, iuzi 0b

for in this way. This specialist has stressed the need for in-
creased production and consumption of milk and other dairy
products, and the general development of the dairy industry in
the state. As a result, the need for milk in the diet of children
is being met in a measure. Agents report hat this year 19,286
children have had milk in their regular diet as a result of the
work. In some instances the work has developed to commercial
proportions. The following report from Osceola County is
typical:
"Miss Morse's illustrated lecture did much to awaken interest
in the need of milk in the diet. More cows have been bought."
6. Rabbit Keeping.-Splendid stock was provided club mem-
bers by leading producers in this and other states. This work
has proven interesting to those club members who undertook it.
7. Sewing.-This program has been especially attractive to
girls. First-year work has centered the interest in the beauti-
fication of the home. In this course girls a e taught elementary
stitches and the care and repair of clothing. Patching, darning,
the making of a night gown and not less than three pieces for
the bedroom such as the bedspread, pillow cases, curtains, run-
ners or other articles, are required in first-year work. First-
year sewing was completed by 1,185 girls. Second-year sewing
centers interest in the girl's own wardrobe; five garments are
required. Millinery, tho not required, is being taught. Girls
are easily interested in this.
The total number of girls enrolled and reporting in sewing
during the year is 2,152. These girls completed 11,920 garments
and other articles.
The interest of women in sewing has cen ered most largely in
the use of commercial patterns and remodeling garments. The
making of the home-made dress form, which was taught this
year, is proving of interest to some. The sewing program will
receive special attention in 1922. The sewing project needs a
specialist very badly.
Home Improvement.-There were 504 women and 358 girls,
enlisted for home improvement and beautification, besides 1,185
girls who improved their bedrooms as a result of their work in
first-year sewing. The lines of home improvement or beauti-
fication varied so greatly that a statistical report of results se-
cured in this line, which indicates the scope of the work, has
been prepared and is given below along witlh other statistics.





Florida Cooperative Extension


Marketing.-The best organized work in cooperative market-
ing is done thru the egg circles. Five successful egg circles
were in operation last year. Seventeen women, enrolled under
the "Home-Industry Project," are establishing markets for their
home-made preserves and other products. The women of one
county marketed more than $1,000 worth of basketry and other
articles of handicraft. Curb markets formerly established con-
tinue to operate, and a new one is about to be opened in Ft. Myers.
Fairs and Exhibits.-The last two years has seen the birth
and development of the community fair. No fair is held in
community, county or state but that home demonstration work
is well represented and well cared for in the matter of premiums.
During this year 754 girls and 1,002 women have made exhibits
at fairs; 689 girls and 519 women have been awarded prizes,
having a total value, including scholarships, of $5,417.45.
Thrift.-A direct result of club work, tho not listed as a pro-
ject, is thrift. Aside from the fine lessons taught in conserva-
tion and utilization of time and material, learning thru produc-
tion what it means to make a dollar, club members are more
thoughtful in the spending of money. The number of junior
girls, who invest their earnings in home improvements or start
bank accounts and enroll in the "go-to-college" club, increases
each year. One hundred fourteen club members are bank de-
positors and 18 are paying a part or all of their school expenses
from money earned in club work.
Publications.-The publications listed below were issued this
year. All were written by our staff members and were paid for
with funds appropriated by the legislature thru the Florida State
College for Women. These publications are:

Bulletin 27-Home Demonstration Program for Girls' Clubs, Salads
28-Vegetables and Serving
29-Home Demonstration Program for Girls' Clubs, Milk
30--Home Demonstration Program for Girls, Canning Demonstra-
tion and Picnic
31-Home Demonstration Program for Girls, Home Canning with
Picnic Dinner
35-Home Demonstration Program for Women's Clubs, Dress Forms
36-A Handbook for Better Breads
37-Mother's Diet
38-Infant Feeding
39-Diet for Child, Part I; Pre-School Age
40-Diet for the Child II; The School Child





Annual Report, 1921


Leaflet 5-The Mother's Diet
6-Foods High in Lime, Iron and Phosphorous
7-The Breast-Fed Infant
8-Diet After Normal Confinement
9-Rules for Care of the Baby
10-Simple Menus for the Child of Three to Five Years
11-Simple Menus for Child of Five to Seven Years
12-The School Child
Record Book for Secretary (of club)
Poultry Calendar.

Bulletins 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 and 35 and the Record Book for the
club secretary were written by the assistant state agent. The
program bulletins are more than outlines; they contain enough
subject matter to make it possible to follow successfully the pro-
grams contained. They are of great assistance to busy agents
and local leaders find valuable material in them. Bulletin 36
was prepared by the two supervising district agents; the Poultry
Calendar by the home poultry specialist; and Bulletins 37, 38,
39 and 40 and Leaflets 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 by the research
specialist.
"Spreads."-No general effort has been made to tabulate in
statistical form what might be called the "spread" of the work,
that is the number not enrolled as demonstrators, but who are
influenced either thru the instructions given by agents directly
or by the demonstrations established to adopt practices. Statis-
tics given under this score very inadequately represent the work.
Work has been passed from individual to individual. The
awakening spirit or community interest, manifest in the coming
together of communities on civic affairs for recreation, or for
business, is following as a result of extension work in agricul-
ture and home economics.
One rarely picks up an issue of a paper in the state that has
not some reference to home demonstration work. Not infre-
quently editorial endorsement is given.

OUTLOOK
The future outlook for home demonstration work was never
better. This year, for the first time, it has been possible to offer
from state and federal funds cooperation for the support of
the work for the entire year at the same monthly rate as is
paid county agents. This has been a fine step forward, appre-
ciated both by the people of the counties and the members of
the home demonstration staff. The demand for the work from






66 Florida Cooperative Extension


the public is constant. Home demonstration work is furnishing
to the women and girls of the rural sections an instrument not
only for self-development but for self-expression. This fact,
coupled with the fine support given this work by the Federation
of Women's Clubs, the League of Women Voters, Rotary and
Kiwanis Clubs, public officials, our best business men as indivi-
duals and thru their organizations and the press, makes further
development assured.

STATISTICS COMPILED FROM HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FOR
THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1921
COMPILED FROM FILES OF STATE STAFF
Days spent in office...................... .... .. ............ -............ 739
Days spent in field---............----............................ .............. 1,212
Out of state meetings attended..--......................------- 7
Days spent in out of state meetings-.................-----.. .............. 19
Miles traveled by rail......----..........--........................70,667
Miles traveled by auto ............... .. --- --- ... .... ............. 8,120
Miles traveled by boat ....- ............. .. .. .... ..... .... 539
Total m iles traveled...................... .......... ... ... ......................79,326
Conferences with county boards ...................... ... ................ 85
Conferences with individual members of boards --------................................. 160
Supervisory visits to counties-....................... ... .... ...... ...... 571
Meetings participated in...................... .- ....... ........... .. 592
Estimated total attendance ....-...... ........--................70,669
Short courses and camps supervised-----...................----------........... 22
Contests held......... ------...................... --------------.......................- 23
COMPILED FROM THE STATISTICS OF COUNTY HOME DEMON-
TRATION AGENTS
Days spent in field.........-- ...................-......... .-------. 5,601
Days spent in office-.................................................... 1,809
Letters written.........-.. ----................. -.............----------------- 18,641
Bulletins distributed..-----------............ ................................ 32,072
Consultations at home and office--------------.................... ---......... 15,568
Visits to club girls .........---..........-------------.................. ---- 9,307
Visits to home demonstrators (women)-.......................... ......--- .. 7,797
Club meetings attended......----- ........... .........-.....--- 4,773
Attendance of club members at meetings..---------------------.. ............ 60,905
Other meetings participated in ........-- ---..--............--...... 1,037
Estimated attendance at other meetings..........-------.... ............ 36,929
Demonstrations Given
Plant propagation -----------.........------- ---...--.. 429
Labor-saving appliances .---.... --. ......... ------------- 302
Poultry .... ......... ..... ...... .. ............ .. 1,087
Food preservation------- ... -----------......................... 1,772
Dairy .....-----. -----. .--------....... .. ------------ 67
Home improvement -------------.......----....----.............---- 544
Food utilization (cooking, nutrition) ....-.. ....... --- ....... ... 1,297
Beautifying the farmstead....--..... -.........--....-- ...... 249
Clothing and handicraft.............................. -------------- 1,556
fotal demonstrations given........................................ 7,303
Wiles traveled by auto -.. ........---- -----...................159,424
Miles traveled by rail------.....--..... ------............... 22,024
Wiles traveled by walking............................. ------ --- 157
Wiles traveled by boat---------------....................-- 1 200






Annual Report, 1921


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AS REPORTED BY COUNTY HOME DEMON-
STRATION AGENTS FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1921
I. Enrollment and Membership
Girls Women
Total enrollment in all lines of work..........................-- .... 5,818 3,707
Total number reporting................... ..------- ............ ... 3,898 2,160
Total number in clubs-...-................- .---------.... 4,204 1,701
II. Garden, Orchard, Grove and Vineyard
Total garden, orchard or grape demonstrators............. 1,393 2,421
III. Vegetables, Fruits and Meats Conserved
Numbers of containers, fruit in glass...... .................... 66,610 304,068
Number of containers, fruit in tin...--..........-- .................. 9,621 46,794
Value of fruits canned in tin and glass-..........................$35,583.10 $166,243.87
Number of containers, vegetables in glass................... 33,520 135,438
Number of containers, vegetables in tin........................ 32,210 91,911
Value of canned vegetables, tin and glass....................----$19,792.35 $77,882.00
Number of demonstrators in meat work----...................... 115 280
Meats canned, pounds----- ----........................--............................. 1,041 24,695
Total value of canned meats, poultry and fish............$ 738.00 $19,220.00
Number of steam pressure canners purchased ............... 27 207
IV. Poultry
Number of demonstrators---...........................----------- 1,526 1,209
Number reporting.................... .......------------------- 1,112 744
Number of dozen standard eggs purchased -.................. 1,178 1,108%
Number of demonstrators purchasing standard
baby chicks ------- -- ........................................ ......... 125 315
Number of demonstrators using incubators ................... 47 310
Number of demonstrators purchasing standard
breeding stock ....................----------............ ---..... 211 410
Number of standard bred chickens purchased................ 1,351 2,204
V. Textile, Materials, Straws, Etc.
Number of demonstrators-------------........................... 2,555 672
Number reporting---------................................ ----.... 2,152 672
Number of garments and other articles made.............. 11,920 603
Varied Activities
Number of camps for the instruction of club members
and prize winners in counties............................ 19 4
Total attendance at these camps.................................... 627 55
Number of community exhibits, fairs and poultry
shows held in counties---..................... -.......... 49 24
Number of club members and demonstrators making
exhibits ........- .......... ............... 1,823 685
Number receiving awards-....--.......-- ............ .. 475 205
Number of county fairs................................................16
Number of club members and demonstrators making
exhibits ...-----..........-------.........--- -- ............... 754 657
Number making exhibits at district or state fairs...... 644 1,002
Number receiving exhibit awards at county, district
or state fairs............. ---- -- -------------.............. 689 519
Total value of prizes including scholarships awarded
to club members-----------.................................$5,417.45
Number of club members paying part or all of their
school expenses from money earned in club
w ork ........................................... ............... ..... 18
NnXmhptr f 'VI n tmtkh- 1 o-r-n hbra ko hl rlnn4- 11A

















68 Florida Cooperative Extension

Home Improvement
Girls Women
Number of demonstrators....................... ..-- ...--. 358 504
Number reporting...--...-------.....---------- --- 347 368
Number adopting practices........... ..................... 269 430
Improvements at instigation of agents:
Water systems installed....-............---.....--. ......... .....---- 55
Septic tanks installed ........ ..... ----- --- .................. 15
Lighting systems installed............. ... .... .......................----. 23
Heating systems installed.......... -----...... -- ----............. 3
Kitchens improved by screening...................................... 211
Floors improved------...... --...................------------..------. 119
Equipm ent rearranged... ................ ......... ..................... ........ .................. 96

Other Home Improvements
Floors .................... ....-- .............----------------..-.-- 73
W alls 121......- ....... ...... .. .... ..... ..-------........... 121
Fences repaired----............................----------------------------------. 103
Sleeping porches built................. ------------------------------------------. 65
Living rooms improved... ..................... ..................... 162
Houses screened......................----------------------.--- 146
Kitchen cabinets installed ...............................----------------------- 22
W ood boxes installed....................... ............................ 94
Wheel trays secured--.....................----.............--------------.. 22
Flower boxes built-............... -----......... ...--------------.......... 99
Sinks and drainboards added-----........ ----------.--------............ 72
Washing machines put into use ................-----..... ............--. 63
Ironing boards put into use------..................................... ----------- 38
Other laundry equipment installed---........ -------................-------... 2
Fireless cookers secured------ ---...........................---- ........ .. -------..... 30
Houses repaired ----------..................................... .-------------........-..-....... 120
Houses remodeled--..----.... ----... --.. ....-----------.................. 92
New houses built.............-...........................--------------------.. 113
Unsightly buildings removed or repaired....... -----.................. ----....... 82
Farmers planting trees...............------------.......---------- ---...-------. 502
Farmers seeding lawns..........................------.............---------...... 116
Farmers planting shrubs ..................................--------------..... .. ...334
Farmers planting flowers and vines----...............----------.......-......... 996
Shade trees and shrubs planted------------......................................2,940





Annual Report, 1921


REPORT OF HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, ASSISTANT STATE
HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
Program Work.-The demand for carefully planned programs
in home demonstration work has increased yearly until their
making occupies about a third of my time. A definite four-year
plan of work is being followed by girls' clubs. This plan fur-
nishes topics for monthly programs. After having been tried
out in mimeographed form, programs for the first two years'
work were issued last year in a set of ten bulletins. This year
bulletins for the third and fourth years are being issued in
mimeographed form with the expectation of putting out next
year the four-year programs for each month in bulletin form.
This will include a two-year sewing program by Lucy Cushman,
and a one-year poultry program by Minnie M. Floyd.

















FIG. 16.-Home demonstration club work

A 12-month program for women, comprising general household
subjects, is available as well as yearly programs on clothing and
household management. Yearly programs are offered on "Food
for the Day," "Child Care" and a home-improvement program,
called "Outside the House." From any of these subjects, or from
the topics outlined, a general program may be selected, if desired.
To encourage individual study at the beginning of this year
these programs were offered to each club member. This caused
a demand for them so far in excess of our expectations, that the






Florida Cooperative Extension


offer will have to be withdrawn. This will necessarily limit the
number of programs issued to a club.
All programs are supplied a month in advance of the regular
monthly meeting, thus enabling the agent and club members
to become familiar with their program before the club meets.
Grape Work.-When the muscadine grape work was introduced
into Florida in 1917 by Chas. Dearing, a horticulturist of the
United States Department of Agriculture, I undertook, along
with my duties as district agent, to further the work thruout the
state. There have been a few difficulties in the progress of this
work. August is the month for interesting people in muscadine
products and propagation, also it has been the month our agents
are usually furloughed. Gradually, however, agents are being
employed thru August, so this difficulty seems about to be over-
come. Until this year, due to appropriation work and prepara-
tion for the annual agents' meetings, I myself have not been
able to get into the field in August. Since the district agents
are not taking their vacations in July and August, this difficulty
also is passing. Grapes are very scarce and high in price and
difficult to get for demonstration work.
Pruning Demonstrations.-Last fall I spent a day at the Wil-
lard Vineyards in North Carolina, studying pruning methods.
Here I was inspired to push the work in Florida. On my return
to the state I began pruning demonstrations with grape-club
members. In Santa Rosa, Escambia, Hillsboro, and Osceola
Counties, 76 vines were pruned; only the vines of one year's
planting could be pruned properly, as the older vines had been
too long neglected. Here we either changed the type of training
or did some pruning. In Osceola we have some really good mus-
cadine grape plantings of the Thomas variety.
I spent two weeks during August in Taylor, Alachua and
Duval Counties and, with Miss Bozeman, conservation special-
ist, visited Santa Rosa County to give instructions in the mak-
ing of grape products.
As a definite result of the August work, Santa Rosa County
sent in a grape exhibit to the State Fair that won a $15 prize;
and a woman in each of Alachua, Duval and Taylor Counties
sent individual exhibits. All won money prizes.
A number of grape vines are being given to club members as
county rewards, and individuals are ordering varieties of the
muscadine for home Dlantinrs.






Annual Report, 1921


Short Course Work and Housekeepers' Schools.-I have held
three housekeepers' schools-at Brooksville, Ft. Lauderdale and
Miami. These were planned for women who could be interested
in and trained as local leaders. The Miami meeting carried out
this idea. Two women from each home demonstration club at-
tended. The work given was program material, conducting a
club meeting so as to make them more interesting. Reports in-
dicate that these women carried back the interest and inspira-
tion of the three-day school they attended, which thereby im-
proved both club meetings and attendance.
To bring sixty or seventy girls to the Florida State College
for Women for a two-week short course is growing more and
more of a problem. To find dormitory space, dining room seats
and laboratory space for cookery and sewing in our already
over-crowded college, are difficult problems to be solved before
our girls can come to us in large numbers. Letters, giving
plans and stating the expenses of this course, must be sent to
each girl and agent; responsible persons must meet the girls at
each junction point, coming and returning; the time of departure
and arrival must be in our offices before the girls leave home and
agents must have this information for the return trip. All
these, with the planning of the instruction courses and recrea-
tion periods, are the preliminary work of our short course. This
responsibility for the last four years has been mine. In all this
work the college meets us more than half way, making our
difficulties easier to solve.
Short Course for Girls.-The tenth annual short course for
girls was held the last week in April and the first week in May.
Sixty-five girls attended from twenty-one counties, fourteen
coming from Alachua County in company with a chaperon. The
enrollment, representing members in the various phases of home
demonstration work, was as follows: Poultry, 27; canning, 38;
sewing, 35; cooking, 4; pantry, 2; pig, 3; grape, 3; rabbit, 2;
bee, 1; and milk, 2.
A number of girls are entered in more than one phase of club
work. A new feature of this course was the renovating of a
bedroom set of furniture by a section of the older girls.
Florida State Fair, 1921.-Practically all of November, 1921,
was devoted to the State Fair. Home demonstration exhibits
consisted of four booths, occupying a front of 40 feet in all,
divided as follows:
























72 Florida Cooperative Extension

Booth I: A club girl's furnished bedroom, 10 feet. It contained: Three
pieces of furniture painted by Loretta, Duval County, club
girls; a bedspread, pillow and table cover made by Pauline
Griffin, Polk County; baskets and rugs made in St. Johns
County.
Booth II: Food and Nutrition, Homne Improvement, Miscellaneous, 20 feet.
Booth III: Home Dairying, 10 feet.
Booth IV: Farm Poultry, 10 feet.
Camps.-Instead of county short courses this year, nine club
camps were held, five of which I helped with. Three of these
were county camps for both boys and girls, three were county
camps for girls alone, and three were inter-county camps for
boys and girls. Three hundred and fifty-one girls attended these
camps.






Annual Report, 1921


REPORT OF AGNES I. WEBSTER, DISTRICT HOME DEMON-
STRATION AGENT, SOUTH AND EAST FLORIDA

During the year closing December 31, 1921, the district of
South and East Florida maintained organized work in 15 coun-
ties, employing 18 home demonstration agents and two negro
women assistants. Three counties gave financial support for
two agents each. Each of three counties employ a negro woman
assistant.
Appropriations have been substantially increased in five coun-
ties. One county appropriated money for the work for nine
months, thirteen counties for ten months, and one county for
twelve months. But at the end of the year appropriations had
been increased to the following: Six counties maintain home
demonstration agents for twelve months of the year, two coun-
ties for eleven and a half months, six counties for ten months and
one county for nine months.















FIG. 17.-Club girls of Campbell making their hats

Seven counties provide eight cars for the work. At our re-
quest one county that furnished a car last year appropriated
equivalent funds this year instead of the car, so that we might
adjust local conditions to the work. Stenographic help is fur-
nished in four counties.
Club Work.-The enrollment of girls, according to activities
in club work, totals 3,306. Each of these girls carries an average
of two programs of work. There are 235 organized clubs in this





Florida Cooperative Extension


district. The greatest interest is in poultry, canning and sew-
ing, the last of which involves problems in home improvement.
The enrollment of women, according to activities in club work,
totals 2,310. There are 98 organized women's clubs. Much in-
terest has been manifested in poultry, canning, and home-im-
provement programs among the women, but nutrition and sew-
ing have been most popular.
Special Activities.-While with women and girls the organized
club is the foundation of our work, various activities have served
to increase interest and effort. Leadership schools were intro-
duced and five were held before July 1. In the fall there was a
greater response to the call for local leaders and a greater de-
mand for the schools. One county conducted a housekeepers'
school. A series of community meetings, covering from three
to six days, were held in seven counties. Educational films were
used to great advantage in five counties and slides in one. The
pictures were supplemented by talks and open discussions.
Thru the efforts of the home demonstration department, three
scholarships for training in home economics have been granted
by two counties. They are maintained at the Florida State Col-
lege, or Women. Much enjoyment as well as friendly rivalry
has bees established in several counties by the interchange of
visits iong junior as well as senior clubs.


r i 't efi


FIG. 18.-Swimming hour at the Orange County club camp

















Annual Report, 1921


Organization.-Definite pieces of work; such as, the hot lunch
in rural schools, development of a curb market, nutrition schools
and demonstrations, home improvement and campaigns for the
improvement of public buildings and institutions, have been es-
tablished in counties where the women have a woman's advisory
council of home demonstration work or a similar organization.
Four such organizations in the district are busy on the problems
of their respective counties. County organizations supported by
local community councils have been effected in nine counties.
Fairs, Contests and Camps.-Twelve fairs were held in this
district, ten of which were county fairs, one a five-county fair
and one state-wide in its scope. Home demonstration work was
assigned space at each of these fairs for making educational or
competitive exhibits. The competitive exhibits consisted of sew-
ing, canned and crystallized products, poultry, dairy products,
and charts on home and community improvement. In several
counties community fairs were held which aroused community
consciousness and created interest in larger fairs. Ten counties
held club contests; in eight counties three joint club camps were
held; and in two counties single county camps were held.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF LONNY I. LANDRUM, DISTRICT HOME DEM-
ONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
Territory and Appropriations.-This district includes that
iart of the state which is roughly West and North Florida. This
'ear 13 counties in the district have had home demonstration
gents. All of these, except two, have appropriated money for
his purpose for the coming year. In addition to the counties
.Iready supporting the work three others have made appropria-
ions for next year.
For the work the counties appropriated a total of $14,319.83,
averagingg $1,101.52 to the county. Five counties have substan-
ially increased their appropriations for the coming year.
Farm Organizations.-Six of these counties have organized
arm bureaus, three others have some of their communities or-
ganized, and one other has organized a county council for home
demonstrationn work.
Club Work.-In the district there are 172 organized girls'
lubs which hold regular monthly meetings, following definite
programss of work. The total club membership is 2,811. In these
:lubs the girls are carrying on work in canning, poultry, sewing,
tome improvement, home orchards, grape, bee, rabbit, milk and
oods. The following excerpts taken from the agents' annual re-
)orts will give a clearer idea of the scope of the work.
Madison County: "Quite a number of the girls had good
rields from their tenth- and twentieth-acre gardens. Many
otherss had smaller home gardens. One club has planted over
ifty fruit trees, strawberries and flowers."
Gadsden County: "Poultry work is steadily increasing. Not
rnly are our boys and girls becoming more interested, but our
nen and women are fast improving their flocks, in many cases
long away entirely with mongrel stock and replacing with pure-
)reds.
"A number of small orchards are being planted to fruit trees
md grape vines. One community has planted 25 peach trees.
several boys and girls are raising rabbits."
Santa Rosa County: "Interest in sewing and beautification
)f the home is growing rapidly. The plan of work for first-year
members is the selection of one room in the house, preferably
ler own, to study, furnish and keep. The other problem is the
:are and repair of her clothing. Girls enrolling for this work
dso rive special attention to the planting of ornamental trees





Annual Report, 1921


and plants about the home and, when canning season comes,
to the filling of the home pantry with home-canned products, the
minimum amount being not less than fifty containers. The sec-
ond-year work is to study how to be a well-dressed club girl."
In the district there are 61 women's clubs having a total
membership of 862. These clubs meet each month taking up
work in general home problems, household management, cloth-
ing, poultry, child welfare, foods and nutrition, or home im-
provement. The following excerpts from agents' annual reports
give an idea of the work of these clubs.
Leon County: "Tremendous interest is being shown in the
subject of food and nutrition. One woman's club in the county
has chosen this subject for its year's study, and is waging an
active campaign in that community to educate mothers along
this line.
"The research laboratory at the Florida State College, under
the extension department, is of great value in this work. The
experiments with rats, both in picture form and in life, make a
profound impression wherever we show them."
Duval County: "Poultry keeping has been carried on profit-
ably here. Among the women, I was able to report only two
culling demonstrations, but, under my direction, a number of
women have culled their own flocks."
Calhoun County: "One club member expressed what home
demonstration work has meant to the women of the county when
she said to me, 'I was without knowledge of selecting food to
make a wholesome, healthy meal, so that I would not have it
all mineral matter or all protein, or all starch, or be lacking in
needed sweets or fats. The club meetings have done me a lot
of good. We have many helpful club lessons on housekeeping,
gardening, baking, sewing, care of the sick, caring for the infant,
poultry, etc.' "
Special Activities, as given below, are deserving of this men-
tion.
1. Leadership Schools have been held in two counties. The
object of these schools has been to train local leaders to assist
the agent in club and community work. These schools were suc-
cessful, judging from the assistance given later by the women
attending them. The following excerpt is representative of what
is being done in this important work.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Duval County: "The most important single piece of work
among the women of the county has been the organization and
functioning of the county council of home demonstration work.
This organization came as a result of the leadership school and
has done more than could be accomplished in any other way to
develop in the women from over the county a sense of unity
and of community responsibility."
2. Housekeepers' Schools were held in three communities and
all were well attended. Bread making and the preparation of
milk and egg dishes for children were featured. A large percent-
age of the women who attended these schools have reported us-
ing the instructions received in their own homes and passing
them on to their neighbors.
3. Camp Short Courses.-Two inter-county camps, represent-
ing seven counties, and two single county camps were held, the
district agent assisting with all. At these camps rag-rug mak-
ing, pine-needle basketry, and health work were especially
stressed.
Moving pictures of home and farm work were shown at com-
munity meetings in 14 counties in the district.
4. Home Improvement.-Demonstrations in beautifying the
farmstead are being carried on in two counties. In addition to
this the planting of ornamental shrubs, trees and flowers have
been made by club members in all the counties of the district.
Definite work of improving the girls' own bedrooms was under-
taken by the first-year sewing girls and pleasing results have
been obtained. In some instances the whole house has been
rearranged or an extra room added in order that the girl might
have a room all her own.
A number of women have done special pieces of work in home
improvement; such as, remodeling kitchens, getting better home
equipment, adding bath rooms, pantries, screens, etc. The agent
of Gadsden County reports, "One kitchen has been remodeled at
my suggestion. A window was cut for more light, a wood box
built to extend part on the inside and part on the outside so
as to do away with climbing steps, and a sink has been placed
in another kitchen."
The agent of Calhoun County reports, "Many kitchens have
been improved; a number of houses screened; yards improved
by making new fences and planting flowers and shrubs. Many
fruit trees, some shade trees and a number of strawberry beds
V FI hT* n ni on




Annual Report, 1921


From Madison County comes this report, "Sewing club girls
have made many pretty things for their own bedrooms and have
taken great pride in making their rooms more attractive. One
woman has added a new pantry. Others have bought better
equipment. A few have had light and power engines installed.
3ne home has a barrel water system."
5. Health and Nutrition.-Interest aroused by the milk cam-
)aign put on in Jacksonville has led to the formation of nutrition
clinicss in outlying sections of the county. In six counties of this
district nutrition classes have been established with undernour-
shed children and their parents. Plans have been made to
tarry this program next year into all counties where we have
iome demonstration agents.
A number of our women home demonstration clubs are taking
.he "Florida Food Calendar" as their special project for the
rear. This calendar is planned to help them in their study and
work of feeding the family. The following excerpts are repre-
sentative of the work being done on this project.
Madison County: "At one rural school hot lunches are served
;o the delight of both parents and children."
Jefferson County: "The chief work done in foods this year
vas instructing school children and club members in (a) the
ralue of milk in the diet, (b) the value of fruits and vegetables
n the diet, (c) the preparation and serving of a few simple
dishes, salads, etc., (d) demonstrations of the hot lunch in coun-
;ry schools. In cooperation with the woman's club of Monticello
;he children of the school at that place were weighed and meas-
ired and given free eye, mouth and throat examinations by local
physicians. "
St. Johns County: "In some of the clubs we have regular
;ooth-brushing campaigns."
6. Marketing.-Four egg circles in the district are helping
he women to get better prices, and cash instead of trade, for
heir eggs and poultry. Several club members are producing
)urebred eggs for hatching, thus receiving much better prices
;han they could otherwise. One girl hatched and sold nearly
L,000 baby chicks for each of which she received either eighteen
r twenty cents.
Our agents have also assisted their people in marketing canned
mnd preserved products, butter, nuts, fresh fruits and vegetables.
3elow are a few extracts from agents' reports which show what
s being done in this line.










Florida Cooperative Extension


Suwannee County: "Bessie Sperring, who had been a club girl
for five years, paid her way to a Jacksonville business college
from the sale of canned products."
Taylor County: "Adult club members furnished all breeding
eggs used by the children in the county."
Escambia County: "The best piece of work in marketing was
by the women of Fig City. Members of the egg and poultry
committee organized themselves into an egg circle and sold
their products cooperatively. They also sold their fruits and
vegetables thru this committee, being pleased with their profits.
Many girls sold their vegetables directly from their plots, one
girl getting $101 for tomatoes raised on her tenth-acre plot."
Putnam County: "The little Florahome egg circle, which has
been selling eggs cooperatively for five years, is still flourishing.
This club has a membership of only 23. Yet they made a profit
of several thousand dollars this year."
7. Fairs and Contests.-Splendid home demonstration exhibits
were made in a number of community fairs, nine county fairs
and at the State Fair. The exhibits consisted partly of canned
goods, sewing and poultry. Thirteen contests have been held
in the district. I attended eight of these contests. The exhibits
of bedroom sets made by the girls enrolled in home improvement
were most attractive as were the club dresses, caps and aprons.
The quality of the canned products at the fairs and contests was
excellent. All the county fairs had splendid community booths,
largely the outgrowth of community meetings, organizations, and
fairs previously referred to. Development of community spirit
is one of the big, intangible results of our work.
At the State Fair, the District of North and West Florida
contributed its full quota to the excellent home demonstration
exhibit made. Every agent in this district, with the single
exception of one, who was a new worker in a new county, sent
an exhibit to at least two departments. Each county booth had
exhibits of two or more phases of home demonstration work.





Annual Report, 1921


REPORT OF MAY MORSE, ASSISTANT STATE HOME
DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN DAIRYING

It is realized that the consistent, economical source of dairy
products for Florida should be the small farm herd, rather than
the big dairy in larger centers, kept on small tracts of land at
heavy expense.
Tick Eradication.-Wherever possible the fact has been em-
phasized that the existence of the cattle-fever tick in Florida is
a decided factor in the price of milk and the condition of mal-
nutrition existing in the state, especially among children. It is
concededd by leading citizens interested in civic affairs that the
Jacksonville milk campaign, mentioned below, had a direct in-
fluence in creating sentiment which led to the action of the
countyy commissioners of Duval County in appropriating $25,000
bo fence Duval County and complete tick eradication.


EG. 19.-A club girl-Gladys Ward-and her purebred registered Guernsey
heifer, given by the Laxohatchee Farms as a prize for highest
score in dairy-club work last year






Florida Cooperative Extension


Dairy-Club Work.-This is the third year of dairy-club work,
the aim of which is to promote interest in stock improvement,
better methods of operation and better products. Records are
kept which show cost of feeds and other supplies, the amount
of products made and sold. In other words, these records show
either the. profit or loss of the club member in dairy work.
Twelve clubs with a membership of 53 were organized; seven
counties had members carrying on this work, nineteen of whom
carried it on continuously for two or three years.
As to results, several of our club members have grown into
the commercial class, some purebred registered stock has been
bought, and quite a number of unprofitable cows have been re-
placed by better ones. Three girls won scholarships on their
dairy work to the state short course for girls; one boy won a
scholarship to the boys' short course; one girl won a purebred
registered Guernsey heifer and one boy a purebred registered
Holstein calf. The State Dairy Association, in accordance with
a request to supply prize money, awarded five prizes at the
State Fair.
Milk Campaigns to Relieve Surplus.-Two milk campaigns
were conducted, one in Jacksonville and one in Orlando. The
entire cities and suburban schools, including one large negro
school, were covered. Health and dietary surveys were made.
Window displays, picture shows, and posters were used to empha-
size the food value of milk. Bulletins and leaflets were distri-
buted to all school children. Poster and essay contests were
arranged. Talks were given in all schools. In this campaign we
had the assistance of Jessie M. Hoover, milk utilization special-
ist of the dairy division of the Bureau of Animal Industry.
At the beginning of the Jacksonville milk campaign very little
milk was sold at the schools. At the close of that campaign,
4,500 bottles of milk were sold to school children daily. The
milk dealers have had to increase their supply to meet the de-
mand which continued thruout the summer. A fair profit for
the dairymen was realized during summer, in spite of a reduc-
tion in price. It is probable, owing to constant demand, that
the lower prices can be maintained. A general increase over
last year of 30 percent has been reported. Since the Orlando
campaign the dealers have reported a 20 percent increase in the
use of milk and a ready sale for all their surplus milk. There
was a marked increase in the isp. of butte.rmilk_ iererpm nnd






Annual Report, 1921


milk at soda fountains both in Orlando and Jacksonville. When
the Jacksonville schools opened in September it was soon evi-
dent that there was no decrease in the demand which followed
our campaign.
Teaching the Food Value of Milk.-Teaching the food value of
milk to Florida school children has been the principal activity
during the year. Nearly all schools in eight counties were
visited. The children were told the food value of milk. These
talks were illustrated by charts and pictures to show the actual
total solids in a gallon of milk, and by a litter of three white
rats. One rat was fed an unbalanced di(t; the second was fed
the same diet plus the equivalent of a glass of milk a day for
a child; the third was fed the,same with the equivalent of a
quart of milk a day for a child. The rbts forcibly illustrated
the story.
Following the milk work in Osceola County schools a health
survey was put on and systematic follow-up work done. Num-
bers of families bought cows and others increased their daily
purchase of milk. Other counties reported an increased interest
in milk.
Fairs.-Educational dairy exhibits weie put on at two fairs,
at Jacksonville and Tampa. Material was also furnished for
exhibits at Gainesville, Orlando and Brac entown fairs. A little
girl of Manatee County, who was considerably under weight,
said to her home demonstration agent, after seeing the exhibit
at the Tampa Fair, "I am drinking milk now. I did not like it
at first, but I didn't want to look like the 'little' rat." She had
gained three pounds and her cheeks were beginning to look
pink, all in about three weeks time. There are numbers of other
such interesting instances. The posters made in the Jackson-
ville milk campaign were shown at the State Fair where they
attracted much attention. The school children's interest in
drinking milk is still keen.
The marked development of interest in raising feeds and for-
age, the building of suitable dairy barns, the selection and breed-
ing of dairy stock and the marketing of dairy products on a
commercial basis has resulted in the a pointment of an addi-
tional extension dairy specialist. He is w rking from the Gaines-
ville office and gives primary attention t( the problems of com-
mercial dairying.





Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF MINNIE M. FLOYD, ASSISTANT STATE HOME
DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN POULTRY
The following subjects cover in general the poultry program
that our home demonstration agents are endeavoring to put over:
Increased production; better breeding; culling, particularly of
the laying flock; better feeding practices; production of infertile
eggs for food; preservation of eggs by the water glass method,
the value and use of poultry products in the diet; sanitation in
houses and yards; prevention of diseases; prevention and de-
struction of pests; cooperative marketing of surplus products;
caponizing; turkey raising; rabbit raising; exhibition of prod-
udts; keeping records.
Organization.-In conducting poultry work, close cooperation
has been maintained with the entire state home demonstration
staff, with home demonstration agents, and with several county
agents. Altho I try to do one or more days work among poultry
raisers when visiting a county, because of the growth and inter-
est in poultry work, most of the actual work among poultry
raisers has been done by home demonstration agents, working
under my supervision.
Plan of Work.-All county clubs are known as home demon-
stration clubs. Each club or member may elect any home prob-
lem desired. Poultry work is offered to all. The enrollment,


FIG. 20.-Group of home demonstration club women culling hens, Osceols
County





Annual Report, 1921


according to home demonstration agents'
was 2,293 members. County and commit
been organized for the marketing of eggs
Organizations Cooperating in Poultry V
associations have aided our work by sur
purebred eggs for hatching, several doin
basis. County fairs and poultry association
for girls' and boys' poultry exhibits and
County school boards, county commission
civic organizations have given many pot
to the State College for Women and to the
The State Fair at Jacksonville and the :
Tampa each gave exhibit space and liber
girls' poultry-club work.
Publicity Methods Used.-Timely and ed
have been furnished the press. Home dem
tribute poultry articles to their local pa
plained, exhibits of poultry products weri
state contests, fairs and shows. A booth
farm poultry work was arranged in the h(
apartment of the University building at tl


reports, for the year
nity egg circles have
and poultry.
rork.-County poultry
plying members with
, so on a cooperative
s created departments
offered liberal prizes.
rs, women's clubs and
Itry-club scholarships
University of Florida.
South Florida Fair at
al prizes in boys' and

icational news articles
onstration agents con-
)ers. As already ex-
! made at county and
showing an exhibit of
me demonstration de-
le State Fair in Jack-


FIG. 21.-A rabbit-club girl and her Dutch r bbits, Hillsboro County





Florida Cooperative Extension


sonville, November 12-19. "The Home Demonstration Agent"
movie film (made in Florida) which shows the Hernando County
egg circle at work, has been shown in many rural communities
of the state in order to instruct and create interest in egg-circle
work. Slides showing this work have also been used. At our
request the following films were furnished our department from
the Washington office for use at the State Fair: Poultry Pests
and Their Control; Selecting a Laying Hen; Government Poultry
Farm; Layers and Liars; Embryology of the Egg.
Home demonstration agents have been supplied with bulletins,
leaflets, posters and poultry record books. Many poultry bulle-
tins have been furnished individuals thruout the state, in re-
sponse to their requests for same. I am constantly in receipt
of requests from persons in and out of the state for help and
information on poultry problems. Personal attention to these
require much time.
Egg Circles.-The best community egg-circle report is that
from Florahome, Putnam County. For the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1921, this circle sold 10,290 dozen eggs for which its
15 women members received $4,533.91. The best county egg-
circle report is from Hernando County where this year 14,762
dozen eggs were sold for $4,973.16 and 9,655 pounds of poultry
for $3,087.21, or a total of $8,060.37. There were increased
calls for the organization of egg circles this year.
Culling.-While much culling was done last year, it was much
more extensive this year. At the agents' annual meeting, held
in Tallahassee, September, 1921, about half of the time allowed
to poultry work was given to instruction and practice in culling.
Two films, "Selecting a Laying Hen" and "Layers and Liars,"
were shown to the agents.
In September and October culling campaigns were put on in a
number of counties. Men as well as women were much interested
in this phase of the work. Home demonstration agents this year
gave 99 demonstrations in culling, prior to September 1. Vigor-
ous culling campaigns were pushed by some of the agents follow-
ing their annual meeting in September. One agent reports,
"Home demonstration work began in Columbia County Septem-
ber 1, 1921. No up-to-standard flock of farm chickens could be
found in the county prior to that time. There are now 70 boys
and girls and 20 women raising flocks of purebred chickens under
my direction. There have been 26 flocks culled, and at each






Annual Report, 19

demonstration an average of 20 persons v
own flocks."
Caponizing.-While caponizing has not
ally, we are getting requests for instruct
home demonstration agent in Broward
three hundred birds. These sold in a A
75 cents a pound live weight. Capons fi
sold in Jacksonville and St. Augustine hi
cents a pound. A Palm Beach County
birds to be used in brooding his baby chi
a number of birds for neighbors, receii
operation.
State Contest.-The State Federation
fered a prize of $50 to the girl making
poultry-club work for the year 1920-21.
excellent records. After considering thi
profits, business management, exhibits, E
pointed to hold the contest, awarded this
Florahome, Putnam County, whose recoi
the year is as follows: Starting with 9(
hens:


Eggs sold.............................. ...... ........
Chicks sold...................... ......................
Feed bought................................. ..........
Oil used.......................... .........


S87

'ere taught to cull their

been advocated gener-
ion in this work. Our
County caponized over
[iami hotel from 70 to
*om two other counties
)tels for from 50 to 55
-lub boy caponized six
:ks. He also caponized
'ing 25 cents for each

of Women's Clubs of-
the highest record in
. number of girls made
* record books, essays,
tc., the committee, ap-
prize to Rose McGrath,
'd for the first half of
Single Comb Leghorn


Receipts
$21 .85
21'.84


Totals.....- ....................... $43:
Profit....... -----.................... ....


This girl is now going to high school in
prize money for expenses.
Poultry Club Work -at State and Sou
second poultry club exhibit at the South
at Tampa, February 3-12, 1921. The f
represented with first-year exhibits: A
Gadsden, Hernando, Hillsboro, Pinellas, I
Taylor. Prizes were awarded as follows:
nee; second, $25 to Hernando; third, $2(
to Gadsden; fifth, $10 to Citrus. The I
represented with second-year exhibits:
Pinellas and Duval. Hernando won first
Individual exhibits in the various classes
county exhibits and prizes awarded th


Expenditures


$63.65
5.00
!.69 $68.65
.....................................$364.04
Palatka, using her $50

;h Florida Fairs.-The
Florida Fair was made
allowingg counties were
.lachua, Citrus, Duval,,
Putnam, Suwannee and
First, $30 to Suwan-
to Duval; fourth, $15
following counties were
Suwannee, Hernando,
and Suwannee second.
were selected from the
e winning individuals.





Florida Cooperative Extension


The colored girls' and boys' poultry clubs made a creditable ex-
hibit, competing among themselves by counties. Rabbit-club
girls and boys made an excellent showing in this department.
A girl's doe and litter won the royal purple grand champion rib-
bon over every other exhibit in the show.
The girls' and boys' poultry club exhibit at the State Fair,
Jacksonville, November 12-19, 1921, was the most creditable yet
held in the state. The competition was between county displays
of trios, the minimum being five trios to a county in the first
year's exhibits. Awards were as follows: First county prize,
$40, Columbia; second, $35, Duval; third, $25, Gadsden; fourth,
$20, Putnam; fifth, $15, Santa Rosa; sixth, $10, Suwannee;
seventh, $5, Orange. Second-year awards: First county prize,
$10, Suwannee; second, $5, Duval. Individual prizes were paid
on all varieties in which there was competition.
Poultry Judging Contests.-The South Florida Fair this year,
for the first time, held a judging contest for members of the
girls' and boys' poultry clubs. Teams entered from Hernando,
Lee, Pinellas and Polk Counties. Awards: Team prize for
judging Plymouth Rocks, $5, Pinellas; Leghorns, $5, Hernando.
The same kind of judging contest was held at the State Fair,


FIG. 22.-Poultry judging contest, South Florida Fair, Tampa, 1921





Annual Report, 19$1


Jacksonville, November 12-19, 1921. Di
ties sent judging teams. Awards: Tean
mouth Rocks, Duval; for Leghorns, Duva:
Home Demonstration Poultry Booth
State Fair, Jacksonville, November 12-1,
station educational poultry exhibit was ,
building. It represented some of the fa
done by the women, girls and boys of th(
vision of home demonstration agents.
Changes in Poultry Work During Las
husbandry has taken tremendous steps f
1915. This forward movement might be
phases, but the following are represental
tion agents, working thru girls', boys' anc
are responsible for the improving of th4
This has been done by introducing pure
and stock. Only within the last two or
women realized the value of artificial h
farm women are using incubators for the
as developing a baby chick trade for tV
practice the teachings of our agents. The
offers a big field for future development.
find selling baby chicks a paying busine
girl hatched and sold more than a thousa
chicks last spring. Club girls in many
cubators from various sources, given as ]
Five years ago many people had neve
for poultry. Today county agents are ad,


val and Putnam Coun-
Sprize for judging Ply-

it State Fair.-At the
i, 1921, a home demon-
hown in the University
rm poultry work being
state under the super-

t Five Years.-Poultry
arward in Florida since
analyzed under several
ive. Home demonstra-
women's poultry clubs,
)usands of farm flocks.
bred eggs, baby chicks
three years have farm
watching. A number of
r own hatching, as well
themselves, putting into
demand for baby chicks
Girls as well as women,
ss. A Putnam County
id White Leghorn baby
counties have won in-
)rizes in club work.
r heard of "dry mash"
'ocating it and, in many


FIG. 23.-Turkeys ready for the market




















90 Florida Cooperative Extension

instances, succeeding in getting many people to add it to their
poultry ration. They also are urging the use of milk, green
feed, etc., for poultry. It is easier now than ever before to get
people to do poultry work. This is due to two causes: First, at
present there is more money in poultry than any other farm
animal in Florida, considering the investment; second, the hard
work done in the last few years by home demonstration agents.
A county agent reported last spring that more than half of the
inquiries which come to him pertain to poultry. Besides the
farm, and back yard flocks in towns, an increased number of
women and men are going into the poultry business on a com-
mercial scale. Many people from other states are coming to
Florida to raise poultry. One of our home demonstration agents,
capable of commanding one of the best-paid positions in county
work, gave up her position last year, and started a poultry plant.






Annual Report, 1921


REPORT OF ESTELLE BOZEMAN,
HOME DEMONSTRATION AGE
CONSERVATION

Home Industry Project.-Many Florida
time and much cull fruit and drops tha
splendid product, are desirous of turning
commercial product. Mindful of this, spe
given to the development of a home indu
stations in the crystallization of grapef
kumquats, whole grapefruit cases, whole o
and conserves, jellies, preserves and marm,
these women. The demonstrations in
fruits were universally popular. When thr
were given in a place, sustained interest w
attendance every day. Wherever I have
has been selling her products, I have trie
by having her tell of her project. Guava
malades are the two products for which v
part of the state seem to have a ready sal
however, that any of the home products
good market in the state.
Factories, delicatessen shops, gift shops
been visited in a number of the cities and
one of the largest factories in the state,
Bulletin 34, of our own publication, in o
mation for which we had asked. The willir
and women everywhere to give their rec:
formation they had, is evidence of a fine
The fruit juice formulas were the only or
held as trade secrets.
A special ten-ounce packers' container
malades, butters and preserves and a
one-and-a-half-pound box, with the 4-H-]
selected as our containers for the home in
agent has agreed to see that at least one w(
county makes a product for the market.
already asked to be enrolled under this
counties this fall it is gratifying to hea
women as to the amount of money made
they are planning to do during the coming
reports $200 worth of products sold last s


ASSISTANT STATE
NT IN FOOD


vomen, who have spare
Scan be made into a
;his waste fruit into a
;ial attention has been
stry project. Demon-
"uit peel, orange peel,
range cases, pineapple,
lades have been given
he crystallization of
ee-day demonstrations
as shown by increased
found a woman who
d to encourage others
jelly and citrus mar-
'omen in the southern
e. It has been found,
of good quality find a

, and exchanges have
;owns. When visiting
the chemist produced
-der to furnish infor-
gness of the factories
pes and all other in-
spirit of cooperation.
es that seemed to be

for our jellies, mar-
Iollapsible pasteboard
eaf label, have been
dustry project. Each
man in her respective
Many women have
project. In visiting
r the reports of the
last season and what
season. One woman
eason. A demonstra-






Florida Cooperative Extension


tion in the crystallization of whole grapefruit and oranges was
given in her town in February. She sold to one customer 20
cases filled with small crystallized orange fruits, the smallest
bringing $1.50. Another demonstrator reported $300 worth of
crystallized fruits and marmalades.
At the State Fair in November, 17 girls and women had ex-
hibits in our booths for the home-industry project. Samples
taken from the following products were displayed: Guava paste,
orange marmalade, roselle jelly, fig preserves, pear preserves,
apple jelly, crystallized fruit, pine-needle, wire grass and pal-
metto baskets. These baskets filled with Florida products, make
most attractive gifts. Persons desiring to purchase products on
display were given the name and address of the producer so that
direct sales might be made.
General Report of Home Canning.-Below are given figures
which indicate the work being done in canning by the women and
girls of the state under the supervision and direction of our
home demonstration agents and myself.
Girls Women
Number of containers fruit in glass---.................-- ........ 66,610 304,068
Number containers fruit in tin........................................ 9,621 46,794
Value fruits canned in tin and glass----..............................$35,583.10 $166,243.87
Number containers vegetables in glass........................ 33,520 135,438
Number containers vegetables in tin---.............................-----. 32,210 91,911
Value vegetables in tin and glass...................................---------$19,792.35 $ 77,882.00

Work in Nutrition.-On the summer camps girls were weighed
and measured, the underweights ascertained, and programs given
them. Reports from the agents at the September short course
were that many of the girls were following them and showing
gains.
A leadership school was conducted in Hillsboro County. Twelve
women from different sections of the county attended with the
end in view of going back into their communities to act as local
leaders in the nutrition work that is being carried on under the
direction of the agents.
During the agents' meeting a special course in methods of
conducting nutrition clinics was given. The class that was
started for practice work were children who lived near the col-
lege campus. Seven of the ten weighed and measured were found
underweight. Of the seven children in this group, four needed
corrective work. The mothers of these children have become
sufficiently interested to have this work done.















Annual Report, 1921


In one county, the first grade in school was weighed and
measured. A large percentage were found underweight. Moth-
ers and teachers in other grades have become interested with the
result that two other grades have begun the work, and others
are asking for assistance. First-grade teachers report a marked
improvement in class-room work.
Work has been undertaken in the model school of the Florida
State College for Women. It is the aim here not only to raise
the standard among the pupils, but to teach the college students
that they may carry the work out into the state another year.
Wherever a class has been started, the work has never failed to
spread.
During the coming year we plan to weigh and measure all
club girls and, as far as possible, to have physical defects re-
lieved and to raise underweights to normal. Leadership schools
are being planned for several counties.
The work has been started in Hillsboro, Leon, Osceola, Walton
and Santa Rosa Counties. This work will be made a part of the
survey and child-welfare program being put on in the state.
Statistical Report.-During the fiscal year, I spent 22 days
in the office, 130 in the field, visited 61 agents, attended 84 meet-
ings attended by 3,210 people, traveled 5,007 miles by railroad
and 1,792 miles by automobile, established 8 nutrition clinics
and enrolled 17 women in the home-industry project.






Florida Cooperative Extension


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK AMONG NEGROES*
Florida has a comparatively large negro population, but only a
small number of these own or operate farms. The general edu-
cational standards of negroes engaged in agriculture have been
comparatively low; therefore, the work undertaken by the Agri-
cultural Extension Division has been quite elementary. How-
ever, it has been consistent with conditions as they exist.


FIG. 24.-Some of the negro agents in agricultural and home demonstration
extension work

The work undertaken by negroes has been largely that of as-
sistance to negro farmers, so that they may improve their places
and become better farmers. This work is important in that it
helps to hold in check diseases and insect pests of crops and
livestock, for, if the negro farmers' crops be destroyed by these
things, the adjoining white farmers' crops are threatened.
A supervising local agent is in direct charge of all negro work,
of both men and women. Colored agents, by keeping in close
touch with white agents and all supervising forces, are able to
make their work correspond fairly well with the latter. County
and home demonstration agents approve the weekly reports of

*Introductory statement by Vice-Director A. P. Snencer.






Annual Report, 1921


the colored agents (known officially as "local" county and home
demonstration agents), before they are sent to the central office.
It has been gratifying to note the growing interest in negro
extension work. This is particularly apparent as shown in the
improvement of exhibits placed on exhibition in state and
county fairs and the general interest that is manifested in the
work among negroes by the leading people in communities where
such work is conducted. The following is a report of A. A.
Turner, local district agent, for the year ending December 31,
1921.

REPORT OF A. A. TURNER, LOCAL DISTRICT AGENT FOR NEGRO
WORK
This year regro extension work has been carried into 18
counties. The counties selected for this work were those hav-
ing the largest negro population in the rural districts. This
work is especially intended to assist negroes in farming com-
nunities to make their farming operations more satisfactory to
themselves as well as to the communities and counties in which
they live.
The work is organized into two main divisions, farm makers'
:lubs and home makers' clubs, the former consisting of work
with men and boys, and the latter of that with women and girls.
Farm Makers' Clubs.-This branch of work has been super-
vised this year by eight assistant agents, operating in eight
counties and working an average of six months from January 1
;o July 1. The program included: (1) corn clubs; (2) potato
:lubs; (3) peanut clubs; (4) pig clubs; (5) savings clubs.

CABLE SHOWING WORK ACCOMPLISHED IN FARM MAKERS' CORN,
POTATO, PEANUT, PIG AND SAVINGS CLUBS

L. Corn Clubs MEN BOYS
Clubs organized........................... ..... 19 27
Number enrolled.......... ....... .......... .. ........ 72 225
Number reporting..................... ............. 61 185
Bushels harvested........................... .. ........... .. 2,003 5,735
Value of crop....................-.. ............. $1,201.00 $3,441.00
Average bushels to the acre................. 23 31
Highest bushel yield................... .... ............ 63 81
M market price (bushel) ............................ ........ 0.60 0.60
.Potato Clubs
Clubs organized............................... 12 28
Number enrolled..............................-..... 49 172
Number reporting.................... ..... ................. 34 74
Bushels harvested.......................... ......... 2,924 6,734






96 Floirida Cooperative Extension

MEN I BOYS
Value of crop .. .... ......-.... ................ $2,193.00 $5,050.00
Average bushels to the acre........................ 86 91
Highest bushel yield...-................. ...... 175 215
Market price (bushel) ...................... ... 0.75 0.75
3. Peanut Clubs
Clubs organized... -------.. ............. -- ... 14 15
Number enrolled .......... .. -............... 51 98
Number reporting............... ............. 43 62
Bushels harvested..........................-- 1,806 2,976
Value of crop.........- .............. .......$ 903.00 $1,488.00
Average bushels to the acre....................... 42 48
Highest yield -------- ..... 78 93
Market price (bushel) ................ ............. 0.50 0.50
4. Pig Clubs
Number enrolled....... .... ......................... 28 63
Clubs organized......... ......... .................... 5 8
Number reporting................................-.. 19 41
Purebred pigs placed............................. 77 136
Value of pork raised....... ................... $1,155.50 $2,040.75
5. Savings Clubs
Number enrolled ............. .... ............ 17 47
Clubs organized....................................... 4 7
Number reporting..................... ..........- 9 19
Amount saved by clubs...................--.............. $ 278.50 $ 395.85
MISCELLANEOUS
Hog pastures made...................................... ........... 56
Hog wallows made.........-..-.. ..- ............- ......-- 41
Self-feeders made......................... ............................. ............ 7
Hogs vaccinated..................................... ............... 895
Houses whitewashed.............................................. 150
Houses painted -.....-........ ................ ..............- .... 34
Homes remodeled........................ ................... .....----- -..............- 47
Homes screened............- ....... .............-..... ........---. 181
Homes purchased by influence of agents...............-...................- 19
Fruit trees set out.................................. ................. 321
Grape vines set out..----.....--... ..... ............. 147
Water systems installed..... ........................-.......... ...-- . 4
Telephones installed.......................... ............... 10
Visits made to demonstrators.................... .....................1,576
Visits made to club members............................................2,232
Miles traveled by agents, interest farm makers' clubs-
By rail............................................5,752
By auto......-..................-.......... ....7,024
By team............... ........ ........ ....................... 7,640
Otherwise ............... ...................... 864
Total .............-- ......... ........... 21,280
Number meetings held ............................-...........- 656
Attendance .............-............-........................... 8,616
Home Makers' Clubs.-This branch of the work has been sup-
ervised by nine local assistants (women), working in nine coun-
ties, and averaging eight months from January 1 to September
1. The program of work for these clubs included the following:
(1) Canning clubs; (2) poultry clubs; (3) improvement clubs;
(4) dairy clubs: (5) sanitation clubs: and (6) savings clubs.





Annual Report, 1921


TABLE SHOWING WORK ACCOMPLISHED IN HOME MAKERS'
CANNING, POULTRY, IMPROVEMENT AND DAIRY CLUBS

1. Canning Clubs WOMEN GIRLS
Enrollment ....-....----.. ---------........----- 157 348
Number reporting.................. ................ ...... 103 285
Containers filled in tin quarts, estimated........ 28,500 51,300
Containers filled in glass pints, estimated........ 11,270 20,925
Total containers filled....................... ......... 39,770 72,225
Value of products conserved, counting con-
tainers @ 20c each --........................... $ 795.40 $1,445.50

2. Poultry Clubs
Enrollment ..................... ....... ..... 109 240
Number reporting ................................. 69 122
Purebred chickens raised.................................. 1,105 3,135
Eggs preserved for home use, dozens ............... 649 310
Eggs marketed by club members, dozens............ 271 195
Poultry marketed by club members, pounds...... 1,355 1,115
Value of poultry raised.................-................. $ 498.70 $ 373.50

3. Improvement Clubs
Enrollment ................. .... .. ....--........ 141 255
Number reporting................. .............. ..... 103 148
Fireless cookers made.....................-......-- -...... 373 105
Soap made from waste fats, bars ........................ 5,219 1,370
Houses whitewashed .......-.........-............. 79 83
Houses painted -.............-- .. ---.......... .... 34 11
Homes remodeled.................................. 109 90
Homes purchased..... .......... .. ................. 25--
Fruit trees set out .............-- ...~. ............ 206 132
Grape vines set out ......................... ............... 330 212
Rugs and other articles made from croker
sacks ...... .-------------...............-........ ......... 901 309
Rag rugs made...............~................ ............ 143 68
Floor mops made from old stockings................ 222 98
Hats made from wire grass, pine needles
and shucks......-...................... ....----- ----- 378 257
Baskets made from wire grass, pine needles
and palmetto.............................- ---------- 211 192
W ater systems installed-------.................... --... 2
Telephones installed-----............ ----..............--..--...... 6 ..
Value articles made from unmarketable and
discarded materials from farm and home $ 398.60 ....
1. Dairy Clubs
Enrollment ---------.... .................. ---.. 45 105
Number reporting.............................--------- 23 52
Cows kept for milk used in home........................ 225
Butter made by club members, pounds........... 4,320 2,574
Value dairy products marketed by club
members .............................---------------..... $ 278.40 $ 108.60
Process butter made in home, pounds............. 2,208 .....

5. Savings Clubs.-Club members reported having $480.15 in
their savings clubs while demonstrators reported $273.50. In
nany instances, cash prizes were awarded members who, upon
;he advice of agents, invested their money in purebred poultry
>r toward improving the farm or home. The amounts reported






Florida Cooperative Extension


in savings clubs include several cash prizes received for the besi
work done by club members.
6. Home Sanitation Clubs.-The importance of club members
md patrons' health was made a feature of negro extension worn
;his year and much was accomplished along that line. Agents
irged health conservation among their people and put on several
campaignss in which were taught the principles of health anc
;anitation.
In one instance a trained nurse for community work was se-
:ured thru the cooperation of a local health center. Lectures
ind demonstrations on "Good Health" and on "Home Sanitation'
vere given in several counties. These expenses were paid b3
ocal subscriptions.
How Agents Spent Their Time.-The following figures indicate(
low the local agents spend their time.

lumber of visits to demonstrators ...-.....~..--- ..- .................-- 1,94'
Visits made to club members.................. ..................... ............. 2,86z
Miles traveled by agents, interest home makers' clubs-
By rail........... ........ ......... .............. 6,537
By auto....... ........ .......... .............. 7,367
By team ..... ............... ................... 3,458
Otherwise ...............-- ............ ......... 321
Total .... ............................. ......... 17,68
Various counties supplemented state appropriations to the ex.
Lent that their agents were able to continue the work over f
longer period of time than would have been the case otherwise
Duval County appropriated the largest amount ($650) for the
work this year of all counties. This made it possible for th(
igent of this county to work ten months. In the counties whict
gave no local aid the agents were on duty only six months.
Farm and Home Makers' Schools in Agriculture.-A series ol
schools in agriculture and home economics for farmers, house
wives and club members were held during the early fall. Thes(
served an important purpose in that it gave the people valuable
information on farming, living and better business. The follow
ing figures give a summary of this school work:

rotal number of days occupied................ ............. .... 21
agents employed.. .....................................
countiess in which schools were held................ .................... .. 1
number of schools held....................--.---... ............ 2!
total attendance..................... .... ......... .. ..........2,81
demonstrationss given................................................. 2
Irios of purebred chickens awarded prizes........................ .... ... 1i
?urebred pigs awarded as prizes.................-.................... 1(




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