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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal to governor...
 Credits
 Report of director
 Report of state agent
 Report of the district agent for...
 Report of the district agent for...
 Report of the district agent for...
 Report of the boys' agricultural...
 Report of the assistant boys' agricultural...
 Report of the state home demonstration...
 Report of the assistant home demonstration...
 Report of the district home demonstration...
 Report of the district home demonstration...
 Report of the poultry specialist...
 Report of the dairy specialist...
 Report of the extension leader...
 Report of the extension forage...
 Report of the extension poultry...
 Report of the specialist in watermelon...
 Report of the local district agent...
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00004
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1920
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00004
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal to governor of Florida
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Report of state agent
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Report of the district agent for south Florida
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Report of the district agent for central and south central Florida
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Report of the district agent for north and west Florida
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Report of the boys' agricultural club agent
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Report of the assistant boys' agricultural club agent
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Report of the state home demonstration agent
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Report of the assistant home demonstration agent
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Report of the district home demonstration agent for south and east Florida
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Report of the district home demonstration agent for north and west Florida
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Report of the poultry specialist in home demonstration work
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Report of the dairy specialist in home demonstration work
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Report of the extension leader in animal husbandry
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Report of the extension forage crops specialist
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Report of the extension poultry husbandman
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Report of the specialist in watermelon disease control
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Report of the local district agent for negro work
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Index
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
Full Text






Cooperative Extension Work in

Agriculture and Home Economics
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating a ',
P. H. ROLFS, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1920
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1920







Cooperative Extension Work in

Agriculture and Home Economics
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1904)

University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating
P. H. ROLFS, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1920
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1920


February, 1921



















CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA......................................... 3
BOARD AND STAFFS................-....-..-.... -- ............---- --................---.--- .. 4
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD OF CONTROL.......................... 7
REPORT OF DIRECTOR ..................................... .................... ... 7
REPORT OF STATE AGENT-...........------- ------------...... --- -......--..... 20
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, SOUTH FLORIDA................................................... 33
REPORT DISTRICT AGENT, CENTRAL AND SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA................ 38
REPORT DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA..................................... 43
REPORT BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT...........---. ----.................. ----47
REPORT ASSISTANT BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT................................... 53,
REPORT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT-........................................ 62
REPORT ASSISTANT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT---...............................-- .. 71
REPORT DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, SOUTH AND EAST
F LORIDA ................................------... .......--- .................... .......................... 7
REPORT DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST
FLORIDA .......... ... ....................... ..... ......... ........... ...........-...... 81
REPORT POULTRY SPECIALIST IN HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK.................... 86
REPORT DAIRY SPECIALIST IN HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK 92
REPORT EXTENSION LEADER IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY...................................... 95
REPORT EXTENSION FORAGE CROPS SPECIALIST.................................................. 97
REPORT EXTENSION BEEF CATTLE SPECIALIST ...................................................100
REPORT EXTENSION POULTRY HUSBANDMAN........................---..... ............103
REPORT SPECIALIST IN WATERMELON DISEASE CONTROL.......... -----.......................105
REPORT LOCAL DISTRICT AGENT FOR NEGRO WORK..........................................110





















Hon. Cary A. Hardee,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
Director of the Agricultural Extension Division of the Agricul-
tural College in the Unversity of Florida for the calendar year
ending December 31, 1920, including a fiscal report for the year
ending June 30, 1920.
Respectfully,
J. B. HODGES,
Chairman of the Board of Control.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOARD OF CONTROL
J. B. HODGES, Chairman, Lake City, Florida.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Florida.
J. B. SUTTON, Tampa, Florida.
H. B. MINIUM, Jacksonville, Florida.
W. W. FLOURNOY, DeFuniak Springs, Florida.
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee, Florida.

OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
J. A. EVANS, Chief.
H. E. SAVELY, Agricultural and Field Agent.
O. B. MARTIN, Assistant in Charge of Demonstration Club Work.
I. W. HILL, Assistant in Demonstration Club Work.
STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University.
P. H. ROLFS, Director.
A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director.
COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK
C. K. MCQUARRIE, State Agent.
A. P. SPENCER, District Agent.
E. W. JENKINS, District Agent.
H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent.
R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent.
E. F. DEBUSK, Assistant Boys' Club Agent.
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, State Agent.
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, Assistant State Agent.
AGNES I. WEBSTER, District Agent.
LONNY I. LANDRUM, District Agent.
MAY MORSE, Assistant District Agent.
MINNIE FLOYD, Assistant District Agent.
SPECIALISTS
A. H. LOGAN,* Veterinary Inspector in Charge, Hog Cholera Educational
and Demonstration Work (resigned June 30).
JOHN M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist.
WM. H. BLACK,* Extension Animal Husbandman (resigned June 30).
N. W. SANBORN, Extension Poultry Husbandman.
C. M. TUCKER, Extension Plant Pathologist (resigned June 1).
J. B. THOMPSON,* Forage Crop Specialist.
LECTURERS AND OTHER OFFICIALS
J. R. WATSON, Lecturer, Entomology.
H. E. STEVENS, Lecturer, Plant Pathology.
C. D. SHERBAKOFF, Lecturer, Plant Pathology (resigned Sept. 4).
O. F. BURGER, Lecturer, Plant Pathology.
R. W. RUPRECHT, Lecturer, Soils and Fertilizers.
C. H. WILLOUGHBY, Lecturer, Animal and Dairy Husbandry.
W. L. FLOYD, Lecturer, Horticulture.
FRAZIER ROGERS, Lecturer, Farm Machinery.
A. L. SHEALY, Lecturer, Veterinary Science.
RALPH STOUTAMIRE, Agricultural Editor.
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor.
RETTA MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor.

*Cooperating with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A.








Annual Report, 1920


COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Alachua...... C. D. Gunn............. Gainesville.............Miss Irene Randall
Miss Marian Swain
Bay.............. G. E. Mead.............Panama City..... ........................ ......
Bradford..... 0. Traxler..........Starke................. Miss Myra Herlong
Brevard...... K. E. Bragdon.......Cocoa............. ..... ...............
Broward---------........... --........... Ft. Lauderdale......Mrs. A. H. Peay
Calhoun--...... .......................... Blountstown..........Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Citrus......... R. J. Dorsett..........Inverness..............Mrs. Mary E. Brooks
Columbia....'H. A. McDonald....Lake City.............. Miss Marie Cox
Dade............ J. S. Rainey...........Miami.................... Miss Genevieve Crawford
Goulds....................Mrs. Nellie A. Bush
DeSoto........J. M. Tillman........ Arcadia---..................Mrs. Nettie B. Crabill
Wauchula.............. Miss Beulah.Pipkin
Duval.........W. L. Watson........Jacksonville.......... Miss Ellen LeNoir
Escambia....J. Lee Smith..........Pensacola.............. Miss Margaret Cobb
Gadsden...................................... Hinson....................Miss Ruby McDavid
Hernando....James Mountain...Brooksville............Miss Ora Herndon
Hillsboro.....R. T. Kelley ........ Plant City..............Miss Virginia Branham
Holmes........J. J. Sechrest....Bonifay........................ .....
Jackson ......-................................ Marianna..............-'Miss Myrtle Floyd
Jefferson ..........................:......... Monticello.............Miss Posey Taylor
Lake............-M. M. Javens-......... Tavares-....-----. ..................-----
Lee................H. E. Stevens........Ft. Myers.............. Miss Margaret Burleigh
Leon.............R. I. Matthews......Tallahassee---..........Mrs. Mary S. Russell
Liberty........A. W. Turner ........Bristol .......... ............
Madison.......C. E. Matthews.... Madison-----.................Miss Edna Smith
Manatee...... R. Briggs......... Bradentown.......... Mrs. Ivie Turnbull
Marion.........W. A. Sessoms......Ocala............. ..............................- ...
Okaloosa..... R. J. Hart.............. Laurel Hill.........
Crestview.............. Miss Harriette N. Hawthorne
Orange.........C. D. Kime.............Orlando..................Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola........Leo H. Wilson.......Kissimmee ............Miss Albina Smith
Palm BeachR. A. Conkling......West Palm Beach.Miss Elizabeth Hopkins
Pasco........... F. G. Merrin..........Dade City.............. Mrs. Harriette Ticknor
Pinellas ...... ................................ Largo..................... M iss Hazel Carter
Polk............. Wm. Gomme..........Bartow...................----- Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam........H. R. Tribble......... Palatka.................. Miss Floresa Sipprell
St. Lucie.... Alfred Warren......Ft. Pierce.............. Miss Lula Chriesman
St. Johns....J. G. Clemons........St. Augustine........Miss Anna E. Heist
Santa RosaJ. C. Sechrest........Milton-................. Mrs. Winnie W. McEwen
Seminole..... C. M Berry-......... Sanford.... ... ....... ...........................
Suwannee... D. A. Armstrong. Live Oak-........
Branford................Miss Alice Dorsett
Taylor......... L. R. Moore...........Perry......................Miss Pearl LaFitte
Volusia........W. E. Dunaway.... DeLand...........................................
W alton........J. W Mathison..... DeFuniak Sp'gs.................................. ....







































FIG. 1.-Agricultural Extension Staff, 1920









Report of General Activities for 1920
with
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30, 1920


Hon. J. B. Hodges,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of
the Agricultural Extension Division of the Agricultural College,
University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1920, and the report
of the activities of the Agricultural Extension Division for the
calendar year 1920. I respectfully request that you transmit
the same, in accordance with the law, to the governor of the
State of Florida.
Respectfully,
P. H. ROLFS,
Director.

INTRODUCTION
The agriculture of Florida has undergone about the same
changes that have taken place everywhere else in the United
States. All agricultural crops have been produced at a high
cost for labor, fertilizer, supplies, etc., and, due to the demand
for labor in manufacturing centers, many agricultural workers
have left the farms, causing a shortage of farm labor. The high
market price of farm products, together with an apparent de-
mand for them during the planting season, stimulated farmers
to cultivate as large an acreage in staple crops as their labor
and other conditions would permit.
County and home demonstration agents worked continuously
during the spring months on increased production and conserva-
tion of food, feed and forage. Toward the close of the present
calendar year the farmers of North Florida have been con-
fronted with decreasing prices for practically all farm products.
This caused unsettled conditions and disappointments to those
who had planted extensively and produced large crops. They
have been required to hold these indefinitely or sell for less than






Florida Cooperative Extension


cost of production. This, together with an unfavorable season,
particularly for staple crops, has made it impossible for many
farmers to meet their obligations.
South Florida has not met the same adverse conditions. The
returns from the citrus crop of 1919 and 1920 were the largest
in the history of the state, on account of heavy production and
high prices. The values of many citrus properties have in-
creased upward of 50 percent in two years, causing many sales
at good prices, and inducing many others to enlarge their citrus
properties by planting new groves.
On the whole, the truckers of Florida have had a satisfactory
year, in many instances their crops bringing more money than
formerly. These products reached the market before the decline
in prices, and even tho they were produced at a high cost of
labor and fertilizer, the profit to the growers was above the
average.
County and home demonstration agents have to deal with
these varying problems, and in the administration of the ex-
tension work of Florida, a rather flexible plan must be adopted
so the individual agent can pursue the most logical plan of work
dependent on the county's agricultural conditions.
There has been no material change in the general policy of the
extension work in the state. It is the duty of every extension
worker to render the greatest amount of assistance to such de-
velopments as lead to a greater and better agriculture for
Florida.
The services of county and home demonstration agents have
been solicited for various enterprises intended for the uplift of
agricultural communities, and in this they have responded even
at personal sacrifices. There has been a good feeling of coopera-
tion between county and home demonstration agents and their
supervisors, so that the year has been a satisfactory one from
every standpoint, in spite of the unsettled condition of agri-
culture generally.
ORGANIZATION
The cooperative extension work in agriculture and home
economics is directed from the College of Agriculture of the
University of Florida, with headquarters on the University
campus. The home demonstration offices are at the State Col-
lege for Women, Tallahassee, and those of the farm and home-
makers' clubs at the Florida A. & M. College for Negroes, Tal-
lahassee.






Annual Report, 1920


The budget system governs the working plans. The budget
is approved by the Board of Control and the United States
Department of Agriculture before going into effect.
The work was conducted under nine projects during the past
year, the principal ones being that of county cooperative and
home demonstration agents. The work in each county centered
around these two offices, and all other project leaders carried
out their work in the counties, using the offices of the local
agents as the centers.
The purpose in view is to improve rural conditions in Florida
by working with farms and farm homes. The instruction given
corresponds with the instruction given from the College of Agri-
culture, University of Florida, and the Home Economics Depart-
ment of the State College for Women. The project leaders are
kept in close touch with the various activities of these colleges, so
that the work will be conducted with a common purpose in view.
County agents arrange for public meetings, and speakers are
provided by the state institutions. Thru cooperation between
the College of Agriculture and the United States Department
of Agriculture, the various bureaus, departments, and state
agencies are harmonized so that each county secures benefit from
bureaus working on problems that affect the state of Florida.
County agents are under the direction of the state agent and
the district agents.
The boys' club work is under the direction of the state club
agent ana his assistant. Clubs are organized by county agents,
with the assistance of school boards, county superintendents,
fair associations and other organizations for agricultural pro-
motion.
Home demonstration agents have headquarters at the State
College for Women, the work being supervised by state and
district agents with the assistance of specialists working on
home dairying and poultry.
These agents organize clubs of women and girls to study home
economics problems, and all home demonstration work in the
counties is directed thru them.
Farm and home makers' clubs for negroes have headquarters
at the Florida A. & M. College for Negroes, Tallahassee. This
work is under the general direction of a local district agent in
farm makers' clubs. Assistant club agents are employed for
a portion of the year to give assistance to the rural colored pop-
ulation, encourage thrift and improve rural conditions in general.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The specialists devote all their attention to a particular line
of work. They, too, reach farmers thru county agents, and
assist in all problems related to their special work.
Extension workers consult workers in the Experiment Sta-
tion, and when the Experiment Station workers visit the
counties they are privileged to visit the office of the county and
home demonstration agent and secure all assistance that can be
given them.
County and home demonstration agents have centrally located
headquarters in their counties, usually in the county seat. The
office equipment and all laboratory equipment needed is also
provided for from county funds. As the county and the home
demonstration agents' problems are very closely connected, they
usually have the same office and assist each other in the man-
agement of meetings and in conducting any work that applies fo
both farm and home.

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORK AMONG NEGROES
The negro agricultural extension work provided for in farm
and home makers' clubs among negroes is a part of the program
of the College of Agriculture.
Headquarters for this work are at the Florida Agricultural
and Mechanical College for Negroes. The local district agent
has his office there. The program proposes to improve agri-
culture among farmers by means of better methods of crop
production, by improving livestock, poultry, drainage and fer-
tilization and by economizing labor.
A large part of negro extension work has to do with making
the farmhouse more sanitary, encouraging the covering of wells,
cleaning up in general and using whitewash liberally. Most of
this work is done by assistant local agents. These work six to
eight months each year under supervision of the local district
agent. However, in the regular work of county agents negro
farmers are not neglected. County and home demonstration
agents have given every possible assistance to negro workers.
The negro agricultural extension organization is known as
farm and home makers' clubs. The purpose of the work among
women is to encourage thrift, to teach girls and women the
proper use of foods and their values, to give instruction in the
selection of household furniture and clothing, to instruct in
canning, preserving and household duties. The weekly reports






Annual Report, 1920


of local district agents are approved by county and home dem-
onstration agents before being submitted to the state offices.
At some of the county and state fairs, farm and home makers'
clubs have been represented. Usually the fair authorities have
set apart sufficient separate space. Business interests have re-
garded this work as valuable, and have contributed liberally in
money and merchandise as premiums.
A field agent in charge of seven southern states visits the
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, Tal-
lahassee, and, with the president of that institution and the local
district agent, reviews the working plans from time to time.
MONTHLY CONFERENCES
Regular conferences of the staff of the Agricultural Extension
Division, Experiment Station and the College of Agriculture
are held on the third Monday of each month. The purpose of
these meetings is to discuss the programs of all. A further
purpose is to promote the greatest cooperation, and to make the
various problems well understood by all.
A definite program is provided, with a leader for each meet-
ing. The conference is continued by round-table discussion of
problems most pertinent. When subjects of broad general
interest in agriculture are to be considered, outsiders are invited
to lead the discussion. A limited number of county and home
demonstration agents are invited to these conferences. The
papers presented are collected and made use of in extension
work. An informal conference, at which verbal reports are
made by various state leaders is held after the close of the gen-
eral conference. In order to correlate the work of various
departments, it is necessary to have a harmonious plan, thereby
avoiding loss of time or duplication of effort. The work of
county and home demonstration agents and specialists is so
closely associated that it is necessary to have all plans well
understood.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
All bills submitted, after approval by the department head,
are vouchered in quadruple; audited and approved by the di-
rector; and transmitted to the Board of Control. One copy is
returned for record. One copy is filed with the state treasurer,
who issues a warrant, covering the amount of the voucher in
question, which is sent to this office to be distributed. All funds
are kept by the state treasurer at Tallahassee.
In the matter of salaries, while we work on a budget basis, no






12 Florida Cooperative Extension

item is audited until the memorandum of employment has been
approved and returned from Washington. By this method, we
are able to keep close check on all expenditures and are also able
to check any off-set in salary appropriations that may be made
by other organizations.
Our off-setting fund is appropriated biennially by the Florida
Legislature. In fact, all revenue for extension work, outside of
county, city and other agencies, is by direct appropriation of the
legislature. We are, therefore, dependent to a great extent upon
the beneficence of the legislature for continuing this work.
No new equipment has been added to this office, but some
changes have been made in the method of booking that would
serve to make our records more efficient.
For your information I am giving below a resume of the
expenditures from all sources for period ending June 30, 1920:
RECEIPTS
Agricultural College Fund-
Smith-Lever, Federal .......----------......................... $ 38,110.10
Smith-Lever, State ................-... ...-..-..-.........--- .. 28,110.10
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal .....--........- 16,217.37
Supplementary Smith-Lever, State ---.................. 16,217.37
U. S. D. A. Appropriation ---------..... ---..... ........-.......... 20,200.00
U. S. D. A. Bureaus......-...... ....------ .................. ..... 5,120.00
State Appropriations .---..--------.---------.. .. --..--.... -. 9,590.00
County Appropriations ----------.----------- -----. 51,040.00

$184,604.94
PROJECT EXPENDITURES
Administration ....------------------........................ 10,368.74
Printing and Publications-----......--------... ...... --3,690.00
County Agents' W ork.................... ........................ 75,746.63
Home Demonstration ...........----------- ----.................. 67,869.53
Boys' Club Work -----...........................-- 6,786.71
Animal Industry ---------------------... --...---. 5,603.33
Negro Farm and Home Makers' Work............ :.- .... 8,440.00
Hog Cholera Educational Work..--------.................. --.. 3,600.00
Poultry Husbandry ....---....................----------- 2,500.00

$184,604.94
PUBLICATIONS
The following publications have been issued during the fiscal
year:






Annual Report, 1920


Bulletins Title Pages Edition
21 Florida Pastures'and Feed for 100 Hens.. 6 11,000
22 The Silo in Florida--..........-............-- .... .--..-.. 24 15,450
23 Addresses Fourth Annual Livestock
Roundup ..----.............................................. 48 30,150
24 Addresses Tenth Annual Citrus Seminar.. 48 30,150
25 Boys' Agricultural Club Guide........-----........ 44 9,171
26 Feeding Beef Cattle in Florida-----................ 20 12,150
27 Peach Growing in Florida.... --------....................... 16 20,640
Circulars
9 Raising Calves ..---- --------.................................. 8 15,237
10 One Hundred Bushels Corn an Acre---......... 8 15,430
11 Important Irish Potato Diseases and How
to Control Them --------..................... -...... 4 10,100
Poster
Better Beef Cattle..-- .---- ---............................ 1 2,000
Annual Report ..........-............---.......-----.......... 128 2,603
Agricultural News Service, 52 weeks, 425 copies 1 22,100
CHANGES IN STAFF
G. L. Herrington resigned as boys' club agent on February
15, 1920, having been elected to a similar position in Tennessee.
R. W. Blacklock, formerly assistant boys' club agent, was pro-
moted to the position of boys' club agent, February 15.
E. F. DeBusk, a former county agent, was appointed assistant
club agent on April 1, succeeding R. W. Blacklock.
Miss S. L. Vinson, agricultural editor, resigned May 10 and
was succeeded July 1 by Ralph Stoutamire, an agricultural grad-
uate of the University of Florida.
Miss L. R. Hunter resigned July 1 as assistant auditor, and
was succeeded by Miss Retta McQuarrie, appointed July 1.
W. H. Black, extension animal husbandman, working cooper-
atively with the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States De-
partment of Agriculture, resigned June 1.
A. H. Logan, field agent in educational and demonstrational
Work in hog cholera, cooperating with the Bureau of Animal
Industry, resigned July 1.
'- Miss Lucy Cushman, district agent home demonstration work
in West Florida, resigned September 1. She was succeeded by
Miss Lonny I. Landrum, appointed September 1.
c J. B.: Thompson, part time forage crop specialist for the pre-
yious year, was reappointed for the months of April and May,






14 Florida Cooperative Extension

and again reappointed September 1 to continue thruout the
fiscal year.
PLAN OF WORK
The projects by which the funds are expended and the work
conducted for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1920, are as follows:
PROJECT I-A-ADMINISTRATION
This provides for the offices of the director and vice-director,
salaries of clerical help and other executive expenditures that
cannot be properly charged to any other particular project.
PROJECT I-B--PUBLICATIONS
This provides for the expense of publication and distribution
of bulletins, circulars, weekly agricultural news service and an-
nual reports. Only 5 percent of Smith-Lever funds can be used
in this project.
PROJECT II-COUNTY AGENTS
This provides for the maintenance of county agents' supplies
and incidentals of those directly in charge of county agent work.
Wherever a county agent is employed, the county must provide
additional funds to apply on the salary, traveling expenses or
the equipment of his office.
PROJECT III-BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUBS
(Principally Corn, Pig, Calf, Bee and Peanut Clubs)
This work is intended to give instruction to boys between the
ages of 12 and 18. The clubs are organized by the county agents,
with the assistance of the boys' club agents, so that Projects II
and III are closely allied. In order to make these clubs effective,
the support of school officials, business interests and other or-
ganizations directly interested in the common good of the com-
munity is solicited.
PROJECT IV-HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
This work is conducted principally in rural districts under
two divisions, one giving particular attention to girls' clubs and
the other to women's clubs. The general purpose is to give in-
struction in domestic science and art, the principle of home mak-
ing as applied to rural life, and to carry this work just as far
into communities as conditions will permit. The cooperation of
women's clubs and all agencies looking for the betterment of
the rural home is sought.
PROJECT V-BEEF CATTLE EXTENSION WORK
This project 'works toward the improvement of the beef cattle
industry of the state, to arrange for the distribution of breeding






Annual Report, 1920


cattle to those in a position to handle them; to encourage the
importation of suitable animals from outside the state, and to
lend every encouragement to securing a better beef industry.
Until July 1, 1920, this project was conducted according to the
joint agreement between the Extension Division and the Bu-
reau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agri-
culture. Since July 1 this work has been conducted entirely by
the Agricultural Extension Division with some modifications.
This has been extended to extension work in forage crops and
pastures. The forage crop specialist works in counties with
county agents, spending two or more days in each county making
a study of native and introduced forage plants, visiting stock
farms and dairies for the purpose of securing a better and more
economic system of feeding and management of pastures.
PROJECT VI-FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS
The work of this project is intended to improve conditions
of negro farmers in the state. They are encouraged to produce
larger yields from their crops, and instructed in the care and
management of livestock, truck and fruit crops. The boys and
girls are organized into corn, pig, bee and peanut clubs.
The girls and women are organized into canning and home
makers' clubs and are taught the principles of economy and
thrift, production and conservation. Assistant agents are pro-
vided in counties, and are supervised by a district leader.
PROJECT VII-EDUCATIONAL AND DEMONSTRATIONAL HOG CHOLERA WORK
This is conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Animal
Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, and co-
ordinating 'with the hog cholera control work of the Livestock
Sanitary Board, Tallahassee. The agent in charge spends his
entire time in the counties assisting county agents in handling
diseases of hogs, and lending the necessary encouragement in
this direction for the betterment of the hog industry.
The proper use of hog cholera serum and virus is taught, and
demonstrated with an idea of preventing the spread of hog
diseases or holding contagious diseases in control following an
outbreak of cholera. In the past year, the agent has devoted his
energies to perfecting local organizations, looking to more sani-
tary conditions of all livestock, particularly hogs.
PROJECT VIII-POULTRY HUSBANDRY
This project provides for general educational work to improve
the poultry of the state. The representative is primarily inter-






:16 Florida Cooperative Extension

ested in the improvement of the farm flock and, with that end
in view, works with county and home demonstration agents.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, this work was in coopera-
tion with the Poultry Division of the Bureau of Animal Industry.
PROJECT IX-EXTENSION SCHOOLS
This project provides for conducting extension schools in
various sections of Florida, particularly in the best agricultural
communities. It also provides for conducting livestock, citrus,
trucking, poultry and home demonstration schools at the head-
quarters of extension workers. The best talent is secured, both
in and out of the state, to handle the programs arranged.
In conducting these, the cooperation of agricultural workers,
of railroads, state departments and various bureaus of the
United States Department of Agriculture, working in the state
of Florida, are invited to cooperate.

EXTENSION SCHOOLS
The extension schools, under Project IX, is an enlargement
of the plan of holding farmers' meetings in rural communities,
with a definite outlined program, prepared and agreed upon by
various extension supervisors. These schools are continued for
one or more days. A general state extension school is held an-
nually to bring together the principal workers in agricultural
extension and the leaders in agriculture and home economics.
October 5-8 two schools were conducted at the College of Agri-
culture. The Citrus Seminar, October 5-6, was carried out on
a program dealing with various phases of citrus culture, mar-
keting, etc. The speakers were selected from extension workers,
Experiment Station staff, representatives of the Federal Bureau
of Entomology, the State Plant Board, the State Marketing
Bureau and practical citrus growers. This program was under
the direction of A. P. Spencer, vice-director of extension.
SOctober 7-8 an extension school, known as the Livestock
Roundup, was held. Those on the program represented the
College of Agriculture, the Experiment Station, the Extension
Division, representatives of livestock and farm papers, repre-
sentatives of railroads, the State Livestock Sanitary Board and
other institutions interested in the livestock welfare of Florida.
This program )was under the direction of J. M. Scott, leader of
the livestock project.,






Annual Report, 1920


EXTENSION SCHOOLS IN COUNTIES
Between November 30 and December 4 four extension schools
were conducted in West Florida. The instructional work dealt
primarily with pork production, soft pork, the peanut situation,
marketing, poultry, home economics and farm crops. The morn-
ing programs were made up entirely of poultry lectures and
demonstrations. The counties covered by these schools were
Santa Rosa, Walton, Washington and Liberty.
In addition to the agricultural program there were educational
and entertainment programs consisting of slides and films, picnic
suppers and music.
Between December 28 and 31 an extension school was con-
ducted in Dade County. This was devoted to dairying, poultry
and plant diseases. The lecturers were representatives of the
Extension Division, College of Agriculture and the Florida Ex-
periment Station.
COUNTY AGENTS' ANNUAL MEETING
The annual meeting of county agents was held at the College
of Agriculture September 6-11. This meeting is intended to
bring all workers together for a full discussion of extension work
as carried on in the counties. The program is presented by the
staffs of the Extension Division, Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, the College of Agriculture and workers from the various
bureaus of the United States Department of Agriculture. The
purpose is correlation of efforts to avoid duplication.
During two days of this meeting, September 10-11, the home
demonstration agents were in session with the county agents.
Round-table discussions to formulate plans and polices were
carried out.
At this meeting the Florida State Federation of Farm Bureaus
was temporarily organized, a constitution was adopted, and
officers elected for the ensuing year.
HOME DEMONSTRATION MEETING
The ninth annual home demonstration agents' meeting was
held September 6-8 at the Florida State College for Women,
Tallahassee, and from September 8-11 in joint session with the
county agents at the College of Agriculture, Gainesville.
The days spent in Tallahassee were given to reports, instruc-
tion, and the development of plans for the work of the coming
year. The program in Gainesville was largely devoted to the
consideration of phases of the work that could be best accom-
plished thru the working together of the agents of both branches.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SHORT COURSE FOR GIRLS' CLUB MEMBERS
The ninth annual state prize winners' short course, held at the
State College for Women, Tallahassee, was attended by 55 girls.
Scholarships to the state prize winners' short course are pro-
vided by boards of county commissioners, school boards, banks
and federated women's clubs. Of the girls in attendance, 39
were enrolled in canning work, 23 in poultry, 14 in sewing, 3
in grape growing, 5 in dairying, 1 in beekeeping and 3 in pig
clubs.
Girls' camps for instruction and recreation were held in
DeSoto and Polk Counties. A joint camp for girls and boys was
held in Citrus and Santa Rosa Counties.

CLUB BOYS' SHORT COURSE
The fourth annual short course for club members of the state
was held on the University campus the second week in December.
Ninety-nine boys from 28 counties attended. The program pro-
vided for practical lectures to the boys by the instructors of the
College of Agriculture and the Extension Division. They re-
ceived instruction in handling livestock, growing forage crops,
judging hogs, dairy and beef cattle.
The expenses in sending these boys to the University were
provided for by the county commissioners and school boards,
railroads, boards of trade and individuals. The short course
was under the direction of the boys' club agent and his assist-
ants. Alachua County sent 25 boys, which was the largest num-
ber from any one county. Hillsboro came second with 11.

GROUP MEETINGS
Between March 23 and April 5 the county agents were as-
sembled in groups of from four to six, to report and confer with
the supervising force, director, state and district agents and
field agent from the States Relations Service, United States De-
partment of Agriculture.
This plan was adopted so that county agents, having similar
problems, can confer with each other, and with supervising
agents so that there will be uniformity of work and harmony of
purpose; also for the sake of economy in travel.
The meetings for the agents of North and West Florida were
held in Santa Rosa, Holmes, Madison, and Columbia Counties;
for those of East and South Florida in "Marion, Pasco, Polk,
Volusia and St. Lucie Counties.






Annual Report, 1920


ANNUAL NEGRO AGENTS' MEETING
As the office for the local district agent in negro work is at the
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes at Tal-
lahassee, the annual meeting of the men and women county
workers was held at that institution in January, 1920.
These workers were assembled for instruction so that there
would be a definite program of work for each county. As this
included both men and women, the extension staff from the Uni-
versity of Florida College of Agriculture and the State College
for Women assisted with the program.
The instructors from several departments of the institution
also assisted in caring for the agents and with the program.


FIG. 2.-Japanese cane






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF STATE AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the state agent for
the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
C. K. MCQUARRIE,
State Agent.


In presenting the state agent's report for the year just ending,
it is a pleasure to know that, notwithstanding the shortage and
high cost of farm labor and the reorganization of the work in
all counties from after-war conditions, the work has progressed
favorably. A glance backward over the year's results shows
considerable progress in all the different activities of the county
agents.
The beginning of the year found the country facing the prob-
lem of labor shortage. Farm labor was especially unreliable and
high in price. This made it difficult for farmers to make any
positive plans for their year's work and necessitated the curtail-
ment of acreage planted to staple crops.

COUNTY ORGANIZATION OF FARM BUREAUS
An important activity of the agent's work has been the or-
ganization of community councils and county bureaus. In some
counties much more progress has been made than in others.
Hillsboro County organized the first county bureau of agri-
culture and home economics at Valrico April 22, 1920.
' At the county agents' annual meeting the State Farm Bureau
was organized, September 9, when both county and home dem-
onstration agents were present. The officers were elected tem-
porarily until the annual meeting, which takes place on the first
Saturday in January, and are: L. M. Rhodes, president; J. D.
Butler, vice-president; Miss Ruby Newhall, secretary-treasurer.
Five counties were included in this organization, Alachua, Brow-
ard, Hillsboro, Pasco and Duval. It was reported by the agents
of Columbia, Escambia, Marion, Madison, Polk, Volusia, Su-
wannee and Walton that their counties were in the process of
organization.
The organization of farm bureaus has been slower than was
expected, but there have been many obstacles in the way.







Annual Report, 1920


MEETINGS HELD
A larger number of field meetings than usual have been held
this year, conducted by county agents, with the assistance of
state workers.
Annual spring group meetings were held. Formerly these
meetings were held at a few points at which eight to ten agents
were present. This year fewer agents were assembled at one
point. At these meetings programs of work were mapped out
for such activities as should be stressed by agents in their
counties.
The annual conference and school of county agents was held
at Gainesville, September 6-11.
The first three days of the meeting were taken up with the
men's work, where subjects dealing exclusively with county
agents' work were discussed. One afternoon was spent visiting
nearby livestock farms. On this trip the agents were enabled
to visit some good farms and see the agricultural developments
of Alachua County.
Those appearing on the program of this agents' meeting from
outside the state were: H. E. Savely, W. B. Mercier and I. W.
Hill of the States Relations Service, United States Department
of Agriculture; W. C. Lassetter, editor of the Southeastern
Edition of the Progressive Farmer; L. M. Rhodes, state mar-
ket commissioner; and Paul Sanders, boys' club editor of the
Southern Ruralist.
An important part of all state conferences is the getting to-
gether of the agents at night and between the regular programs
when important points that have been overlooked are brought
out between individuals.
The last three days of this meeting was a joint one between
the county and home demonstration agents, the latter having
come down from Tallahassee, where they met for the first three
days. The combined session proved exceptionally valuable to
all, and this plan should be continued.
AGENTS' ACTIVITIES
Every year finds the scope of the agents' activities 'widening
and more important, and especially where the work has been
conducted for several years. As the counties see the importance
of agent's work, they are willing to give it substantial support.
In many counties the agents have been devoting much of their
time to the farm operations of new settlers. This is especially
valuable to settlers unfamiliar with Florida conditions and these







Florida Cooperative Extension


new people naturally go to the county agent on arrival for in-
formation and assistance.
CORN WEEVIL
The annual damage to corn in Florida is estimated at from
10 to 25 percent of the crop. Where this crop is a major one,
the agents have been active in influencing farmers to adopt
better methods of harvesting, and providing tight cribs in which
to store and fumigate it. Due to the high cost of labor and
lumber many farmers have delayed these improvements. This
work is so important that county agents will be urged to con-
tinue it in the future.
FAIRS
More than the usual number of fairs have been held this year,
especially community fairs. We find this one of the best means
of getting community people together. Suwannee, Columbia,
Escambia and Alachua Counties have conducted these most suc-
cessfully. Business interests have been induced to take active
parts in the welfare of agriculture thru these community fairs.
Some community fairs were held in commissioners' districts,
usually in churches or schoolhouses, under the management of
local committees, the county and home demonstration agents
acting as advisors or leaders. These community fairs have been
feeders to county and state fairs.
LIVESTOCK
The large number of purebred sires, both hogs and cattle,
purchased by farmers, as reported by county agents, and the
very definite activities of livestock and dairy associations, which
livestock extension workers and county agents have been active
in developing, is the forerunner of a much greater livestock in-
dustry for Florida. County agents are often called upon to
select purebred sires for farmers.
Considerable progress has been made in conducting hog sales
on certain days in several counties in North and West Florida.
Many of these have been the means of securing better prices for
farmers. Especially is this true since October 1, when hog prices
slumped.
CROPS
The corn acreage has been cut about ten percent, owing to
scarcity and high cost of farm labor. The sweet potato acreage
has been slightly increased, with the result that this crop should
show an increased yield. Rice and sugar cane acreage were







Annual Report, 1920 23

greatly increased, in some sections 15 to 20 percent. These crops
also show an increased yield over previous years. The Irish
potato crop was profitable on the whole. Altho the yield was
short, farmers received good prices. County agents are urging
that this crop be planted in the fall for home use.

SMALL GRAIN CROPS
County agents report a larger acreage than usual of oats and
rye, most of which was used for hog pasture. The yield was
also above the average, especially of oats. Farmers and live-
stock men are giving more attention to providing pasture.

COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS
We are glad to report considerable increase in the total amount
of appropriations to supplement county agents' salaries, which
total is $84,915. This response on the part of county commis-
sioners is gratifying and shows appreciation of the work done
by county and home demonstration agents. This appreciation
is more marked in counties where the same agent has been en-
gaged for a number of years, as it takes time for an agent to
find himself and for the county commissioners to realize the
value of such work.

FIGURES SHOWING GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Visits made by county agents...................... .......... 30,416
Miles traveled ................ ................. ..... 234,063
Call on agents relative to work................ ............................... 30,331
Farm ers' m meetings held...................................... .................................... 642
Addresses made at meetings.................................. 911
Total attendances .................................... 37,861
Field meetings held by agents ........ ................... ---- 279
Total attendances at these meetings..-................ .......... 3,581
Percentage of time spent in office work....................... ....... 26
Percentage of time spent in field work...................................... .... 74
Official letters written.................................... 10,276
Articles prepared for publication..-................ ....... 1,840
Circular letters issued..... ................................ 2,510
U. S. D. A. bulletins distributed.............................................. .............. 18,998
Bulletins or circulars from state sources distributed...................... 14,784
Visits to schools ................................. ..... ......... 726
Schools assisted in outlining agricultural courses..................-.... .. 23
Short courses assisted in................. ......... ............. 9
Total attendance .................................................... 741
MISCELLANEOUS
Farmers attending short courses at college as result of agents' efforts 71
Boys attending agricultural or other schools or colleges as result
of club work ......................... ....................... 54
Times visited by specialists from college or departments.............. 589
Demonstrators, cooperators and club members making exhibits........ 555
Prizes won ......... ..... ......................3.............. ...... 355
Demonstrations in truck or small fruit............................. ..... 223








24 Florida Cooperative Extension

Farmers keeping cost records at agents' instances...........--..........-...-...- 211
Farmers practicing fall plowing as result of county agents' work...... 862
FARM AND FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENTS
Buildings erected ..--..----------------- --------------- 99
Farm buildings improved..-...........---------- ------.... ------ 57
New building plans furnished.....------.........................-------- ------------- 30
Farm buildings painted or whitewashed.......................----------------- 111
Home water systems installed or improved ..-.......... ------.---... 65
Home lighting systems installed---.... ................. .............. 184
Home grounds improved .--. ------ ------------------ 180
Farm and home sanitary conditions improved... ............................ 97
Homes screened against flies and mosquitoes......---...--... -------. 143
Sanitary privies erected----....-..........--------- -------28
Telephone systems installed-- ----........ --...-.......-- ..--------------------- 3
Farmers induced to adopt a systematic rotation ........... -----------. 157
Total acreage .....------------------------------- 5,832
New pastures established ..........----...... --------.------...----- 115
Old pastures renovated ..................----------- ---------------------........ 26
Acreage comprised ............................. ------------------------. 3,018
Drainage systems established -------...........-............ ---- -------------- 86
Farmers induced to drain their lands ---..... ---.......... ................. 150
Total acreage drained:
By tile --.......--.....---------...-- ----------- 665
By ditch .............--------------------- .. ....- 2,102
Farmers who removed stumps............................ ----- 232
Total acreage stumped .--.... --.......... --------..- 2,321
Farmers induced to terrace sloping land...................---.......------.................... 33
Total acreage terraced-..........-....----- ..-----------... 5,475
Home gardens planted .------- -------- ---------.------- 904
Farmers saving surplus farm products for winter use -------........................ 343
Farmers turning under cover crops ......... .-------------------. 941
New implements and tools bought .......--.. --....----- ------ 2,163
CORN DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrators ....------------.................. ---------------------- 238
Demonstrators reporting ..-------------------- -------... .. 125
Total acreage grown under improved methods................... ........ 3,647
Average yield an acre, in bushels.................... ......------- 33
Number planting selected seed........................................-......................... 145
Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres................................ 72
Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres 62
Acres harvested for silage.---- ------- -----------------.. 415
Farmers using better methods in growing corn this year................. 986
Farmers so influenced since county agent work was started............... 5,706
COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrators .......................................---------- ..---......... 25
Demonstrators reporting ..--------------------.--.------------. 12
Total acreage grown under improved methods......................................... 150
Average yield seed cotton an acre, pounds.........--- .......... ....... 560
Demonstrators who planted selected seed-----..........--------------- 12
Farmers field selecting seed for next year's crop.................................... 18
Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres------............................ 3
Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres 2
Acres treated for diseases or insect pests ....--------------. .......... 125
Farmers using better cultural methods.............------------- .- 45
SMALL GRAIN DEMONSTRATIONS
(Oats, Rye, Rice)
Demonstrators .--- -------------.........................------------- 51
Demonstrators reporting .................. ...------ -------- ................ 40








Annual Report, 1920 25

Total acreage grown under improved methods............................. 375
Acres thrashed for grain.... ....................................... 212
Acres cut for hay........................................ 2
Acres turned under for soil improvement............................................... 35
Bushels of seed treated for smut and rust........................------------- 48
Farmers planting oats for the first time.................. -------------- 35
Farmers influenced to use better methods...................... ............. .. 162

SUMMER LEGUME DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, Velvet Beans, Peanuts)
Demonstrators ...................------------- -- ------------- 736
Demonstrators reporting ......--------........ ---.. ---------- 140
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods..............................---. 3,217
Average yield grain....-------------..................... 20
Average yield hay......................................... 1.5
Total acreage hulled for seed...............................--. 845
Total acreage cut for hay..................................... 629
Number of acres grazed off----....--......-...--........- .... 3,243
Acres turned under for soil improvement.............-- ..-.....-....-----.. 5,795
Farmers influenced to adopt better cropping methods......................... 903
Estimated acreage planted in the state thru county agents' influence 4,992

SWEET POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrators ............---- ---- --------------------.. 196
Demonstrators reporting .....---.-----------. ................. 66
Total acreage grown by demonstrators-...... ------.-......... 411
Acreage treated for diseases and pests.. ................................. 106
Estimated increased acreage-..........- ......... --------- 1,243
IRISH POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrators .-...........---......---------.-------.................. ----. 97
Demonstrators reporting ........................................ 30
Total acreage grown by demonstrators........................... 765
Acreage treated for diseases and pests... .............................. .. 671
Estimated increased acreage ..--------- ----.......... 387
FRUIT DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstration groves ...........................---...... .. 8,399
Total number of trees in these demonstrations............ ...... 399,850
Groves inspected ...........-----. -- -------1,661; number of trees .1,716,835
Groves pruned --------............................. 637; number of trees 467,930
Groves sprayed ...................................... 507; number of trees 582,083

Totals -----.......................... ............ ..........2,805 2,766,848
DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS
Purebred dairy cattle introduced thru county agents' influence:.
Bulls ----.........- ------------------------- 29
Cows and heifers....................-............. -----------------------. 422
Cow s tested for production..................................... .................................. 171
Farmers induced to feed balanced rations -------------................ ................ 171
Cattle fed ..--......- ...... ------... .................................------ 1,213
Demonstrations in dairy work supervised.--------------.................. 12
Cows in these demonstrations----- -----.... --------------.. 47
Number purebred dairy bulls now in state....................---------.-----... 1,287
Purebred dairy cows now ....... ........................... 4,083
BEEF CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS
Purebred beef cattle bought thru county agents' influence:
B ulls .... ................................... .......... .............................. .......... 25
Cow s or heifers....... ..... .. .............. ...................................... 66
Grade cows introduced for breeding purposes------------................................ 97








26 Florida Cooperative Extension

Beef breeding herds started............. ........ ......................... .............. 17
Feeding cattle introduced- ......................... ............................................. 130
Beef feeding demonstrations -........................... -- ---...... --... ........... 2
Cattle fed ........... ..........----------------- .....-----.. ----.. ..................... 210
Estimated number of beef cattle handled according to methods advo-
cated by county agents.................................................. ................. 1,029
HOG DEMONSTRATIONS
Purebred hogs brought into the state this year due to county agents'
influence:
Boars .....--............. --- .......--- ...-------............ ...... ---..... ... 157
Sow s or gilts---................. ............................ ........ ............... ........ 678
Extra head of purebred and grade sows bred....................................... 662
Hog feeding demonstrations supervised by agents.................................. 59
Num ber of hogs ....................................------- -----.. ................... 548
Farmers induced to grow grazing crops for hogs--......--........--.................... 444
Estimated number of hogs cared for according to methods advocated
by county agents ......---- ....... ........ ------- ............................ 9,724
POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
Poultry demonstrations supervised............................-............................. .. 219
Poultry cared for according to methods advocated by agents............ 11,150
Farms on which poultry management has been improved.................... 563
Number of birds on these farms .--... ................................. --------- 13,270
LIVESTOCK DISEASE AND PEST DEMONSTRATIONS
Number farm animals treated at instigation of extension workers:
Cattle .-------........-.... -----....-... -- ---.... --.. --... ............................. 74,725
Hogs .......-- ---.......................- .......... ......................104,623
Horses ..-... ----------.--........--...-.......... ...-.......-.... --253
FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATIONS
Farmers advised regarding proper use of fertilizers............................. 4,139
Fertilizer demonstrations ....................... --------.. ................. 167
Tons of fertilizer used -----.................- ......................... ... ........ 10,260
Communities buying fertilizers cooperatively.......................................... 31
Farmers home-mixing fertilizers ......................................................... 268
Farmers who top-dressed crops with fertilizers..................................... 1,601
MANURE DEMONSTRATIONS
Farmers induced to take better care of manure--....--------...................... .. 632
Number -that provided sheds-...-------.............--........................ 95
Number composting farm manure .. ---------............ ...................... 608
M anure spreaders in state ................... .............. ......... .............. 95
Farmers mixing raw phosphates with farm manure-------.............................. 243
Estimated quantity of farm manure saved, tons..................................... 51,990
SILO DEMONSTRATIONS
Silos built in state this year---------.............. ... ................................. 30
Number built as result of county agents' advice.................................... 6
Number of silos in state now .......................-........................ 640
LIME DEMONSTRATIONS
Farmers using lime due to county agents' influence...-------............................. 32
Quantity of lim e used, tons ....................................................................... 114
N um ber of acres lim ed ................... ....................... .......................... 412

EXTRACTS FROM COUNTY AGENTS' ANNUAL REPORTS
BREVARD
(K. E. Bragdon)
The first undertaking was the establishment of a free ex-
change system whereby farmers and growers could advertise







Annual Report, 1920


articles wanted and for sale within the county. Bulletin boards
have been established in about 30 civic centers thruout the
county. The following sales have been made:

Article Number Total Sales Price
Hives of bees .................. .........$ 85.00
Swine ........................ ............... 4 ............-- 70.00
M are and colt.................... .................. 1 ............................. 165.00
Plants ...... .....................................50,000.......... ............... 112.50
Mowing machine ........................ 1 ...... ................... 35.00
Cattle 47 ........................................ 2,325.00
Truck ............... .... ................. 1 ........ ............. .. 600.00
M ules ....... ............. .....-..... .... .... 2 .......... .. ............ 400.00
Autom obiles ....................................... 3 ............................ 425.00
Total, $4,247.50

The second undertaking was the control of the cottony cushion
scale in citrus groves. This scale was causing thousands of
dollars worth of damage and the growers were unable to put a
stop to its ravages. By introducing the vedalia into 14 groves
we were able to control the pest. In some groves the scale seems
to have been completely eradicated.
The third undertaking was the improvement of beekeeping
conditions, brought about by becoming an active member in the
county beekeepers' association, forming a boys' and girls' bee
club and taking an active part in the organization of a state bee-
keepers' association. Many old style hives have been eliminated
and the bees transferred to modern hives.

CITRUS
(R. J. Dorsett)
On coming to Citrus County my first step was to get the
farmers closer together, which has been done thru the Melon
Growers' Association, which was organized with 90 percent of
the growers. First we got the railroad to store cars along the
S. A. L. railroad, and when shipment started we were not both-
ered to any extent with a shortage of cars. We next secured
the Packers' Guide and thereby got in touch with buyers of pro-
duce, obtained their rating and invited them to come to our
fields. All our melons were sold at the railroad sidings at satis-
factory prices. Cooperative buying of seed, oats, rye, syrup,
cane, and fertilizer has proved a great saving and all farmers
are much pleased with results.






Florida Cooperative Extension


I


FIG. 3.-State club champion in the breeding class. Raised and exhibited by
Leo Leslie, Columbia County

COLUMBIA
(H. A. McDonald)
One hundred twenty-five boys and girls have been enrolled in
various clubs, and 50 more have applied for membership next
year.
DADE
(J. S. Rainey)
On January 10, 1920, I turned over 17 purebred heifers, 9
Jerseys and 8 Holsteins, to the boys and girls of Dade County.
This was the first dairy club organized in the state.
These heifers were bought by two banks of Miami and turned






Annual Report, 1920


over to the members on a note endorsed by their parents, notes
to run one year at 6 percent.
This has been the means of placing purebred cattle all over
the county and creating the desire among parents to sell all
grades and keep only purebreds. Some good records have been
made and one boy has increased his herd to four and another
to two heifers.
DE SOTO
(J. M. Tillman)
Six hundred eighty acres of citrus, or 40,200 trees, have been
either sprayed, pruned or cultivated and fertilized according to
my advice. Such good results have been obtained on these groves
that plans are being made to continue the care.
HILLSBORO
(R. T. Kelley)
Organization work has been a prominent feature of the work
in this county this year. This work was started in the spring
and has been continued all thru the year. The first part of the
work was organizing a county bureau. Farmers and business
men were called together in a meeting at Seffner. The plan of
work was discussed and met with favor. Another meeting was
called one month later at Valrico, and the county bureau was
organized. The next step was to organize the communities as
members of the county bureau.
HERNANDO
(James Mountain)
At the beginning of this -year we had just started a cooper-
ative dairy and I have not failed to urge this work all thru the
season. With a growing interest in every way, it has been the
means of bringing in several purebred animals.
Naturally, with the introduction of better dairy cattle I saw
the great advantage of suggesting to the farmer that he plant
more cover crops. A number of farmers now are fall plowing
their lands and sowing it to rye, oats and rape. Farmers are
composting waste material on the farms with cow manure and
thereby increasing the fertility of their farms.
HOLMES
(J. J. Sechrest)
Oats and rye equal parts for cover crops and winter pastures
have given better results than any single crop, or combination.






Florida Cooperative Extension


We had our best results when we applied cottonseed meal and
phosphate equal parts at the rate of 200 pounds an acre. Those
planted with a drill were better than when sown broadcast. We
have an extra amount of peavine hay this year, which was the
result of a strong campaign to have all oat stubble planted to
peas for hay or green manure.
LEON
(R. I. Matthews)
We have organized a livestock breeders association with 53
members, thru whom 62 pastures have been started or improved
and aliproximately $2,000 saved to farmers of the county.
Started Napier grass in Leon County. This grass furnishes
about 10 tons of green forage to the acre.
MADISON
(C. E. Matthews)
I have assisted in organizing a county hog breeders' associa-
tion, thereby stimulating interest in better breeding stock. The
members have bought all their feed cooperatively thru the as-
sociation, and thus saved on an average of 92 cents a sack.
I took up the work of organizing a county fair, with the result
that the first county fair was held at Madison, Florida, Novem-
ber 3-6. The fair was highly successful.
The county commissioners made an appropriation to send a
county exhibit to the state fair at Jacksonville. The agent was
put in charge of the exhibit which was awarded second prize
in agriculture. Madison County Pig Club was awarded second
prize in a class of ten pigs exhibited.
MANATEE
(W. R. Briggs)
At the request of a number of farmers, a meeting was called
by the county agent for the consideration of a uniform wage
scale. Eighty representative farmers were present at this meet-
ing, and adopted a uniform wage scale. Additional signatures
have been obtained since. Results so far have been quite satis-
factory.
'MARION
(W. A. Sessoms)
Arriving in the county just as a start was being made to get
the Farmers' Union organization established, I at once began
to encourage and assist in this movement. Fourteen communi-






Annual Report, 1920


ties were organized, which later centralized into a county or-
ganization. There has just been established by the county or-
ganization a central purchasing and marketing agency, with a
cooperative farmers' store. The beneficial results of the union
are more evident now that the marketing agency is established
and functioning.
My next work was to feature the pig club and to form the
first fat pig club ever established in the state. It seemed that
there could not be room for all members of the regular pig club
to become breeders of breeding stock, and that it would be well
to teach the boys something about feeding out pork hogs. I
asked the financial support of one of the banks and was offered
the use of any amount of money up to $2,500 for buying barrows
to place with the boys and girls. The feeding period was to
be 100 days, and only 6 percent interest was to be charged for
the use of the money. While only 19 barrows were placed with
12 members, the results were excellent, both as to facts obtained
as to feeding and as to the quality of the exhibit made by the
boys at the county fair. The drop in the price of pork hogs,
tho, caused a loss on the feeding operation. However, this fact
will not serve as an obstacle against the work, and indications
are good for a larger fat pig club next year.
The members of the regular pig club and of the fat pig club
exhibited 56 animals at the county fair, which was twice the
number ever before exhibited by the young folk, and the show-
ing caused much favorable comment for the county agent work.
ORANGE
(C. D. Kime)
Thirty-eight diseased citrus properties have been selected for
special record and treatment. The office record on these prop-
erties will be kept up for at least two years. That certain lines
of treatment be carried out in these properties, is desirable.
The fertilizer test work is looking toward a more rigid en-
forcement of our present fertilizer guarantee law. This work
will be carried on in cooperation with other counties. We find
that shortages in analysis, as guaranteed by the tag accompany-
ing the goods, are frequent and often of a serious nature. Of
one company, out of ten consecutive samples eight showed a
material shortage. This company is the worst offender. When
it is considered that only a very small percent of the total goods






Florida Cooperative Extension


sold in the state are analyzed, the enormous loss to the purchaser
can easily be estimated. This is an important piece of work for
community councils.
POLK
(Wm. Gomme)
This county being almost entirely a citrus county, most of the
agent's time has been given to the following phases of citrus
culture: (a) cultivating, (b) fertilizing, (c) spraying. It was
found that many growers attended their groves in a haphazard
way, having no definite plan. Most of them sprayed because
"John did," regardless of season, condition of trees, etc. The
same thing applies to cultivating and fertilizing. The agent
has been instrumental in many cases in demonstrating the use
of proper materials at the right time, so bringing better, cleaner
and more profitable fruits.
ST. LUCIE
(Alfred Warren)
This is the third time that St. Lucie County has placed a
county exhibit at the state fair in Jacksonville under the im-
mediate charge of the county agent. Our exhibit this year was
a great success, winning first prize in the horticultural counties
and sweepstakes trophy cup over all the exhibiting counties of
the state. The prizes won at the state- fair this year amounted
to $790.
Beekeeping is growing more popular every year, as it is an
industry that appeals to the small farmer who finds it a profit-
able side line.
SANTA ROSA
(J. C. Sechrest)
First, I found a market for and shipped one car of sweet po-
tatoes with a profit of $129 more than the farmer could have
gotten in Milton.
Second, I assisted farmers in harvesting their peanuts in such
good condition that they were offered $20 a ton more than the
regular market price.






Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR SOUTH FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith a report of the district agent of seven
South Florida counties for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
A. P. SPENCER,
Vice-Director and District Agent.


The counties in the district covered by this report are Bre-
vard, St. Lucie, Palm Beach and Dade on the East Coast, Man-
atee, DeSoto and Lee on the West Coast. Supervision in this
territory has occupied about a third of my time during the year,
the remainder of my time being given to the duties of vice-di-
rector.
The actual work of the county agent in each county is tabu-
lated under county agents' reports, and gives a fairly accurate
key to the progress of each in his respective county. -
The entire area covered by this report differs from other
sections of Florida, in that general crops and livestock are sec-
ondary as it relates to the farmer's income. A "large part of
the territory is open range, much of it unfit for present-day
agriculture, and much of it uninhabited. Yet in spite of this,
these counties are among the most progressive and prosperous
of the state.
SOURCES OF FARMERS' INCOMES
The income of the farms is chiefly from horticultural products.
Of these the most important are citrus fruits and winter truck
crops. In most of these sections these crops are seasonable, pro-
duced at a high cost, sometimes with abnormal profits and again
with decided losses. Practically all of the area covered shows
some interest in corn and other farm crops, a decided interest
in dairy cattle and at the present time only a limited amount of
interest in hog raising. Of the livestock interests, from the
farmers' standpoint, the production of dairy products is by far
the most important; on the other hand, range cattle interests
are extensive and important.
VARIETY OF THE COUNTY AGENT'S WORK
Due to the rapid development and increased values of property
in much of this territory, the agent's activities are varied. In-






Florida Cooperative Extension


dividuals are developing properties, clearing land, planting and
improving properties. Large tracts are being opened up for
newcomers, many of these people with limited means and farm
experiences. These lands vary from the high, dry, waste land
to the muck and flat lands that require drainage. Some of these
people are settling far from railroad transportation, which
makes social conditions and transportation difficult. In many
instances drainage attempts have not been successful.
The county agents, without exception, have endeavored to
assist the new people in making a start, making frequent visits
to their places to plan cash crops, prepare for citrus planting,
assist in preparing pastures for their work stock and the small
number of hogs and cattle they may own. And after the crops
are grown, county agents have made it their business to render
every assistance in aiding these people to dispose of it profitably.
The work, therefore, is varied and hard to systematize.
Nevertheless, it is meeting with favorable response on the part
of farmers and county officials.

THE WORK BY COUNTIES
The work in these counties differs in many respects. In Bre-
vard County K. E. Bragdon assumed the duties of county agent
December 1, 1919. His work has been principally with citrus
and bees. The citrus work has been primarily in the control
of insects and diseases. The spraying of citrus fruit to improve
the quality has been the main citrus work in Brevard County.
A comparatively small amount of truck, crops is being planted,
and these principally for home and local use. Some feed crops
and a small acreage of corn is grown. There is some hog cholera
control work, but of minor importance.
Brevard County receives an income from her bee industry.
The county agent has accomplished much in the way of organi-
zations for the more profitable production of honey. He has
spent much time in organizing bee clubs among boys and has
conducted beekeepers' meetings.
In St. Lucie County the county agent continues to give much
attention to new groves, as a large acreage is planted on flat
land, much of which has not been sufficiently drained. The
acreage of new groves in St. Lucie County is the largest on the
East Coast, and these groves are planted under a variety of con-
ditions. The county agent has made himself a specialist in the






Annual Report, 1920


management of young groves, and has been very useful to the
county as such.
Sugar cane has also been an important part of his work. An
increased acreage has been planted particularly in the Vero
section, with the intention of eventually having a sugar mill.
Not all these lands are suitable for growing crops. Much of it
requires heavy applications of fertilizer. A large part of it"is
in the hands of people who have had little or no experience and
who have little money on 'which to operate.
In pineapple work the county agent has assisted the plant
pathologist of the Experiment Station in conducting experiments
to determine the cause of failures. While this interests a com-
paratively small number of citizens, it is of much importance
to St.Lucie County.
As a large acreage of range land is available in this county,
the agent is giving some attention to grasses and forage crops,
securing seed from outside sources and rendering whatever as-
sistance he can to improve these native pastures.
In Palm Beach County, the agent has given much of his time
to truckers in the Everglades. Many of these people are located
several miles from a railroad, and are trucking on a compara-
tively small acreage. He has been useful in assisting these
farmers in determining what crops should be planted, how they
should be cultivated and finally in aiding them in marketing.
Oh this muck land there is much interest in general farming,
and a few people are undertaking livestock raising. The terri-
tory is a large one and not easy to reach from the county agent's
headquarters.
During the summer of 1919, the county agent successfully
conducted a rat eradication campaign. However, it has been
necessary to continue the campaign during 1920. The results
were good where the farmers cooperated.
Much interest is manifested in dairying, and the county agent
assisted in a campaign to test every dairy cow for tuberculosis.
There is a general interest in poultry production.
In Dade County a good part of the agent's time is given to
office work, particularly during winter. Many northern people
visit Miami at this season, and some are interested in the glade
lands and other farming interests of South Florida. Aside from
this the county agent's time has been given to the citrus industry,
and more especially to the. poultry and dairy interests. The
agent has been instrumental in securing several head of pure-






Florida Cooperative Extension


bred and grade Holstein and Jersey cattle, placing these among
club boys. The county, too, is tick free and the agent realizes
the importance of exercising judgment in recommending the
purchase of animals, whereby there is any danger of introducing
the Texas fever tick.


FIG. 4.-Six year old citrus tree under observation county agent, Polk County

In Manatee County, the agent's time is principally devoted to
truck and citrus crops; the control of diseases; the fertilization
of these crops; and the diversification and growing of additional
crops during summer months, when most of the land is idle.
Manatee County has a large area of undeveloped pasture
lands. Some of this is being fenced and pastured. This, too,
has occupied the attention of the county agent in advising better
methods of handling such a proposition.
The agent has endeavored to increase the number of dairy
cows in the county, with the view of eventually having a dairy
cow for each family.






Annual Report, 1920


In Lee County John Boring, the former county agent, resigned
July 1. Up to that time the agent's attention was given prin-
cipally to truckers, as livestock and general farming was of com-
paratively little importance. On September 1, H. E. Stevens,
formerly plant pathologist of the Florida Experiment Station,
became county agent. As about 80 percent of the horticultural
products of this county come from the groves, it seemed desir-
able to place a man here who was a specialist in citrus. Since
Mr. Stevens' appointment, he has made this work his major
project, not neglecting, however, the interests of the truckers
and livestock men.
In DeSoto County the citrus industry is by far the most im-
portant from the standpoint of income. The trucking interests,
particularly in the Wauchula section, are gradually becoming
more extensive. The county agent has divided his time pretty
generally among these matters, and for the purpose of improv-
ing the fruit and assisting growers in the control of diseases
that occur with truck crops.
This county has more general farming than any other county
in the district. Some livestock farms are being developed. This
requires the agent's attention at various periods.

COUNTY AND STATE FAIRS
Thruout the district a county fair has been held in each county
except Brevard. Some of these counties have contributed
toward making the state fair a success by sending exhibits, and
in each case under the care of the county agent. This work is
to be commended, insofar as it does not consume too much of the
agent's time. It offers a good opportunity to get the work before
the people at least once a year, thereby creating interest in the
things he proposes to do.
ORGANIZATION OF FARM BUREAUS
Farm bureau organization work is making slow progress in
these counties. Palm Beach County has made a persistent effort
to organize each community. Most of the communities have
now an imperfect organization. The purpose, in most cases, is
to improve marketing facilities and transportation.







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR CENTRAL AND
SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for
Central and South Central Florida for the year ending December
31, 1920.
Respectfully,
E. W. JENKINS,
District Agent.


During the year I traveled by rail 10,188 miles, and by auto-
mobile 2,942, a total of 13,130 miles. I have made 120 official
visits to county agents, and have attended 60 farmers' meetings.
At these meetings there was a total attendance of 8,105. Accom-
panied by the county agents, I visited 160 farmers.
The general interest in the work is shown by the county ap-
propriations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921, which is
$26,055 as compared with $20,000 for the year ending June 30,
1920.
CORN
Besides the boys' corn club work, three counties, Marion,
Pasco and Volusia, had clubs of farmers in corn growing con-
tests. Some good results were obtained. In these contests the
value of seed selection, crop rotation, and proper preparation
and cultivation was clearly demonstrated. Valuable prizes were
given in each club by banks in the counties. In most cases the
yield was double that where ordinary methods were followed.
The work begun last year to protect corn from weevils was
continued. In one county a week was spent with the county
agent in this work. During the day we made visits to farms,
looked over cribs and suggested how the old and open cribs could
be made tight enough to fumigate. Night meetings at school
houses and other places were held. Lectures were illustrated,
showing development of the work against corn weevil. Judging
by the number of tight cribs built and the amount of carbon bi-
sulphide used, much more corn is being saved from the ravages
of weevils than ever before.
SUGAR CANE
The same interest which was shown last year in the produc-
tion of sugar cane still exists. The acreage has been large and






Annual Report, 1920


the yield good. County agents have been instrumental in get-
ting farmers to make a more uniform grade of syrup and to use
standard containers. Citrus County has adopted a uniform
container and brand for the entire county. In Putnam County a
sugar mill is to be constructed. This will furnish a market for
cane where farmers do not wish to make it into syrup.
VELVET BEANS
Farmers have been encouraged by county agents to increase
the velvet bean acreage. Farmers have come to recognize the
velvet bean as one of the best soil building and feed producing
plants. Usually the beans are first pastured to cattle, and later
the vines and manure from the cattle are turned under. Most
farmers plant velvet beans with corn.
SWEET POTATOES
A large acreage was planted to sweet potatoes. Yields from
early plantings were best. Most of the crop will be used on the
farm. Some were marketed early, and others have been stored
and will be marketed in the spring. County agents have been
instrumental in marketing potatoes.
PEANUTS
There was an increase in the peanut acreage this year, and
the yield was good. The low price and poor demand caused few
to be gathered and marketed. In most cases the crops were pas-
tured to hogs.
HAY
More and better hay has been harvested than usual. The va-
rieties consist chiefly of peavine, beggarweed, peanuts, crab-
grass and natal grass.
CITRUS
In the citrus counties much of the agents' time has been
taken up with citrus work. Instructions have been given in
spraying, fertilizing' and cultivating groves. Instructions have
also been given in budding, and pruning. Much information has
been given at field meetings.
LIVESTOCK
In each county the agent has been active in helping to im-
prove the quality and to increase the number of livestock. Be-
sides promoting pig clubs among the boys, many purebred hogs
have been placed with farmers. These will be used for breeding
purposes and will add materially to the large number of pure-
bred hogs already in the district.






Florida Cooperative Extension


One good example of the work being done along this line was
shown recently when one breeder sold from his herd 50 hogs
under one year of age for $12,500. These hogs all went to one
farm in an adjoining county as breeding stock.
Much work has been done to promote the dairy industry.
Pasco and Hernando Counties each have a cooperative dairy as-
sociation. The agent of Hernando has been instrumental in
placing four cars of Jersey cows among farmers.
The beef cattle industry has also received the attention of
county agents, and thru their efforts a number of males have
been placed.
FARM BUREAU ORGANIZATION
In March we took up farm bureau work, and on April 22 the
first county organization 'was perfected. This was Hillsboro
County, and several communities have been organized and have
become a part of the county organization. Two other counties,
Alachua and Pasco, have been organized. The community or-
ganizations of these counties are doing good work.
Three other counties, Orange, Polk and Volusia, have done
considerable organization work, and in the near future will form
county organizations.
MARKETING
Agents have assisted farmers in grading, packing and mar-
keting their crops. In citrus counties many of the growers
market their fruit thru the Citrus Exchange. Agents in these
counties have been instrumental in getting many farmers to
Purchase fertilizers and other supplies cooperatively. When
bought this way from $5 to $10 a ton have been saved.
One example of assistance given farmers in marketing their
crops is in a case of Citrus County. The agent found about a
dozen farmers in one community, each of whom had small quan-
tities of sweet potatoes to sell. After showing the farmers how
to grade and pack them uniformly, he got in touch with the
State Marketing Bureau. A buyer was sent to the farmers and
they were paid $1.35 a bushel for them, f. o. b., at that time a
satisfactory price.
In Seminole County the agent has been instrumental in assist-
ing his farmers to purchase several carloads of terra cotta piping
cooperatively. In this order alone they saved more than $4,000.
In this same county the agent assists the farmers in buying fer-
tilizers and other supplies, saving money always. Much assist-
ance has been given the melon growers in marketing their crop






Annual Report, 1920


thru the Citrus Exchange, State Marketing Bureau and local
organizations.
FAIRS AND EXHIBITS
Alachua, Citrus, Hernando and Marion Counties held agri-
cultural fairs in which county agents assisted. In Alachua
County community fairs were held just before the county fair,
and these communities brought their exhibit to the county fair,
which added materially to the agricultural exhibit.


FIG. 5.-The 1920 grand champion club fat barrow. Weight at seven
months, 367 pounds. Raised by Dannie Monroe, Jefferson County

A community fair was also held at Hollister, in Putnam
County. In each case these community fairs were well attended,
and the citizens of the different communities displayed great in-
terest in their work. They help to create community spirit.
Putnam and Osceola Counties sent exhibits to the state fair
at Jacksonville. These exhibits were in charge of the county
and home demonstration agents.
POULTRY WORK
More attention than usual has been given to poultry work.
In Pasco County a poultry show and institute was held by the






Florida Cooperative Extension


county agent. All of the leading breeds of poultry were on
display. The judging was done by a poultry specialist. This
show took up two full days. Specialists from the Extension
Division and Woman's College, as well as local poultrymen, han-
dled the institute.
FARM IMPLEMENTS
One of the most effective pieces of work accomplished by
county agents was that of assisting farmers in buying labor-
saving implements for the farm.
Agents from five counties report the purchase of the follow-
ing thru their assistance: 3 hay presses, 29 gas engines, 38
cultivators, 31 tractors, 51 motor trucks, 65 corn planters, 31
mowers, 11 grain drills, 50 disk harrows, 1 hay loader, 13 hay
rakes, 11 ensilage cutters, 12 cream separators, 60 spraying ma-
chines, and 6 manure spreaders.


FIG. 6.-Offices of St.-Lucie County and Home Demonstration Agents






Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH AND
WEST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for
North and West Florida for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
H. G. CLAYTON,
District Agent.


During the year I have traveled by rail 16,841 miles and by
automobile 3,307 miles, making a total of 19,788 miles. One
hundred twenty-four official visits have been made to county
agents and 58 farmers' meetings, having an attendance of 6,562,
were attended. Sixty-eight demonstration farms were visited
with the county agents and numerous visits made to other farms.
County appropriations for the year total $22,650 for 13 coun-
ties, as compared with $18,500 for 14 counties last year, thus
showing the general interest in the work.
An agent was placed in Columbia County in January. The
Bradford County agent resigned in August. This county has
failed to continue the appropriation for a new agent.
The work of the agents this year has been of a general nature.
This has been a year when farm operations are returning to pre-
war conditions. Careful planning on the farmers' part has been
necessary on account of high-priced labor, fertilizer, feeds, etc.
LIVESTOCK
Much constructive livestock work has been done during the
past year by the extension forces in North and West Florida.
Interest has been added to the work by tours conducted by the
agents in several counties, a number of farmers being taken on
visits to good stock farms. These farmers see the results ob-
tained from better breeding stock and they observe the best
methods of handling and caring for this class of livestock, as
"well as the feeding practices that are giving results in localities
nearby. In one county the bankers defrayed the expenses of
the party.
Five county agents report that, due to their efforts and in-
fluence, 57 purebred boars and 187 purebred sows and gilts have
been brought into their counties. Purebred cows and bulls have
been brought into almost every county in this district. One agent






Florida Cooperative Extension


reports bringing into his county four purebred bulls and 28 pure-
bred cows and heifers. Another reports 3 purebred bulls and
30 cow.i.
Results of this kind of work are readily observed in the better
kind of stock kept on the farms, the improved types going to
market, better exhibits at our county fairs and the general in-
terest shown.
Between January 1 and December 1, 1920, the county agents
have treated 22,140 head of hogs against hog cholera.
ORGANIZATION
Livestock breeders' associations have been organized this year
in Leon, Madison, Walton and Escambia Counties. In two
counties the agents have rendered valuable services in the or-
ganization of farmers' union locals. In four counties the work
of organizing the county in accordance with the Florida Farm
Bureau plan is almost completed.
FAIRS AND CONTESTS
The county fairs and club contests in this district showed
marked improvement over last year, especially in quality, quan-
tity and educational value of exhibits. Efforts of the county
and home demonstration agents are largely responsible for the
excellence of these displays. Three counties held fairs this year,














FIG. 7.-Corn and velvet bean demonstration acre, Bay County

where none had been held previously for years. One day com-
munity fairs were held in four counties, and at six of the county
fairs in this district community exhibits were shown.
Club contests in four counties, where no county fairs were






Annual Report, 1920


held, were really small fairs themselves and attracted much in-
terest.
At the state fair eight counties from this district had exhibits
as compared with four in 1919. These counties were Bay, Co-
lumbia, Duval, Escambia, Leon, Madison, Suwannee and Taylor.
In the agricultural division in which these counties competed
Escambia won first, Madison second, Duval third, Columbia
fourth and Bay fifth places.
MEETINGS
One or more community meetings have been held in each
county in this district. In several counties one and two series
of such meetings were held. Community problems and subjects
applicable to them, together with some entertainment feature
composed the program. In Liberty County the annual field
meetings were very successful.
. Early in December a series of 2-day farmers' schools was held
in four counties, Santa Rosa, Washington, Walton and Liberty.
Organization, cooperation, home problems, marketing and live-
stock, were among the subjects discussed by the different
speakers. The second day was known as poultry day, and at
this time a practical course of instruction in farm poultry pro-
duction was presented.
These meetings were all well attended, and many expressions
from local people were heard as to their success.

CLUB WORK
Good progress has been made in club work, both as to amount
and class of work done. Two club camps were held last summer.

CORN, COTTON, VELVET BEANS AND SUGAR CANE *
The corn crop was satisfactory over this territory this year,
the greater part of the production of the state being made here.
Hard work on the part of the farmers during the unfavorable
weather in the spring and favorable weather during the latter
part of the season made this crop possible. Over 50 percent of
the acreage was interplanted with velvet beans for soil improve-
ment and stock feed. A good crop of beans was made.
The cotton acreage was increased approximately 10 percent
over last year. This, however, was not done at the expense of
livestock and diversification. A combination of boll weevil in-
jury and unfavorable weather brought about a condition which
resulted in almost no production in certain localities, while the






46 Florida Cooperative Extension

absence of these factors enabled good production in other lo-'
calities. The greater portion of the state's 19,000-bale cotton
crop was produced in North and West Florida, of which most is
still being held for better prices.
A good cane crop was produced, a large acreage being planted.
Very little syrup has been sold, most of it being held for a better
market. Less seed cane is bedded than a year ago.
PASTURES AND GRAZING CROPS
The agents have been active in getting more pastures and
grazing crops established, and have aided in increasing the
carrying capacity of pastures. One county agent has had orders
for 30,000 pounds of different kinds of grass seed for the farms
of his county. Four county agents report that thru their efforts
50 farmers have started growing grazing crops for hogs. This
type of work is a fundamental need in the future progress of
our livestock industry. We must make better provision to care
for the improved livestock now being brought in, and county
agents are doing their share to this end.
IMPROVED MACHINERY
Five county agents report new machinery has been purchased
in their counties the past year, totaling 7 hay presses, 18 gasoline
engines, 30 2-horse cultivators, 16 tractors, 35 motor trucks, 53
corn planters, 6 mowing machines, 1 grain drill, 41 disk har-
rows, 40 cultivators, 3 hay rakes, 2 cream separators, 12 spray-
ing machines and several hundred small tools. Scarcity of labor
and high prices have made improved machinery both necessary
and profitable.
MISCELLANEOUS
Two sweet potato storage houses have been completed this
year, the government plans being used.
In Suwannee County the erection of a meat curing house is
well under way, the results of which will be of interest and
benefit to other counties.
Complete reports at hand from eight county agents show a
total of 43,619 miles traveled by auto and rail, 97 farmers' meet-
ings and 36 field meetings held, and 5,236 official visits made to
farmers, demonstrators, club boys, etc.






Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the boys' agricultural
club agent for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
R. W. BLACKLOCK,
Boys' Club Agent.


Boys' club work has again demonstrated its value as a means
of building up the agricultural interests of Florida. The work
accomplished by the boys in the various clubs has been a valu-
able lesson to farmers as well as to boys. Thru the clubs the
value of better seed and better blood has been taught to many
farmers who could not have been reached otherwise. The in-
creased yields due to better seed, better preparation and better
cultivation in the corn, peanut and potato clubs, stand as con-
vincing demonstrations of better methods of farming, while the
results shown by the boys in the animal clubs have demonstrated
that blood plus proper feeding of livestock will make a profit for
the farmer.
The number of counties where the club work has been carried
on this year is 29 against 45 for last year. Still, the amount of
work accomplished, as shown by reports received, is nearly as
large. There has been a substantial increase in the work ac-
cqmplished in the animal clubs, and the addition of the bee and
fat barrow clubs has opened two new lines of activities to the
boys.
NEW CLUBS ORGANIZED
BEE CLUBS
;Local conditions in South Florida are such that the regular
crop and animal clubs do not fit into the farming system of that
section. To give the boys there a chance to share the benefits
of club work, the bee club has been started. Brevard County
was selected as the county in which to try out this new work.
County Agent K. E. Bragdon secured 13 boys and girls who
agreed to do the work under his direction.
The boys and girls developed wonderful ability in handling
and caring for the bees. Some members, more favorably lo-
cated, secured profitable yields, but none lost money. The results






Florida Cooperative Extension


in Brevard County were such that bee clubs will be started in
several counties next year.
PIG FATTENING CLUBS
Another new club which gives great promise is the fat bar-
row, or pig fattening club. The slackened demand for breeding
stock which came in the early summer was a discouragement to
pig club members of last year who had raised purebred pigs and
could not dispose of them. To encourage the boys to feed out
their pigs for market the pig fattening club was pushed in Jef-
ferson and Marion Counties.
In Jefferson County, Dannie Monroe fed out a purebred Duroc
barrow with exceptionally good results. The records of this
boy's pig are: Initial weight, 65 pounds; final weight, 367
pounds; gain, 302 pounds; daily gain, 2.05 pounds; days fed,
145; pounds cost of gain, 4 cents; age at end of contest, 7 months
11 days.
CLUB CAMPS
The club camps which were started last year have been con-
tinued. Camps were held in'Citrus, Columbia and Santa Rosa
Counties.
In Citrus County, at Shell Island, 19 boys attended the camp.
In Columbia County 53 boys spent three days at Ichtucknee
Springs, and in Santa Rosa County 30 boys and girls attended
the camp at Floridatown.














FIG. 8.-Recreation at Columbia County club camp, 1920

At these camps regular courses are given and the boys are
taught how to make labor saving devices for the farm. Rope
splicing and knot tying were taught at all camps this year. Rec-






Annual Report, 1920


reaction was not neglected, and games, swimming and the like
were enjoyed. The boys were kept under strict discipline, and
their health and morals were watched. These camps serve the
need of the country boy to secure some of the pleasures which
heretofore have been possible only to the town and city boy.
INTERNATIONAL CLUB JUDGING CONTEST
Perhaps the outstanding feature of the club year was the trip
made by a team of Florida club boys to the international club
livestock judging contest, held in connection with the south-
eastern fair at Atlanta, Ga., October 19-22. This contest is the
most important event of its kind in the South, and is open to
every state having club work. This was the first year, and 14
states sent teams.
The Florida team was selected from ten boys who took a
week's training in stock judging at the University in September.
Four boys were chosen at this time. Thanks to the friends of
club work in Florida for the financial assistance necessary to
make this trip, these boys were taken thru Georgia, visiting


SFLORiDA


FIG. 9.-The 1920 Florida club team at the International club judging con-
test, Atlanta, 1920






Florida Cooperative Extension


livestock herds. The team was composed of C. H. Taylor, Jr.,
Hillsboro County; Henry Dorsett, Suwannee County; Roy Seals,
Madison County. Luther Webb of Hillsboro County was al-
ternate.
The 14 teams judged four breeds of hogs, three of beef cattle,
three of dairy cattle and two of sheep. When the awards were
made, the Florida team stood in sixth place. The standing of
the teams shows how well our Florida boys did, altho they had
to go into the contest without training in judging sheep. The
following table gives the standing of the 10 highest teams:
(1) Texas ........................ 3110 (6) Florida ................... 2868
(2) Miss. ...................... 2965 (7) Arkansas ................ 2772
(3) Kansas ......... ... 2953 (8) S. Carolina ............. 2769
(4) Virginia ................ 2879 (9) Georgia ............. 2747
(5) Iowa ........................ 2869 (10) Louisiana ............... 2739
The Florida team led in judging Hampshire hogs and Holstein
cattle. Henry Dorsett led all the competing boys in judging
dairy cattle, and C. H. Taylor tied for first place in judging
Hampshire hogs.
The value of this training in judging livestock can hardly be
estimated, and it is hoped that Florida can continue to send a
team to this contest.
STATE FAIR CLUB EXHIBIT
After the county contests were held, the best exhibits in crop
and animal clubs were gathered at the state fair in Jacksonville.
The fair association was liberal with prizes, and the club mem-
bers responded with large and excellent exhibits. One hundred
s venty 10-ear exhibits of corn, 115 1-gallon exhibits of peanuts,
35 peck exhibits of sweet potatoes and 1 5-member bee club
exhibit, were shown as exhibits. In the livestock department,
5) registered sows, gilts and boars, 10 fat barrows and 6 calves
were exhibited. The uniformity of the exhibits was good, and
the quality of the corn exhibit was exceptional, as there was
practically no weevil-damaged ears on display. In the peanuts,
t e White Spanish variety predominated and the quality was
g od, showing that good seed has been planted and the crop
p operly limed and fertilized. The exhibit of 20 jars of ex-
tiacted honey shown in the bee club exhibit attracted much fa-
vorable comment.
iThe greatest improvement was found in the livestock exhibit.
For the-first time, animals raised by club -bofys- weire-shown in
open classes against animals shown by breeders. Over $100 was-






Annual Report, 1920


won by the boys in these open competitions. Among the win-
nings were first and second prize under one year Duroc barrow,
champion Poland-China and Berkshire barrows, second and
third prize senior sow pig in the Durocs and fourth prize senior.
sow pig in the Poland-Chinas. These winnings show that the
standard of the work being done in the pig club is high, as some
of the best herds in the Southeast were competing in the open
classes.
COUNTY PIG CLUB EXHIBITS
For the first time county pig club exhibits were shown. These
exhibits consisted of 10 breeding pigs from a county. Columbia
County won first and Madison second. Much credit is due the
county agents of these counties for their fine work along this line.
SUPPORT OF THE WORK
The support given club work by people of the state is increas-
ing. In addition to the large amount of money loaned each year
to purchase pigs, over $7,000 was given in prizes at the county
contests and at the state contest.
While much of this fund was given as cash, there was an
increased amount given to pay for scholarships and educational
trips. The State Bankers' Association gave three scholarships
valued at $100 each to be used toward paying three boys' ex-
penses thru the Agricultural College. Williamson & Dennis
gave a $250 Agricultural College scholarship as first prize in
both the calf and the pig clubs. Armour & Co. gave a $150 trip
to the international livestock show and exposition held at Chi-
cago to the state champions in the corn and fat barrow club. In
addition to these two trips, Armour & Co. gave $500 to pay the
expenses of 30 boys to the boys' annual short course at the Uni-
versity. The land and industrial division of the Florida East
Coast Railway Company gave a scholarship to one boy in each
county served by its road. The local banks and business men
in almost every county gave money to send from one to twenty-
five boys to the short course. These additional prizes will aid
materially in the dissemination of agricultural information thru-
out the state.
STATE CHAMPIONS
In the corn club, Don Miley, of Hillsboro County, won the
championship with a yield of 101.7 bushels produced at a cost
of 30 cents a bushel. As a reward for his success he was
awarded a trip to the boys' short course at Gainesville and also
a trip to the international livestock show at Chicago.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The state champion in the pig feeding club was Leo Leslie
of Columbia County, who bred and raised the Poland China pig
which was judged the best' club pig shown at the state fair. Leo
was awarded the Williamson & Dennis scholarship to the Agri-
cultural College.
Dannie Monroe of Jefferson County showed the grand cham-
pion fat barrow in the state fair club show and was awarded a
trip to the international livestock show.
Stewart Lockhart of Alachua County won the Williamson &
Dennis scholarship in the calf club. His heifer also won in her
class in the open ring.
The banker scholarships to the Agricultural College was won
by Henry Dorsett of Suwannee County, Samuel Skipper of
Alachua County, and C. H. Taylor, Jr., of Hillsboro County.
These scholarships are awarded one in each banking district
of the state to the boy from that district having the highest
average in a series of examinations given by the state club agent.
SHORT COURSE
The Fifth Annual Short Course was held at the University of
Florida December 7-12. Boys from 28 counties attended.


FIG. 10.-Seven boys attending the 1920 short course who raised over 75
bushels of corn to the acre







Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE ASSISTANT BOYS' AGRICULTURAL
CLUB AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the assistant boys' agri-
cultural club agent for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
E. F. DEBUSK,
Assistant Boys' Club Agent.


THE CORN CLUB
While there was a bumper crop of corn made in the United
States this year, a poor season made an off year for Florida. The
average acre yield for the state this year is 13.5 bushels; the
average last year was 15 bushels. Despite the poor season the
corn club boys made an average yield of 34.5 bushels an acre
this year. The average last year was 35.7 bushels.
It is interesting to note that 50 percent of the corn club boys
used no fertilizer. The boys have been taught the value of turn-
ing under legumes and other cover crops. The proper saving
and use of barnyard manure has been stressed also.
Hillsboro County made the highest acre yield, 18 boys report-
ing an average of 52.6 bushels an acre, produced at an average
cost of 29 cents a bushel, the lowest average cost reported.
Holmes had the largest number of boys reporting and made the
largest total yield of corn. Hernando County reported the lowest
cost for a bushel, one boy producing 58.5 bushels at a cost of 17
cents a bushel. In Hillsboro County 50 percent of the club boys
made 50 or more bushels an acre; three boys made 80 or more
bushels.
101.7 BUSHELS ON ONE ACRE
Don Miley of Hillsboro County made the highest corn club
yield, producing 101.7 bushels on one acre. The following is his
own story of how he did it:
"The plot of land to which I planted my corn contained one
acre. The land was thick with beggarweed before I broke it.
I broke the land December 20 about 7 inches deep, and then
disked it well. About 15 days later I ran the disk over it again.
It was then in good condition for planting. I opened the furrows
and applied three 1-horse loads barnyard manure; later I applied
350 pounds commercial fertilizer. I planted the corn-yellow









SUMMARY OF 197 CORN CLUB REPORTS


County
gag



Holmes ................ 40
Hernando .......... -25
Liberty ................ 18
Hillsboro ........... 18
Okaloosa ........... 12
Suwannee ........ 11
Santa Rosa ........ 11
Escambia .........:.. 10
Bradford .......... 10
Alachua .............. 8
M arion ................ 6
Polk .................... 6
Madison -............. 5
Columbia .......... 5
Duval .................. 4
Taylor ................ 3
Pasco ................... 2
Jackson .............. 1
Palm Beach ....... 1
Orange ................ 1
Totals or -
averages .--------. 197


1,499.0
911.0
513.0
929.4
370.0
325.0
363.0
411.0
332.0
157.0
158.9
156.0
183.3
145.3
159.3
135.1
52.0
36.0
35.5
19.3

6,891.0


VI
Mi"
*0



37.5
36.5
31.8
52.6
30.8
29.5
33.0
38.6
32.2
20.0
26.3
26.0
36.6
29.0
39.8
45.0
26.0
36.0
35.5
19.3

34.5


-'-S
0





.53
.36
.56
.29
.66
.55
.61
.49
.49
.74
.61
.70
.57
.47
.55
.40
.98
.42
.62
.68

.493


1


.a-O



87.0
58.5
77.2
101.7
51.5
45.0
49.4
65.0
42.3
35.5
60.5
32.0
40.3
35.5
42.8
50.1
40.0
36.0
35.5
19.3

50.3


"5 12 020 3 1 3 6. 4.
00





.43 31 9,450 12 24 17 6.2 4.7
.17 1 300 1 2 19 5.7 4.5
.26 15 4,250 2 12 12 6.4 4.6
.30 8 2,400 4 6 13 6.2 4.6
.51 12 4,020 3 12 3 6.2 4.0
.24 4 1,380 1 3 2 7.0 4.0
.51 8 3,040 .................... 4 7.2 5.0
.41
.41. ............ ... .... ......- -..-.. ...... ..... ..-.-.. .... ---
.51 4 1,800 ,3 4 1 6.0 3.0
.67 3 975 1 3 7 6.0 4.5
.33 1 900 ........... ............ 5 7.0 5.0
.32 2 800 .-..-.... ....--.... 4 5.0 6.3
.65 3 600 3 3 4 6.0 4.5
.33 2 300 1 2 3 6.0 4.0
.40 3 900 2 2 1 6.0 5.0
.47 1 200 ............------------ ............ ------- 6.0 5.0
.45 ................... ... -------- ---- .......--.
.42 1 300 ...... .. ...- 1--. 6.0 3.0
.62 .......................... .......... ............ 1 6.0 4.0
.68 ....................... ............ ...-- ..... ....------ 6.0 2.0

.374 99 31,615 33 73 97 6.1 4.3








Annual Report, 1920


corn-March 19. It was planted about a foot apart in drills,
the rows being four feet eight inches apart. It came up a good
stand. When it was about two weeks old I harrowed it well.
About April 12 I began to plow it with a sweep. I hoed it twice.
It was cultivated six times. I gathered the corn August 10. It
made a good yield, the stalks ranging from one to two good ears
each. I gathered the corn and put it into the barn. In measur-
ing and weighing my corn I found I had made 101.7 bushels on
my acre. I have selected my seed corn for next year. The
county agent visited me three times during the season."

ENROLLMENT OF CLUB BOYS IN 1920


County
0


Alachua .................. 25
Bay ........................ 3
Bradford ................ 76
Brevard ........................
Calhoun .................. 1
Citrus .................... 18
Clay ....................-.. 4
Columbia ................ 14
Dade .....................................
DeSoto .................... 24
Duval ...................... 12
Escambia .............. 27
Hernando .............. 39
Hillsboro ................ 22
Holmes .................. 175
Jackson .................. 12
Jefferson ................ 1
Leon ........................ ..............
Liberty .................. 47
Madison ............... 13
M anatee ................ 11
Marion .................... 23
Okaloosa ................ 27
Orange .................. 1
Palm Beach .......... 19
Pasco ...................... 3
Polk .......9............... 9
Putnam .................. 13
Santa Rosa ............ 42
Suwannee .............. 16
St. Johns ..............................
St. Lucie ............... 4
Taylor ................... 7
W ashington .......... 19
Totals .................... 707


59
1
7

1
20
1
68

53
8
107
26


1
10
1
20
24
18
63
12
1
11
6
6
6
20
19

3
51
4


36

25
.............-
1

1
8


5







12

15
14

7



8
20

1
6
1


4i 0





65

... 12.
2
2


2









20
1


20


.............. 4



3
............ 14


""" "" "" """"" 3 "


12


5


..... .
3


4


................ .6 .

.............. .....
S ............


. ..............




.............. 7
. 16 ....


6


1



7


124
4
175
14
3
50
8
93
12
80
20
144
69


1 627 1 160 I 102 | 47 43 1,686


, ,







Florida Cooperative Extension


THE BOYS' SHORT COURSE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Out of the 29 counties doing boys' club work, 28 sent repre-
sentatives to the boys' short course, December 7-10. General
courses were given in animal husbandry, poultry husbandry,
agronomy, dairying, veterinary science, forage crops, farm me-
chanics, entomology, beekeeping and plant pathology, the boys
being divided into classes. Practical work was given in bee-
keeping and livestock judging.
The boys were quartered in old army barracks and received
their meals in the University dining hall.

I--I

..- "1 --
., '- : 4, J ',


FIG. 11.-Holmes County boys corn club, 1920
BOYS ATTENDING THE FOURTH ANNUAL SHORT COURSE
SDecember 7-10. 1920


Name





Beville, J. W., Jr...........
Blitch, Nelson .............
Brown, Harvey B...........
Crosby, Theodore ........
Downing, Lonnie ..........
Downing, Crawford ....
Fletcher, G. D..-.........
Fraser, Ashey .............
Fraser, Ernan ..............
Henry, Robert ..............
Henry, Ralph .............
Hodge, Park ...............
Hodge, Rivers ..............
Hodge, Ruff ..................
Holt, Willie ....................
Leivonen, Pete ..............
Martin, Ralph ............
Parker, Carl ................
Parker, Ellis ................
Pearson, Seibert ............


County
Address




Alachua County
Gainesville ....................
Trenton ......---...
Orange Heights ..........
Newberry ........
Trenton ...........
Trenton ............-...
Bell ...... ................
Hawthorn ...................
Hawthorn ....................
Hawthorn ...............
Hawthorn ...........
Newberry ....-......--...
Newberry .............-
Newberry ..............--
Newberry ...-....--
Alachua ...........-...
Newberry ...............-
Gainesville ...... ...-.......
Gainesville ..................
Alachua ................


1
1
'0

S0






1
1

1
1

3
3
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1


C
o'00





4
8
9
4
5
6
7
6
8
8
6
6
4
9
7
8
7
7
6


":
0







1





3
6
1

1



1
1

1
3
6
1
1

2
2
2
4
2
1
1
1
1







Annual Report, 1920


Name




Roberts, Lee L...............
Saarinen, Albert ..........
Salni, Enil ....................
Thomas, Francis ..........
Williams, Emery ..........


Fields, L. T...................
Gwaltney, James W.......
Mead, George E. Jr.......


Miller, Albert ................


Martin, Stewart A.........


Jones, Lee ..................
King, Percy .................
Priest, Geo. R...............


County
Address


Trenton ..................
Alachua ................
Alachua ......---.........
Earlton ...............
Alachua ....--........

Bay County
Panama City ................
St. Andrews ................
St. Andrews ................

Bradford County
Dukes .............. ........

Brevard County
Audubon ..................

Citrus County
Brooksville ................
Inverness ................
Brooksville ..................


Columbia County
Baetz, Carl ................... Lake City ...................

Dade County
Core, Kelly N............... Homestead .................
Kuhn, Herman .............. Miami ..........................

DeSoto County
Alderman, David .......... Arcadia ..................
Driggers, I. J., Jr......... Zolfo ......... .....
Horrell, James G........... Arcadia ...................
Johnson, Gordon .......... Arcadia ....................


Bishop, Geo. M ..............
McVeigh, Drew ............
Pickett, Clarence ..........
Pickett, Earl ... ...........
Pringle, Eustace ..........
Pringle, Gervin ............
Watson, Arnold ........


Barrineau, Harvey ........
Morris, Windell ............


Alderman, Leon ............
Alderman, Geo. ..........
Booth, Chas. ..................
Futch, Clyde ...............


Duval County
Baldwin .................... 13
Baldwin ..-.................. 14
Grand Crossing ......... 15
Grand Crossing .......... 14
Baldwin ....... ......... 13
Baldwin ..................... 15
So. Jacksonville .......... 14

Escambia County
Quintelle ................... 15
Pensacola ..................... 15

Hillsboro County
Wimauma ............... 14
Lakeland ................. 16
Plant City .................I 14
Plant City ....................) 15


0o






1
2
2
1
3


1
1
1


2


1


1
1
4


1


1
1


2
2
1
2


1
1
1
1
2
3
4


4
2


2
2
2
2


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CE






1
1
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1
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1
1


0


1
0
1

1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0


0
1


1

1


I I


.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Name


Futch, James ................
Hall, Ollen ....................
Miley, Don ....................
Miley, Lloyd .................
Nesmith, Louis ...........
Raulerson, L. C.............
Wheeler, Alton .............

Brown, Homer ..............
Moffett, Roy ... ...........
Murphey, Harvey ........
Sutton, Leon ..................

Carter, Buford ............
Monroe, Donnie, Jr. ......


Pledger, Wilbur ............

Hansen, Halron ............


Bradwell, Junior .........

Fox, Edgar ....................
Glass, Theo ....................
Rains, Early ..................
Seals, Roy ...................


Downing, Shelton ........

Buffington, Theo ..........
Neil, Vernon ..................

Edenfield, Emett ..........
Senterfitt, Cecil ...........


West, William M...........

Erickson, Carl .............
Hall, Lewis ....................


Roberts, A. C.................


County
Address


Plant City ...................
Plant City ..................
Plant City ...................
Plant City ..................
Plant City ....................
Plant City ..................
Lakeland ......-----

Holmes County
Westville ....----.......
Bonifay ........................
Ponce de Leon..............
Ponce de Leon .............

Jefferson County
Lloyd ........................
Lloyd .............................

Jackson County
Marianna ......................

Leon County
Tallahassee ..-- ----

Liberty County
Hosford ..............

Madison County
Pinetta ..........
Lee ...-.............. ..
Madison ............ ......
M adison .......................

Manatee County
Parrish ........................

Marion County
Morriston ..............
Ocala ................----...

Okaloosa County
Laurel Hill ..................
Laurel Hill ..................

Orange County
Orlando .........---....--

Palm Beach County
Canal Point ............
West Palm Beach........

Pasco County
Dade City .............


8
8
8
7
9
9
9


12
6
5
8


~ 1 I


0
0
1


0

0
1


1
0


1


1
1


S o3




1 1 0
-4 mq -4






2 3 1
1 1 1
2 21

2 2 0
1 1 0
1 4 1







Annual Report, 1920


Name



Sullivan, W. R...............

Anderson, Paul ...........
Carter, Kendrick .........
Clark, Ernest ..............
Clark, W. Olive............
Pipkin, Francis ...........

Johnson, Eugene ..........
Johnson, Alton B. ........
Johnson, Arrie L...........
Manning, J. T..............

Wolfe, Claud H.............

Bird, Henry F...............
Bowdoin, John ..............
Sibert, Jack ..................
Woods, Bithe ............
Woods, Byron ................

Roche, Buel ................


Address
County



Richland ...................

Polk County
Brewster ..............-
Bartow .......-----......
Ft. Meade ........-..
Ft. Meade .......... ....
Lakeland ......- .....

Santa Rosa County
Holt .................
Holt .... .............
Jay ....... .......-
Milton .....................

St. Johns County
St. Augustine ............

Taylor County
Perry .......... ..........
Perry .. ..........
Perry .. .............
Perry .........................
Perry ...............

Washington County
Vernon ...... ...........


CLUB BOYS HAVE BANK ACCOUNTS
The club boys are taught to save their earnings in club work
and are urged to open savings accounts with their local banks.
About 50 percent of the boys attending the short course this
year have bank accounts.
In Polk County three savings accounts of $10, $5 and $5 were
given by the county commissioners as prizes to club boys.
WHERE DO THE PROFITS GO?
In answer to the question, "What did you do with the profits
this year"? 70 of the 99 boys attending the short course replied
as follows:
37 percent, or 26: "Fed it to father's stock."
20 percent, or 14: "Didn't get it."
13 percent, or 9: "Fed it to my stock."
10 percent, or 7: "Put it in the bank."
5: "Spent it for different things."


0





11 1


7----T


--


I


1
I-




-i.




1
O
1

0


1

O





1
1
1S- -
.. .. .






Florida Cooperative Extension


"Have money at home."
"Gave it to pap."
"Bought poultry with it."
"Purchased livestock."
"Pap got it."
"Put it into more bees."
"Spent it going to school."
"Finished paying for my pig."


FIG. 12.-State club champion calf, exhibited by Stewart Lockart, Alachua
County

MARION COUNTY PIG CLUB
Marion County led in pig club work, exhibiting 56 purebred
pigs at the county contest and fair. The following is a summary
of 34 pig club reports of that county:
Average age of pigs at beginning of contest --... 4 months.
Average initial weight.............. ---------- 101 pounds.
Average final weight ..........------------.....281 pounds.
Average gain ..--......-...--- ......----...--- -- 180 pounds.
Average number of days fed...--.........--.--------------163.
Average daily gain ..........-------------- 1.2 pounds.
Average cost pound of gain -------..... ...- 11.3 cents.
Highest daily gain --...-...-...- ... ...--------- -- 1.6 pounds.
Lowest cost pound of gain ...--.......--- ..-.------------.. 6.0 cents.






Annual Report, 1920


A PIG CLUB BOY'S RECORD
John Compton, Ocala, Florida, enrolled in the boys' pig club
of Marion County April 9, 1920, starting with a purebred big
type Poland China sow pig, eight weeks old and weighing 22
pounds. He has fed it as follows:
April 9 to May 9- June 9 to Sept. 25-
Milk ........-------.........7 parts Milk .------...................14 parts
Kitchen waste ..........6 Kitchen waste ......12 "
Woods pasture, free range Shorts .....---......-.... 1 "
Woods pasture, free range
May 9 to June 9- Sept. 25 to Nov. 21-
Milk ...........--...........--7 parts Milk .......-.............--14 parts
Kitchen waste ..........6 Kitchen waste ........12
Cornmeal .........---......1 Corn ......---.............-13
Woods pasture, free range Woods pasture, free range
Total gain during the 195 days was 310 pounds, an average
daily gain of 1.59 pounds. The pound cost of gain was 6 cents,
with feed valued as follows:
Cornmeal ....--- ----.............................-- 5 cents a pound
Shorts ---........... ............ ..... .............. 4 cents a pound
Corn ...-.....----.............. --.............. 3 cents a pound
Milk ..--- ----................... ...... ...... 3 cents a gallon
Kitchen waste .... ---............... ................... 1 cent a gallon
Woods pasture ------ -----....... ....---........... 10 cents a month.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith a report of the state agent for home
demonstration work for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE,
State Home Demonstration Agent.


COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS
Home demonstration work was carried on in 30 counties from
January 1 to June 30. These counties appropriated $33,552 for
salaries and travel expenses of the agents, or $1,215.35 more
than was appropriated during the previous year by 40 counties.
The appropriations effective July 1, 1920, show an increase of
$9,807.24 over the previous year. This was a splendid indorse-
ment by the people of the state.
The work has been maintained satisfactorily on the whole;
many counties increased their appropriations, others appropri-
ated the same amounts as last year, and some new counties were
added with substantial appropriations. Eight additional coun-
ties made appropriations but not sufficient to employ a com-
petent agent.
LABORATORY EQUIPMENT
A research laboratory has been equipped in the offices at Tal-
lahassee. In this laboratory is conducted researches in cookery
and nutritive value of foods. It provides a place where home
problems can be given scientific study, and it provides field forces
reliable information which they can take directly to housewives.
This research work in home economics corresponds to nutrition
laboratory work on animal nutrition as conducted by agricul-
tural experiment stations. A number of problems in Florida
fruits and sweet potatoes have received attention.
The worker in charge of research organized a nutrition jour-
nal club that holds bimonthly meetings. Members of the exten-
sion service and faculty members of home economics, chemistry,
biology and the college dietitian attend. Reports and discus-
sions of the investigations carried on in this and other labora-
tories are made. This has been most helpful to field agents, for,
due to heavy field duties, little time is found by them for such






Annual Report, 1920


work. A resume of the reports made at these meetings is sent
to home demonstration agents.
AGENTS
One of the difficulties in developing home demonstration work
is the scarcity of properly trained workers. Every effort is made
to secure the most efficient specialists possible. Florida has
never had a better equipped force of county workers than at
present.
AGENTS' MEETINGS
The agents' annual meeting was held September 1-8 at the
Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, and from Sep-
tember 8-11, in joint session with the men, at the University of
Florida, Gainesville.
The days spent in Tallahassee were given to reports of work
done, instruction, and the development of plans for the coming
year. The program in Gainesville was largely devoted to the
consideration of work that could be best accomplished thru the
closest correlation between county and home demonstration
agents.
ENROLLMENT
The enrollment in girls' clubs for the fiscal year ending June
30, 1920, showed a gratifying increase in membership over the
previous year when ten more counties were in the work. The
enrollment among the women shows a retention of a large pro-
portion of women previously enrolled. The comparative en-
rollment of members carrying on systematic work is as follows:


Club Membership,
1918-19, 40 counties
Total
Girls ...--........................--... 4,688
Canning -........--...-.2,020
Poultry ...:...-........1,387
Cooking ...--........... 628
Miscellaneous ...... 653
Women enrolled in all
clubs ...........-.................8,839


Club Membership,
1919-20, 30 counties
Total
Girls -----................................4,06
Canning ............----1,152
Poultry .--.............1,128
Home improve-
ment .................1,319
Sewing ------.........-.. 1,319
Cooking ----............... 568
Home pantry -......1,248
Miscellaneous ...... 469
Women enrolled in all
clubs ..............-- .........----- 3,627






Florida Cooperative Extension


There have been fewer girls enrolled in garden work than in
the previous year, due largely to a bigger enrollment of girls
who took up poultry and home improvement.
At the agents' annual meeting, each agent was asked to set
a membership goal for her county and to enroll girls as "appli-
cants for membership" until they could be properly enrolled
and classified as "members." The enrollment in counties for
1920-21 is larger than it has ever been.
The following are some of the high profits made by members
of the canning club:
County Name Profit
Escambia .............................. ....... Josephine White ................................ 126.90
Hillsboro...................................... Alene Young ........................................ 125.00
DeSoto....................... .......... .. Gertrude Ivey ..................................... 122.14
Santa Rosa.................................... Minnie Pitts ................................ ... 100.09
M adison.......................................... Lucille Loper ......... ............. ... ............ 94.00
Putnam ...................... .............. Neenee Revels ... .. .......................... ... 91.30
Polk......... ....................................... Louise Clark ........................................ 82.64
Duval..................................... ......... Irma Richardson ............... ............. 7 70.70

CUBAN CLUBS
In Hillsboro County three Cuban clubs, two for girls and one
for women, have been conducted. These clubs study food and
its preparation. This work is timely and is meeting with fa-
vorable results.
POULTRY CLUBS
Poultry is one of the most profitable lines of work taken up
by club members.
Rose McGrath of Putnam County set 288 Single Comb White
Leghorn eggs in incubators, hatched 230 and lost only one. She
says, "I would have raised every one of them but when they were
about two weeks old an old hawk caught one, but I raised the
other 229 without any trouble with diseases or insects, which
were prevented with plenty of permanganate of potash and dust-
ing powder." The total cost was $68.73; total value of prod-
ucts, $321.10; profit, $252.37.
Doris Lanier of Suwannee County had charge of a farm flock
of Black Minorcas. She kept 140 layers; sold 932 dozen eggs
for $390.50; used 30 dozen at home; sold 9 settings of eggs; set
181 eggs; raised 115 chickens. The total cost of the flock was
$586.50; total value of all products, $933.70; profit, $347.20.
Frances Blackburn of Hillsboro County kept a flock of 33
birds. She sold 312 dozen eggs for $189.27. She set 69 eggs
and raised 37 chickens. The total value of all products was
$429.66; cost of flock, $173.35; profit, $256.31.






Annual Report, 1920


Zelma Burnett of Santa Rosa County kept a flock of Rhode
Island Red chickens and 14 turkeys. She sold 189 dozen eggs
for $112.80; set 145 eggs, raised 112 chickens; set 73 turkey
eggs, raised 39 turkeys. The total value of all products was
$678.80; total cost, $194.10; profit, $484.70. Fortunately
Zelma's turkeys have a fine range, therefore, the feed cost was
small.
POULTRY WORK WITH WOMEN
With adults the egg circle work in Hernando County and at
Florahome and the back yard poultry work of St. Augustine are
outstanding. The Orange County agent made the following
report from one club member: "Mrs. Long started in with six
turkey hens and one tom, and raised 108 young turkeys. She
sold 30 for Thanksgiving at 55 cents a pound, which brought
$163.85. She has on hand 87 turkeys, all engaged for Christmas.
She has sold over $1,000 worth of eggs, chickens and turkeys.
The eggs more than paid the feed bill."
CANNING
The total number of tin and glass containers filled were
497,000; by girls, 45,000; by women, 452,000.
Meat canning has received special attention. This furnishes
a cheap and convenient article of diet to farm families. Steam
pressure canners were used. In Putnam County there were 20
beeves and 60 hogs canned at the homes of club members. A
small amount of fish has been canned.
BEE CLUB WORK
Osceola County was the first county in the state to start bee
club work for girls and boys. Miss Albina Smith, agent, started
the work early in 1918. During the first season weather con-
ditions were unfavorable and the amount of honey stored was
small. In most cases the bees were fed. The club members,
however, never lost interest. During the past year the yield
has been better. With some of the funds derived from their
work club members purchased paint cooperatively, painted their
hives, bought new queens, and made general improvements.
Other counties reporting enrollment in bee club work are, Gads-
den, Osceola, Orange, Palm Beach, Suwannee and Taylor.
SEWING
The interest in sewing during the past year has exceeded that
of any previous year. Among the women it has been stimulated






Florida Cooperative Extension


by the high cost of clothing and the necessity of renovating and
remodeling the old. Many calls for help with this work have
come to agents. Interest on the part of girls was due largely to
the attractive program offered them in this work.
HOME IMPROVEMENT
Following the interest stimulated last year in the improve-
ment of the bedroom, a program was offered, based on this and
on the care and repair of the girls' own clothes. One thousand
fifty-four girls took the furnishings of their bedroom and the
care and repair of their own clothing as definite tasks for the
year. Beautiful exhibits of this work, made at each county
contest, showed excellent results.
To further center the interest of these girls in the home, the
girls also filled 50 containers for the home pantry. This has led
to improving the entire home, interior and exterior.
Other definite lines of home improvement have been the re-
modeling of kitchens, installation of water systems, electric
lights, screens, the planting of ornamentals and the remodeling
of the entire house.
The following report from the agent of Gadsden County is
typical: "Lessie McKeown has added a new bedroom to her
home, and with money made in club work she furnished this
room. Two women have painted the interior walls of their
home, making decided improvements. One man has remodeled
his 2-room dwelling and made a nice 6-room bungalow, with
bathroom and sleeping porch. Plans were furnished by the
home demonstration agent for remodeling this home."
STATISTICAL REPORT OF HOME IMPROVEMENT
Ornamental plantings made ...................................... 191
Houses painted ------.............. ..------................ 77
Houses screened ................-... ..... ..................... 75
W ater systems installed .............. ............................ 23
Lighting systems installed......-........-..... ............... 31
Houses remodeled ........----........---- ........................... 75
Sleeping porches added .............. ---.................- ....... 31
Kitchens remodeled ---..............----...................... 42
FARM BUREAU ORGANIZATION
The entire extension staff has worked actively on community
and county farm bureau organization. Home demonstration
clubs among women and girls have in many instances formed
the nucleus around which the community club has been built. In







Annual Report, 1920


some cases they have arranged the first community meeting.
The programs for the first meetings consisted of moving pic-
tures, lectures and demonstrations in the afternoon; a play hour
for the children; a picnic supper; after supper lectures, singing,
moving pictures and slides. It is noticeable that in counties
where these meetings were held, a great number of community
fairs were held later.
SHORT COURSES AND CAMPS
Thirteen short courses were held with an attendance of 442.
Eleven county short courses for girls, each of three days dura-
tion, were attended by 545 girls. The cooperation of the house-
keepers of the towns in entertaining these girls in their homes
during their stay in town makes these short courses possible.



















FIG. 13.-Eight girls who made the highest records in canning work

The ninth annual state prize winners' short course, held at
Tallahassee, was attended by 55 girls. Scholarships to this
school are provided by boards of county commissioners, school
boards, banks and federated women's clubs. Of the girls in
attendance 39 were enrolled in canning; 23 in poultry; 14 in
sewing, undertaking as their year's problem the furnishing and
care of their bedrooms; 3 in grape groups; 5 in dairy work;
1 in beekeeping, and 3 in pig clubs.
In response to the question as to what club work had meant







Florida Cooperative Extension


to them, the following replies were received from some of the
girls attending this short course, held in Tallahassee in May,
1920:
"Club work has taught me to can and do many other things
with less work and expense. The club has given me responsi-
bilities, and it makes me feel that if I had to make my own living
I could do it."
"Club work has meant a whole lot to me. It has made a new
person of me. The money I made in 1919, I spent for clothing
and home comforts."
"I have been a member of the canning club three years. I
have enjoyed it. I have learned to can and save things that
would be wasted otherwise. The first year I did not win a prize.
The second year I won a short course to the Women's College.
The third year I won another short course and a ten dollar gold
piece for the best canning exhibit. If I should have to earn my
own living, I could do it."
"I have had some fine times in the club and learned many
things. -With the money made in 1919 I bought furniture for
the house and paid for my own clothing."
That club work is sufficiently broad in its scope to hold the
interest of a girl thru succeeding years is shown by the fact
that 41 girls in the state received certificates in 1919 for satis-
factorily completing four years' work.
Girls'. camps for instruction and recreation were held in De-
Soto and Polk Counties. Joint camps for girls and boys were
held in Citrus and Santa Rosa Counties.
PUBLICATIONS
The following bulletins have been published to date:
No. 20: Hand Book for First Year Sewing.
No. 21: Hand Book for Second Year Sewing.
No. 22: (Including September and October programs given
in first and second year work.)
No. 23: (Including November programs given in first and
second year work.)
No. 24: (Including December programs given in first and
second year work.)
No. 25: (Including January programs given in first and
second year work.)
No. 26: (Including February programs given in first and
second year work.)







Annual Report, 1920 69

No. 31: Food and Methods of Preparation.
No. 32: Sweet Potatoes on the Table.
No. 33: Florida Food Calendar.
No. 34: Jellies, Preserves and Marmalades.
NEGRO WORK
Negro home demonstration agents are appointed as assistants
to the home demonstration agents. Under this plan the negro
assistant agent carries her weekly report to the home demon-
stration agent for approval before submitting it to this office.
If the negro assistant needs help with field problems, this con-
ference affords the opportunity. Nine counties in which the
work is conducted support it financially.
In Leon County a party became interested in this work and
donated $200 toward it. A dilapidated house on the plantation
of the donor was remodeled. The roof was reshingled, the
building whitewashed, the premises cleaned up and a small gar-
den planted. All the work was done by club members during
the 3-day short course held in this community. The work has
created much interest on the part of other negroes in the com-
munity.
STATISTICAL REPORTS
County home demonstration agents........................... ...................... 32
Average term of employment (months)................. ....................... 10
Average salary (agents owning car)............................... ......$ 153.10
Average salary (county owning car) ....................... ....... ............. 151.66
Agents furnished cars ......................... ............-- ......... 7
Agents owning cars.................................... ...................... 24
Agents owning horse and buggy............................... ..................... 1
Average county appropriation..........................$1,118.40
Negro assistant county home demonstration agents........................... 9
Number of counties cooperating financially.....----...........- ..... 30
O offices provided ............. .................................... ... ............................ 29
Home demonstration kitchens maintained. ...................... ... ........ 10
Cooperative canning centers ....... ---..................- ........ 22
Counties making appropriations for demonstration materials............ 17
Amount expended by counties for equipment and material-...............$1,599.51
COUNTY WORKERS' ACTIVITIES
Total miles traveled ........................................ ......... .......... 134,761
By autom obile .................................................................. ..117,373
By rail ...... ...... .................. ................ ........... 12,798
By team .................................. ...... ............ 4,590
Number girls enrolled............................................. 4,068
In canning ................................... .....-....-- 1,152
In poultry -............-------... -- .................... .......... 1,128
In home improvement ........ ------............................. ...... 1,319
In sew ing .................. ...................................................... 1,319
In cooking ........... ............................................. 568
In home pantry...............----------------..................----...............---- 1,248
Miscellaneous .................. .. .. .....----- ................... 469
Number women enrolled..- -......... ....... ..... ............. .......... 3,527
Number girl clubs maintained......................... .... ............ 246







70 Florida Cooperative Extension

Number women's clubs maintained........................................................ 101
N um ber m meetings held........................... ....... .................................... 2,652
Number demonstrations given.--................ .......................... 2,181
Total attendance meetings and demonstrations............................... 61,249
Visits to club members' homes..--- ...... ............................... 6,419
Visits to schools ........... ... ... .......... ...................... 2,272
Number hot school lunches established.................................. .... 14
Number agents maintaining club column in local paper...................... 21
Number containers filled by girls--..-----........... ---.. -...................... 45,000
Number containers filled by women.....................---- ..-.....-...-........... 452,000
Number containers filled by negroes................................-..... .... 135,000
Total number containers filled....-.............-...................... -.. 632,000
V alue ..................--------.................................................... $189,600
Number ornamental plantings made.................................................. 191
N um ber houses painted ..................... ................ ............................. 77
Houses screened ---................ ........ ............................. .. ......... 75
W after system s installed .......................... .......................... ................ 23
Lighting systems installed .................. ............... ..... .. .......... 31
Houses remodeled .......--......... ..........-.......... -..... ............. 75
Sleeping porches added ........---......------.....-----......-.....- -............ 31
Kitchens remodeled .----........-- ... .. ......-- .... .............. 42
BRIEF SUMMARY OF STATISTICAL REPORTS OF STATE WORKERS
Number miles traveled.-...........-...--.....--...........-----................. 92,367%
Number days engaged in office work.............. ..................................... 590
Number days engaged in field work................................. .............. 815
M meetings attended .................................................... ............................... 368
Attendance at meetings...............................-- --...................... 27,682
Contests attended .............................................. .. ........................... 43
Attendance at contests....- ................ ............ 2,021
Short courses and camps attended.--..--. .....--------- --.- ---- 30
Attendance at short courses and camps............................. ............ 1,083
Fairs attended ........................... ........-....... ........... .. .......... 34
Schools visited ............................ ............ ......... ... ........ .------ 76
Supervisory visits to counties.................. ......... .............. ......... 484
Conferences with
School supts. and school boards....................................------.......... 15
County com m issioners .............................. ............................... 72
Agents m meetings conducted .......................... .. ..... ........ .............. 2
D ays in session................................... ......................... .. .... .......... 15
A attendance ................................. ............................................. 45
Group meetings for agents.......-..............-------....... -................... 1
D ays in session..................... ............ ........................ .. ............... ....... 5
Attendance ...................................... ...........-- -- .. 15
Short courses for girls and women:
Number county short courses for girls.................................... 11
A attendance ................... ............................................ ... .. 545
State short course..............................................- ---.................. 1
A attendance .............. ....................................................................... 55
County short courses for women.....-.... .............................. 13
A attendance ....................................................................................... 442
Community meetings held .................---- ----------............................................ 157
Community councils organized ----.. --.......-.-...................-.-------- 36
County bureaus partly organized .................. .................... 8






Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE ASSISTANT HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENT

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the assistant state home
demonstration agent for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON,
Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent.

MUSCADINE GRAPE CLUB WORK
With the assistance of Charles Dearing, States Relations Ser-
vice, United States Department of Agriculture, definite club
work was started in August,
u 1919, by the home demonstra-
tion agents. This work had re-
sulted in a number of plantings
of the Thomas grape, and there
are now about 70 members en-
rolled.
PLAN FOR FOUR YEARS' WORK
IN MUSCADINE GRAPE WORK
The purpose of these clubs is
to establish thruout the various
sections of Florida, principally
for home use, a vineyard for





FIG. 14.-Clyde McCullough and
home demonstration agent, Mad-
ison County, setting out a peach
tree --

every home, and with this give
instruction by demonstration as
to the best methods in grape pro-
duction. In order that the club
members may learn the first
principles of grape culture, know
something of varieties, keep an
FIG. 15.-cCanned products put up
accurate cost of production and by Edith Futch, Alachua County






Florida Cooperative Extension


labor involved in producing these, an outline for the four years'
work is laid before the clubs.
The outline for the first year calls for the planting of five
grape vines, keeping a record of varieties, making an exhibit at
county and state contests, and finally winding up with a record
of the year's work. For the following three years the program
proposes to enlarge this by increasing the plantings as con-
ditions permit. To study varieties and to use the products in
different ways are parts of the advanced work. Thus the work
proposes not only a greater variety of fruit for the home, but
four years of study on grapes.
These muscadine grape club plans were again put before the
agents at the September meeting with the result that grape clubs
were started in 17 counties. Sixty-nine girls and twenty-five
women were enrolled. About 25 percent of this number were
enrolled last year.
An educational exhibit displayed at the state fair, consisting
of nursery cuttings, plants, small models of planting and
methods of cultivation, samples of the club work products, equip-
ment for juice making and a pyramid made of muscadine grape
products. These were shown under a white pergola entwined
with wild grape vines.
Most of the grape club plantings thruout the state have been
visited by the assistant state agent and suggestions for care and
pruning have been given.
In September, 1920, one day was spent in the government
experimental vineyard at Willard, N. C., studying varieties of
muscadine grapes, their planting and training as shown at this
season. The pruning was studied especially.
Muscadine grapes are native to Florida and should be widely
grown over the state as a fruit for the home table. The ultimate
object in grape club work is to develop vineyards and create a
market for the delicious juice and other products. At present,
however, due to the high price of Thomas grapes on the local
market, it seems inadvisable to urge making the juice for com-
mercial purposes. Since these products can all be made reason-
ably and add variety to the diet for the home table, we are
urging that this be done.
PROGRAMS FOR GIRLS' AND WOMEN'S WORK
Last year mimeographed programs for girls' and women's
work were sent out monthly. These regular programs with






Annual Report, 1920


definitely planned demonstrations has been one of the best means
of holding club membership and standardizing the work. The
agents have expressed their appreciation of this help.
Much of my time has been given to preparing these monthly
programs. Each month's program has been sent out a month
in advance so that the agent could arrange for club members to
take parts on them. In preparing these programs four general
outlines have been followed:
1. POULTRY PROGRAM
September, Selection of show birds; October, Classification;
November, Selection of flock; December, Turkeys, ducks and
geese incubation; January, Brooding; February, Feeding baby
chicks; March, Lice and mites; April, Diseases; May, The won-
derful egg; June, Feeds and feeding, continued or culled.
2. SEWING PROGRAM
October, The bedroom; November, Dresser scarf; December,
Sachet bags; January, Darning; February, Curtains; March,
Patching; April, Nightgown; May, Nightgown; June, Contest.
3. NUTRITION PROGRAM
October, Body as a machine, or what we eat; November, What
to eat; December, What becomes of the food we eat; January,
How much to eat; February, What school children should eat;
March, What and how much should I eat; April, Planning our
daily meals; May, Review and test; June, Canning demonstra-
tion, or history of canning; July, Canning contest; August,
Grape meeting.
FAIRS
In the winter and early spring my work in the field was as-
sisting at fairs in South Florida. The South Florida fair, held
in Tampa during February, and the state fair, held in Jackson-
ville in November, were similar.
Our 1920 state fair was arranged to exhibit preserved fruits
and vegetables. A section was devoted to girls' work and a
section to women's work; a third section showed the girls'
sewing; a fourth included a display of muscadine products; the
whole was completed by the milk booth. Preserved fruits and
vegetables occupied a space of 40 feet, eight rows high, con-
sisting of two rows of quarts, two rows 12-ounces, two rows
pints, one row jelly glasses and one row bottles.
The sewing exhibit was for first year work only. This was
developed about the girl's own bedroom. It showed:







74 Florida Cooperative Extension

First, a complete county exhibit: 3 pieces of bedroom fur-
nishings, 1 nightgown, 1 darned stocking, and 1 patch.
Second, a bedroom exhibit: 1 pair curtains, 1 bed cover and
pillow cover, and 2 other pieces of bedroom furnishings.
Third, individual entries of first year work.
The sewing exhibit was so good both as to workmanship and
design that it encourages a second year's work to be centered
about the club girl herself.

SHORT COURSES
I assisted at 13 housekeepers' schools in five counties in the
southern district.
The annual short course for prize winning club girls was held
at the Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, May 17-18.
I attended two county short courses for girls in the state this
year and one camp. The latter was held for club girls only, at
Eagle Lake in Polk County.
From November 29 to December 3, I assisted with a series of
community meetings in West Florida. The district agent and
myself met with the women. We confined our talks to home
kitchens and a satisfactory diet.

OFFICE WORK
Much office time has been used in collecting and filing past
records of canning club and home demonstration clubs.
I was furloughed during the month of July to teach home
demonstration methods in the Florida State College for Women.

STATISTICAL REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1920
Number meetings attended ........................ ......... ........... 44
Estimated attendance .......................... ............ ........................ 2,156
Number talks or demonstrations given........-............................. ....... 53
Number contests attended .......................................... .................. 7
Number short courses held........................................................ 2
Attendance ....................... .......... ...................... ..... .. 45
Number county councils attended.............................. ... ........... 1
Number housekeepers' schools held.......................................... 2
Number schools visited .................. ..-.............. ....... ............. 10
Number school lunches visited.............................. ................. 3
Number clubs visited.......................... ............... .................. 4
Number homes visited .................................... .... ....... ... .......... 25
N um ber fairs attended............................................................................. 6
N umber judging at fairs.........:.............................. ......... ...... 3
Number agents visited or in conference with..................................... 83
Number of other conferences............................................. 111
Number of conferences with county superintendents................. 20
Number of conferences with county commissioners................... .... 11
Number of conferences with boards............................................... ....... 12
D ays in office ......................................................... ....... 119
Days in field ................................................. .... ............... 96






Annual Report, 1920 75

Days in state meetings............................. 37
Days in out of state meetings-... ............................. 8
Days at fairs ...................--. ........................- 20
Days leave .............................. .. .......................... 6
Number miles traveled by railroad....... -.......... ........-- 14,971
Number miles traveled by automobile.............................. 1,227
Number miles traveled by boat.......................... ...... 93
Total number miles traveled in state---....-.............. ....... 16,291
Number miles traveled out of state... ----................. ............ 768





IF aI


FIG. 16.-Peanuts between eight-foot corn rows






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENT FOR SOUTH AND EAST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent of
home demonstration work for South and East Florida for the
year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
AGNES I. WEBSTER,
District Home Demonstration Agent.


Organized work in the district of South and East Florida was
carried on in 16 counties. In these 19 agents were employed.
During the canning season two assistant county home demon-
stration agents were employed for eight weeks.
In organizing the work for the fiscal year, beginning July 1,
1920, 15 out of the 16 counties made a substantial increase in
appropriations. One county's increase was sufficient to put on
two agents. Five counties provide one car each; one county pro-
vides two cars, one for each agent. Four counties furnish steno-
graphic help and four have made a special appropriation for
equipment. Altho St. Lucie County lost its agent this year, the
dairy work there was so well established that the club members
won first prize in the dairy department of home demonstration
work at the state fair.
THE GOAL IN 1920
The following were decided upon as definite factors leading
to the goal for work in 1920: Carrying out a program that
would meet the needs of a greater number of people; strength-
ening club organization; developing a fuller social life in rural
communities; furthering organization, both county and com-
munity; improving .homes, exterior and interior; presenting to
the people the need for greater efficiency in the business of home
making and teaching the need for an adequate diet of fresh vege-
tables, dairy and poultry products.
In planning the work to meet the needs of a greater number
of people, our enrollment among women and girls has increased
substantially. This year in 16 counties the enrollment is prac-
tically the same as it was last year in 19 counties.






Annual Report, 1920


MONTHLY PROGRAMS
A general plan to interest women was carried out thru the
monthly programs outlined as follows:
October, School lunch; November, Renovation of clothing;
December, Budget or plan for spending the income; January,
Household accounts; February, The home exterior; March, The
home interior; April, The kitchen; May, Care of the Home;
June, Table setting; and July, Pleasure of home vacation.
Because of definite results accomplished in the several lines
of work, women who previously refused to do demonstration
work have sent in requests to become members, giving with the
requests the substantial backing of checks for the further equip-
ping of school lunch rooms, canning and demonstration kitchens.
In communities where the organized clubs met two or four
times a month they were aided by lessons and material sent to
local leaders to supplement the regular program.
SOCIAL WELFARE WORK
Realizing the need for a greater social life in rural sections,
home demonstration club women in many communities are
carrying out programs of socials, community suppers and fairs,
entertainments for old and young, special weeks of prayer
meetings and musicals that not only tend to keep the boys and
girls at home, but bring town people and talent into the com-
munity. In Hillsboro County a number of communities have
established a system of borrowing talent and ideas from one
another. With proceeds made from time to time, books, maga-
zines, and good music have been placed within reach of every
one.
In other communities a broader social life has resulted from
the efforts to equip and establish hot school lunch rooms and
community canning kitchens. As a result of this 27 lunch rooms
and canning kitchens were in operation in the district last year.
COMMUNITY COUNCILS
In an effort to reach and meet the needs of various communi-
ties in Hillsboro County, the county advisory council of home
demonstration work was perfected. This was composed of two
representatives from each of 15 communities. Quarterly meet-
ings of this council have been held since its organization. Com-
mittees appointed on agriculture, citizenship, fairs and exhibits,
home improvements, public health and social life have been most
active.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT WORK
Representatives take home definite plans from each meeting.
Among the excellent results obtained from these efforts is a
school hot lunch established at Brandon. So great was the suc-
cess of this undertaking that the school has built a lunch room
on the school grounds and employs a manager at $100 a month.
The products of the boys' school garden will be used in the lunch
room. Because of the poor water supply the club women have
installed running water. A well has been drilled and engine and
water tank installed with proceeds from a series of socials and
entertainments. Six water taps distribute the water thruout
the building. Rest rooms have been provided. An entertain-
ment is put on every two weeks. Exhibits were sent to the state
fairs.
FARM BUREAU WORK
Broward County organized a county farm bureau just two
days after the first organization of the state was perfected. This
organization is active and the interest is growing. The home
demonstration agent and executive body of the farm bureau
planned a campaign that has received substantial support. A
thorobred Jersey calf was offered the boys for the best essay on
"The Production of Milk," and a pen of purebred Rhode Island
Reds to the girls for the best essay on "The Food Value of Milk."
Liberal prizes were given the winners in the poultry club contest.
December 4 witnessed the culmination of these plans when
every community was represented at Ft. Lauderdale. In the
forenoon over 700 school children took part in a parade ap-
pealing for more and better cattle and chickens and the wider
use of dairy and poultry products in the home. Club women
took charge at the noon hour. The afternoon program consisted
of short talks to the children and recitations by the children,
given between reels of moving pictures on poultry and dairy
cattle. Presentation of prizes followed. The home dairy special-
ist arranged an exhibit for this meeting. Before the day closed
suggestions were made to make the event an annual one.
HOME IMPROVEMENT WORK
The project of home improvement appealed strongly to the
women and girls. Each girl brought to the club meeting a dia-
gram of her bedroom showing the location of furniture, win-
dows and doors. The agent and girl planned the furnishings.
If a closet was lacking, one was improvised by means of a frame







Annual Report, 1920 79

built out from the wall and covered with curtains to match the
furnishings; if furniture was scant, several boxes were utilized;
and for little expense the room was made much more attractive.













FIG. 17.-Osceola County bee club picnic

In ten counties more than 363 girls made bedroom sets of fur-
nishings and a number of rooms were fitted up with box fur-
niture.
Home demonstration agents carried out a program for lessen-
ing the amount of work as well as improving the appearance and
attractiveness of the home that resulted in the following:

Kitchens rem odeled ...................................................... ...... ........ ... 31
Sleeping porches built................................... .... .. 7
Homes remodeled ........................... .... ............... ....... ..... 32
Lighting system s installed................................................................. 9
W after system s installed...................................................................... 11
Houses screened ............-........... ............ ........ .. 82
Houses whitewashed ......................................-....... ....-------------- --- 3
H ouses painted .................................................................................... 22
Fly traps m ade...................................................................................... 6
Iceless refrigerators installed....................-............ ----...... 85
Steam pressure cookers purchased-------............ ........------ ...-.-- 84
Fireless cookers purchased................................................................ 59
Exterior im provements ...................................................................... 147
Interior im provem ents ........................................................................ 183

CLUB CAMP
As a climax to the year's work, in DeSoto, Polk and Citrus
Counties, camps for club members were held. A regular pro-
gram was laid out for each day and every girl took part. The
camp in DeSoto County was held on Lake Isis. A large, con-
venient and comfortable house sheltered the girls. The work
was done by shifts and the girls readily responded. Each shift
received in turn practical lessons in preparing the menu, cooking,
serving and washing dishes. Regular hours were devoted to







80 Florida Cooperative Extension

lessons in the various phases of club work. A Red Cross nurse
gave lessons in first aid, making a bed and bathing a patient.
The secretary of the Young Women's Christian Association
at Arcadia was in charge of the recreation and story hour.
Fourteen girls learned to swim. The commissioners appropri-
ated funds for the camp and lent further support by personal
visits to the camp.
The camp in Polk County was held on Eagle Lake, while Citrus
County boys and girls went to Bay Port on the Gulf. As in
DeSoto County, a regular program of lessons, play and work
lent color to the camp life.
STATISTICAL REPORT
Miles traveled ..... .......................--........... .......... 16,796%
Days engaged in office work.... .................................... ................ 65
Days engaged in field and travel.................................................. 176
Days spent in study (6 weeks summer session Columbia University) 42
Demonstrations given ........................-.... ................. .............. 6
State meetings attended .......................... ........................ ........... 13
Other meetings attended...................... ....... .................. 61
Estimated attendance ........................................... ......... 6,140
Demonstrations visited ............................................... 25
Contests attended ........... ...................... ............ ......... 5
Estimated attendance .............................................. 200
Camps attended ................................................... 4
Fairs attended ......................... .... ............. ....................... .... ........ ............. 5
Short courses ...................................... ........ ....... .................... 4
Schools visited .............. ............. .. .................... ........................... ..... 29
H om es visited ..... .... ......................................................... ............. 73
Supervisory visits to counties........................................................... 94
Conferences-
School superintendents .................-.................... ................... 18
Commissioners, and school boards in session................................... 9
Commissioners individually ............................ ... ...... ......... ......... 29
Farm bureau organization-
County ................................... ................... 3
Comm unity .......... .......................... ....................................... 12
W omen's county council meetings ........................................................... 4







Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENT FOR 'NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent of
home demonstration work in North and West Florida for the
year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
LONNY I. LANDRUM,
District Home Demonstration Agent.

During the fiscal year closing June 30, 1920, there were 14
counties with demonstration agents. During canning season
four assistant agents were employed.
AIMS OF WORK
1. To develop community spirit for community and county
organizations. Five counties held series of community meetings.
Suwannee County held nine. Some of these communities have
organized community councils, selecting as an immediate object
of work community and county fairs. Other counties have com-
munity clubs doing effective work.
The following is from the report of the Madison County home
demonstration agent: "Beautification of the Home" was the
subject for the meetings. Plans were discussed for community
fairs. Club and war songs were sung. The people entered into
the spirit of the meeting and enjoyed being together. At San
Pedro a bountiful supper was served. The picture, "The Home
Demonstration Agent," gave a pleasing review of demonstration
work. In two places in which this picture was shown, it did
much to convert many people who were not strongly in favor
of the work. The people are urgent in their request for more
such meetings.
2. To increase food production by means of the home vege-
table garden and the planting of perennial fruit trees. The home
demonstration agent of Madison County reports 1,856 fruit trees
planted. In Santa Rosa County 14 club members have planted
560 grapevines and 554 fruit trees. A club member in Taylor
County harvested $75 worth of onions from her first crop and
later planted the land to other vegetables.
3. To increase club membership thru better organized clubs.
From the 14 counties 1,059 girls are enrolled in 112 organized
clubs. Many women attend the girls' club meetings regularly.






Florida Cooperative Extension


4. Programs as outlined in the assistant state agent's report
were sent to agents each month.
5. To increase interest in home improvement, programs on
interior and exterior improvement were supplied. A few clip-
pings from the agents' weekly reports follow:
"Clyde Peavey will take her room as her home problem for
this year. Her father is going to remodel their old home, and
Clyde will have a room of her own. She has promised to let
me help plan this room. Mr. Peavey is looking over the house
plans I have secured. He will begin work January 1. Two
houses in this community have already put in lighting systems
this year."
"Three acetylene gas light engines have been installed in
homes of demonstrators and club members. One home has in-
stalled a water system for the home operated by a gasoline
engine, in connection with a saw and feed crusher."
6. To assist in marketing. The farm women and girls need
definite help in marketing.
"I have put a good deal of time in 'peddling' this spring,
hoping to create a real permanent interchange between the town


FIG. 18.-Canning club girls in uniform






Annual Report, 1920


and country woman. I have received a number of orders for
canned goods from town women," is the report of one agent.
Another agent reports: "Sugar and jars at wholesale prices
were obtained thru the agent. Home demonstration recipes and
methods were used, and an attractive and delicious product was
made. We succeeded in marketing over 2,000 jars of figs and
blackberry jam at satisfactory prices. A man who had refused
the price offered him for his pecans, which were left on his
hands, allowed me to sell them for him. I sold them thru the
State Marketing Bureau at a profit of about $175, instead of
their being a total loss to him."
7. To organize the girls into sewing clubs. The plan for the
sewing club is to center the sewing work on a definite home im-
provement problem in making furnishings for the bedroom and
the care and repair of clothing. The study of color combina-
tions, the care of the bedroom and the making of box furniture,
add much interest to this program. The following is taken from
a home demonstration agent's weekly report:
"Each club adopts a special way of decorating its bedroom
sets. The Lee club selected stenciling. Lessie Johnson said
since the short course she had cleaned up her room so nicely
that she surprised her mother and wanted the club to see it. We
visited it and made plans for a closet and other conveniences.
Since the short course Pearl Mickler made coat hangers of maga-
zines tied in the middle and tied them to a pole placed across her
closet. We noticed the box furniture, a remodeled dresser, shirt-
waist box and curtains to match."
MONTHLY PROGRAM
The monthly programs for the first year teach girls the fun-
damental principles of sewing, as applied to the care and repair
of their clothing and the artistic furnishing of their bedrooms.
Monthly programs are outlined below:
October, The bedroom; November, Dresser scarf; December,
Sachet bags; January, Darning; February, Curtains; March,
Patching; April, Nightgown; May, Nightgown; June, each girl
demonstrates something she has learned during the year.
The monthly program for second year sewing clubs instructs
the club girl the fundamental principles of garment making and
emphasizes the selection of clothes from a practical, artistic and
economic standpoint.
Monthly programs are outlined below:







Florida Cooperative Extension


September, The well-dressed club girl; October, Cap; Novem-
ber, Apron; December, Apron; January, Buttonhole contest;
February, Dress; March, Dress; April, Dress; May, Remodel
garment; June, Renovate hat.
HOME IMPROVEMENT WORK
Eight hundred girls have been enrolled in the district home
improvement work. Three county and one inter-county canning
contests were held. Grading was based on skill, neatness, ef-
ficiency, and the canned product.
Much interest was shown in Duval County in girls' bread
making contests. The agent gave instructions in bread making
to the club girls, and later held contests, offering prizes. The
county bread contest was held at the state fair.
SHORT COURSES
Short courses were held in several counties. In some counties
several communities arranged for a 1-day program. These
schools were well attended.
In other counties one short course, lasting two or more days,
was held. This brought girls from all sections of the counties.
Various clubs sent delegates.
.In Escambia County 43 girls attended. The attendance was
.good at most of the short courses. Various programs were
carried out. Reports were made by girls who had won scholar-
-ships at the state short course at the State College for Women.
. In the contests in canning and other club work carried out at
these contests, the girls were judged for speed, neatness and the
quality of their products. Entertainment was provided in va-
rious ways. Lunches were served by club members each day.
The boys and girls sang their club songs with enthusiasm.
Members of the state force gave assistance at each short
course.
FAIRS
Splendid home demonstration exhibits were made at a num-
ber of community fairs, five county fairs, and at the state fair.
Twelve county contests have been held in the district. Ex-
hibits of cained goods, sewing and poultry were made, six of
which were at county fairs, three at community fairs and one at
the state fair. Two were held separately.
At the state fair the district of North and West Florida con-
tributed its quota to the best and most representative exhibit
ever made in the state. Every home demonstration agent in this







Annual Report, 1920 85

district sent something from her county to at least one depart-
ment. Each county booth had exhibits of two or more phases
of home demonstration work.

STATISTICS OF WORK OF DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND WEST
FLORIDA
M iles traveled --.... .... ...... ... ........... 12,308
Days engaged in office--.. ...........----------.............. -................ 81
Days engaged in field.. -.....-......... ... ..-- ......--....---- --.--- .......... .... ..... 158
Days attending state m eetings........ ............ ... ............ .......... .......... 18
Talks and demonstrations given -----....... --- -.......---------.. 74
Meetings attended ............ ....- -- ............ ...... .......... 82
Estim ated attendance ......................................................... ......... ..... 5,570
Contests attended .................--------------...........11
Short courses attended--............................................ 5
Fairs attended ......... ..-------...-----..........------- 5
Schools visited .-...........---..... -----.. ... .............. 12
Homes visited ...... ........... ....... ....... .... -... ...... 19
Clubs visited ................---- -------- --... -------... ...--.....----... .. 25
Conferences with superintendents.................................... ............ 31
Conferences with county commissioners -..-........-----...--.. ...--- 7
Visits to school boards............... ... ..............-- .. ............ .. 6
Supervisory visits to agents -.......... ....- ...-..... .... ................... 81


FIG. 19.-Canning meat. Packing the cooked meat and gravy in cans







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE POULTRY SPECIALIST IN HOME
DEMONSTRATION WORK
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of poultry club work for
the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
MINNIE M. FLOYD,
Home Demonstration Poultry Specialist.


The purpose of organized poultry clubs and egg circles is to
increase the quantity and improve the quality of poultry prod-
ucts in the state. To attain this end the following economic and
educational methods are employed:
1. Holding meetings.
a. Electing officers to preside in meetings.
b. Conducting educational programs.
2. Giving a better knowledge of the need, value and importance of the
poultry industry.
3. Teaching better methods in handling the home flock.
a. Increase of purebred stock.
b. Hatching and rearing.
c. Culling.
d. Feeding.
e. Housing.
f. Sanitation in houses and yards.
g. Prevention and destruction of pests.
h.' Production of infertile eggs for market.
i. Preservation of eggs for home use.
j. Use and value of poultry and eggs in the diet.
4. Cooperative marketing of surplus products.
a. Eggs.
b. Poultry-
Teaching the importance of a uniform product; of finishing poul-
try for market; study of markets; seasonal demands; methods of
transportation; etc.
5. Keeping records.
a. To establish the habit of business methods.
b. To know whether you have a winning or losing business.
6. Exhibition of products.
a. Live poultry.
b. Eggs.
(This serves a 2-fold purpose: an incentive for better work by
members, and an inducement to others to take up the work.)
ORGANIZATION
In conducting the poultry work, close cooperation has been
maintained with the entire home demonstration staff; with the
32 home demonstration agents; the extension poultry husband-
man at the College of Agriculture; and with a number of county
agents.
The plan has been to work with all home demonstration






Annual Report, 1920


agents. The home demonstration poultry specialist in confer-
ence with other members of the entire staff, plans this work for
the state, plans the specialist's itinerary and notifies agents in
advance of her coming.
Since the poultry work has grown to be so large, it is no
longer possible for the specialist to organize the county work,
consequently the actual work has been done by home demonstra-
tion agents working under her supervision and instruction.
PLAN OF WORK
All county clubs are known as home demonstration clubs.
Each club or member may elect whatever home problem they
wish to undertake. The poultry work is offered to all. The
reported enrollment for 1919-20 was 1,890 against 1,782 the
previous year when there were 12 more county workers. Com-
munity and county egg circles have been organized for the mar-
keting of eggs and poultry.
OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
Some county poultry associations have been organized. Some
of these aided our work materially by supplying members with
purebred eggs for hatching, on the cooperative basis.
County fairs created a department for girls' and boys' poultry
exhibits, offering liberal prizes.
Banks, boards of trade and other business firms have been
liberal in donating money as prizes for scholarships covering
expenses at the girls' short course at the State College for
Women, and at the boys' short course at the University of
Florida.
The state fair at Jacksonville and the South Florida fair at
Tampa each gave exhibit space and liberal prizes to girls' and
boys' poultry club work.
PUBLICITY METHODS USED
Reports of work accomplished, were published in poultry jour-
nals, daily papers of the state, the Southern Ruralist, the Pro-
gressive Farmer, the Farmer and Stockman, and University of
Florida Agricultural News Service. Items in county papers by
home demonstration agents have also appeared.
Posters, signs, poultry supply and equipment exhibits, and
live poultry exhibits were put on at the state and South Florida
and county fairs. An educational exhibit was put on at the
Summer Normal of the Florida State College for Women.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The cooperative egg circles put on an exhibit of home-made
equipment; viz., self-feeding hopper, brooder, etc., at state fairs.
Home demonstration agents were supplied with farmers' bul-
letins, leaflets and posters from our state office. Monthly poul-
try programs were furnished, girls' and women's clubs.
OUTSTANDING PIECES OF WORK
Seven home demonstration agents report that poultry was the
outstanding piece of demonstration work in their county during
the last year.
HATCHING EGGS SECURED ON A COOPERATIVE BASIS
Several county clubs secured eggs on a cooperative basis. The
home demonstration agent of Citrus County succeeded in inter-
esting three progressive business men to finance the purchase
of eggs for club members who will give a pullet in the fall for
the eggs.
The Ferris Poultry Plant, West Palm Beach, offered two
settings of utility stock White Leghorns to each home demon-
stration agent to be placed with club girls, or boys, who in turn
will give a setting of eggs from their chickens raised to another
girl or boy.
BACK YARD POULTRY WORK
IBack-yard poultry work, started at St. Augustine last year,
has been continued. A poultry show was held there and so much
interest was manifested that the agent was prevailed on to hold
another show in February. On a recent visit of inspection to
these back-yard flocks, O. B. Martin, States Relations Service,
United States Department of Agriculture, is quoted as saying
that, in so far as he knew, this was the most outstanding piece
of 'home demonstration back-yard poultry work in the South.
Because of the growth of poultry work the time devoted to
egg circles has been limited. Some counties have expanded their
egg circle work this year. For example, the Hernando County
circle enrolled 65 members, 20 being new ones. During the year
July 1; 1919, to June 30, 1920, this circle sold 10,851 dozen eggs
for $5,267.54 and 7,491 pounds of chickens and turkeys for
$2,440.39, making a total of $7,707.93. Requests for the organi-
zation of circles have come from Santa Rosa, Escambia, Pasco,
Citrus, Jefferson, Pinellas, Suwannee, Putnam and Washington
Counties.
CULLING
The home demonstration agent of Broward County who did
much work in culling flocks reports: "I have found that a






Annual Report, 1920


knowledge of scientific culling is not only valuable for the profit
of poultry keepers, but also to pick out the good birds in a
flock, giving your reasons for this selection. This also creates
confidence in the agent, which leads to the acceptance of other
suggestions for poultry raising.
"I have in mind a party to whom I was sent because she could
not get her hens to lay. I found she kept meat birds. I found
another flock with very crooked pelvic bones, and of poor ca-
pacity. After examining some of these poor specimens the
owner picked up three good layers. I told her immediately that
these were the egg type. She replied, 'Yes, these are my good
hens.' She was so impressed that she sold off a whole flock of
non-laying hens.
"In another case a man sent for me to examine and cull his
flock of 300. We had to eliminate more than half of them."
CAPONS
The following excerpt is copied from the report of the home
demonstration agent of Broward County:
"I put the proposition of buying a set of caponizing instru-
ments up to the county commissioners. In their usual cooper-
ative spirit they instructed me to order the instruments. With
these I caponized over 300 chickens. As a result we have a
beautiful flock of Rhode Island Reds, weighing as much as 12
pounds each; several flocks of Leghorns; smaller numbers of
Barred Plymouth Rocks; and one flock of White Plymouth
Rocks. We are expecting from 75 cents to $1 a pound for these
dressed."
POULTRY CLUB WORK AT THE STATE AND SOUTH FLORIDA
FAIRS
The South Florida fair at Tampa created a department for
the boys' and girls' poultry clubs in which they offered liberal
prizes. The first club exhibit was held February 16-21, 1920.
There were 102 birds entered in the show from Bradford, Citrus,
DeSoto, Hernando, Putnam and Suwannee Counties.
Suwannee County members won the first county prize of $20;
DeSoto County the second, $15; Citrus County the third, $10;
Bradford County the fourth, $5. In addition to the county
prizes, $15 was given in individual prizes.
Hernando County egg circle won the first prize, $15. This
money plus the prize won at the state fair in 1919, was invested
in the copies of the "American Standard of Perfection" and in






Florida Cooperative Extension


subscriptions to good poultry journals for the members of the
egg circles.
The girls' and boys' poultry club exhibit at the state fair at
Jacksonville, November 18-27, 1920, was the biggest and best
yet held in the state. There were 321 birds entered, represent-
ing 14 counties as follows: Alachua, Broward, Citrus, Duval,
Gadsden, Hernando, Madison, Palm Beach, Polk, Putnam, Su-
wannee, Santa Rosa, St. Johns, and Taylor.
The fair association offered most liberal county prizes, won as
follows: Suwannee County first, $40; Duval County second,
$35; Hernando County third, $25; Gadsden County fourth, $20;
Polk County fifth, $15; Alachua County sixth, $10; Citrus
County seventh, $5.
County exhibits of second year work were entered for the
first time this year. Hernando County won first prize, $10.
Duval and Suwannee Counties exhibits of second year work
were incomplete and no prizes were awarded.
Individual prizes were given, on each of 15 varieties of
chickens entered.
All the money given as premiums is to be invested in stock,
eggs, or shipping coops, etc., to further poultry club work.
POULTRY JUDGING CONTEST
For the first time the state fair this year offered prizes for
a poultry judging contest for the members of the girls' and boys'
poultry clubs of Florida.
Four teams of three members each, from Duval, St. Johns,
Putnam and Siwannee Counties, entered the contest. The con-
test was held under the supervision of the extension poultry
specialists from the University of Florida and the State College
for Women.
The judging was of Barred Plymouth Rocks, and Single Comb
White Leghorns. Putnam County team won prizes in both
classes, $5 in each case. Claude Wolf of St. Johns County won
both individual prizes for the best judging. One prize was a
trio of Rhode Island Reds from Francis Poultry Yards, Inter-
lachen; and one was a White Leghorn cock from Ferris Poultry
Farm, West Palm Beach.
RABBIT CLUBS
Thru the cooperation of the manager of the South Florida fair,
the president of the National Breeders' and Fanciers' Associa-
tion of America, the president of the Southern Commercial Rab-







Annual Report, 1920 91

bit Breeders' Association, and various breeders of this associa-
tion, the first boys' and girls' rabbit club in the United States,
receiving such cooperation, was organized.
Members of the above mentioned organizations donated 30
pairs of purebred and registered rabbits, which were distributed
to girls and boys selected by the home demonstration department
in various counties in Florida. These rabbits are to be shown
together with litter at the South Florida fair. A girl or boy
receiving a pair of these stock rabbits is to give back to the
home demonstration department one pair of rabbits from the
first litter for distribution to other club members.
The following breeds were donated: New Zealand Reds,
Dutch, Belgian Hares, Flemish Giants, and American Blues.
STATISTICAL REPORT
M iles traveled ............................................................................................. 12,648
M iles traveled by rail.................................................................................. 9,673
M iles traveled by auto............................................... .............--- ----............... 2,694
Miles traveled by other conveyances........................................................ 281
Days engaged in office work...................................................................... 89
Days engaged in field work....................................... ................. 157
Days attending state meetings................................................................ 24
Days attending out of state meetings .....-..................... .......-..... 0
Dem onstrations given ............................................ ........................... 16
M meetings attended ................................................................. ................ 73
Estimated attendance ....................................... .. 4,560
Contests attended ......................................... .... 8
Short courses attended................................................................................ 7
Cam ps attended ........................................................................................... 3
Attendance at short courses and camps.................................................. 495
Fairs attended ............................................................................................. 7
Schools visited ............................................................................................. 18
H om es visited .............................................................................................. 171
Supervisory visits to agents...................................................................... 78
Girls and boys enrolled.............................. 1,128
W omen enrolled ..... ................... .............. 762
Total enroll ent ............................................ .................. 1,890






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DAIRY SPECIALIST IN HOME
DEMONSTRATION WORK
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the home demonstration
dairy agent for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
MAY MORSE,
Home Demonstration Dairy Specialist.

DAIRY CLUB WORK
Sixteen dairy clubs have been organized with a total enroll-
ment of 200. The work was carried on over a period of ten
months. The rules which governed the work were practically
the same as those of last year. F. C. Groover again offered $450
for prizes.
Results of work in 16 clubs were represented at the final con-
test with some decrease in membership. From every record it
was indicated that there was a marked improvement over the
work of the preceding year.
The record cards were much neater and more accurately kept.
The unprofitable cows had been eliminated. There were more
home-grown feeds used. Several purebred registered dairy'
males were purchased and a much greater number of club cows
were bred to purebred registered males than during the pre-
ceding year. There were larger returns from. products.. mar-
keted, due to improvement in quality and increase in quantity.
At the close of this contest nearly a third of the members have
of their own accord requested that the club -work be continued,
and that they be retained as dairy club members.
The dairy clubs have had much help and encouragement from
the state dairy association. In numbers of counties where clubs
were organized, prizes were offered by banks and individuals to
stimulate interest.
In Hernando County interest has progressed to the point that
this county has a commercial dairy association which sold $8,000
worth of milk during the year.
All home demonstration agents had instruction in making and
caring for home dairy products.
Of the 300 or more student teachers enrolled, at least 100
asked for bulletins and helps to assist them with their work in
the public schools.






Annual Report, 1920


PUBLICITY
Interest was promoted by the articles frequently published in
daily papers and agricultural periodicals of the state.
Window displays were used featuring better dairy stock and
the food value of milk.
During the summer school at the State College for Women








,--U








FIG. 20.-Dairy exhibit to demonstrate value of dairy products, displayed
at state fair, 1920

there was a large assortment of posters, pamphlets and bulletins
relative to dairy products and dairy work, kept on display.
DEMONSTRATION DIETS SHOWING VALUE OF MILK
In this exhibit there were cages of white rats on experimental
diets, which showed the effect of adequate and inadequate food,
the value of milk being especially featured.
This year at the state fair the home demonstration dairy ex-
hibit featured especially the food value of milk. Attractive
posters and pictures were used. There was a display of the
actual total solids in a gallon of milk; and a cage of white rats,
all of one litter, divided into three groups with daily diets re-
spectively as follows:
1. (No irilk.)
Grits .........................60 grams Syrup ...................... 5 grams
Rice ........................10 grams Salt pork ..............10 grams
Potato (sweet) ........10 grams Cabbage .................... 5 grams
2. (Milk ad libitum up to 20 cc. each rat.)
Grits ..........................60 grams Syrup ..................... 5 grams
Rice ..........................10 grams Cabbage ................ 5 grams
Potato (sweet) ........10 grams
3. A control rat on mixed diet of milk, fruits and vegetables.







S94 Florida Cooperative Extension

The appearance, the development, and temperament of these
rats was a most convincing argument for milk in the diet of
children.
STATISTICS OF HOME DAIRY AGENT'S WORK
Railroad travel .................................................. ......... ......... ...... 12,376 m iles
Autom obile travel ............................................ .. ....... ...... 2,251 m iles
Boat travel .....-........... -----------.... ...... .--------..... ---- 40 miles
Total traveled ...................... ... ... .................... ......... ......14,667 miles
Meetings attended ......----..................................--------------- 38
Persons present at these meetings.......................---................... 3,016
Speeches m ade ........................................ ... ....... ....................... 31
D ays traveled ..................................................... ... ..... ............................ .. 32
Days in the field ................................... -------- ----.................. ... 1141
Days in the office--...........................................-------. -------------- 98
Days engaged in special work...........----.................. .................................... 20
Days on leave (annual furlough and leave)....................................... ... 22
Days at state m eetings.............................................. .. ... ......- 27
Contest and short courses attended.....................-- ------............--...........-.. 4
Fairs attended .................................... ......... .. .......--- -- ...... 4
Homes visited ...............................................---- -- -.................. 105
Schools visited ................................... ....... .......... .............. ......... ............ 7
Conferences ..................................... .... .................. ............... 56
Clubs organized .................................... ................................... 16
Club enrollment .................................---------.. -----------.................. 200
V isits to agents.......................................... ................ ......... ............. 60
Demonstrations given:
B utter .................................... .......... .... ......... ........... ........... 3
Cheese ..----.. ----............................... ...-.............-.......................- 3
Demonstrations to club girls at short course ----..................................
To agents in training at summer session............................................ 36 hours
To agents at annual meeting ................. ...............-................ J






Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF EXTENSION LEADER IN ANIMAL
HUSBANDRY
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the extension leader
in animal husbandry for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
J. M. SCOTT,
Extension Leader in Animal Husbandry.


On January 26, I attended a conference of southern beef
cattlemen in extension work, which continued into a 3-day
session. The principal topics for discussion at these meetings
were grasses and forage crops and the handling of beef cattle
in the South.
During the latter part of February ten days were spent with
county agents of Dade, Palm Beach and St. Lucie Counties, and
one day was spent with the home demonstration agent of Brow-
ard County. In each of these counties our time was spent en-
tirely with the dairymen of the various communities, giving
them advice in the feeding and handling of dairy herds.
On March 8 I visited a number of cattle and swine growers
in Alachua County.
On March 15 and 16 I attended a 2-day meeting of the Cattle
Raisers Association in Tampa.
On March 22 and 23 I visited a number of cattle and swine
growers in Alachua and Marion Counties in company with W. H.
Black.
On May 11 I went to Leon County and spent a day with the
county agent, visiting dairymen and cattlemen in that section.
From there I went to Franklin County to investigate grass and
range conditions on St. George Island. This is an island in the
Gulf a short distance out from Apalachicola. Much to my sur-
prise I found the island well stocked with good grade Hereford
cattle. These cattle had been brought in from Texas about two
years before. Altho the pasture was scant the cattle were
looking well. From there I went to Suwannee County for a day
with the county agent, and visited some of the local hog and
dairy farmers.
On May 20 I went to Duval County and met with the State
Swine Growers Association, where I read a paper, Different






Florida Cooperative Extension


Methods Used by Successful and Unsuccessful Swine Growers in
Florida.
On September 20 I attended the State Dairy Association
Meeting and read a paper, Equipment Necessary for the Pro-
duction of Good Milk.
While at Orlando I visited a number of dairymen in the sec-
tion and conferred with them regarding their feeding, general
care and breeding methods used.
During the past summer I supplied drawing and plans for
dairy barn and milk room for W. R. Dedman of McIntosh, Flor-
ida, and W. E. A. Wyman of St. Petersburg, Florida.
I have supplied a number of county agents with good rations
for the dairy herd, for brood sows and for fattening hogs for
market.
On November 24 I attended a conference of dairymen and
milk dealers in Jacksonville, Florida. The object of this con-
ference was to devise ways and means of disposing of surplus
milk during summer. The surplus of milk during summer is
due to the strong demand for milk during the winter tourist
season. Then, too, many dairymen breed their cows so they
will freshen in spring when there is less demand for milk prod-
ucts. The following suggestions were given: (1) That an ad-
vertising campaign, setting forth the value of milk in the diet,
be put on by the dairymen and milk dealers. (2) That dairymen
be urged to breed their cows so they will freshen in the fall
rather than in the spring.
The Fifth Annual Livestock Roundup was held at the Uni-
versity of Florida, October 7-8. The chief subjects for discus-
sion were Pork Production, Grasses, Growth of the Purebred
Industry in Florida, Cooperative Marketing of Livestock and Its
Influence on the Development of the Industry, and Making Flor-
ida a Factor in the World's Livestock Market.
The week of November 29 to December 4, was spent in West
Florida with the district agent, where we held farm extension
schools in Santa Rosa, Walton, Washington and Liberty Counties.






Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE EXTENSION FORAGE CROPS
SPECIALIST

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the extension forage
crops specialist for the months of April and May, 1920, and for
a portion of the time from July to December, 1920.
Respectfully,
J. B. THOMPSON,
Extension Forage Crops Specialist.

NEEDS OF THE FLORIDA RANGES
One of the most pressing needs of the livestock industry in
Florida is an adequate and constant supply of good forage the
entire year. Under the present conditions there is a super-
abundance of forage during summer and a serious shortage
during winter. Breeders and owners of purebred and high grade
beef animals, or those connected with dairy interests, may be
able to solve their forage problems satisfactorily thru the con-
struction and utilization of silos, by the production of more and
better hay, and by means of growing such winter crops as oats,
rye, rape, and root crops. There are approximately 700 silos in
the state, about 200 of which are located in Leon County, the
chief dairy center of Florida.
Large quantities of hay are shipped into the state yearly.
To hasten and encourage the adoption of better methods will
require considerable educational effort on the part of the ex-
tension force.
PROBLEMS OF THE CATTLEMEN
The range interests, representing total holdings of approxi-
mately 1,000,000 cattle or more than 90 percent of all the cattle
in Florida, find different problems confronting them. Their
cattle are entirely dependent upon the native grasses of the
range. In the management of this class of stock, supplementary
feeding is not practiced. Usually the feeding of such animals
is not practicable. For this reason the problem that interests
range cattlemen is strictly one of improving native pasturage
on their grazing areas. The principal grasses on the range are
various species of the "wire grass" and "broom sedge" groups,
or other grasses which, like them, yield good pasturage during
their early growth but which soon become coarse and fibrous.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The system of range management followed in Florida includes
periodic burning of grass lands to remove such growth as be-
come dry and unpalatable. This system tends to perpetuate the
hardy wire grasses by holding in check the more desirable and
less resisting varieties, such as carpet grass and giant carpet
grass. The wire grasses, on the other hand, are driven out by
close grazing and heavy trampling, while the carpet grasses
thrive under this treatment. A reversal of these systems would
greatly improve certain sections of range lands. The practice
of heavy stocking of lands and their careful protection from
fire would convert large areas of wire grass into better grasses,
thereby increasing the quantity and improving the quality of
the feed supply.
Improvement along the general lines indicated above are some
of the most urgent needs of the livestock industry in Florida;
and this has been consistently emphasized in our work this year.
One of the methods of reaching farmers in a direct way was
thru personal farm visits in company with the county agent.
Work of this nature was conducted in 19 different counties and
64 farms were visited.
SPECIAL COUNTY SURVEYS
While our most important forage problems are, in a general
way, common to all sections of the state, local conditions fre-
quently obtain that necessitate special solutions. For this rea-
son and in order to be of more specific help to farmers, while
working in cooperation with the county agent, a series of special
forage crop surveys were made, each one dealing with a separate
county as an independent unit. The general plan followed in
this work is briefly as follows:
By prearranged appointment the forage crop specialist visits
a county agent, and the two jointly spend three or four days in
a study of local forage conditions. Every phase of the forage
question is considered, typical areas of the county are visited,
and a study is made of the character and condition of the range.
Notes are taken on the different native grasses entering into the
flora of the grazing lands and, wherever possible, herbarium
specimens taken for future reference. In this way the county
agent becomes more familiar with the grasses in his district.
Later, and as time permits, a report to the county agent is
prepared, covering the findings of the survey and including rec-
ommendations for bettering conditions wherever improvement






Annual Report, 1920


seems possible. These surveys have been made in five counties,
Bay, Dade, DeSoto, Holmes, and St. Lucie. The number of
grasses collected were, in Bay 29, Dade 40, DeSoto 36, Holmes 0,
St. Lucie 73.
MISCELLANEOUS WORK
During the year seven different agricultural fairs were at-
tended. At five of these the forage crop specialist assisted in
the judging of exhibits. At two he appeared on the program,
making talks on forage topics. Eleven speeches were made on
different forage crop subjects before gatherings of farmers
within the period covered by this report. In the same time
many letters were written and many native grasses were re-
ceived and identified.


FIG. 21.-Para grass in Polk County