<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmissal to governor...
 Credits
 Report of the director
 Report of hog cholera work
 Report of beef cattle speciali...
 Report of extension poultry...
 Report of state agent
 Report of the district agent for...
 Report of district agent for west...
 Report of the district agent for...
 Report of boys' agricultural club...
 Report of assistant boys' club...
 Report of assistant boys' club...
 Report of the state home demonstration...
 Report of the district home demonstration...
 Report of the district home demonstration...
 Report of poultry club work
 Report of home dairy work
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00002
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1918
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00002
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmissal to governor of Florida
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of the director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Report of hog cholera work
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Report of beef cattle specialist
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Report of extension poultry husbandman
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Report of state agent
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Report of the district agent for north and east Florida
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Report of district agent for west Florida
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Report of the district agent for south Florida
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Report of boys' agricultural club agent
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Report of assistant boys' club agent for north and west Florida
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Report of assistant boys' club agent for central and south Florida
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Report of the state home demonstration agent
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Report of the district home demonstration agent for east and south Florida
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Report of the district home demonstration agent for north and west Florida
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Report of poultry club work
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Report of home dairy work
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Index
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
Full Text



- -.'-,.-


Cooperative Extension Work in

Agriculture and Home Economics

University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating
P. H. ROLFS, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1918
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1918 ,
FF vQi
V.A.'








Cooperative Extension Work in

Agriculture and Home Economics

University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating
P. H. ROLFS, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1918
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1918


MARCH, 1919









CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER QF TRATSMISSAL TO .GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA. ..............,:. .....,.... 3
BOARD OF CONTROL ..................................................... .. 4
BOAD OF CONTROL-------- ----------------------------------- -4- 4
EXTENSION STAFF........------........................... ----- ....-------. ...-------- 4
LETTER OF TRANSMISSAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD OF CONTROL.-..... .. ....... 7
REPORT OF DIRECTOR--.. ------..... ----------- ----- 7
Emergency Work ......-------------... ....-................ 8
Organization ...................................... ....... 11
Financial statement ..... ...-.1 .. ..... 15
Publications ...statem ent ........ ........ .... ...... ............. ....... .......................... 15
Publications-------- -------- : -............. -- -...... -.-.--.--.--.-. 15
Cooperative Enterprises---.......-.....- ................:.... .....--................ 17
REPORT OF HOG CHOLERA WORK...........---.......... ...----------........ ...................... 21
REPORT OF BEEF CATTLE SPECIALIST................. ................. ..... 24
REPORT OF EXTENSION POULTRY HUSBANDMAN........................... 27
REPORT OF STATE AGENT.................................... ... .................. 29
Crops ........................... .......... ......... .................... .............. .. ............. 29
Food Production Campaign.............................-- ----......................................... 32
A gents' M meetings ...................................................... ............ ...................... 32
Activities of Extension Workers (statistical)..... .................................... 34
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND EAST.....--......... .......... ......... 42
Corn ........................... ..... .... --.. ............................................ ...... 42
SVelvet Beans..................................... .................. ........- 43
Peanuts ......................... ....................... .......................... ...................... 44
H ogs ........................................................ ..................................................... 44
Cattle ............................................................................................ .................... 45
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, WEST.......................... ................. 46
Corn and Cottori ................... ................................. 47
Peanuts ............................................... ... ... .......... ....... ............ 48
Beef Cattle ......... ...... ..... ., ............ .................................. 48
D airy Cattle........................................................................................................ 49
H ogs ...................................... ......................................................................... 49
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, SOUTH.-..:.............................................................. 51
Cattle and Hogs-----.................................... -- ---- ......................... 51
Citrus Demonstrations .. -- ........................--- .................................. 52
Truck Demonstrations.... ---------.................----..-...... .---.. --............ 52
County Appropriation to Support Work........................................................ 53
REPORT OF BOYS' CLUB AGENT.............................................................................. 54
Enrollment of Boys in 1918 .................................................................. 56
Corn Clubs ............................................................................................................ 57
Peanut Clubs ....................................................................................................... 58
Pig Clubs...................................................................... ................................ 59
County Contests, Short Course......................................................................... 62
REPORT OF ASSISTANT BOYS' CLUB AGENT, NORTH AND WEST........................ 66
REPORT OF ASSISTANT BOYS' CLUB AGENT, CENTRAL AND SOUTH.................. 69
REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT.............................................. 73
U rban W ork ........................................................................................................ 73
Girls' W ork ......................................................................................................... 74
W om men's W ork ................................................................................................... 75
Short Courses ...................................................................................................... 78
Statistical R reports .............................................................................................. 83
REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, EAST AND SOUTH...... 85
Enrollment of Women and Girls................................................................... 87
Extension Schools for Housekeepers.............................................................. 88
C manning ..................................................................................... ....................... 90
REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST...... 92
Girls' W ork ........................................................................................................ 92
W om men's W ork ............................................................................................... 93
D em onstrations .................................................................................................. 94
REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB WORK......................................................................... 95
REPORT OF HOME DAIRY WORK -...........------...................................-- 103
INDEX .................................. .. ... .............. .... ... .....106





















Hon. Sidney J. Catts,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Fla.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
Director of the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in
the University of Florida for the calendar year ending December
31, 1918, including a fiscal report for the year ending June
30, 1918.
Respectfully,
JOE L. EARMAN,
Chairman of the Board of Control.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOARD OF CONTROL
JOE L. EARMAN, Chairman, Jacksonville, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Fla.
J. B. HODGES, Lake City, Fla.
J. T. DIAMOND, Milton, Fla.
BRYAN MACK, Secretary, Tallahassee, Fla.
OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
BRADFORD KNAPP, Chief.
H. E. SAVELY, Agriculturist and Field Agent.
O. B. MARTIN, Assistant in Charge of Demonstration Club Work.
I. W. HILL, Assistant in Demonstration Club Work.
STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University.
P. H. ROLFS, Director.
A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director.
COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK
C. K. MCQUARRIE, State Agent.
H. S. MCLENDON, District Agent for South Florida.
E. W. JENKINS, District Agent for North and East Florida.
S. W. HIATT, District Agent for West Florida.
G. L. HERRINGTON, Boys' Club Agent.
E. M. MANNING, Assistant Boys' Club Agent.*
R. W. BLACKLOCK, Assistant Boys' Club Agent.
L. R. HIGHFILL, Assistant Boys' Club Agent. a
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
AGNES ELLEN HARRIS, State Agent.
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, District Agent, East and South Florida.
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, District Agent, North and West Florida.'
LONNY LANDRUM, Assistant District Agent.
AGNES I. WEBSTER, Assistant District Agent.
LOLA SNIDER, Assistant District Agent..
SARA DONELLA GRIFFIN, Assistant District Agent.
GERTRUDE I. YORK, Assistant State Agent.
MAY MORSE, Assistant State Agent.
MINNIE FLOYD, Assistant State Agent.
SPECIALISTS
A. H. LOGAN, Veterinary Inspector in Charge, Hog Cholera Educational
and Demonstrational Work. a
A. S. HOUCHIN,* Veterinary Inspector. a
L. F. PETERSON,* Veterinary Inspector. a
H. F. WALKER,* Veterinary Inspector. a
J. A. GENUNG,* Veterinary Inspector. a
D. H. WATTSON,* Scientific Assistant in Beef Cattle Investigations. a
WM. H. BLACK, Agent in Animal Husbandry. a
N. W. SANBORN, Extension Poultry Husbandman. a
J. O. TRAXLER, Farm,Help Specialist. b
W. A. DOPSoN,* Farm Help Specialist. b
R. L. CLUTE,* Insect Control in Stored Grain. c
O. K. COURTNEY,* Insects of Truck Crops. c
E. E. ATKINSON, Storage of Sweet Potatoes. d
D. G. RAWLS, Peanut Harvesting. e
a. Cooperating with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A.
b. Cooperating with the Office of Farm Management, U. S. D. A.
c. Cooperating with the Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A.
d. Cooperating with the Bureau of Markets, U. S. D. A.
e. Cooperating with the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. D. A.
* Resigned on or before July 1, 1918.








Annual Report, 1918 5

LECTURERS AND OTHER OFFICIALS
JOHN M. SCOTT, Lecturer, Animal Industry.
B. F. FLOYD, Lecturer, Citrus.
SJ. R. WATSON, Lecturer, Entomology.
H. E. STEVENS, Lecturer, Plant Pathology.
S. E. COLLISON, Lecturer, Soils and Fertilizers.
BESSIE V. GLOVER, Secretary.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor.
LENA R. HUNTER, Assistant Auditor.
O. W. WEAVER, Editor (resigned August 15, 1918).
S. L. VINSON, Editor.

COUNTY COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua .............................-..W. E. Brown..............................Gainesville
Baker ....................................J. S. Johns.................................Macclenny
Bay ....................... ............ C. Webb..................................Panama City
Bradford ..............................C. D. Gunn................................Starke
Brevard ................................C. D. Kime*..............................Titusville
Broward .............................. J. S. Rainey*..............................Ft. Lauderdale
Calhoun ................................J. E. Yon....................................Blountstown
Citrus ....................................Jno. T. King..............................Lecanto
Clay ..................................... W. T. Nettles*..........................Green Cove Springs
Dade ......................................F. J. McKinley-........................Miami
DeSoto ..................................W. A. Sessoms..........................Arcadia
Duval ....................................W. L. Watson...........................Jacksonville
Escambia ............................C. A. Fulford.......-.................Pensacola
Flagler ..................................W. H. Deant..............................Bunnell
Gadsden ---.............................M. N. Smith.............................-River Junction
Hamilton -........................S. S. Smitht..............................Jennings
Hernando ............................Jas. Mountain* ..................-......Brooksville
Hillsboro ............................. R. T. Kelley*...........................Plant City
Holmes ..........--................... J. J. Sechrest.........................Bonifay
Jackson ............................. L. J. Thompson. ......................Marianna
Jefferson ..............................T. C. Bradford ........................Monticello
Lafayette .................. .-......- J. L. Pooret................................Mayo
Lake ......................................Wm. Gomme-.............................Tavares
Lee ...............-.......................J. M. Boring*...........................Ft. Myers
Leon .....................................R. I. Matthews.................----- .......Tallahassee
Levy --................................ R. L. Denson*.......... -...............Bronson
Liberty ..............................H. G. McDonald .......................Bristol
Madison ................................C. E. Matthews........---..............Madison
Manatee ...........-...................0. W. Gaswell* ...................---...Bradentown
Marion ---...................... ........ W. Blacklock.......................Ocala
Nassau ----........ .......-- ...........James Shaw*............................Hilliard
Okaloosa .................. ....R. J. Hartt...............................-Laurel Hill
Okeechobee ......-... .........L. E. Davist............................Okeechobee
Orange ..................................E. F. DeBusk-*.........................Orlando
Osceola .........................M. M. Javens..--....................... Kissimmee
Palm Beach .........................R. A. Conkling*........----...............West Palm Beach
Pasco -.....--- ... ........R. T. Weaver........----..................Dade City
Pinellas ................. ..-- J. H. Jeffriest...........................Largo
Polk ---........................--....... -A. A. Lewis*.....------.......................Kathleen
Putnam ........---........................L. Cantrell*...........................Palatka
Santa Rosa .......... ....- -R. T. Oglesby............................Milton
Seminole ............................. C. M. Berry..-..---......-....- ..... ..Sanford
Sumter .......... ......................M. S. Hillt................................Coleman
Suwannee ...........................D. A. Armstrong.....................Live Oak
St. Johns ..............................J. E. Cheatham..----......................St. Augustine
*Emergency, cooperative. fEmergency, total.









6 Florida Cooperative Extension

St. Lucie .................-............Alfred Warren*................Ft. Pierce
Taylor .................................L. R. Moore .............................:..Perry
Volusia ...............................R. E. Lenfest*............................DeLand
Wakulla ............................... W. T. Green ..............................Arran
Walton ..........-.......................J. W. Mathison*....................... DeFuniak Springs
Washington ...... ................Geo. E. Mead............................Chipley
COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Baker ................................... Miss Harriet H. Hawthorn....Macclenny
Bay ......................................Mrs. Laura R. Look*..............Panama City
Bradford .............................Miss Margaret Burleigh........Starke
Brevard ...........:....................Miss Cornelia Smith*...:..........Titusville
Broward ..............................Mrs. J. S. Raineyt..................Ft. Lauderdale
Calhoun ................................Mrs. Grace Warren.....-------Blountstown
Citrus ..................................Mrs. Martha Williamson*......Inverness
Clay ......................................Mrs. W. T. Nettles..................Green Cove Springs
Dade ....................................Mrs. Lileon Norman Brady*..Miami
Dade, Asst. .........................Mrs. Nellie A. Bush ..............Goulds
DeSoto ..................................Mrs. Ann J. Campbell............Arcadia
DeSoto, Asst. ......................Miss Catherine Bankst............Arcadia
Duval ............----......................Mrs. Effie Wellington..............Jacksonville
Escambia .................-............Miss Myrtle Floyd....................Pensacola
Gadsden ................................Miss Ruby McDavid................Hinson
Hernando ........................Mrs. Ette Matthews*..............Brooksville
Hillsboro .............................Miss Janie Stroud*-----................Plant City
Holmes .......... ------....................Miss Jennie Chappelle*..........DeFuniak Springs
Jackson ...............................Mrs. Ivie Turnbull ..................Marianna
Jefferson ..............................Mrs. Jennie Carter Duncum..Monticello
Lafayette .........................Miss Flora Clowert..................Mayo
Lake ......................................Miss Clarine Hoyt....................Tavares
Lee .......................................Mrs. Enid A. Parker---_..........Ft. Myers
Leon ......................................Mrs. Lura Dyer Noland..........Tallahassee
Madison ................................Miss Edna Smith-.....-.............Madison
Manatee .............................Miss Eloise McGriff ................Bradentown
Marion ..................................Mrs. Caroline Moorhead........Ocala
Okaloosa ..............................Miss Margaret Cobb-...............Crestview
Orange ..............................Mrs. Nellie Taylor*-----................Orlando
Osceola .......... .---......---Miss Albina Smith*................Kissimmee
Palm Beach .......................Miss Elizabeth Hopkins*......West Palm Beach
Pasco ..................................Miss Nina Henderson*..........Dade City
Pinellas .....---------................Miss Hazel Carter*................Largo
Polk .....-- -------....................... Miss Lois Godbey*..................Bartow
Putnam ...............................Miss Josephine' Sipprell..........Palatka
Santa Rosa ...........-.............Miss Winnie Warren .............Milton
Seminole ............................Mrs. C. M. Berryt....................Sanford
Suwannee ............................Miss Alice Dorsett*-. ............Branford
St. Johns ......----..................... Miss Anna Heist*.............-..... St. Augustine
St. Lucie ..............................Miss Grace Holt*.................... Ft. Pierce
Taylor ................------...............Miss Hazel Roberts*................Perry
Volusia .................................Mrs. Willa Steed......................DeLand
Walton ................................Miss Grace Kent*....................DeFuniak Springs
Washington .......................Mrs. Susie Sapp Crofton........Chipley
CITY WORKERS
tMiami-.... ........ ....-.......... --. Miss Lucy Caroline Cushman
tJacksonville .................................. Miss Bessie Nevins
tTampa................................. Miss Flora Herold
tTampa.. ......................... ....----Miss Edith Cole Young
Key West..................................--.... Miss Dorothy Neibert
*Emergency, cooperative. fEmergency; total.










Report of General Activities for 1918
with
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30, 1918


Hon. Joe L. Earman,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of
the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the Univer-
sity of.Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, and the report of the
activities of the Extension Division for the calendar year 1918.
I respectfully request that you transmit the same, in accordance
with the law, to the Governor of the State of Florida.
Respectfully,
P. H. ROLFS,
Director.

INTRODUCTION
The Agricultural Extension Division of the University of
Florida concerns itself primarily with giving instruction and
practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to
persons not resident on the campus. The Smith-Lever Agri-
cultural Extension Act is the basis for this work. Thru it the
State of Florida receives annually $10,000. An additional sum
of $17,298.52 became available July 1, 1917, on condition that an
equal amount be appropriated by the State.
The Legislature of Florida passed an Act, which was ap-
proved by the Governor, May 25, 1915 '(Chap. 6839), accepting
these funds and the provisions of the Smith-Lever Act. The Act
provides for cooperation between the agricultural colleges in the
several states and the U. S. Department of Agriculture. A quo-
tation from it will show the general purposes of this Act:
"That cooperative agricultural extension work shall consist of the giving
of instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home
economics to persons not attending or resident in said colleges in the several
communities, and imparting to such persons information on said subjects
through field demonstrations, publications, and otherwise; and this work
7






Florida Cooperative Extension


shall be carried on in such a manner as may be mutually agreed upon by the
Secretary of Agriculture and the State agricultural college or colleges
receiving the benefits of this act."
In addition to the amount derived directly from the Smith-
Lever Fund, the U. S. Department of Agriculture has appro-
priated the sum of $23,000.
The principal work carried on with these funds is the county
cooperative demonstration work among farmers and the home
demonstration work in farm homes. The sum of $600 is allotted
to each county availing itself of this opportunity to cooperate in
the county demonstration work, provided the county appropriates
an equal or larger amount for this same purpose. In the home
demonstration work, each new county cooperating is allotted
$400 for the year provided an equal or larger amount is appro-
priated by the county for augmenting this work. In counties
where home demonstration work has made favorable progress,
$500 is made available under the condition that the county pro-
vides an equal amount. Provision for carrying on the county
demonstration work is made in the general revenue bill (Chap.
6949) "to levy a tax of not more than one-half of one mill for the
encouragement and protection of agriculture." The Legislature
of 1915 passed (Chap. 6833) an act authorizing county boards of
education to make appropriations for home demonstration work.

EMERGENCY WORK
After the outbreak of the war Congress appropriated
$4,348,400 to stimulate agricultural production and facilitate the
distribution of agricultural products in the United States. Of
this amount, $43,000 was allotted to Florida. This work was
carried on cooperatively with the Extension Division in Florida,
but the expenditure of the money and the accounting were
handled at Washington.
Under this Act a large number of Emergency county agents
and Emergency home 'demonstration agents were appointed.
These agents aided very greatly in stimulating crop production
and food and forage conservation in the State. They worked co-
ordinately with the various agents appointed under authority of
the Smith-Lever Act and who were paid from State and Smith-
Lever funds. A number of counties in the State did not feel
financially able to cooperate in this line of work, and Emergency
agents were placed in these.
A distinctly new line of work was introduced here, conducted







Annual Report, 1918


by Urban home demonstration agents. These women worked
with families in the larger cities, assisting in the conservation
of food, especially canning and drying. They also gave instruc-
tion in poultry raising and such home gardening as could be
profitably carried on under urban conditions. This stimulated
greater interest in the production and proper preparation of
various vegetable products. Some attention was also given to
canning and preparation of sea foods as a matter of stimulating
conservation in this direction.
Thru the Emergency appropriation it was possible to place in
the field a number of negro workers, both men and women, to
work among the negro race. These agents were employed for
a short time for definite pieces of work. The results of the work
show that this is a very profitable line of endeavor for stimulating
agricultural production and conservation of food products.
In cooperation with the Extension Division, specialists from
various Bureaus of the U. S. Dept. of Agr. are assigned to Flor-
ida. The Bureaus cooperating in Emergency work during the
past year have been the Bureau of Animal Industry, the Office of
Farm Management, the Bureau of Entomology, and the States
Relations Service.
WAR WORK
As a result of the declaration of war by the United States
the Extension Division was called upon to do a large amount of
additional work. Florida, in common with all other states,
organized for this unusual contingency. His Excellency, Gov-
ernor Sidney J. Catts, called a meeting of all agricultural and
allied organizations to meet in Tallahassee on April 30, 1917.
Representatives of these bodies met and formed the organization
known as the Food Preparedness Commission. The following
were designated by the Governor as initial members of this
Commission:
MEMBERS OF THE COMMISSION
P. H. Rolfs, Gainesville, Director Ext. Div. Univ. of Fla.
H. H. Hume, Glen St. Mary, Pres. Fla. State Horticultural Society.
W. A. McRae, Tallahassee, Commissioner of Agriculture.
Sen. J. L. Shepard, Greensboro, President Farmers' Union of Fla.
J. H. Ross, Winter Haven, President Florida Citrus Exchange.
L. B. Skinner, Dunedin, Pres. Growers' and Shippers' League.
W. P. Franklin, Ft. Myers, Secretary Florida First Commission.
W. F. Miller, Valrico, President South Fla. Chamber of Commerce.
Dr. Lincoln Hulley, DeLand, Pres. State Bankers' Assn.
S. J. Triplett, St. Cloud, Actg. Pres. Press Assn.
Mrs. W. S. Jennings, Jacksonville, Pres. Fed. of Women's Clubs.
Miss A. E. Harris, Tallahassee, Pres. Fla. State Teachers' Assn.







Florida Cooperative Extension


W. N. Sheats, Tallahassee, State Supt. Public Instruction.
W. F. Blackman, Winter Park, Pres. Fla. Live Stock Assn.
Jules M. Burguieres, West Palm Beach.
J. C. Chase, Jacksonville. .. .
J; H. Mackey, Jacksonville, Pres. Fla. Fed, of Labor.
B. L. Hamner, Norfolk, Va., Development Agt., S. A. L. R. R.
E. B. O'Kelly, Jacksonville, Fla., Ind. Agt., A. C. L. R. R.
J. E. Ingraham, St. Augustine,, Fla., V. P., F.:E. C. R. R.. ,
S. G. Westbrook, Pensacola, Fla., Ind. Agt., L. & N. R. R.
The Directorof Extension was chosen chairman of the organi-
zation, and Miss A. E. Harris, state agent for home demonstra-
tion work, was appointed as secretary. The following members,
with the .Chairman and Secretary, ex-officio, constituted the ex-
ecutive committee:
Dr. Lincoln Hulley, DeLand, Chairman.
Mrs. W. S. Jennings, Jacksonville.
L. B. Skinner, Dunedin.
The object of the Commission was to stimulate the production
and conservation of food.and forage crops.
In July the Governor appointed this Commission as a State
Council of Defense. The organization took an important part in
directing the work of the State, and this entailed enormous ad-
ditional work on all of the forces, including the county agents
and home demonstration agents.
Four Liberty Loan Drives have also been held. Everyone
connected with the Extension Division took an active part in this
campaign. In some cases the county agent and home demonstra-
tion agent were the principal county leaders in carrying forward
the large amount of work necessary to raise the bond issues in
the respective counties. The Director and other State workers
participated in the speaking campaigns and in securing sub-
scriptions and buying bonds. The War Savings Stamp Drive
also took up a considerable amount of time from the Extension
Division.
Among the most important war work done by the county
agents was the assistance given during the various army drafts.
Without this assistance a great deal more difficulty would have
been encountered in making the plan of the draft and draft
measures effective in the State. In some of the counties the
agents gave a great part of their time to the furtherance of the
draft. Special credit must be given to the large number of
county agents who took a most active part in assisting the
farmer with the draft questionnaires. A great deal of confusion
existed in the minds of rural people as to the meaning and extent
of the law and its operation, especially during October in 1918.







Annual Report, 1918


Fortunately the armistice was declared, making it unnecessary
to draft more men into the service.
The services rendered by the Extension Division have had a
far reaching and most important effect on the patriotic situa-
tion in the .State. The county and home demonstration agents
were in direct and constant contact with the great mass of
the rural population, and the value of their influence cannot be
over-estimated. This whole patriotic work was of such nature
that it required the largest amount of good judgment and an
unusual amount of initiative on the part, not only of the Ex-
tension staff, but of each individual agent. There was no prece-
dent to follow and the result of certain lines of action was not
always clear.
The readjustment necessary to meet the conditions of the war
has necessarily been most difficult. The readjustment necessary
to peace conditions is likewise requiring the best of judgment
and greatest of patience. It is not over-stating the case to say that
without the Cooperative Demonstration work fully organized
in Florida the trying ordeal could not have been passed without
serious disturbance.
ORGANIZATION
The Smith-Lever Act requires the appointment of a director,
who is responsible to the Board of Control and to the Secretary
of Agriculture for carrying out the plans mutually agreed upon.
Inasmuch as the budget system is used to govern the working
plans, such budget is submitted to the Board of Control and the
United States Department of Agriculture before going into effect,
and reports are made upon the completion of the year's work.
The Cooperative Extension Work in Florida is carried on in
eight projects, the most important being that of the county co-
operative and home demonstration agents. This provides for
county agents being located in as many of the counties as can be
induced to cooperate with the Extension Division. The object
in view is to improve the farm and rural conditions in Florida.
The county home demonstration work is carried on by cooperative
arrangements with the Florida State College for Women, Talla-
hassee. The object of the home demonstration work is to im-
prove the home life of the rural population. The instruction
includes all lines of work that may be met with on an ordinary
farm.
The duties of the State Agent are to coordinate and harmonize







Florida Cooperative Extension


activities in such a way as to secure cooperation among the dif-
ferent projects and also with the rural people of the State. He
is charged with supervision of the county cooperative demon-
stration agents. The State has been divided into three districts
for the county agent work and two for the home demonstration
work. The district agents spend their time instructing and
assisting the county and home demonstration agents in their
work.
The boys' club agent and assistants have headquarters at the
University. Their work covers the State. The clubs are or-
ganized by the county agents and, with the cooperation of school
boards and county superintendents, they receive general approval
and support. This work is intended to harmonize with other
phases of demonstration work, and especially to instruct club
members in the best agricultural methods and practices suited
to Florida conditions.
The county agents usually have their headquarters at the
county seat, with an office in the courthouse. The most im-
portant work of the agent is that of conducting demonstrations
with farm crops, usually on a small area, to show the best farm-
ing practices. A great deal of his time is given to the control of
hog diseases, to garden work, public meetings and, during the
war, to additional duties such as, farm surveys, labor distribu-
tion, and to the many activities stimulated by the need of greater
agricultural production. The county agent is looked upon as the
agricultural leader and adviser for a community and uses his
office for the promotion of all legitimate agricultural enterprises.
He has at his call the assistance of the University of Florida and
the States Relations Service, United States Department of Agri-
culture, when needed for the benefit of agricultural interests in
his county.
The attention of the state agent for home demonstration work
is given to the improvement of homes, primarily for the instruc-
tion of girls, teaching them the underlying principles of home life.
Special instruction is given in gardening, preserving, canning,
poultry raising, and domestic art. The work is under her direct
supervision. The state agent and her assistants come in contact
with the problems of country life, and spend much time with the
county home demonstration agents, helping them where possible
with assistance and encouragement to greater effort.
Two district agents are employed to supervise the work in the
counties. These district agents travel continuously, giving their






Annual Report, 1918


full time to the direction of the home demonstration work in
counties.
The agent assigned to poultry clubs works in cooperation with
the county home demonstration agents. A limited number of
counties best suited were selected this year for poultry work.
The purpose is to increase interest in farm poultry by making
the work more profitable and to encourage the production of
better poultry. As conditions are made suitable the poultry
work will be extended into every county.
The office of the county home demonstration agent is usually at
the courthouse altho the agent spends most of her time in the
farm homes and with rural clubs giving instruction in gardening,
home economics, home sanitation, and the proper use of foods.
All county and home demonstration agents are selected for
their special fitness to handle the work in the county to which
they are assigned. As far as possible graduates of agricultural
colleges or of home economics courses are secured. All county
workers have had special training for extension teaching and
receive uniform instruction so there may be harmony of purpose
thruout the State.
All employees of the Extension Division are required to make
weekly reports to the University of Florida and the Department
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

PLAN OF WORK
The Extension work of the University of Florida is conducted
under projects as provided for by the Smith-Lever Act. A
statement of the sources and expenditures of the funds will
be found herewith.
Project I-A provides for the salaries of clerical help and inci-
dental expenses that apply directly to the administration of the
work as a whole. This includes general clerical and executive
expenditures not specifically connected with any particular pro-
ject.
Project I-B provides for the expenditures for publications.
A requirement of the Smith-Lever law is that not more than 5%~
shall be used for printing and distribution of publications.
Project II provides for demonstration work with adult farm-
ers, and for all the work conducted by the county agents thru-
out the State. This provides for the employment of county
agents on condition that the county being benefited appropriate
additional funds to aid in the support of the work.


13






Florida Cooperative Extension


As the county agents' activities vary in different counties,
those supervising the work take this into consideration when
directing his duties. This project deals with practically all
activities on the farm.
Project III provides for boys' agricultural clubs, and is con-
fined to corn, pig and peanut clubs. The club work is intended
to give instruction to boys between the ages of 12 and 18. The
support of schools, business interests, agricultural agencies of
railroads and other organizations directly interested in the wel-
fare of farmers is secured.. As the clubs are formed under the
direction of the county agents, the work in Projects II and III
are closely allied.
Project IV provides for home demonstration work, principally
in rural districts. It has two main divisions, one giving par-
ticular attention to girls' clubs, training them in domestic science
and art and the principles of home-making as applied to rural
life. The other is devoted to women's work. Women's clubs are
organized to study the needs of the home, its surroundings, sani-
tation, and the proper use and conservation of foods, also home
conveniences. This division also includes women's poultry clubs
and the proper utilization of food products produced on farms.
Project VI provides primarily for instruction to negro boys
and girls living on farms, and has been enlarged to include
demonstration work with negro farmers. The work is confined
to counties having the largest rural negro population. One
assistant agent for each of twelve counties was employed for six
months. These report to the manager club agent, whose head-
quarters are at the Agricultural and Mechanical College for
Negroes at Tallahassee. This institution is headquarters for
negro extension work.
Project VII provides for educational and demonstrational
work in hog cholera control, and is conducted cooperatively with
the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture,
and coordinated with the hog cholera work of the Live Stock
Sanitary Board.
A State leader and four assistants who served part of the
year as specialists were assigned to Florida to work with the
county agents and farmers to assist in the control of hog cholera.
The aim is to instruct farmers in the proper use of hog cholera
serum and virus; to prevent the spread of hog diseases, and
hold contagious diseases in control after an outbreak. These
agents have their offices at the University of Florida, but travel







Annual Report, .1918


thruout the State with county and district agents, visiting farms
and delivering lectures.

SUPERVISION OF EXPENDITURES
The funds arising from the Smith-Lever Act are strictly trust
funds that must be employed in accordance with the laws and
regulations governing the appropriation. The method of ac-
counting and the plans for the work must be submitted to the U.
S. Department of Agriculture before the year's work is begun. A
Federal officer audits the accounts and inspects the work under-
way. All other funds used to supplement the Smith-Lever fund
have been expended and accounted for in the same way as the
Smith-Lever fund.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Following is the financial statement for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1918:
RECEIPTS
Agricultural College Fund-
Smith-Lever Federal......................................$27,298.52
Smith-Lever State.............................. ............... 17,298.52
U. S. D. A. Appropriation.............................................. 23,000.00
State Appropriation............................. 9,895.00
County Appropriations........................ 61,143.58
$138,635.62
EXPENDITURES
Administration Project ................................................ $ 9,771.29
Printing and Publications Project...... ......................... 1,712.49
County Agents' Project ............................................. 65,080.33
Home Demonstration Project........................ 55,443.86
Boys' Club Work Project............................... 3,253.66
Negro Farm and Home Makers' Project..................... 3,199.95
Hog Cholera Educational.................... ....... 100.00
Poultry W ork ........................... ..... ...................... 74.04
$138,635.62
PUBLICATIONS
Bulletin
No. Title Edition
12. Peanuts for Oil Production............. ............................ ..... 20,450
13. Hog Cholera and Diseases Resembling Hog Cholera.................. 20,000
Circular
No. Title Edition
2. Castor Beans ................................. .. .......................... 10,000
3. Corn Planting ...... ............ ............. 3,000
4. Cotton Anthracnose -........-.. ............. ........... 8,000
5. Rice Culture ................. .. ................. ..................... 15,000
Posters Title Edition
4. Grow Forage Crops .. .............................. 2,000
5. Have You a Cow ............................... ......... ..... 2,000
Annual Report Cooperative Extension Work..................................... 5,000.
425 copies each 52 weeks, Agricultural News Service.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CHANGES IN STAFF
On September 16, 1917, S. W. Hiatt was appointed district
agent for West Florida.
On October 1, 1917, Miss Gertrude I. York was appointed
research worker and bulletin editor for the Home Demonstration
Project and was later assigned to the duties of acting state agent
during the absence of the state agent.
Miss May Morse was appointed assistant state home demon-
stration agent, assigned to home dairy work.
E. M. Manning was appointed assistant boys' club agent and
resigned August 31, 1918, to enter the United States Army.
On October 1, 1917, W. A. Dopson was appointed farm help
specialist, assigned by the Office of Farm Management, and re-
signed August 15, 1918. He was succeeded on September 1,
1918, by J. O. Traxler.
On August 1, 1917, D. H. Wattson, agent in beef cattle investi-
gations, was assigned work in this State by the Bureau of Animal
Industry and resigned June 15, 1918, to enter the United States
Army. He was succeeded on July 1, 1918, by Wm. H. Black.
On May 1, 1918, Dr. Nathan W. Sanborn, extension poultry
husbandman, was assigned by the Bureau of Animal Industry.
On August 15, 1918, O. W. Weaver, editor, resigned, and was
succeeded by Miss S. L. Vinson, September 1, 1918.
On July 1, 1918, L. R. Highfill was appointed assistant in pig
clubs, to work in cooperation with the Bureau of Animal In-
dustry. On September 1, 1918, R. W. Blacklock was appointed
assistant club agent.
R. L. Clute was assigned January 1, 1918, by the Bureau of
Entomology to work on insect control of stored grains. He re-
signed his work on August 1, 1918.
On January 1, 1918, O. K. Courtney was assigned by this
Bureau to work on insects in truck crops.
Two assistant district agents in home demonstration work
were appointed to north and west Florida: Miss Lonny Landrum,
July 1, 1918, and Miss Lola Snider, September 1, 1918. Two
assistant district agents in home demonstration work were ap-
pointed in south and east Florida: Miss Agnes I. Webster,
November 1, 1918, and Miss S. D. Griffin, September 1, 1918.
During October and November, 1918, E. E. Atkinson was
assigned by the Bureau of Markets to work on storage of sweet
potatoes, and D. G. Rawls was assigned by the Bureau of Plant
Industry as specialist in peanut harvesting.






Annual Report, 1918


FIG. 1.-Herefords on a West Florida farm
Four assistants in hog cholera educational and demonstrational
work were appointed during the year, namely, A. L. Houchin,
L. F. Peterson, H. F. Walker and J. A. Genung, all of whom re-
signed on or before July 1, 1918.

COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISES
The Extension Division has cooperated with the Department
of Agriculture during the past year thru the Bureau of Animal
Industry, Bureau of Entomology, Office of Farm Management,
Bureau of Markets, Bureau of Plant Industry, and the States
Relations Service. This cooperation provides for one or more
experts who undertake definite problems affecting the farming
interests of Florida. These specialists work in cooperation with
county agents.
The cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry in edu-
cational hog cholera work has been on the same plan as last
year. This has proven valuable to the livestock interests of
the State, and has been especially beneficial this past year,
owing to the increased number of purebred hogs in every county.
The specialists accompany the county agents to farms where
diseases exist, and if hog cholera is present, demonstrations are
given in hog cholera inoculation with serum and virus, or, if
there has been a loss of several hogs, post-mortems are held
for the benefit of the owner.
Hog cholera is better understood by farmers, and is not so






Florida Cooperative Extension


prevalent, and while this work has taken up a large share of
the county agents' time, it has been an important factor in
stimulating the hog interests.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry specialists
in beef cattle were assigned to the State. Special attention has
been given the distribution of improved breeding stock from
Texas, and during the past two years over 3000 head of these
have been bought. The agents have also caused the distribution
of many well bred animals that formerly were butchered, be-
cause of difficulty in finding a ready buyer. The specialists
are also giving close attention to feeding problems, particularly
the use of velvet beans in combination with other feeds, and
supervising and keeping of records.
A poultry specialist working cooperatively with the Bureau
of Animal Industry has given his whole time to the welfare of
poultry in Florida. His work has been principally with county
and home demonstration agents for the purpose of arousing
interest in more profitable poultry production.
Thru cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology, specialists
have been assigned to study the distribution and methods of
control of sweet potato weevils. As this insect is a destructive
one when once established, it was important to hold it in check
while confined to a few localities. Control measures have been
put into effect by the Florida State Plant Board.
The destruction caused each year by weevils in stored grains
warranted special attention, particularly during the war period.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology a specialist was
assigned to Florida, who gave his attention to the storage of
corn in cribs and to the best methods of fumigating to destroy
weevils in all stored grains.
In cooperation with the Office of Farm Management a Farm
Labor Specialist has been giving assistance in the supply of
labor to farmers, fruit growers and truckers. Thruout the
period of the war the scarcity of labor made the production of
necessary food crops uncertain; the farm labor specialist worked
in close cooperation with the state representative of the U. S.
Department of Labor, and kept in touch with labor movements
to and from various industries.
By a cooperative arrangement with the Live Stock Sanitary
Board and the Bureau of Animal Industry, county agents report
outbreaks of diseases direct to the Live Stock Sanitary Board,
Tallahassee, or their representatives in the field. Where out-






Annual Report, 1918


breaks of hog cholera occur the county agent is ready to assist
in measures that are necessary to suppress the disease. By this
means the spread of diseases can be checked before reaching
larger proportions.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Markets, a specialist was
assigned for two months during the sweet potato harvesting
season to interest farmers in the erection and management of
sweet potato storage houses. This is a continuation of the work
undertaken during 1917 to prevent the loss of sweet potatoes by
decay which occurs in banks and in usual storage methods. This
loss often amounts to 50% of the crop stored.
As with other cooperative projects, the farmers were reached
largely thru the county agents, who know which farmers have
sufficient acreage to justify the expenditure necessary for the
erection of a sweet potato house. The specialist assigned to this
was E: E. Atkinson, and frank statements made by farmers
to him indicate that they expect a loss of 25% to 50% with the
ordinary storage methods. This agent visited all the most im-
portant sweet potato growing sections in Florida, particularly
in west Florida where the largest crop is produced, and furnished
those interested with plans and specifications. He also gave
them information regarding the operation of the sweet potato
house and explained the possibility of making the sweet potato
crop more profitable if it could be held until spring, when the
bulk of the crop has been marketed.
On account of the high price of material, scarcity and high
price of labor, also difficulty in erecting buildings during the
harvesting season, no houses were erected. There was sufficient
interest manifested in these storage houses to conclude that when
building and labor conditions return to normal, the use of these
houses is likely to become general.
Where it was found unwise to recommend the storage house
because of insufficient potatoes to store, a ventilated bank was
recommended. While the sweet potato house cannot be substi-
tuted by the ventilated bank, a much larger percent is saved than
by the usual plans of banking.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry D. G.
Rawls was appointed as specialist in peanut harvesting. Spanish
peanuts have been substituted for cotton as a cash crop in many
counties, with an increased acreage in all farming sections.
County agents were visited, and thru them many farmers were
reached. The instructions were given by means of demonstra-






Florida Cooperative Extension


tions, that is, going to the field and building the form on which
to stack the vines, finishing one or more stacks and capping them
with hay.
Three hundred fifty farmers in twenty-nine counties were
visited and 156 demonstrations were given in the proper methods
of stacking. As Mr. Rawls was an experienced peanut grower,
he was able to give many valuable suggestions to the farmers
as to cultural methods.
A peanut exhibit was placed in the University of Florida tent
at the Alachua county fair to demonstrate methods of harvesting
and stacking.
MONTHLY CONFERENCES
In order to coordinate all branches of the extension work all
members of the staff meet in the director's office the third
Monday of each month to discuss plans for furthering the pro-
gress of the work. The number of state workers has been ma-
terially increased and the work in all branches has been ex-
panded, which necessitates a thoro understanding of relationships
that must exist under such organization.
War emergency projects have modified many plans in practi-
cally all branches, as food production and conservation were the
first considerations during the period of the war. Nevertheless,
it was not the policy to overlook the constructive educational
work that the Agricultural Extension Division has carried on so
successfully to this point in its period of growth.


FIG. 2.-Long staple cotton, Dade county







Annual Report, 1918


REPORT OF HOG CHOLERA WORK
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the Federal Repre-
sentative in the educational and demonstrational hog cholera
work in the State for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
A. H. LOGAN,
Veterinary Inspector in Charge.

The educational and demonstrational work in hog cholera
control was conducted on the same general plans of last year.
Farmers' institutes, county agents' meetings, special hog cholera
meetings and livestock meetings were attended and addresses
made on the care and control of diseases of livestock, particularly
hog cholera. Visits were made to infected and free farms for
purposes of observation and advice, and personal interviews
were had with farmers on cholera problems.

HOG CHOLERA LOSSES REDUCED
I am pleased to report this much dreaded disease is at.the
lowest ebb it has been since the great epidemic of 1912-13-14.
This decrease has been slow but steady and due to the use of anti-
hog cholera serum. Much credit is due the county agents, who
were the pioneers in this line of duty, for their efficient work in
inoculating against cholera.
Federal statistics show that cholera losses in the nation were
reduced from 118.9 per 1,000 head in 1914 to 42.1 per 1,000 head
in 1918, the lowest in 35 years. This reflects Florida conditions
quite correctly.
All hog cholera serum imported into the State is manufactured
in establishments under Federal inspection. All serum made
within the State is under the supervision of the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board. Hog cholera virus used simultaneously with
the serum is subject to similar control.
During the past year the cholera work in the State has been
divided into the Educational and Regulatory forces, the former
with headquarters at and cooperating with the Extension Di-
vision of the University of Florida. The latter, with head-
quarters at Tallahassee, cooperates with the State Live Stock







Florida Cooperative Extension


Sanitary Board in application of cholera preventative treatment
and sanitation of infected premises.
The Regulatory forces have divided the State into districts
with a veterinary inspector in each, whose duty is to treat all
hogs in that district for those who ask for his services.
The following report will show in detail the activity for the
year just closed.

STATISTICAL REPORT
Number of visits to counties in which work was conducted................... 229
Number of addresses made .................................................... ................ 126
(a) Number illustrated by stereopticon views............................... 50
(b) Total attendance.................................... 11,471
Number of demonstrations of preventive treatment............................... 148
(a) Where serum alone was used................................ ........ 32
(b) Where simultaneous inoculation was used.................................... 116
(c) Number of hogs treated .......................... ... ... ......... 3,664
(d) Total attendance at demonstrations.................. ................ 744
Number of visits made to farms for purpose of diagnosing hog
cholera or observing conditions and giving advice............................. 769
Number of farmers and hog raisers personally interviewed.............. 2,133
Number of persons individually instructed and placed in a position
to properly administer the serum preventive treatment....................... 92
(a) County agents .......... ...... ............. ................... 28
(b) Practicing veterinarians ................................ ............. 7
(c) Hog owners ............ .................. ......... ............ 57
My work the past year has taken me to practically every
county in the State and everywhere I find an awakened interest
in the swine industry, also a more general knowledge of hog
cholera and its prevention.

OBSERVATIONS REGARDING LOSSES
As I have viewed the swine industry of the State the past four
years, I find two factors which stand out prominently as a
source of great annoyance and loss to the farmers. These losses
thru sickness and death are caused by carelessness on the part of
the farmers, first, in not providing shelter to protect the pigs
against the cold rains and storms. Fifty percent or more of the
range pigs die every year before reaching two weeks of age.
The wildcat and buzzard get a portion, but the greatest loss is
due to exposure to cold rains and storms. What is true of the
range pigs is observed also in the other pigs, but to a lesser
degree, depending upon the care and protection provided them.
The second condition producing disease and loss is due to
turning hogs, thin in flesh or with worm infections, into peanut
fields. For a period varying from a few days to a few weeks,






Annual Report, 1918


the pigs do well and show remarkable gains, then a change
often occurs, many of the pigs getting sick at the same time and
being similarly affected. The trouble is then often mistaken for
cholera.
A practice often followed when turning hogs into peanut fields,
particularly open range hogs, is to inoculate them as a protection
against cholera. I have been called to investigate reported out-
breaks of cholera, and investigations revealed no cholera present
but conditions due to toxic trouble following peanut feeding as
above described.


FIG. 3.-Peanut booth at Alachua county fair






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF BEEF CATTLE SPECIALIST
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the agent in animal
husbandry, specializing in beef cattle work, for the six months
ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
WM. H. BLACK,
Agent in Animal Husbandry.

In entering this field I realized that my first step toward the
improvement of the beef cattle industry would be to familiarize
myself with the existing conditions thruout the State. I gave
especial attention to the pastures and forages grown and the
class of cattle found in the different sections of the State.
After traveling in several counties and being impressed by
the thousands of acres of land not under cultivation nor pastured
by livestock, it seemed apparent to me that more livestock was
needed. After making a survey of the range cattle thruout the
State, I came to the conclusion that a better grade of cattle was
much more important than increased numbers.
Better cattle, particularly bulls, were needed to be used with
the native cattle in order to grade them up.
About 1,500 head of Texas cattle were shipped into the State


FIG. 4.-Angus calves from cows purchased in Texas in 1917






Annual Report, 1918


luring the fall of 1917. The greater part of these cattle were
julls of the beef breeds, Hereford, Angus and Shorthorn. These
cattle were widely distributed thru central, northern and western
Florida.
I spent considerable time inspecting these cattle to determine
whether or not I should advise the bringing in of more of them
from the Southwest. Texas is the only state in the South that
really has a surplus.
I have been able to get definite information on 1168 head of
cattle purchased from Texas in 1917. This data shows that there
were 167 Aberdeen Angus, consisting of 11 males and 156
females. Of the females, 76 were bred before purchasing, and
62 of them had raised calves.
Of Herefords, there were 981 head, consisting of 42 bulls and
830 cows and heifers, and the remainder were calves. Of these
females 389 were bred before purchasing, and 360 had dropped
calves since coming to the State.
Of Shorthorns, there were 20 head purchased, consisting of
one male and 19 females. Of these, 18 were bred before pur-
chasing, and 17 dropped calves after arriving in Florida. The
1168 head consisted of 54 bulls, 1005 cows and heifers and 109
calves. From the 1005 cows, 483 were with calf when purchased,
and 449 raised their calves, showing a calf crop of 92%.
Up to November 1918 the reports show the loss of one bull,
20 cows and heifers and no deaths among calves that arrived
safely.
In some instances, several calves were lost in shipping, and
in a few cases some older animals died enroute. The above losses
are what actually happened in Florida and represent a loss of
1.8%.
The reports did not include those cattle that were put on the
larger ranges of southern Florida, as it was impossible to get
any definite information there. The losses would no doubt be
somewhat greater where the Texas cattle were turned out on the
range and left there indefinitely.
In general the Texas cattle have done well in Florida, es-
pecially where they have had some attention. When they have
been turned out on the range to hustle for themselves for the
entire year, they have not been so satisfactory. Feed is the im-
portant factor, and where this is provided the cattle will thrive.
The severe drought in Texas during 1918 again caused heavy
losses of range cattle. As a result of my efforts it is estimated







Florida Cooperative Extension


that 1600 of these cattle were brought into Florida. These were
not so widely distributed as in the preceding year, as only
those farmers who were raising hay, forage and feed were en-
couraged to buy.
The cattle that were brought in from Texas during 1918 con-
sisted of the following registered stock: 40 Hereford, 2 Angus,
and 6 Shorthorn bulls; 14 Hereford cows; 55 Hereford and 1
Shorthorn heifers; and 10 Hereford calves. The grade stock
consisted of 40 Hereford cows; 682 Hereford, 39 Angus, and 32
Shorthorn heifers; 250 Hereford, 125 Angus, and 100 Shorthorn
steers.
Aside from the distribution of Texas cattle, some other well
bred cattle were placed over the State, principally for breeding
purposes. These consisted of 432 registered Hereford bulls;
88 cows; 71 heifers; and 14 calves. There were 101 grade Here-
ford cows; 3 bulls; 320 heifers; 427 calves; and 220 steers.
Aberdeen Angus: 16 registered and 23 grade bulls; 19 registered
and 162 grade cows; 43 registered and 55 grade heifers; 2
registered and 16 grade calves; and 300 grade steers. Short-
horns: 21 registered and 18 grade bulls; 14 registered and 100
grade cows; 2 registered and 260 grade heifers; 16 grade calves;
and 150 grade steers.
The work carried out thru this office may be summed up as
follows:
128 Registered cattle brought in.
1269 Grade cattle brought in.
312 Registered cattle placed within the State.
2161 Grades placed within the State.
806 Letters written.
30000 Circulars mailed out.
7449 Miles traveled by rail.
3674 Miles traveled by auto.
8 Lectures given.
101 Farms visited.
75 Days spent in the office.
83 Days spent in the field.







Annual Report, 1918


REPORT OF EXTENSION POULTRY HUSBANDMAN

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the work of the exten-
sion poultry husbandman for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
N. W. SANBORN,
Extension Poultry Husbandman.

POULTRY CONDITIONS IN THE STATE
The work of the extension poultry husbandman as reported
extends from April 20 to December 31. During this time 9532
miles were traveled by rail and boat, and 1943 by auto and team;
36 lectures were given, with a total attendance of 2753; 485
letters were written and 3500 circular letters issued; 219 farms
were visited.
It has been the work of the year to increase poultry production
along the various lines. Florida needs more hens on her farms,
but with better bred stock and good care and feeds the egg
output of the State could be increased 40% with the present
number of hens.
Last spring production was normal on the farm and in the
backyard. As a rule, it was below normal on the commercial
poultry farm, few of them being able to pay the high cost of
feed necessary to run the farm under war conditions. Feed was
scarce and costly, labor hard to find and keep, and some farms
sold out every chicken and went out of business. Since early
summer there have been some changes in conditions. Prices
for live poultry have ranged higher than ever before known
in Florida, and eggs have maintained a high average price. While
grain feeds are still high in cost there is a satisfactory margin
between cost and selling price of eggs and poultry. The back-
yard flock, as well as the farm flock, is a good business venture
in Florida today. The commercial poultry farm in Florida
should be a success; that more are not a success is due to the
same reason that all folks do not make a living when they be-
come grocers, doctors or teachers.
The successful farms in Florida that are keeping layers by
the hundreds, and in a few cases by the thousands, have reached
these numbers by a slow and steady growth. No state can
raise better poultry than Florida. No state can supply the






Florida Cooperative Extension


poultry pasture of green succulent feeds more abundantly than
Florida.
POULTRY SCHOOLS
The work of the year has been largely done thru the coopera-
tion of the county and home demonstration agents. These men
and women have been real assets in the poultry work. Two
poultry schools have been held, one at Fort Lauderdale and the
other at Dade City, and except for influenza a third would have
been held at Orlando. The newspaper press of the State has
been wonderfully good in its use of the poultry material sent
out thru the Agricultural News Service of the University.
There are farms in Florida that have no chickens. There are
farms that have a dozen hens where there should be fifty. The
best market in Florida is the home table, and the farm that does
not produce a full supply of eggs and fryers is not complete.
It is the work of the extension poultry husbandman to stimu-
late larger production on the farm, that the family be better
fed, that the community get more eggs and poultry, and that
Florida at least produce her own poultry products.


FIG. 5.-Poultry exhibited by club members







Annual Report, 1918


REPORT OF STATE AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the state agent for
the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
C. K. MCQUARRIE,
State Agent.

This report indicates that the activities and the interest in
the work have been maintained even to a larger degree than
usual. The support given this work in the past has been largely
increased. Merchants, bankers, and people of the State generally
are giving it their most hearty support. This is particularly
evidenced by the assistance given by the county commissioners
and others in increasing appropriations for the purpose of get-
ting the best type of men.
County agents were called upon to help out with war activities,
such as campaigns for Liberty Loan, Red Cross, War Savings
Stamps, and Food Surveys. They were asked to assist in pro-
curing increased crop production, with the result that consider-
able increase has been obtained in most of the staple crops, in
spite of the scarcity and high price of labor.
The vegetable garden campaign was responsible for an in-
crease in home vegetable production.
In the course of the year's activities the state agent attended
128 meetings, traveled 17,582 miles by rail, and 2,751 by auto
or other conveyance, and also visited 21 schools and made talks
to the pupils.
On December 31, there were 42 counties with full-time men,
seven counties with four-day men, and five counties having
assistant agents. In the negro work, eleven counties had assist-
ant agents in the Farm Makers' clubs, and worked for five and
a half months.
The following resume of some of the most important work is
.submitted.
CROPS
COTTON
The acreage planted to cotton was below that of the previous
year, the damage by boll weevil causing a material reduction
in the total yield. The dry weather of spring and early autumn
also reduced the yield. A number of farmers in middle and south







Florida Cooperative Extension


Florida grew some cotton experimentally with varying results.
About 15,000 acres were grown in new territory. The most of
this was long staple. In the long staple counties more short than
long staple cotton will be planted next year.
CORN
Dry weather during the growing season reduced the corn
yield fifty percent in some counties of northern and western
Florida. Nevertheless there was an increase of 2,080,000
bushels of corn produced in the State over the previous year.
PEANUTS
The peanut crop has become a very important one, and is
destined to become more so to supply the oil mills and for live-
stock feeding. We believe there was an increase of at least two
hundred percent of the Spanish variety over any previous year.
Mr. D. G. Rawls was employed for two months as peanut
specialist, to instruct in the best methods of harvesting and
stacking Spanish peanuts.
SWEET POTATOES
The acreage planted to sweet potatoes was reduced, resulting
in a smaller crop. The quality and price was above the average,
and the farmers generally have been well pleased with the results
obtained.
Considerable interest was manifested in the erection of sweet
potato storage houses. The agents were instructed to impress
on the minds of the farmers the necessity of adequate sweet
potato storage so that the crop could be taken care of without
the usual heavy loss that occurs between harvesting time and
spring. On account of the high cost of all building material no
storage houses were built, but more farmers stored their crops
in properly constructed ventilated banks.
SMALL GRAIN
Due to the prevalence of dry weather the acreage planted to
oats and rye was reduced. While in many fields the stand was
irregular, on account of poor seed, some good yields of grain were
produced. Most of the crop was cut for hay or pastured.
SUGAR CANE
The sugar cane yield was somewhat of a disappointment for
several reasons. Infestation of root-knot interfered considerably
with the yield in the most important cane section, and in other







Annual Report, 1918


sections the prolonged dry weather cut the crop short. However,
most of the cane grown in the State is made into syrup and as
the price was higher than usual, the crop was quite profitable.
VELVET BEANS
This crop has become a very important one in all sections of
the State, and the acreage planted is on the increase. The dairy
farmers in particular are planting more velvet beans for fall and
winter feeding.
DASHEENS
On the flatwoods lands, dasheens is becoming an important
crop for hog feeding. On soils that are suitable to its produc-
tion, a number of farmers report larger yields than from any
other root crops.
TRUCK CROPS
The work done by county agents in truck crops has been largely
confined to the control of insect and disease pests. Several car-
loads of nitrate of soda sold by the government to truckers was
distributed by county agents. This took much time, as the
agents secured the orders, arranged for the payments, and dis-
tributed the nitrate from the cars.

ASSISTANT AGENTS
The appointment of assistants to the county agents has made it
possible to take care of the extra work that the county agents
were called upon to do during the period of the war. The
assistants were assigned counties where their services could be
of the greatest value for increased food production, and were
paid entirely from Government funds appropriated for that pur-
pose. They were selected with a view of giving them such train-
ing as would qualify them for county agents should vacancies
occur where they would fit in.

MEETINGS
The state agent and assistants have been called upon to attend
and deliver lectures at a great many meetings.
At the Farmers' Ten-day Short Course held at the University
addresses were made at different times.
Lectures were given to the colored agents at their short course
held at the A. & M. College for Negroes.
The Home Demonstration short course held at Tallahassee was
attended, and we assisted in the program.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Citrus Seminar and Live Stock Round-Up was held in
Gainesville September 24-27, and the extension workers took an
active part. This was one of the most successful meetings of
its kind that has ever been held on the campus. A tractor dem-
onstration was a main feature of the meeting, when six tractors
were put into operation.
FAIRS
During 1918 two State Fairs were held in Jacksonville, the first
in February, the other in December. The county agent staff
gave their unstinted support to these. County exhibits were
made at both fairs.
I attended county fairs in Lake, Manatee, Orange, Lee and
Jackson counties during the year. The general farm and live
stock exhibits in some instances were not up to their usual mark.
In Orange and Lee the fruit, vegetable, and poultry exhibits
were better than usual.

FOOD PRODUCTION CAMPAIGN
An increased food production campaign was conducted be-
tween April 1 and 6 under the combined auspices of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture and the Extension Division of the
University of Florida. Mr. Clarendon Davis, Huntsville, Ala.,
was selected by Dr. Bradford Knapp to help in this. Meetings
were conducted in Orlando, Tampa, Leesburg, Ocala, Gainesville,
Live Oak, and Marianna, and were well attended by farmers and
business men.
Several meetings have been held in every county at different
times during the year to stimulate food production. The county
agents have been promoting this work to a large degree with
gratifying results.
Two important meetings of Directors and State Agents of the
Southern States were held during the year, at Memphis, Tenn.,
May 16 to 17, and at Nashville, Tenn., October 7 to 8. The pur-
pose of these meetings was to formulate and perfect plans and
policies governing Extension work in the fifteen southern states.

AGENTS' MEETINGS
The annual meeting of the county agents was held in Gaines-
ville, September 30 to October 5. Plans for the year's work were
discussed by county agents and members of the staff. Lectures
by the Agricultural teachers and others, were given daily. In-







Annual Report, 1918


fluenza cut the meeting short one day. For the benefit of the
county agents demonstrations in tractors were given by tractor
companies.
Six group meetings were held in March. In the western
part of the State, at Marianna, Chipley and Bonifay; in the
southern part, at Vero, West Palm Beach and Miami. These
meetings. were beneficial, as they enabled the men to get direct
information from the most successful farmers in the respective
counties visited.
In the western and northern part of the State the agents visited
the best livestock and staple crop farms. Volusia and Marion
were the most southern counties represented by agents at the
northern meetings. In the southern part the agents visited
the most important truck farms and citrus groves. The truck
farms along the Palm Beach Canal on Lake Okeechobee were of
special interest.
ORGANIZATION
The organization of the farmers and truckers has been stressed
during the year by all county agents. Success along this line has
not been all that was desired.
In some of the counties, however, gratifying results have
been secured, and there is a greater tendency toward organiza-
tion in most counties. The peanut growers formed an organiza-
tion for the advancement of the industry.

LIVESTOCK
The livestock side of the agents' activities has been stressed
to a large degree. This has been more particularly along the line
of growing feeds necessary for the maintenance of livestock and
the cutting of hay at the right time and curing it in the proper
.way.
Some counties have been able to show an increase in dairying.
This was especially true of Leon where during the summer, 1000
gallons of milk were shipped from Tallahassee daily. Orange
county has made considerable progress in dairying by the pur-
chase of dairy cattle and providing pasturage and feeds.
The dipping vat propaganda has been conducted with the
usual vim. On November 5, 1918, nineteen counties voted for
compulsory dipping. County agents have been prominent in







Florida Cooperative Extension


creating and promoting a strong favorable sentiment along this
line.
The hog population of the State has increased materially dur-
ing the year. Mr. Highfill reports an increase of 58.54% in
purebred hogs in 27 counties during 1918. County agents have
done a large amount of work in hog cholera inoculation, lending
all the assistance possible to the representatives of the Live
Stock Sanitary Board. Both forces have been working together
harmoniously with good results.
The number of silos has been materially increased, particularly
where dairying has been stimulated. Many others have been
deferred by the scarcity of labor and the high cost of material.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Number of visits made by county agents........................................... 38971
Number of miles traveled..............................................240286
Calls on agents relative to work ................................ ...................... 27903
Number of farmers' meetings held............................................................ 781
Number of meetings addressed..................................................... 1187
Total attendance.............................. .. .... .... ..... ... 70603
Number of field meetings held by agents........................ ........ 450
Total attendance at these meetings.............................. .......................... 7854
Percentage of time spent in office work........................................................ 22
Percentage of time spent in field work.......................................................... 78
Number of official letters written........................... .... .......... 23582
Number of articles prepared for publication............................. ........ 1390
Number of circular letters issued.................................... .... 13783
Number of bulletins of U. S. D. A. distributed.................. .. 40374
Number of bulletins or circulars from State sources distributed.......... 14920
Number of visits to schools ...................................................... 878
Number of schools assisted in outlining agricultural course................... 107
Number of short courses assisted in................................................... 12
Total attendance........................... .............. ..................... 889
ORGANIZATIONS
Number of farmers' clubs agents have assisted in organizing.................... 109
Total membership of these clubs................................... .......................... 3363
MISCELLANEOUS
Number of farmers attending short courses at college as result of
agents' efforts ........................................ ..... ............... ............ 72
Number of boys attending agricultural or other schools or colleges
as result of club w ork............................................................... ........... 117
Number of girls attending industrial or other schools as result of girls'
club w ork ................................................................................................. 27
Number of times visited by specialists from College or the Department 846
Number of demonstrators, cooperators and club members making ex-
hibits .......................................................................... ....... .............. .. 265
Num ber of prizes won............................................................ .... ............ 189
Number of demonstrations in truck or small fruit................................... 69
Number of farmers keeping cost records at agents' instance...... .......... 392
Number of farmers practicing fall plowing as result of county agents'
work ...................... ............ .. .... .. .............................1887







Annual Report, 1918 35

FARM AND FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENTS
N um ber of buildings erected.......................................... ......................... 105
Number of farm buildings improved .............................. ........ ... 130
Number of new building plans furnished................................................ 38
Number of farm buildings painted or whitewashed .................................. 61
Number of home water systems installed or improved............................ 46
Number of water systems in State before demonstration work was
started ..................................... ............ .. .. ............................ 28
Number in the State now .................................... 124
Number of home lighting systems installed.......... .......................... 44
Number of lighting systems in the State before demonstration work
was started ................................................................ 46
Number of home grounds improved............................................. ......... 219
Number of farm and home sanitary conditions improved........................ 339
Number of homes screened against flies and mosquitoes........................... 282
Number of sanitary privies erected............................... .......................... 64
Number of telephone systems installed................................................. 125
Number of farmers induced to adopt a systematic rotation............ 689
Total acreage ...... ............................. .. ...... .. ..... 9385
Number of new pastures -established.......................... .... .............. 340
Number of old pastures renovated............................... .... 142
Acreage comprised ............................ ........ .. ........ ..... 658
Number of drainage systems established......................... .................. 219
Number of farmers induced to drain their lands............................ 123
Total acreage drained:
By tile............................. ...................................... ..... ...................... 577
By ditch............................................................. .............. ................ ... 4988
Number of farmers who removed stumps................................................. 1199
Total acreage stumped..... ..................................................... ..........12625
Number of farmers induced to terrace sloping land............................. 10
Total acreage terraced.................................................................................. 578
Number of home gardens planted ....................... ................... 7159
Number of farmers saving surplus farm products for winter use.......... 2885
Number of farmers turning under cover crops.................................... 2430
Total acreage....... ..................... .. ................ ..... ..................12269
Number of new implements and tools bought....................................... 1717

DEMONSTRATIONS AND COOPERATION
CORN
Number of demonstrators................................ 584
Number of demonstrators reporting................................ 258
Total acreage grown under improved methods...................... ........... 3542
Average yield per acre, in bushels........................................................... 21
Number of cooperators....... ................................... ...... .................... 740
Total acreage grown by cooperators...................... .......................10629
Number planting selected seed.......................... .... .... ............... .347
Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres............................ 295
Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres.... 243
Number of acres harvested for silage............................................ 2755
Number of acres "hogged down".......................... ...................................... 2765
Number of acres treated for diseases or insect pests.............................. 961
Number of farmers using better methods in growing corn this year.... 1724
Number of farmers so influenced since county agent work was started.. 7021
COTTON
Number of demonstrators........................... ........ 215
Number of demonstrators reporting............... ........................... 71
Total acreage grown under improved methods.......................... ...........1324
Average yield seed cotton per acre, pounds.............................................. 615
Number of cooperators................... ..... .......................... ............... 91
Total acreage grown by cooperators..................................................................1301








36 Florida Cooperative Extension

Number of demonstrators who planted selected seed............................... 115
Number of farmers field selecting seed for next year's crop ....................... 129
Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres...................................... 97
Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres........ 19
Number of acres treated for diseases or insect pests..........................-........ 562
Number of farmers using better cultural methods..................................... 349
OATS
Number of demonstrators..........------....-..-....-........ 52
Number of demonstrators reporting---- ---.................. ............. 25
Total acreage grown under improved methods....-....................... ........ 651
Number of cooperators........................................ 163
Total acreage grown by cooperators.................. ... ......--....... 1620
Number of acres thrashed for grain........................ ........ ....... 248
Number of acres cut for hay..........................------------- 565
N um ber of acres grazed off........................................................................... 2814
Estim ated value per acre.................................................. ....................... $ 10.00
Number of acres turned under for soil improvement................................ 945
Number of bushels of seed treated for smut and rust............................ 137
Number of farmers planting oats for the first time-----------................................... 348
RYE
Number of demonstrators...................... ............................. 35
Number of demonstrators reporting....................... .... .............. 20
Total acreage grown under improved methods- ---.................................. 371
Number of cooperators..... --.... ----------............---.......... 71
Total acreage grown by cooperators......- --------------.......................... 460
Number of demonstration acres thrashed for grain.................................. 190
Number of demonstration acres cut for hay............................................ 15
Number of acres grazed off......... ...............---------.............. .. ................... 1341
Estimated value, per acre-................-------------.................. $ 7.00
Number of acres turned under -------..................... .............. ............................. 774
Number of farmers planting rye for the first time...............................---..... 165
Note: Rye is grown almost entirely for a winter cover or pasture crop.
VELVET BEANS
Number of demonstrators...... .............. .......... .. ......... 68
Number of demonstrators reporting.............................. ...... ......... 51
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods................................. 1233,
N um ber of cooperators............................................... ... ..... ........... 172
Total acreage grown by cooperators........................... ....................... 881
Total acreage hulled for seed....................................................... 168
Total acreage cut for hay................................ ...................... 12
Number of acres grazed off.............. --- ---- ------.................... ... 1584
Estimated value per acre of grazing................................. ........ .......... ...$ 30.00
Estimated acreage planted in the State thru the county agents' in-
fluence ....................................................................................................... 524
SPercentage increase in acreage of velvet beans as result of county
agents' influence: First year, 10%; second year, 10%; third year,
10%; fourth year, 10%; fifth year, 15%.
PEANUTS
Number of demonstrators.......................... ................... ..... 150
Number of demonstrators reporting............................. ............ 104
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods................................. 2729
Average yield seed per acre, bushels......................-------..... 35
Average yield hay per acre, tons..........-...................... ------- 1
Number of cooperators...--- -------- --......................--- ................... 262
Total acreage grown by cooperators.......................------------- .. 1751
Total acreage picked for seed..................--..... ----.. ................... 3054
Total acreage cut for hay.......................... -------.............. 2623
Number of acres grazed off.......----............-...- ----. -- ..--- 529
Estimated value per acre of grazing..................... ......................$ 25.00








Annual Report, 1918 37


Total number of acres inoculated............................. .. ..... 407
Estimated acreage planted in the State thru the county agents' in-
fluence .................. .......... ............- ..- .. .. ... 10756
Percentage increase in acreage of peanuts as a result of county
Agents' influence: First year, 10%; second year, 15%; third year,
25%; fourth year, 40%.
COWPEAS
Number of demonstrators................................ ............ 66
Number of demonstrators reporting............. .... ................. 34
Total acreage grown on demonstration farms................................... 1377
N um ber of cooperators............................. .............. .......................... 92
Total acreage grown by cooperators.........................................752
Total acreage thrashed for seed................. .............. ............. 41
Total acreage cut for hay................................. ............. 1893
Number of acres grazed off.............................. ... ................. 206
Acreage turned under for soil improvement.......................... ........-...: 171
Total number of acres inoculated........................................ ............. 139
Estimated acreage planted thru the county agents' influence..................1159
Percentage increase in acreage of cowpeas as a result of county agents'
influence: First year, 10%; second year, 15%; third year, 15%;
fourth year, 15%; fifth year, 22%.
SWEET POTATOES
Number of demonstrators-................. ...................... ..... 26
Number of demonstrators reporting...................................................... 8
Total acreage grown by demonstrators........................................ 49
Acreage treated for diseases and pests...................... ........... ........ 53
Estimated increased acreage.................... ....... ............ .......410
IRISH POTATOES
Number of demonstrators...................................... 57
Number of demonstrators reporting......... ............... ...... ......................... 47
Total acreage grown by demonstrators............... .......................:......... 541
Acreage treated for diseases and pests.................... ............ ................... 1211
Estimated increased acreage...................................... ................1000
FRUITS

Number of demonstration groves ............... .... ............ ...... 164
Total number of trees in these demonstrations..................................131665
Groves inspected ....................................... 1259; number of trees 400185
Groves pruned .................. ................. ...... 302; number of trees 135424
Groves sprayed ..................... ..................... 436; number of trees 120749
Groves planted ......... ......................... 29; number of trees 13649

Totals .......................... ...............2026 670007
Number of other groves where agents gave assistance.......................... 860
DAIRY CATTLE

Number of purebred dairy cattle introduced thru county agents' in-
fluence:
Bulls .......................- .... .... .................... 52
Cows or heifers ......................... .... ..... ............ 552
Number of cows tested for production.......................... .. 655
Number of farmers induced to feed balanced rations---............................. 307
Number of cattle fed.............................................. .... ................ 561
Number of demonstrations in dairy work supervised................................ 3
Number of cows in these demonstrations...................... .................. 8
Number of purebred dairy cows when county agent work was started....1326
Number of purebred dairy cows now.............. ...... ........................2550








38 Florida Cooperative Extension

BEEF CATTLE
Number of pure blood beef cattle bought thru county agents' influence:
B ulls .................................................... ................................................ .. 165
Cow s or heifers ............................................................................................ 879
Number of grade cows introduced for breeding purposes........................ 342
Number of beef breeding herds started............................................................ 32
Number of feeding cattle introduced........................................................... 225
Number of beef feeding demonstrations........................................................ 8
Num ber of cattle fed ............................................ ... ....................... 251
Estimated number of beef cattle handled according to methods advocated
by county agents............................................................ .............................3338
Number of beef cattle breeders' associations formed...............................-.. 4
N um ber of m em bers.. ......... ............ .................................... .................... 133

HOGS
Purebred hogs brought into the State this year due to county agents'
influence:
B oars ................................................. ....... ................ .................... 652
S Sow s or gilts................................ .................... ..................................... 1446
Extra head of purebred and grade sows bred............................................. 4049
Number of hog feeding demonstrations supervised by agents.................. 320
Number of hogs.......................................... .... .................................... 1710
Number of hog pastures started.....................----..............---. .......-- .. 668
Number of farmers induced to grow grazing crops for hogs.................. 1399
Estimated number of hogs cared for according to methods advocated by
county agents ..... ................................................................. .................15154

POULTRY
Number of poultry demonstrations supervised........................................... 14
Number of poultry cared for according to methods advocated by
agents ......................................................................................................... 7283
- Number of farms on which poultry management has been improved...-. 243
Number of birds on these farms......................................................................12625
Number of eggs produced ............................................................................... 6440
A average price, dozen ............................................ ...... ................................ $ .35

LIVESTOCK DISEASES AND PESTS
Number of head of livestock extension workers have induced farmers
to have treated for diseases or pests:
C battle ................................. ............................ ......................... ............... 153420
H ogs ................................... ....... -------............ .... ..................129695
H horses ...................................... .. ..... .. .. ...... ..... ............ 737

FERTILIZER
Number of farmers advised regarding proper use of fertilizers................3801
Number of fertilizer demonstrations............ .......... ............................... 185
Tons of fertilizer used.............................. ............... ........... ....... .............. 450
Number of communities buying fertilizers cooperatively-------......................... 78
Number of farmers home-mixing fertilizers..... ...................----- ...--- 192
Number of farmers who top-dressed crops with fertilizers................... .....' 605
MANURE
Number of farmers induced to take better care of manure................... 1036
Number that provided sheds-......................-.. .....------ .. --- 162
Number composting farm manure............................................................. 963
Number of manure spreaders purchased by demonstrators............ 104
Number of farmers mixing raw phosphates with farm manure............ 1719
Estimated quantity of farm manure saved, tons........................................117141







Annual Report, 1918


SILOS
Number of silos built in the State this year........................................ 244
Number built as result of county agents' advice............................................ 131
Number in State when county agents' work was started.............................. 64
Number of silos in the State now..................................................... ............548
Tile, 7; cement, 40; stave, 94; stone, 15; other material, 392.

LIME
Number of farmers using lime due to county agents' influence.............. 306
Quantity of lime used, in tons....................................................................1023
N um ber of acres lim ed.................................................................. ....................2686

NEGRO WORK
The negro work has been conducted on the same plan as
formerly, but was enlarged to meet the demand for increased
food production and conservation. The most important work
was carried out by the Farm Makers and Home Makers' clubs,
where negro boys and girls are taught crop and live stock pro-
duction, canning and gardening.
Much time was given negro farmers to assist them in a greater
production of farm crops, hogs, and poultry. Assistant club
agents were assigned to counties and were paid entirely from
the State or Government funds. Practically all the assistants
equipped themselves with necessary conveyances for traveling
in the county. These clubs are under the direct supervision of
A. A. Turner, manager, Farm and Home Makers' clubs, who
reports to the boys' club agent for Farm Makers' clubs, and
the state home demonstration agent for the work in Home
Makers' clubs. The club work has made creditable progress, and
some excellent displays were exhibited at various fairs.
A summary of the report of the Farm Makers' club and of
the Home Makers' club, submitted by A. A. Turner, manager
club agent, is as follows:

FARM MAKERS' CLUBS
During the year twelve assistants were assigned to twelve
counties.for an average period of five months; also seventeen
women assistants worked in seventeen counties for a period of
six months on the average. The work of these agents was pri-
marily with boys and girls, yet in the production and conserva-
tion of food, feed and forage, much work was done for the men
and the women as well.






Florida Cooperative Extension


There were 849 boys enrolled, of which 384 reported; also
1273 girls, of which 598 reported. Many reports were not
available at the close of the season, due to the epidemic of
influenza. Also, there were no agents in the field at the close
of the crop season.
The Farm Makers' clubs produced 17,280 bushels of corn,
peanuts and potatoes at an average cost of 44 cents per bushel.
The highest yield of corn produced was 831/2 bushels; peanuts,
28 bushels; sweet potatoes, 92 bushels per acre.

HOME MAKERS' CLUBS
The report of the Home Makers' clubs shows that these clubs
filled 107,100 containers with fruits and vegetables, valued at
$12,852. This was put up at a cost of $6,961.50, leaving a margin
of $5,890.50. The largest item of expense was for containers.
The club members and their parents purchased over $5000 worth
of containers for putting up surplus fruits and vegetables.
In counties where only one agent was assigned an attempt was
made to do some of the work usually done by both, so the negro
boys and girls received some training in every county in which
there was an agent assigned.
The negro club work received recognition from county fairs,
boards of trade, and banks by contributions of $245. This was
awarded in prizes and in scholarships to the annual short course
held at the Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes,
Tallahassee. The State Agent for home demonstration work
contributed 8000 labels, and a coop of purebred chickens was
donated by the A. and M. College.
Those competing for prizes were required to submit essays
entitled "How I Made My Crop".
The annual short course for colored boys and girls was held,
with an attendance of eleven boys and fifteen girls. Some of
these paid their own expenses, and the others received scholar-
ships.
The year's work has been modified to some extent by the war
activities, nevertheless the results produced show substantial
progress. As the work becomes better organized it can be en-
larged in various ways. The following statistical reports show
the accomplishments of these clubs:







Annual Report, 1918 41

TABLE SHOWING RESULTS OF FARM MAKERS' CLUBS
IN 14 COUNTIES
Num ber enrolled..................... .................................... 849
Number reporting.................. .......................... .... ......... 384
Clubs organized ....... ........ .......... .............................. 105
Plots supervised ........---....-- ..........---........ .......... 784
Bushels corn raised .... ..................... .... .................. 5760
Bushels peanuts raised............................ ........ .................. 2688
Bushels potatoes raised............... ..... ....... ........... ........... 8832
Pigs kept ...... ....... ...---------- ...... .. --- ..................... 105
Months worked (average) .............. .............................. 5
Letters written ........... .............................. ............. 1993
Members visited............ ...... ................. 1818
Demonstrators visited........................ ................ 895
Schools and clubs visited................................ ................ 542
Meetings held................................................... 404
Total attendance............................... ............... ..................... 15044
Total miles traveled.. .... ............ ........................21847

WORK ACCOMPLISHED BY THE HOME MAKERS' CLUBS
IN 18 COUNTIES
Number enrolled .... ...... ........... ...... .................... 1273
Num ber reporting.... .......... .......... ........................... ................ 598
Clubs organized... .... .................-. ..................... 145
Plots supervised ........... ......... ................... 1182
Containers filled -........ ... ..............----..-...... 107100
Months worked (average) .................. ....................... 6
Letters written ............ .............. ............ 3778
Members visited --.......-...... ......-................ 2281
Plots visited... ............................ ..... ...1653
Schools or clubs visited... ............................... 982
Meetings held......... ...................... ............. 744
Total attendance......................-- ....--....... ........ 19615
Individual canners bought........... ...... ..................... 442
Total miles traveled by agents--................... ...... .......... 16359


P!!SV


FIG. 6.-Demonstration with tractor plow at county agents' meeting







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH
AND EAST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for
North and East Florida for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
E. W. JENKINS,
District Agent.

During the year I traveled by rail 10,194 miles and by auto-
mobile 2,972, making a total of 13,166 miles; 107 official visits
have been made to the county agents, and 58 farmers' meetings
have been attended. At these meetings there was a total at-
tendance of 2,517. Accompanied by the county agent, 138
farmers were visited. From these farms I was able to see the
average conditions and to give the greatest assistance to the
county agents.
The general interest in the work is shown by the county ap-
propriations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919, which is
$15,100 as compared with $12,300 for the year ending June
30, 1918.
ORGANIZATION
Organization has been a special feature of the county work
for the last two years. Practically every county in the district
has one or more. Several plans are used to form these organiza-
tions, but the most effective one has been for the county agent to
meet the commissioners' court and have each commissioner ap-
point a man in his respective district. These five men constitute
a county agricultural committee. Each man, with the help of
the county agent, appoints in his respective district four other
men who compose a district agricultural committee. Each dis-
trict committee assists the county agent in planning and carry-
ing out the work.
Owing to the fact that a great portion of their time is required
to further crop production, food conservation, and food surveys,
the organization work has been of more than usual benefit to
the county agents.
CORN
The acreage planted to corn was greatly increased. In some
sections of the district the lack of rain reduced the yield to







Annual Report, 1918


some extent. In these sections the demonstration fields suffered
very little, thus showing the value of proper methods of soil
preparation, fertilization, and cultivation.
A good many of the counties are not only making sufficient corn
for home use, but are shipping it by the carload to outside
markets. Reports from 181 demonstrators in 13 counties show
an average yield of 38.35 bushels per acre on their demonstra-
tions.
Elevators and storage houses have been erected in Gainesville,
Jacksonville, and Ocala, to assist in preparing the corn for
market. In other places much corn has been loaded on cars and
shipped to other points. The county agents have done much work
in showing farmers how to build cribs and treat their corn to
kill the weevils.
COTTON
The acreage planted to cotton was decreased in the counties
of the northern portion of the district. The counties in the
southern part of the district increased their acreage of cotton,
and some of these counties more than doubled that of 1917.
Every county in the district was heavily infested with boll
weevils. An effort was made to induce farmers to adopt the
proper method of cultivation under boll weevil conditions.
Owing to the late summer rains and also to the fact that Sea
Island cotton was planted, it being a late-maturing variety, the
loss was exceedingly heavy.

VELVET BEANS
Realizing the necessity of soil improvement and also the im-
portance of growing an abundance of feed for the increased
number of livestock on almost every farm in the district, an
effort was made by the county agents to induce the, farmers to
plant a large acreage of velvet beans. The results were very
gratifying. Velvet beans were planted in almost every corn
field.
In a number of places feed mills have been installed for the
purpose of making feed of velvet beans, corn, and other products.
Mixtures of velvet beans and corn ground together make an
excellent feed for horses and cattle. This feed finds a ready
market. Large quantities of beans are fed whole in the pods,
either dry or soaked. This bean is coming to be a staple article,
both as a feed for livestock and as a soil improver.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PEANUTS
The counties which have reduced their cotton acreage on ac-
count of the boll weevil have in most cases replaced this acreage
with peanuts. The peanuts are grown both for hogs and for
commercial purposes. Peanuts for hogs have been grown thru-
out the district for a long time. They have proven a profitable
crop when fed to hogs with other suitable feed.
When grown for commercial purposes the Spanish variety
which yields a large percentage of oil is usually planted. The
acreage of this variety was very large and the yield fairly good-
The indications are that cotton farming will be largely replaced
by peanuts.
Only one peanut oil mill was built in the district and the indi-
cations are that other mills will be needed to take care of the
crops produced.
HOGS
The county agents foster the production of more and better
hogs and the need of such work is evident. As a result of the
efforts of the county agents along this line the farmers have not
only produced pork to supply their homes, but hundreds of cars
of hogs have been shipped to the packing houses.
The work has developed so rapidly that the local packing
houses have been forced to increase their capacity. Other in-
creases will be necessary or the farmers will have to ship to out-
side markets.
Many farmers are shipping in carload lots. In some sections
where an individual farmer does not have enough hogs to make
a carload the county agents assist in working up a cooperative
shipment. Where a community is organized it is an easy matter
to arrange for cooperative shipping.
A great many purebred hogs have been brought into the
district thr'u the influence of the county agent:
Realizing the importance of having good pastures for hogs,
the agents have made a special effort along this line of work,
and 394 farmers have been influenced to put in pastures of oats,
rye, and rape for winter and early spring grazing.
Much effort has been spent in keeping cholera and other
diseases out of herds of hogs. The agents of the district have
given the simultaneous treatment to more than 17,000 head of
hogs. They have advised worm treatment for more than 5,000,
and treatment for 16,000 head with other diseases.






Annual Report, 1918


FIG. 7.-Banked sweet potatoes


CATTLE
The cattle industry has not been neglected. Carloads of pure
bred or grade cattle have been shipped into the district for
breeding purposes. All agents have stressed the importance of
better pastures and more feed for cattle.
While the cost of cement and labor kept many silos from being
built, the number was increased over 20 percent.
As a means of improving the cattle, the demonstration agents
are working with other forces in the educational campaign,
leading to the eradication of the cattle tick. This work has
consisted in pointing out and explaining the loss caused by the
tick, also in giving aid in the construction of dipping vats. Most
of the dipping vats constructed under agents' supervision this
year are community vats. By means of these vats some of the
most effective tick eradication educational work is accomplished.
The cattle owners in a community, or within a radius of a few
miles, join in constructing a central vat, each one contributing
either money or labor. Such citizens thus feel that the vat
belongs to them; they use it freely and take pride in telling others
of the merits of dipping cattle.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT FOR WEST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I herewith submit a report of the emergency district
agent for West Florida for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
S. W. HIATT,
Emergency District Agent.

The farmers' cooperative demonstration work in the Western
District, comprising eighteen counties west of the Suwannee
River, has been divided into two classes; the regular or full
time agent work where the counties cooperate financially, and
the Emergency work where the agent is employed only four days
a week.
Three counties, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, and LaFayette, were
in the emergency group. The work of the emergency agents
in these counties proved so efficient that at the end of the fiscal
year, each board of county commisisoners voted a substantial
appropriation to employ a county agent.
Assistant agents were supplied in Holmes and Jackson from
March until July, and again in October. Madison county was
supplied with an assistant in November.
In October, Bay county dropped out of the work, and the
counties of Wakulla and Walton were transferred from the
regular to the emergency basis on account of the failure of the
county commissioners to make appropriations in support of
the work.
The county agents have been required to modify their regular
plan of work in order to make the Food Surveys, handle the
distribution of nitrate of soda to farmers, and aid in Liberty
Loan, War Savings Stamps, and Red Cross campaigns.
Nine county agents reporting show 1526 visits to demonstra-
tors, 945 to cooperators, 3203 to other farmers, 1175 consulta-
tions with business men, 2552 visits to club members. The num-
ber of miles travelled in connection with their work is 76,838;
5850 consultations in office, 225 farmers' meetings held, with a
total attendance of 19,036. These agents report 104 field meet-
ings, with a total attendance of 3436; 7811 letters written; 303
articles written for publication; and the distribution of 15,783
circulars and bulletins.
Evidence of the appreciation and value of the county agent







Annual Report, 1918


work has been shown by the increased appropriation from the
thirteen counties now cooperating. These counties have appro-
priated $14,780 as against $10,790 from the fourteen counties
last year.
Since January 1, 1918, I have made 150 official visits to county
agents, attended 95 meetings, with a total attendance of 9203.
I have travelled 18,397 miles by rail, 4729 by auto, making a
total of 23,126 miles. Owing to the increased demand for the
services of the county agent, plans to more thoroly systematize
the work have been put in operation, with splendid results.
Especial attention has been given to the increased production of
feed and livestock.
Demonstrations in general farm crops have not been given the
usual attention on account of war work.

ORGANIZATIONS
In nearly every county there now exists some form of organiza-
tion cooperating with and assisting the agent in carrying on at
least a portion of his work. Some organizations are composed
of a central county agricultural committee made up of repre-
sentatives from each precinct or school district in the county.
Others are more local and consist of community farmers' organi-
zations.
The farmers have been able to save much money by cooperat-
ing in buying and selling fertilizers, farm products and live-
stock. The farmers of Gadsden county saved $31,120 by co-
operating in the buying and selling of fertilizers and syrup.
Holmes county farmers saved $12,000 thru the cooperative
buying and selling of fertilizer, seed, farm products, and live-
stock. Cooperative shipments of over 20 cars of hogs were
made from a few centers.

CORN AND COTTON
The corn crop was cut very short by a severe drought, extend-
ing from May until July.
The dry weather of early summer retarded the depredations of
the boll weevil, and a fairly good yield of short staple cotton was
produced. Demonstrations in Santa Rosa and Washington
counties show an increase of 800 pounds of seed cotton per acre
over ordinary methods of culture under boll weevil conditions.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PEANUTS
This is one of the most important crops grown in this district,
both as a cash crop and for the economical production of live-
stock. Before the planting season a systematic campaign was
put on to increase the acreage. At the same time the county
agent was encouraging the planting of peanuts he was endeavor-
ing to secure a sufficient acreage in each community to warrant
the purchase of a picker. The result of this campaign was an
increase of approximately 60,000 acres of peanuts, having a
market value of $285,000, also the establishment of two oil
mills.
The production of peanuts as a market crop was a new venture
to farmers in a large portion of the territory, and naturally some
disappointments resulted, but as a whole the crop has been
profitable. Especially is this true where instructions regarding
the planting, cultivation and harvesting of the crop were closely
followed.
FEED AND FORAGE
Looking to the development of the livestock industry in this
district, special interest was taken in the increased production
of feed and forage, velvet beans and cowpeas taking the lead in
legume crops. The planting of sorghum for syrup and forage
was materially increased. A campaign for increased cover crops
of oats and rye to be used as winter pasture met with good
results.
IRISH POTATOES
In Jackson, Washington, Holmes, Walton and Escambia coun-
ties, valuable assistance was rendered growers in caring for
and marketing of this crop. In most of these counties the com-
mercial growing of Irish potatoes was a new venture, and while
the low market nearly brought disaster to the grower, it was
demonstrated that under normal conditions the crop in this
section would prove profitable.

BEEF CATTLE
Increased interest is being taken in the production of beef
cattle. Large numbers of range cattle are being fed out in
velvet bean pastures, and several car loads of good grade and
full blood cattle have been brought in from Texas, and placed







Annual Report, 1918


on farms. There has been an increasing demand for high grade
and full blood bulls thruout the entire district.

DAIRY CATTLE
Interest in dairy cattle is increasing rapidly in some counties.
Leon county takes the lead in this direction;. 96 farmers are
now supplying a milk depot with milk. Approximately 200 un-
derground silos were put in this year, making a total of 350 for
the county.
The dairy cattle are being rapidly improved by the use of
good bulls. The county agent has been active in assisting the
dairymen, and largely due to his influence the price of milk has
been raised from 25 to 321/2 cents per gallon, f. o. b. the station.
Madison and Jefferson counties are also making good progress
in dairying.
HOGS
By far the most rapid development in livestock has been made
in the production of hogs, both in numbers and quality, and also
in sanitation and care of the herd. The county agents are
directly responsible for the placing of over 1000 head of regis-
tered hogs on farms in the district. They have assisted in the
establishment of over 800 hog pastures and are constantly being
called upon by farmers for advice regarding the planting of ro-
tation crops for grazing purposes.
A number of breeding herds of the leading breeds have been
established and it is now possible for farmers to purchase animals
of excellent quality at nearby points.

HOG CHOLERA
A great service has been rendered the hog raisers by the
agents thru their efforts to control hog cholera by the proper
use of serum and virus. Immunization of herds is now the rule
and not the exception. In some counties the agents have been
greatly relieved of this work by men working under the direction
of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. But in other counties
this work still takes up a large portion of the agents' time, over
30,000 head having been treated by them. It is estimated that
less than one fourth the usual number of hogs have died of
cholera this year. Some counties have made appropriations for
the purchase of serum to be supplied in limited quantities to
4







Florida Cooperative Extension


farmers, free of charge. Taylor county appropriated $3000 anc
LaFayette county $1000 for this purpose; others lesser amounts,

DIPPING VATS
Tick eradication having been almost entirely taken over by
the Live Stock Sanitary Board, the agents have been relieved of
this work in many counties. However, assistance has been ren-
dered whenever needed, and in some instances the county agent
has supervised the construction of vats and dipping of cattle.

IMPROVED FARM MACHINERY
Owing to the shortage of labor on farms, a splendid oppor-
tunity was offered to encourage the use of improved farm ma-
chinery and labor saving devices. Proof of the fact that the
county agent did not neglect this opportunity is a record from
seven counties of the purchase of over 60 farm tractors and a
large amount of improved machinery, and also the stumping of
5775 acres of land.
FAIRS
Several community and county fairs were called off on account
of the epidemic of influenza. Assistance was rendered by the
county and district agent at the Escambia county fair; at the
West Florida fair, held in Marianna, and the state fair in
Jacksonville. Small farm exhibits were made at several club
contests. Prospects are for a large number of community and
county fairs next year.
County exhibits from LaFayette, Madison, Leon, Gadsden, and
Escambia were shown at the state fair in Jacksonville.







Annual Report, 1918


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR SOUTH FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for
South Florida for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
H. S. MCLENDON,
District Agent.

INCREASE IN STAPLE CROPS
The work in the district of South Florida has had unusual
cooperation and support during the past year.
There was a continuous campaign for the production of more
staple crops and livestock. The effect of this campaign has
resulted in a greater supply of meat, corn, potatoes, feeds, and
forage, on many farms where these products were formerly pur-
chased.
An effort was made to reach every farmer in each county,
either by farmers' meetings in the community, or personal visits
to the farms by the county agent.

CATTLE AND HOGS
In Manatee and Orange counties, a campaign was started for
more dairy cows on the farm. In Orange county the agent
worked up the interest with the view of procuring a milk depot,
so that the milk could be shipped in bulk during the summer
months when local demand was light. Several cars of fine dairy
cattle were shipped into this county during the year, and a few
silos erected. Others plan to build silos when the cost of labor
and material get back to normal. Broward and Palm Beach
counties are showing more interest in the dairy work. Silos
are being erected and registered cattle of the Jersey, Guernsey,
and Holstein-Friesian breeds are being introduced.
The interest in improved beef cattle was shown in several
southern counties by the introduction of pure bred and grade
beef cattle. Several large tracts of land have been fenced for
pastures, also an increased acreage of land planted to forage
crops for winter feeding.
There was also an increased hog production in most every
county. Several car loads have been shipped to market. The
agents are still active in the control of hog cholera, altho much







Florida Cooperative Extension


of the vaccination work has been .taken over by the Live Stock
Sanitary Board.
CORN AND FORAGE
There was an increased acreage of corn in all counties, but it
was particularly noticeable in Lee, Okeechobee, Palm Beach,
Broward, Dade, Manatee, and Orange counties. These counties
had grown comparatively little corn or forage in the past. More
cow peas, velvet beans, and beggarweed were planted for soil
improvement, a good part of which was grown in the winter
truck growing lands.

PEANUTS
While there was no large commercial acreage of peanuts
planted in south Florida, there was an increased acreage in each
county. Most of the crop was harvested by hogs. Some large
fields were planted on the Everglade lands with good results.

SUGAR CANE AND SORGHUM
There was an increased acreage of sugar cane in this district.
A good portion of this has been saved for seed, and the rest
made into syrup.
Sorghum for syrup making was planted in several counties.
This cane was ready to be made up in the late summer long before
the sugar cane was mature.

CITRUS DEMONSTRATIONS
The spraying of citrus groves has received considerable at-
tention from a few county agents in the most important citrus
sections. During the season of 1918 severe infestations of scale
and whitefly were particularly noticeable. Thru the assistance
of workers of the Experiment Station the county agents have
been able to direct the spraying of several groves, with good
results.
Many groves coming under the supervision of county agents
were affected severely with withertip. This required additional
pruning and spraying.

TRUCK DEMONSTRATIONS
SThe county agents have rendered valuable service in the con-
trol of truck diseases and insects. The cooperation of workers of







Annual Report, 1918 53

the Experiment Station was helpful in handling these troubles,
and the demonstration work in the trucking areas has largely
been confined to this kind of work.
In areas where large quantities of fertilizers are used the
farmers submitted many. samples of fertilizer to the county
agents to be transmitted to the State Chemist for analysis.
Many of these samples proved to be below the guaranteed analy-
sis in one or more elements, and much information has been
gained by the growers as to the fertilizer they were using. As
the state law provides for a rebate to the farmer where the
analysis is lower than the guarantee, the farmers were able to
collect for the shortage.

ORGANIZATION
The county agents have met with some success in organization
work. The general plan was to have five or more organizations
in a county, with the county commissioner from each district as
leader. This commissioner either acts as chairman or appoints
a farmer in his district to act, thus providing for a leader in
each of the commissioners' districts, to whom the county agents
could submit plans and could discuss the needs of any com-
munity and of the county. Had it not been for these organiza-
tions, the amount of war work and the production of food stuffs
made would have been impossible. They cooperated with other
organizations working for a similar purpose.

COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS TO SUPPORT WORK
The increased cost of living and expenses required to carry on
the work made it necessary to secure increased appropriation
from the counties. In practically all counties the increase was
provided for by the commissioners when the year's budget was
made up.
The appropriations for 1917-1918 for fifteen counties in which
we had the work was $17,450, making the average something
more than $1,100 per county. For 1918-1919, the appropriations
for seventeen counties was $25,000, making the average some-
thing more than $1,450 per county.
Okeechobee and Pinellas counties were added to the cooperat-
ing list during the year, thus giving the work to every county in
the district with the exception of Monroe. There is very little
agriculture in this county.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the boys' agricultural
club agent for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
G. L. HERRINGTON,
Bays' Club Agent.


The objects of the boys' agricultural clubs were defined by club
agents from southern states at their meeting in Knoxville, Tenn.,
December 9-14, 1918, as follows:
"To improve farm practices by instructing boys in correct agricultural
methods."
"To furnish an extensively organized means of effecting permanent
improvement in agriculture and rural life."
"To put into practice the facts of scientific agriculture obtained from
books, bulletins, etc."
"To assist in the development of the spirit of cooperation in the family
and in the community."
"To dignify and magnify the vocation of the farmer by demonstrating
that labor intelligently applied to farming brings satisfactory returns."
"To enlarge the vision of the boy and to give him definite purposes at
an important period of his life."
"To furnish the rural schools and teachers object lessons which may be
used to help them in teaching agriculture."
"To make rural life more attractive by providing organization which
tends to diminish isolation and develop leadership."


FIG. 8.-Walton county club boy preparing to plant






Annual Report, 1918


We give these definitions as they express so well the objects
for which the boys' club agents in Florida are working.
While the country was going thru the trials of the past year,
we turned aside from our previously adopted plans of club work-
to do everything possible for immediate production of the crops
in greatest demand.












FIG. 9.-Club boy's acre, yielding 78 bushels of corn

Many of the older club boys enlisted in the army or navy or
engaged in ship construction work. This made it necessary for
the younger boys to take their places on the farms.
Even with these interruptions, more real club work has been
accomplished than during the previous year, altho the actual
reports fail to show this. The lack of complete reports is largely
due to the fact that the county agents had so many urgent duties
it was impossible to assist the boys as much as usual in making
out and collecting the reports. Another condition that made
it very difficult to secure complete reports was the epidemic of
influenza which made it necessary to postpone all meetings for a
few weeks, and some were omitted entirely. The county con-
tests were planned and dates fixed for them to be held thruout
the State. Then the boys themselves, having worked so much
harder as farm hands, found it inconvenient to keep all notes
necessary on their demonstration plots. Thus our efforts were
directed more to answer the needs of the country than to collect
innumerable data for this report.
The organization consisted of 3,276 members, divided as fol-
lows: corn club 1,333; peanut club 333; pig club 1,496; and mis-
cellaneous (cotton, potato, calf, etc.) 114. The following table
willhow how these clubs are represented in counties.








Florida Cooperative Extension

ENROLLMENT OF CLUB BOYS IN 1918


County

Alachua .................. 46
Baker ...................... 43
Bay ....................... 4
Bradford ................ 18
Brevard ....................... 6
Broward ......................................
Calhoun .................. 19
Citrus ................... 4
Clay ........................ 59
Columbia ............. ....................
Dade ....................... 2
DeSoto ................... 18
Duval ...................... 25
Escambia ................ 24
Flagler ................. 12
Franikll in


Gadsden
Hamilto
Hernand
Hillsbor
Holmes
Jackson
Jeffersol
LaFayet
Lake ....
Lee ......
Leon ....
Levy ....
Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloos
Okeecho
Orange
Osceola
Palm B
Pasco ..
Pinellas
Polk ...
Putnam
Santa R
Seminol
Sumter
Suwann
St. John
St. Luci
Taylor
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
Washing
Tot


1 b2 -4-
Ej -u
m to
0) 0
_4 A


15






1
1

2


10
....................


62
19
16
50
....................

13
6
30
33
46
41
50
4


4

1
1

7
3....
3
1

1


.................. 6 .................... 1 .................... 7
n ................ 21 1 10 .................... 32
lo .............. 34 1 15 45 95
o ............. 66 1 6 1 74
.................... 93 61 45 .................... 199
.................. 82 21 109 1 213
n ........ ....6 ................. .................. .................... 6
;te ...................................................... 22 .................... 22
.................... 20 3 15 .................... 38
................... 4 1 30 4 39
.................... 6 .................... 48 .................. 54
.................... 45 3 8 .................... 56
.................... 27 3 13 1 44
.................. 53 32 97 .................... 182
.................. 44 46 56 ............... 146
.................... 54 37 93 7 191
.................... .................. .. .................... .........-----. .-- -.--....--. .- --- ...-
.................... 41 9 3 53
a ............... 18 14 13 ................... 45
bee ................................................ ...... ........................... ....................
.... ............ 29 1 24 2 56
.................. 6 .................... 20 2 28
each .......... 42 24 11 .................... 77
.................... 1 .................... 63 1 65

................... 50 4 27 5 86
.................. 40 .................... 39 1 80
losa ............ 33 10 26 7 76
e ................ 1 .................... 2 .................... 3
.................... 64 1 78 8 151
ee .............. 15 13 63 .................... 91
is ................ 28 .................... 65 .................... 93
ie ................ 1 .................... 37 .................... 38
.................... 16 7 20 .................... 43
....................................... .................... I .................... .. -..................


................. 20
.................... 35
gton ............ 52


18
1
1


al .....I......... 1333 J 333 I 1496 | 114 I 3276






Annual Report, 1918


CORN CLUBS
In some respects 1918 was not a favorable season for a big
corn crop. The total production for the State was 14,080,000
bushels, and the yield per acre 16 bushels. The average market
price of corn November 1 was $1.43, making this the most val-
uable crop produced in 1918 in spite of the low yield per acre.
In checking over the reports collected from 316 boys, it was
found that they grew 11,899.5 bushels of corn, or an average of
37.7 bushels per acre, at an average cost of 50 cents a bushel.
With a yield of 37.7 bushels per acre costing 50 cents a bushel,
the 316 acres were produced at an average cost of $18.85 each.
The value of the corn at $1.43 a bushel was $49.01, leaving a
profit of $30.16 per acre.
The boys from Holmes county sent in 45 reports on their corn
demonstrations, making their county stand at the head of the
list as far as reports were concerned. Nineteen boys of the
Nassau club grew an average of 62.1 bushels each. The Hillsboro
and Hernando county boys also maintained good clubs.
An unusual occurrence has arisen in our corn club work. The
history of the corn club work in the southern states has been
that the boys who produced a phenomenal yield would feel too
certain of the same results the next year and fall down. At
least for some reason those making record yields generally fail
to "come back" a second time, and this condition has not been
entirely different in Florida. During the past four years, nine
yields have gone over the 100 bushel mark, and with one ex-
ception no one has been able to do it more than once. In this


FIG. 10.-10-ear exhibit from 115 bu. yield, 1918








58 Florida Cooperative Extension


exception it is the third consecutive year that one club member
has grown more than 100 bushels per acre.
This demonstration was conducted on the muck land of the
Oklawaha river bottom in the eastern part of Marion county
by Lawton Martin. His yield in 1918 was 115 bushels, grown at
a cost of 12 cents per bushel when based on the charges for
labor that were used by all club members.
The following table of 316 reports collected from the boys
are arranged in order of the number of reports from each county.
When two counties have the same number of reports, the one
having the higher average yield per acre is placed first.

SUMMARY OF 316 CORN CLUB REPORTS



4S
County 0 0
0 4 .24 0_ 0
0 51 5 ...V
4s 0 5. 05 .S

Holmes ...................... 45 1176.5 26.1 .68 60.3 .34
Hillsboro ................... 35 1078.5 38.1 .46 76.2 .17
Hernando .................... 24 883.2 36.8 .32 56.0 .43
Polk ..................... 20 820.3 41.1 .45 79.5 .22
Nassau ...................... 19 1180.3 62.1 .56 90.0 .39
"Santa Rosa ........ ...... 19 585.8 30.8 .64 50.3 .60
Baker .............................. 17 638.4 37.6 .54 73.0 .22
Madison .......................... 15 721.1 48.0 .32 68.3 .23
Alachua ......................... 14 553.4 39.5 .46 75.1 .40
Orange .......................... 11 331.1 30.1 .63 39.7 .77
Hamilton ......................... 9 436.6 48.5 .47 80.0 .21
Marion .......................... 9 433.6 48.3 .32 115.0 .12
Washington .................... 9 295.5 32.8 .55 50.0 .38
Walton .......................... 9 286.3 31.8 .62 60.8 .27
Duval .............................. 8 276.2 34.5 .61 54.8 .39
Lake .............................. 7 357.3 51.0 .43 64.5 .35
Putnam ........................... 7 306.1 43.7 .37 84.0 .21
Okaloosa ........................ 7 222.5 31.7 .75 53.0 .18
DeSoto ........................... 6 178.0 29.7 .70 38.5 .21
Jefferson ........................... 6 162.8 27.1 .42 57.0 .30
St Johns ........................ 5 227.3 45.5 .36 64.0 .43
Sumter ........................... 4 232.7 56.3 .28 74.3 .25
Manatee ......................... 3 109.7 36.7 .63 40.0 .25
Levy ........................... 2 106.0 53.0 .21 88.0 .26
Eseambia .................... 2 77.5 38.8 .41 40.0 .33
Calhoun .......................... 1 76.8 76.8 .31 76.8 .31
Flagler ....................... 1 70.0 70.0 .37 70.0 .37
Osceola ......................... 1 61.0 61.0 .29 61.0 .29
W akulla ...................... 1 15.0 15.0 .25 15.0 .25
Total ................... 316 11899.5 37.7 .50 60.3 | .31


PEANUT CLUBS

The peanut clubs have made good progress and many boys
find this to be the most profitable crop they can raise. There
were 333 who conducted demonstrations in growing peanuts.
Each demonstration was one acre in-size and they were well
distributed over the State.







Annual Report, 1918 59

Some of the boys harvested their crops and sold them as seed
or to the oil mills. Others used the peanuts and hay as feed.
John Bernath of Santa Rosa county grew 111 bushels of
peanuts on one acre. This is perhaps one of the best yields made
by any club member. His report was signed by two witnesses
and .is given as follows:
"The acre on which I grew my peanuts is dark soil about 7 inches deep
with yellow, sandy subsoil. It has been in cultivation three years and last
year produced a crop of corn and velvet beans. I broke, it 6 inches deep
with a one-horse plow on February 24. It was then harrowed well and left
in-good condition. May 11 I laid off rows 31/ feet wide and dropped pea-
nuts by hand 18 inches apart in the drill. They were covered with a culti-
vator and in a few days came up a medium stand. Before planting I
applied 500 pounds of lime and 200 pounds of acid phosphate. Then when
the peanuts were a few inches high another application of 200 pounds acid
phosphate was given.
S"I cultivated 4 times with a scrape and harrow. The yield was 111
bushels, while the average yield in this community with usual methods of
cultivation is about 30 bushels per acre. I used the Virginia running
variety.
"The county agent came to see me three times this year and this is
my second year as a club member. I have learned that a thoro preparation
is necessary for a good crop.
"I sold 100 bushels of peanuts, which leaves me 11 bushels. I have
bought War Savings Stamps with all the profits realized from my peanut
crop.
EXPENSES
"R ent of land................ ............ ....... ......... .. ................... ........ 5.00
Preparation of seed bed and planting......................... ............ 2.10
Seed ... ............................................... 2.60
F fertilizer ... ................................................................ ................ 7.70
Cultivation ........................ .... ....... .... ...................... 1.40
Gathering ....................... ................ .. ............... ........ .......... 3.70
T total cost .................... ................ .. ..... ........................... ....... $22.50
N et cost per bushel .......................................... ............ ....... ........... .20

RECEIPTS
"Number of bushels ......... .......... ..... ..................... 111
Number of pounds of hay ......... ............................ ......... 3,000
Value of nuts ..... ...... .................. .............. ... ......... $293.04
Value of hay at market price ................. ........................ ........ ... 48.00
N et profit ..... ..... .................. .... ............ ....... ............ 318.54"

PIG CLUBS

The pig clubs have grown to be the largest branch of the
agricultural clubs. There are now 1,496 active members and
about 1,000 of these were enrolled during 1918. Those who
entered before this year now have mature sows and have raised
several litters, selling them to club boys and farmers for breed-
ing stock. Many of these boys have made large profits on their
investments within fifteen months after beginning.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The banks thruout the State have been liberal in loaning money
to boys on very easy terms. This has made it possible for many
to enter the pig club who could not otherwise have done so.


-4













FIG. 11.-Bradford county agent and banker delivering gilts to pig club boys
Many bankers have expressed their appreciation of the prompt
and business-like methods the boys have adopted in paying these
accounts when due. As long as the club members keep up this
good record, it will be possible to increase the size of the club
and to continue purchasing stock of the best breeding.
The Bradford county boys have done excellent work and have
kept splendid records. The business men and other citizens of
the county speak well of the county agent, C. D. Gunn, who was
able to furnish definite information at any time of the year as to
the progress of the pig club and the development of the animals.
Sixteen boys in this county raised purebred pigs. The average
weight of the pigs at the beginning of the contest was 38 pounds
and 167 pounds at the close, making an average net gain of 129
pounds. These pigs were fed an average of 151 days, gaining
.86 pounds a day at a cost of 4.8 cents a pound.
The following table gives some interesting figures on the work
done by five of the most successful pig club members in Brad-
ford county.








Annual Report, 1918

FIVE BRADFORD COUNTY PIG CLUB REPORTS


Carrie Lee Green..............
Ben Roebuck..................
Reuben Shaw .................
Richard Harris ...............
Clarence Rhoden ..............
Total ........................
Average ..................


BJ
w"


c'z


40 0


ho
4 ,
CS P S *bh
cj a! c o
0 Q Q *u


45 295 250 144 1.74 $ .02
40 179 139 144 1.00 .023
26 167 141 120 .85 .032
43 186 143 144 1.00 .043
41 191 150 144 1.04 .055


195 | 1018 | 823
39 1 203.6 164.6


696 I 5.63 I $ .173
139.2 1.13 | .035


Madison county has about the strongest pig club in the State.
The boys have kept excellent records of the work. They became
interested from observing the records kept on some of the best
animals.
Much credit is due C. E. Matthews, the county agent, for this
excellent record. At the contest held in Madison last November,
there were 50 pigs on exhibit. At the beginning of the feeding
period the pigs weighed an average of 25.7 pounds each. They
were fed 184 days, and on the day of the contest weighed an
average of 200.3 pounds, making a total gain of 170.7 pounds
each, or an average of .95 pounds a day. The records showed
that it costs only 6 cents a pound for the feed to produce these
gains.
Following is a summary of the reports of five most successful
pig club members in Madison county.

FIVE MADISON COUNTY PIG CLUB REPORTS


Thurston Raines ...............
Minnie Thomas ...............
Cora Hicks ...................
Albert Glass ..:..............
Dorris Young ....................


bQ
S
-4


Total ............... I. 132


4')

CS


1355 1 1223


4,)
uc


917


Average.........I 26.4 271 244.6 183.4


CS


1.33
1.29
1.41
1.32
1.31


0





$ .051
0


.05
.076
.07
.073


6.60 $ .32
1.32 $ .064


---


''


'


Average .................. 26.4


271 1 244.6 183.4







Florida Cooperative Extension


COUNTY CONTESTS
A series of county contests were held thruout the State at
the close of the year's work. Every boy competing prepared
exhibits of the crops he grew, and submitted his record. Each
pig club boy exhibited his pig, and a record of the cost of the
pig, feed, weights and gains. All products were judged and the
records graded by committees.

SHORT COURSE
The third annual short course in agriculture for boys was held
at the University December 9 to 14. There were 83 of the most
successful club members in attendance, and more spirit and team
work displayed than ever before. No part of the club work is
more helpful to the boys than the short course. The instructors
in the College of Agriculture took a great interest in giving the
boys a good and interesting course in agriculture. It was valu-
able experience for the boys to get together and talk over what
each one has accomplished. They return home with instruction
and determination that will enable them to do better club work
next year.
Several hikes were taken during the week, visiting the peanut
mill near Gainesville, the livestock and dairy barns, and going
over the Experiment Station grounds, and other places of in-
terest.
THE ANNUAL BANQUET
At the close of the short course a banquet was held for the
club boys. The boy scouts of Gainesville and instructors who
assisted with the short course were also invited.
Every club member at the banquet was presented with a cer-
tificate of honor and merit for the club work he had accom-
plished.
WINNERS OF STATE PRIZES
The state prizes were awarded at the banquet. In 1918 Lawton
Martin of Marion county won the first prize in the corn clubs,
which was a purebred Shorthorn bull, donated by the American
Shorthorn Breeders' Association. Harold Link of Orange county
won second prize, a $200 scholarship to the College of Agricul-
ture, which was donated by the Florida Bankers' Association.
Richard McGrath of Putnam county won third prize, which was
a purebred Shorthorn bull donated by Mr. O. E. Cobb of Boyds,
Ala. Jesse Driggers of Hillsboro county won the fourth prize,







Annual Report, 1918 63

which was $50 donated by the Florida Federation of Women's
Clubs.
WORK OF ASSISTANT CLUB AGENTS
E. M. Manning, assistant emergency boys' club agent, answered
the call of the Country September 1 and R. W. Blacklock, former
Marion county agent, was appointed his successor.
An agreement was made with the Bureau of Animal Industry
to pay the salary of an assistant boys' club agent to work es-
pecially in the production of swine, the Extension Division of
the University to pay other expenses. L. R. Highfill, principal
of the Largo agricultural high school, was appointed to this
position the first of July.
Messrs. Blacklock and Highfill were familiar with the methods
of conducting boys' clubs and the art of handling boys at the
time the appointments were made. Their time is devoted prin-
cipally to field work, and in order to avoid much travel at the
expense of the actual work accomplished, Mr. Blacklock works
principally in north and west Florida while Mr. Highfill devotes
his time principally to central and south Florida.

BOYS ATTENDING SHORT COURSE AT UNIVERSITY
ALACHUA COUNTY
Name Address Age
Clarence Maddox .................. ........ Micanopy ....................................16
Marshall M addox ........................................M canopy ....................................... 14
fam es Fraser ................... ...................... N ewberry ............................. ............. ... 15
lbert Shaw ............................. ... .................................... 16
imil Solmi ...................................... .....Alachua ..........................................13
Ulbert Saarinen ........................................... A lachua ........................................ 11
Nalter Saarinen ............................................Alachua .................................. 14
?eter Leivonen ............................................. Alachua ............. ........ .............15
BAKER COUNTY
Ulphin Crews ............... ... .................Lake Butler ......-...................... ......17
W aldo Rowe .......... ..................M ac lenny ........................................16
Henry Stone ........... ...................... Sapp ..................................................13
BRADFORD COUNTY
Reuben Shaw ........................................... Brooker ................. ........................ 14
Bennie Roebuck .......... ......... ....... .. Theressa ........................ ........ 12
Albert Griffis .......--........................... ........ Starke ... ...............................13
George Conley ............-................-.. .......Starke ......................... ................16
Harry Canova ................. .. .......-. Starke .......... ................................. 17
BROWARD COUNTY
Edward P. Harry .......................................... Pompano ................. ............. 15
CALHOUN COUNTY
Julius Davis ................................................Blountstown ............ ................. 12







64 Florida Cooperative Extension

CLAY COUNTY
Name Address Age
Gunnar Gustafson ....................................Green Cove Springs .....................15
Willie Guy Hall...... ............................ West. Tocoi ....................................12
DESOTO COUNTY
Leonard Sm ith ................................ ........M oore Haven ..................................15
Arthur Davis ...................... .............. Bowling Green ................................13
DUVAL COUNTY
W illis Pickett ..... .............. ...................Jacksonville ...................................16
Gervin Pringle ................. ...............Baldwin ..................... ...................13
ESCAMBIA COUNTY
J. E. Haynes, Jr. -...................................... Pensacola .....................................13
FLAGLER COUNTY
H om er H ansen .............................................Espanola ...................................... 13

HAMILTON COUNTY
D avid Sm ith ........... ........................... Jennings ........................................13
Roy DeVane ............................................ Jennings .......................................18

HILLSBORO COUNTY
Powers Taylor....................... Plant City .....................................11
C. H. Taylor ....................................Plant City .....................................14
Morris Young ...... ...........--.......... Plant City ......................................12
Luther Webb ............................ ............Plant City --........ ...................... 14
Glenn Miley ............. ..... .....................Plant City .......................-- ........ 15
Thos. Ellerbe ........ ............... Wimauma......... ...................... ........14
Jesse Driggers ................ .......... ... ........ Wi ..................................... 18
Poly Barren ...................................Plant City ................................... 15
Jesse Barker ....................... .............Lakeland ....... ................... ..............14

HOLMES COUNTY
W alter Sm ith ............ .. ... .. Esto ...................... ...........................15
Doyal Murphy ............. ...... ..... ........ Ponce DeLeon .................-..............15
JEFFERSON COUNTY
Willard Owens ............................... .. Monticello .....................................15
LAKE COUNTY
Buren Crenshaw ................................ Lisbon ..........................................13
Harold Gwaltney ......................................... Lisbon ..... .... ...............................12
Leroy Bethea .........................Montv...................Montverde .................... 13
LEE COUNTY
Dan English ..................... .......... Alva ...................... .......................17
LEVY COUNTY
Harry McElveen .................. .. .............. Ellzey ..... ..............................12
MADISON COUNTY
Theo. Glass ............................. ... Lee .................................................11
Orvin McCullough ....................................... Lee........................ ......................18
Thurston Raines .......... ............................ adiso .......................... ...18
Kinsey Gayle ............................... ...............Greenville .......................................16
,MANATEE COUNTY
Shelton Downing .........................................Parrish ............................................16
/Rollo Downing .............................................Parrish ............................................15








Annual Report, 1918 65

MARION COUNTY
Name Address Age
Albert Zetrouer .......................... ..........Micanopy ....................................17
Mabrey Neil ....---- ---- --................ .... ......--Oala ............l.... .............. 13
Vernon N eil .......-.............. .............. ... ......Ocala ............... .............. 15
Lloyd Leverett..:................................Fairfield .................................. ..14
Wm. M. Swilley...........................----- .............Lowell ..................................... 17
Myron Rou .................................... ............Lowell ..................---..............16
Lawton Martin ............................................Electra ................................ .......14
Elvert DeVore ........................................Reddick ............................................12
Frederick Cullison ........................................Ocala ........ ............................12
George Blowers .................... ....................Ocala ...................................... 12
Allen Fouraker ..........-- ............................... Baldwin ................. .................15
OKEECHOBEE COUNTY
John P. Camp ................... .................. Okeechobee ......................................14
ORANGE COUNTY
Harold Link ................... ....................Orlando .......................................18
Causey Dann ........................... ........ .. ..Ocoee .........................................13
OSCEOLA COUNTY
Curtis Yates ...........- .................................--- Kissimmee .........-..........................-18
PALM BEACH COUNTY
-Karl Erickson ....................... ..................Canal Point ....................................15
Alton Morris ...................... ...---...........-------Pahokee ........................................16
Alfred Huskey, Jr. .................................Pahokee ........................................17
POLK COUNTY
Enoch Thomas .....-...... .......-- -..-..............Auburndale .....................................13
W. Olive Clark ................-.....................-.. Bartow ......................................14
PUTNAM COUNTY
Leo Knighton .............. .........................East Palatka ..................................13
Richard McGrath ..................................Florahome ....................................16
ST. JOHNS COUNTY
.obert Webb .................... ...............-... Moultrie ....................................12
ST. LUCIE COUNTY
Thomas Dixon ..-.........---.. .. ..........-...... ...-Fellsmere ..............................----- ..14
SEMINOLE COUNTY
Albert Hickson ....----.................... ............. Sanford ..............................--.......14
SANTA ROSA COUNTY
John Bernath -----......................... ................Mulat .......... --....................---- 14
Newman Clark ....................... ........... ......Milton ................ .............--- ---- --14
SUMTER COUNTY
Claud Williams ............... .................St. Catherine ................................14
William Hutto .................................... ....-Bushnell ..............-.........................17

SUWANNEE COUNTY
Ralph Baker ........................ .... O'Brien ...... --------.. .....................---- 12
enry Dorsett ....................... .... Branford .................................--- 13


5







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF ASSISTANT BOYS' CLUB AGENT.
FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I herewith submit the report of the assistant boys' club
agent for North and West Florida for the year ending December
31, 1918.
Respectfully,
R. W. BLACKLOCK,
Assistant Boys' Club Agent.

On September 1, 1918, I was appointed assistant boys' club
agent, and assigned to the North and West Florida territory,
comprising twenty-four counties. In carrying on my work dur-
ing the last four months of 1918, I traveled 3,862 miles by rail
,or boat, 1,410 miles by auto and team.
The club work was well established in my district and 1,435
members were enrolled in the clubs. Of these, 635 were in the
corn club, 675 in the pig club and 125 in the peanut club. Many
of the boys were enrolled in the three clubs and the larger per-
cent of those in the pig club were in one of the crop clubs.
Jackson county had the largest enrollment, with a total of 213 for
all clubs. Holmes was second, with a total of 199 members.
The severe drought of July had injured the corn crop to a
large degree and some of the acres which had promised most,
yielded the least. Usually the prolific varieties yielded most on
the richer soils, and the one or two-eared varieties did best
on the poorer sandy types.
In the pig club work, much care had been given to the quality
of breeding stock used, as nothing but registered animals were
to be found in the boys' work. In some counties but one breed
was used, which will do much toward producing uniform types
for marketing in after years. Duroc Jerseys were more popular
than all other breeds, while there were many fine Poland Chinas,
Hampshires and Berkshires, with a few Tamworths. At that
time the pigs were averaging around eight months of age and
about 175 pounds in weight. The pigs receiving good care and
attention were making gains of over one pound a day and it
was noticeable that the pigs which had been given the run of
a good pasture had produced the best gains and at the least
expense.
In addition to the regular club work, several of the county







Annual Report, 1918


agents organized a "Win the War Club", and many excellent
reports were made by the boys and girls showing what they
had done in helping to increase the amount of food raised. In


FIG. 12.-Club boy operating tractor plow


Okaloosa county, 202 boys and girls agreed to give one pig extra
care to help increase the meat output of their county.

CONTESTS
The contests were usually held at the county seat and aroused
much enthusiasm among the boys and girls and their parents.
The attendance at these contests ran from 34 to 165, averaging
100 to each meeting.
CORN CLUBS
The epidemic of influenza caused many boys to fail to gather
their crops in time to attend the contest, with the result that the
number of boys reporting was low. The greatest number exhib-
iting in any county was in Holmes, where 45 boys displayed their
ten ears of corn. In Baker county, 17 boys produced an average
yield of 37.6 bushels at an average cost of 54 cents per bushel.
In Hamilton county, nine boys produced an average yield of
48.5 bushels at an average cost of 47 cents per bushel. The
highest yield was produced by Allen Fouraker of Baldwin, Nas-
sau county, who raised 90 bushels on his acre at a cost of 39
cents per bushel.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PIG CLUBS
Due to the unusual conditions, the pig club exhibits were small,
but the animals exhibited were of excellent quality and showed
what boys can do in swine management. In Madison county,
50 exceptionally fine hogs were shown, averaging around eight
months of age and 200 pounds in weight. The largest percent
were Durocs with some Poland Chinas and Berkshires. Four
pigs averaging eight months and eighteen days in age, weighed
1,120 pounds, or an average of 280 pounds each.
Thurston Raines of Madison, fed a Duroc boar 188 days and
produced a gain of 251 pounds or an average daily gain of 1.3
pounds. In Santa Rosa county a girl, Libbie Oglesby of Milton,
fed a Duroc sow 150 days and secured an average daily gain of 1.3
pounds. Her sow was fed no grain but was raised on the waste
from the house, together with a good pasture.
PEANUT CLUBS
Influenza so delayed harvesting the peanut crop that very few
of the boys had picked the peanuts when the contests were held.
The highest yield reported was made by John Bernath of Mulat,
Santa Rosa county, who produced 111 bushels on his acre.
EXHIBITS AT FAIR
At the close of the contests the first of December, the corn club
and pig club boys made exhibits at the state fair in Jacksonville.
Eighty-five corn club boys from this district made exhibits and
.$163 was won in prizes. This money was used as scholarships to
the boys' agricultural short course at the University.






Annual Report, 1918: 69M

REPORT OF ASSISTANT BOYS' CLUB AGENT
FOR CENTRAL AND SOUTH FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I herewith submit report of assistant boys' club agent
for Central and South Florida, for the year ending December
31, 1918.
SL. R. HIGHFILL,
Assistant Boys' Club Agent.


This report covers activities for six months from July to
Dec. 31, 1918. During this time I traveled in the discharge of
my duties, by rail, 5,750 miles; by automobile, 2,888 miles. I
held 14 meetings and spoke to 2,655 people: Of the six months,
I spent 96 days in the field.' The remainder of the time was
spent in the office or attending farmers' meetings on the campus.
I have visited at their.homes, 390 corn and pig club boys. Thru
my efforts, 200 purebred pigs have been located and recom-
mended to county agents for their pig club boys. I have assisted
22 farmers in purchasing purebred hogs for breeding purposes.
I have conferred with bankers and assisted county agents in
securing money to finance 200 pig club boys.
Since it was late in the year to begin the organization of
clubs much of my time was devoted to assisting clubs already
organized. However, six new pig clubs were organized in coun-
ties where the work had not been taken up.
PIG CLUBS
It is much easier to carry on the pig club work- maln that of
the corn club. In many communities of south Florida corn
growing is rather difficult, because of the nature of the soil.
These communities, however, are able to grow a. considerable
quantity of grazing and root crops upon which to feed hogs. The
average pig club boy takes advantage of the garbage from the
home kitchen and other surplus feeds about the farm, and in
this way he is able to grow his pig with a minimum expenditure
for concentrates. The price of pigs bought this year ranged
from $12.50 to $25 per head. The price of purebred swine has
increased so rapidly within the past two or',three years that
it has been difficult in some cases to get'the' boy whose father
has never grown purebred hogs, to .invest $25'.in.ia go'od.-pig;
However, this condition, is being rapidlyo6veIrcome, and iii many






Florida Cooperative Extension


instances the boy's father is disposing of his scrub stock and
preparing to grow only purebred hogs, using the boy's pigs
for the foundation herd. This result is eminently more to be
desired than to have the boy sell all of the pigs raised from his
pig club sow.
The average age of pig club boys is 14 years. The pig club
membership is not limited to boys. Some of the best "pig club
boys" in the State are "girls". An example is Carrie Lee Green,
of Bradford county, who with her Duroc Jersey pig won first
in all her county contests, and took second prize at the state
fair. We like to encourage girls to enter the pig clubs.
One of the most obvious difficulties to be overcome in the pig
club work is that of getting more complete record books. Out
of a total enrollment of over 1400 members in the pig clubs,
only 151 complete record books were turned in to the office
of the state boys' club agent. More attention must be given to
this very vital phase of the pig club work.
CORN CLUBS
Nine county corn club contests were held last fall in south
Florida. The average attendance at each contest was 100. Par-
ticular mention should be made of the contest in Hernando
county. Here 400 citizens of the county gathered for the day.
One of the finest displays of corn, peanuts, pigs, canned goods
and record books that it has ever been my pleasure to witness
was assembled at Brooksville, the county seat. Following the
awarding of prizes, the visitors assembled in the court house
and formed an appreciative audience for speakers from the
Extension Division of the University and the State College for
Women.
The average yield of corn for club members in the State this
year was. 37.7 bushels per acre, grown at an average cost of
50 cents per bushel. This represents fairly well the work done
in south Florida.
The peculiar varied soil that is so characteristic of Florida is
nowhere more pronounced than in that section of Florida from
Bradford, Clay and St. Johns counties south. This condition
forces special attention to corn club work. It means that the
methods used in growing an acre of corn must be suited to the
particular, acre the boy is using. Frequently boys on adjoining
farms will be found using entirely different types of soil. It
would be misleading to recommend a plan of operation or a







Annual Report, 1918


variety of corn for the entire section. The success of the corn
club boy will always lie in the good judgment he uses in his
operations. More personal work on the part of county agents
and supervisors will be necessary to get the best results.
GRAZING CROPS
Club members are constantly urged to grow grazing crops.
They are necessary to the pig club boy in order that he may
produce pork at a profit in Florida. Many pig club boys are
growing peanuts, chufas, oats, rape,. and other good grazing
crops, and these boys are the ones that are making good in a
financial way. Grazing crops are a necessary part of the corn
club boy's operation in the proper rotation of crops. Also in
providing suitable cover crops and humus for replenishing the
fertility of the soil, and building up his acre of land.
OTHER CROPS
Several corn club boys are making money from other crops,
particularly peanuts, which they are growing on their acre in
connection with corn. They realize money by either selling these
crops, as in the case of peanuts, or picking the peas where cow-
peas are planted, and turning the vines back to the soil. Or,
better still, the most progressive are buying pigs, feeding the
crops, and marketing them in the form of purebred hogs.
FAIRS
Two weeks were spent at the state fair, assisting with the
boys' club exhibits, principally in charge of the pig club class.
Twenty pigs from Madison, Leon, Bradford, DeSoto, Santa Rosa,
St. Johns and Duval counties were exhibited. They comprised
an exhibition of quality that was very commendable, and brought
forth much flattering comment. I established an. improvised
booth in the swine building, where I was able to meet and dis-
cuss swine growing in Florida, with large numbers of interested
people. It was almost impossible to keep on hand a supply of
literature on hog growing, so great was the call for it.
The Florida state fair placed $816 in premium money in the
pig club class.
No county, fairs have been held in my territory, with the
exception of Marion and Alachua counties. Others will be held
later in the winter. At these fairs suitable premiums were
offered for all kinds of club work. In some cases the county
agents were able to get special premiums to be awarded at the






Florida Cooperative Extension


various county contests. A notable instance was that of St..
Johns county, where the business men of St. Augustine put up
enough money to supply valuable prizes for every club boy and
girl who entered the county contest. Besides valuable jewelry
and wearing apparel, two scholarships were awarded, one to
the short course at the College of Agriculture, Gainesville, and
one to the short course at the College for Women, Tallahassee.

SOUTHERN CONFERENCE
The week of October 14 to 19 was spent in Atlanta in a con-
ference of swine extension men of the Southern States, called
by the Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington. As the South-
eastern fair was open at this time, available time outside of the
conference was spent at the fair.
Many important questions were brought up for discussion at
the conference, and valuable suggestions for the conduction of
the work were submitted. In the matter -of pig club work, it
was the general opinion that more emphasis should be placed
upon carrying a limited number of boys thru the year's work, all
of them making good, rather than enroll a large number and
have many failures.
It was suggested that the swine extension men and the pig
club agents in the various states be privileged to work out plans
and detailed instruction for the club members of their respective
states. It was assumed that the man on the job would under-
stand the conditions peculiar to his state.

PUREBRED SWINE
Frequently the question has been asked "How are the Florida
farmers improving the quality of their hogs?"
Questionnaires were sent to county agents to get some rela-
tively reliable figures on hog production. Twenty-seven agents
reported. From these reports it appears that the average in-
crease of purebred swine in those counties for 1918 over the
number on hand 1917, is 58.54%. Twenty-three of the same
reports gave the increase of scrub and grade hogs, covering the
same period of time and the same area, at 16%. Hernando
county, however, is excepted in this latter percentage. She re-
ported a decrease of 50% in scrub and grade hogs. It was
found that the most substantial increase in purebred swine was.
reported from those counties that are doing the most consistent
work in the pig club.






Annual Report, 1918


REPORT OF THE STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the state agent for home
demonstration work for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, and
with it statistics of the work done by women and club girls for
the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
AGNES ELLEN HARRIS,
State Home Demonstration Agent.


During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, the home dem-
onstration staff was composed of a state agent, who spent six
months out of the State; an assistant state agent; two district
agents who were in charge of the field work; and two assistants,
one of whom gave special attention to dairy work, and one to
poultry. Each of these workers made a complete report of the
scope of the work under her supervision. I especially commend
these reports to your consideration as, in them, the progress of
the home demonstration work in Florida is very clearly shown.
The work of food production withrural girls and women was
continued as in past years, but greater emphasis was laid on
conservation and preservation of food. The emergency appro-
priation enabled us to offer assistance more generally in all the
counties, towns and cities,: and this was enthusiastically re-
ceived.
Every effort was made by the home demonstration force to
render the greatest possible service to the State and Nation dur-
ing the period of the war.
URBAN WORK
When Congress made the emergency appropriation for the
increased production of food crops, it was planned to offer to the
women of towns and cities instruction on preparation, preserva-
tion and conservation of foods. Heretofore this instruction was
planned chiefly for the women in rural homes.
A state supervisor of urban work was given charge of the
work for Jacksonville. Urban workers were appointed for six
months for Tampa, Miami, Key West and Pensacola. One part-
time worker was employed for Tallahassee and Orlando, and
one for Gainesville and Ocala.
Well equipped home demonstration centers were established







Florida Cooperative Extension


in six towns. These kitchens were the centers of various home
demonstration activities. In all of them regular meetings were
held, and bulletins on all subjects pertaining to the home were
kept on file for distribution.
Clubs among women were organized to undertake a definite
study of foods. This included the Red Cross dietetics classes.
Food preparation, preservation by brining, drying, canning and
preserving were taught the regular organized clubs in the cities.
Boys' and girls' gardening clubs were organized in six towns.
Chefs in aviation stations, ships, hotels and boarding houses
were instructed in methods of preparing foods to meet food con-
servation plans.
Library exhibits were successfully carried out. Assistance
was given at fairs. The county home demonstration agents were
assisted in holding short courses. Grocers and other merchants
selling foods were urged to have window displays teaching food
conservation and preparation. Home economics pages in news-
papers' were edited, and recipes compiled for distribution in
grocery stores. Assistance in adjusting the household budget
to meet the constantly advancing prices was given to those de-
siring such help. Experimental work was done and recipes de-
veloped for use in following food laws and suggestions.

EMERGENCY WORKERS
To meet the demand for food conservation in 13 counties not
provided for, four group emergency agents were appointed to
assist in directing conservation work. These agents cooperated
with other organizations in the counties, dividing their time ac-
cording to the needs and interest shown. By this arrangement
Florida was able for the first time to have home demonstration
work conducted in every county.
In order to speed up conservation work, 18 temporary emer-
gency agents were employed during the canning season for
special canning work.
GIRLS' WORK
The district agents' reports include a description of the work
done by the club girls.
The following are the ten highest records made by the club
girls of the State:







Annual Report, 1918


NAME COUNTY YIELD PROFIT
POUNDS
Julia Holland-................. -......Madison .............................7417................$106.33
Anna Sykes..............................Dade ......... ............................. 192.42
Nellie Johnson.........................Gadsden ............................4857................ 142.34
Agnes W illiams..................:....Citrus .... ................ ..........3745... ...... 119.47
Selma Letzing ....................... M anatee ................................3629................ 75.88
Eloise Averit............................Gadsden .. ................3253......... 58.91
Ellen Reeves ........--......- ...... Leon ................................... 3222 ... ...... 99.42
Ruth Blanton ........................ Madison ...........................:..:3167.... ......... 81.26
Orilla Viers..............................Hillsboro .......................... 3100...... ....... 67.72
Ray Strickland...... ............... Marion ......................... 2880................ 56.35
Some club members failed to make a profit because of weather
conditions, but the majority of such members took it in as good
spirit as did Mafire Johnson, who reported her "experience" as
profit.
WOMEN'S WORK
The work for women has been divided as follows:
First; home demonstration clubs where sytematic food prepa-
ration, preservation and conservation are studied at regular
monthly club meetings.
Second; general teaching of women by county agents at public
gatherings of their clubs. Thru the distribution of bulletins and'
other literature many thousand housekeepers of the State have
been reached.
Third; the poultry work with women is fully reported by
Miss Floyd. The liberal response from the farm women is an
index of its value. The results of this work may be summed up
as follows: Increased production of poultry products; better
poultry on farms; cooperative egg circles formed; $10,000 worth
of eggs sold.
CANNING
The statistics show that 1,377,185 cans and glass jars were
filled by the women and girls this year. Tin cans were obtained
under great difficulties. As a result, the number of glass jars
filled increased from 52,000 during 1917 to 787,153 during 1918.
The number of housekeepers who dried fruits and vegetables
was greatly increased.
SAs the country girls and women had more of the farm work
to do than usual, and because the cost of containers was high,
many could can only for their home use. The town women and
girls also became interested in food preservation, and they put up
fruits and vegetables for home use.- Therefore, instead of two
thousand women filling almost two million containers, as they






Florida Cooperative Extension


did in 1917, about ten thousand women filled less than two mil-
lion containers in 1918. This indicates very little canning for
market, but a great deal for home use.
DRYING VEGETABLES
The success in drying certain vegetables, and the scarcity .of
containers for canning makes it necessary to undertake a cam-
paign for drying vegetables.
The home demonstration staff have undertaken experimental
work, and have visited successful drying and dehydrating plants
in other states to study methods followed. Plans are now being
made with a purpose of extending the work of drying vegetables
for home use, and to assist in the establishment of community
dryers and dehydrating plants.
CANNING UNDER STEAM PRESSURE
The canning of vegetables, fish and meats under steam pressure
is one of the important phases of the home demonstration work.
People who live or spend their summers each year where there
is sea-food in abundance are able to preserve this for home use,
'by the use of the steam pressure outfits.
In sections where fresh meat is not always available, by the
use of the steam pressure outfits it is easily possible to can a
quarter or even a whole beef, fresh pork or poultry, and keep it in
good condition for several months.
WORK IN PREPARING GRAPE JUICE
The work in north and west Florida, in teaching the prepara-
tion. of grape juice and vinegar described in Miss Layton's re-
port, indicates that there are great possibilities for this work.
INFLUENZA
At the September meeting of the home demonstration agents,
definite plans were made for contests and housekeepers' schools.
On October 7, the first telegrams were received in the state office
calling off a contest on account of influenza. From then until
November 15 the epidemic was so serious in almost every county
in the State that meetings of any kind were unwise, and in
most places prohibited. This interfered with the completion of
the year's records. Instead of the usual contests, in many
counties the exhibits were brought in by the club members, to
be judged and made known at a later date.
The home demonstration agents, accustomed to take a leading







Annual Report, 1918


part in all war work, considered it their duty to take a leading
part in ministering to the sick. The work done varied with the
needs. The urban agents met the need in the cities by establish-
ing and managing soup kitchens, where custards and soups were
supplied to all who applied. In Miami the aviation camp was in
distress and the urban agent worked during the entire epidemic
in an emergencyhospital. With the assistance of the soldiers
she prepared the food for 160 men.
HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS IN WAR WORK
During the entire period of war, Florida's home demonstra-
tion agents were active in war work. They acted as chauffeurs
for war workers; carried speakers out into the country; urged
the people to attend the meetings; carried Red Cross material
to country women's units; organized Red Cross chapters in the
rural sections, and in every patriotic campaign have taken an
active part. The women and girls working under their leader-
ship have made Red Cross garments for Belgian and French
babies; clothing for the Florida Children's Home; bought Lib-
erty Bonds; sent boxes of jellies, jams and preserves to Florida
convalescents at the base hospitals, and adopted French war
orphans.
EMERGENCY COTTAGE CHEESE CAMPAIGN
The Department of Agriculture put on a nation-wide cam-
paign of instruction in making cottage cheese from the surplus
skimmed milk.
One of our workers was given two weeks' instruction in the
making of cottage cheese before taking up the work. She vis-
ited 15 counties, 48 towns, and gave 43 demonstrations with a
total attendance of 887 people. As a result of her work 153
women were taught to make and use cottage cheese, and 1510
pounds of this product were made.
WORK WITH NEGRO WOMEN
Home demonstration agents have been teaching negro women
the proper methods of canning, and these women have in turn
taught their neighbors. Two county home demonstration agents
equipped canning sheds in their yards and allowed the negroes
to come and use their canners, under the agent's supervision.
After the emergency appropriation became available, 15 negro
home demonstration agents were employed to teach canning and
food conservation to negro women and girls.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The following is a summary report of the work which wa
accomplished in the 15 counties under the supervision of thes(
women: Adult workers, 356; club members, 1273; total enroll-
ment, 1629; tin cans filled, 55,500; glass jars filled, 38,100; total
containers filled, 94,600; number clubs organized, 140; number
canners bought, 417.
Excellent work was done in various other lines such as soap
making, renovation of clothing and improving sanitary conditions
of the home.
The home demonstration agents act in an advisory capacity
and give careful study and assistance to the negro women's
work. The Agricultural and Mechanical College for negroes,
Tallahassee, is headquarters for all negro home demonstration
activities.
COUNTY SHORT COURSES FOR GIRLS
Thirty-three short courses were held, with an attendance of
690.
The county short course is usually held in the county site. A
representative from each club in the county is sent to the short
course, and she carries back to the club members in her neigh-
borhood new inspiration and information. The number of clubs
in the most prosperous counties vary from 19 to 25. In some
counties short courses were open to all girls, as in Washington
county, where the attendance was 100.
The teachers for short courses are the supervising agents of
extension work, who carry out a well planned course. The girls
in attendance are usually entertained by the leading women of
the town, resulting in a delightful cooperation between our
country girls and the town women.

COUNTY SHORT COURSES FOR WOMEN
Housekeepers' schools or short courses for women were given
in 29 towns and cities in south Florida, with an average attend-
ance of 110 women.
SUMMER SCHOOL
The Legislature of 1917 made an appropriation of $500 per
year for conducting a home economics summer school, planned
primarily for the home demonstration agents. Because of the
training offered in the summer schools, it is possible to employ
trained women for county work, which otherwise would be
impossible.






Annual Report, 1918


GIRLS' SHORT COURSE
The short course for girls was held during June, 1918. Forty-
two girls from 26 counties attended. The course consisted of a
series of lessons in poultry raising; the use and care of milk in
the home; home sanitation; home nursing; preservation, prepa-
ration and serving of foods; and in home management. The
lessons were arranged to give a broader vision and useful infor-
mation on practical phases of home making.




















FIG. 13.-Luncheon served to Hillsboro county school board by canning
club girls during the short course
Many of the students of these short courses have taken a
leading part in teaching food preservation and conservation
around their homes. A number of them are now in attendance
at the Florida State College for Women.
SHORT COURSE FOR WOMEN
A short course for housekeepers was held at the time of the
annual home economics summer school, so that those in attend-
ance could get the benefit of lectures by specialists from the
Department of Agriculture.
During the period between the summer and fall sessions a
second short course was offered to the women of the State, and
was supported by the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs. The
Extension Staff of the College and specialists of the Department
of Agriculture, provided the teaching staff.








































FIG. 14.-War college attendance, State College for Women






Annual Report, 1918


WAR COLLEGE

In the fall of 1918 the Florida State College for Women in-
vited the women of the State to hold a war college during the
annual meeting of the home demonstration agents. Thru the
cooperation of the food administration the conservation chair-
man of every county attended. The presidents and several mem-
bers of thirteen women's organizations in the State attended,
making a total attendance of 250.
The first week was given to lectures and demonstrations; the
second week to daily conferences. In this way the agents and
conservation chairmen gained a clearer understanding of the
work they needed to do.
The war college brought the leaders of the Florida women's
organizations in closer touch with the work of the home demon-
stration agents, placing them in a position to estimate its value
to the State and to give helpful suggestions and increased co-
operation.
STATE FAIR

Many of the county booths contained excellent home demon-
stration exhibits. In the state home demonstration booth the
amount that could be entered by any one county was limited to
three dozen glass and two dozen tin containers. Thirteen counties
sent complete exhibits. Eight club girls, five women's clubs
and several women displayed special exhibits made up of pickles,
jellies, dried products, preserves and marmalades, and seventeen
pounds of butter. The awards were as follows: For county
exhibits of girls' work, the first prize was won by Jefferson
county, second by Washington, and third by Madison county. In
the exhibits from women's clubs the Florahome Club, Putnam
county, took first prize; Bradentown club, Manatee county, sec-
ond; and the Manatee club, Manatee county, third.

INDIVIDUAL WOMEN'S EXHIBITS
First, jellies, preserves, etc.................Mrs. VanDer Grift, St. Johns county.
First, pickles..--.................... ..........Mrs. Sipprell, Putnam county.
Second, pickles .................. ..... ........... Mrs. Hartsfield, Lee county.
First, jelly... ..................................Mrs. J. M. Barfield, Dade county.
First, citrus................... .............. Mrs. Nellie Bush, Dade county.
First, butter.......................................Mrs. Oster, Putnam county.
Second, butter......................................Mrs. Hawkins, Duval county.






Florida Cooperative Extension


INDIVIDUAL GIRLS' EXHIBITS
First, grape ....................... .......................Katie Bradfish, St. Johns county.
Second, grape....................................... Eugenia Ponce, Duval county.
First, citrus......................... ....... ........Luna Stewart, DeSoto county.
First, jelly ..................................... .... Doloris Allums, Jefferson county.
Second, jelly............................. ................Eugenia Ponce, Duval county.
First, fig.......... ................ ........................Doloris Allums, Jefferson county.
First, dried products...............................Goldie Helms, Washington county.
First, pickles........................... ........ Goldie Helms, Washington county.




















FIG. 15.-Home demonstration exhibit at state fair
Members of the home demonstration staff gave daily demon-
strations on the following subjects: Food preparation, food
study, cheese and butter making, canning in tin, canning in glass,
and the use of the steam pressure.

POULTRY EXHIBITS
Poultry work is described by Miss Floyd as follows:
"The state fair association created a department in the poultry
division for the girls' and boys' poultry clubs, under direction
of the poultry specialist of the state home demonstration work.
No entry fees were charged.
"Exhibitors were required to furnish their record books, es-
says, and an exhibit consisting of one cockerel and two pullets.
The competition was between counties for a county prize. Each
county competing was required to furnish at least five exhibits
of trios. Competition between members of the same county was
for ribbons only. Each bird of merit was awarded a ribbon.







Annual Report, 1918 83

"Baker, Duval, St. Johns, Hernando, DeSoto, and Hillsboro
counties sent 34 exhibits, a total of 106 birds. Baker county
girls and boys won the first county prize, $25; Hernando county
the second, $15. These cash prizes were given with the under-
standing that they would be invested under the supervision of
the poultry specialist and county home demonstration agents.
"In addition to the county prizes the fair association offered
two bronze medals to the girl and the boy making the highest
individual record, the record book, essay and exhibit each count-
ing in the score. Marie Bradfish of St. Johns county won the
girls' medal. She set 170 eggs, raised 152 chickens, which had
a value (with their eggs) of $264.24. The cost of raising these,
chickens was $56.95, making a profit of $207.29.
"Lloyd Townsend of Baker county won the boys' medal. He
raised 83 chickens, valued at $116.15, produced at a cost of
$47.64, making a profit of $68.51."

STATISTICAL REPORT
Counties in, the District ............. ............... ...................... 54
Counties cooperating financially.............................................................. 41
W ell furnished offices............. ........................................... 37
Home demonstration kitchens................................................. ............... 50
Agents owning or being furnished cars.................................... .............. 42
Agents owning horse and buggy......................................................... 1
Counties making appropriation for home demonstration materials.... 22
Amount spent for home demonstration materials.............................$3117.42
Agents regularly employed........................................... 40
Agents employed for short period.................................................. 29
Average term of employment ...................................................................... 9.4
Average monthly salary (including travel).............................................$ 126.09
Average cost travel per month........................................................ ...........$ 37.23
Agents, Emergency ............................. ................................................ 7
Average number months employed............................. ....................... 6.5
Average monthly salary (including travel)...................................$ 150.00
Agents, Urban ....... ......... ............... ... .......... ............................... 7
Average number months employed....................................................... 6
Assistants during canning season.............................................. 15

FIELD WORK
Miles traveled by agents................................... 201,050
Visits made to club members. b members.......... 10,068
Visits made to homes .. ......................................... 11,238
Schools visited.................... ...... ..........---............ 5,248
Visits to home demonstrators..... .........-........ .............. 4,050
Demonstrations -given...................................... 4,358
Attendance ...... ....... ......................... 60,731
Meetings held or participated in............... ................ ....... 4,494
A attendance .......................................................................................... 103,255
Short courses for girls...-- -................................... 28
Attendance ......... .... .................................... ............. 711








84 Florida Cooperative Extension

Contests held........................ ............ ........... ... ... 26
Girls attending .................. ... .. ..... ........... 1,066
Total attendance ...........-- --...... ........- -......... ----- 6,103
Extension schools for housekeepers........................... ..... ......... 37
Enrolled attendance ......................................... 1,755

ACHIEVEMENTS
Number girls enrolled in canning clubs........................................... 3,212
Number in miscellaneous clubs.............. ........................ 780
Girls and boys enrolled in poultry clubs.... -----............................ 784
Women enrolled in poultry work...... ................................... 181
Women enrolled in egg circles............................. .............. 292
Women enrolled in other clubs................................... ........... 3,568
Women other than club members reached by work........................... 25,000
Clubs organized among girls............................................... ............. 351
Clubs organized among women......................... ........... ................ 273
Containers filled:
Glass .......................... ....... ..... ................ ........ 787,153
Tin .................................... ........................................... 610,033
Total ....... ....... ......... ............... .................. ............ 1,397,186
Dried products, pounds ................................. 3,723
Canners purchased........................................ .......... 659
Steam pressure outfits purchased................................. ...... ........... 212
War gardens ............... .................................................. 520

SUMMARY REPORT OF STATE WORKERS
Number of miles traveled........................................................ 67,731
Days engaged in office work................... .. ..................... 269
Days engaged in field work...................... ........ .. .................... 582
Days attending state meetings -............. .. ...........-........... 143
Days attending out-of-state meetings.......................................... ...... 21
Demonstrations given......................... ................... 204
Meetings attended....... ..... ...... ....... ................. 389
Estimated attendance..... ........... .....................- 27,558
Contests attended................ ................ ..................... 48
Short courses attended ........---......................................... 51
Estim ated attendance.................................. ........... ....................... 2,685
Fairs attended..... ............... .......................... ................. ........... 28
Schools visited .................... ... ... .. ........... .......... 61
H om es visited..................... ............. ............... 236
Conferences with:
County agents.......................... ... ........ ............. .............. 399
Farm superintendents-................... ...........................- ....... 52
School superintendents...................... ......... .... ................. 30
County commissioners in session......................................... .......... 2
SSupervisory visits to counties........................ ....... ........ ............ ................ 124
Miscellaneous meetings attended....................... ... ............ 50







Annual Report, 1918


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENT FOR EAST AND SOUTH FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent of
home demonstration work for East and South Florida for the
year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE,
District Home Demonstration Agent.

Satisfactory progress has been made and interest increased
during the year. This is evidenced by the increase in the num-
ber of counties supporting this work, increased county appro-
priations for the work, and an increase in the number of women;
and girls who attend the meetings and demonstrations and carry:
out in their home the instructions given them by the agents.
ORGANIZATION
In organizing the district, appropriations were secured from
21 of the 27 counties. Five of these made additional appro-
priations for the support of work among negroes. Nine of the
16 counties that were in the district during the previous year
made substantial increases in their appropriations. Funds were
provided in 22 counties for demonstration materials and equip-
ment. This is essential to the success of the work, for it is
impossible for an agent to do her best work without material and
equipment. These appropriations have ranged from $50 td
$200.
Agents were appointed in the district as follows: To 19
counties making sufficiently large appropriations, full time work-
ers were assigned. Two counties maintained two agents each.
Three counties were combined in a group and assigned to an
emergency agent. Two counties were given emergency, part
time workers. One county was cared for by an assistant emer-
gency agent of an adjoining county; two counties united in the
support of one agent, and to Monroe, the remaining county in
the district, was assigned an urban agent. Urban work is the
great need in this county.
OFFICES AND DEMONSTRATION KITCHENS
Twenty-three of the counties provided suitable offices for the
agent. These offices were usually in the court house, always in







































FIG. 16.-Home demonstration kitchen, used by Hillsboro county club members


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Annual Report, 1918


some place easy of access to the public. In St. Lucie county a one-
room building was set aside for home demonstration work. This
is well equipped as office and kitchen. Twenty folding chairs
make it possible to convert the room into a club or class room.
In Volusia county the commissioners provided a building for
the work. The room at the entrance of the building serves as an
office for the farm and home demonstration agents. It is suf-
ficiently large to care for classes of 20 or 30 persons. Back of
this is the well-equipped rest room. In the rear of the building
is the kitchen. Here country women often can produce which
they have failed to dispose of. During the "Swat the Rooster"
campaign, 78 roosters were canned in this kitchen on the steam
pressure canner, under the supervision of the home demonstra-
tion agent.
Forty home demonstration kitchens have been equipped. Funds
for this purpose have been provided by county commissioners,
school boards, city councils, local organizations, and in some in-
stances by the girls and women of the canning and home dem-
onstration clubs themselves. These kitchens are equipped as
demonstration rooms and canning centers. Most of the kitchens
are furnished with both steam pressure and hot water canners.
In canning season groups of women bring their vegetables and
fruits to these kitchens and put them up under expert super-
vision.
In a number of counties it has not been necessary to equip
kitchens except in remote rural sections, as the agents had the
privilege of using the domestic science departments in the schools
for group work with women and girls. Twenty-one domestic
science departments in public schools are being used in this
way.
In every city and town in which an urban worker was main-
tained a demonstration kitchen was provided for the work. In
Tampa the kitchen is delightfully located in the city hall. This
room also serves as office for the urban and county agents, and
is the center of home demonstration activities in the county.
In addition to this kitchen, the gas company gave the use of a
splendidly equipped canning kitchen with individual equipment
for 20 workers, to be used during the canning season.

ENROLLMENT OF WOMEN AND GIRLS
In the organized work the enrollment among women has shown
the greatest increase in membership in clubs holding regular







Florida Cooperative Extension


monthly meetings. The members have poultry clubs, pantry
clubs, and egg circles.
The number of organized clubs in a county varies from four
to twelve among women; and from four to eighteen among girls.
*These clubs are doing good work in their study of the extension
course for housekeepers.
"How to live wisely and well" has been the keynote of the
study course. A demonstration was given with each lesson
taught. Much time has been given to war cookery. The monthly
meetings of the home demonstration clubs offer an excellent op-
portunity for this. Every regulation of the food administration
modifying the usual preparation of food was brought to the
attention of the housekeepers. The average number in the group
brought together for study was only 16, but the total attendance
was large, being 30,434.
Club meetings, especially in rural sections, have not only
given the women an opportunity for study and improvement, but
in many cases have furnished the social hour for the group. As
one woman expressed it: "This is our moving picture of the
month, the only time we get together. You don't know what it
means to us".
EXTENSION SCHOOLS FOR HOUSEKEEPERS
Extension schools for housekeepers for the teaching of food
conservation were held at 29 places. These lasted from three to
six days. The lectures and demonstrations in this course were
based on the following subjects: Victory breads, Victory sweets,
good dishes from corn products, cooking and canning under steam
pressure, meat substitutes, and vegetable cookery. These schools
were well attended by the housekeepers of the towns in which
they were held. State workers and local home economics teach-
ers assisted the agents in conducting the schools. Several of
these schools resulted in the formation of strong home demon-
stration clubs. This feature of the work will be further developed
next year.
VICTORY AND POTATO WEEK
"Wheatless Week" was observed as "Victory Week" in Flor-
ida. Sketches of window decorations were furnished the agents
and Victory window displays were put up in stores; parades
and public demonstrations were held to push government food
propaganda. Special classes were conducted for instructing
housekeepers in the use of wheat substitutes, and of attractive







Annual Report, 1918


ways of preparing and serving them. Potato week was observed
thruout the district.
HEALTH WORK
Not only has the proper selection, preparation and use of
food been emphasized, but home sanitation, cleanliness and per-
sonal hygiene. Special emphasis has been laid upon the need
for pure milk in the diet of the child.
GENERAL PATRIOTIC WORK
A Polk county girl was the first canning club member in the
district to purchase a Liberty Bond with proceeds from her
garden. Many club members have purchased thrift stamps;
agents have encouraged War Saving and Thrift Stamps as club
prizes. The district has adopted a French war baby to be
supported and clothed by club members during the coming year.
Much interest is manifested in this work. The club girls will
make the garments for the baby. The girls in three counties
have adopted a French baby for each of their respective counties.

GOOD RECORD BY CLUB GIRLS
The highest yield of tomatoes in the State on a tenth-acre
plot was made by Anna Sykes, a Dade county canning club
girl. She harvested 6300 pounds of tomatoes from her garden.
She shipped her tomatoes, receiving $285.93. After deducting
the cost of cultivation, $33.51, and $60 paid for crates, express
and commissions, her net profit was $192.42. This was the
largest net profit realized by any club girl.
One.of the best business records made by a club girl was made
by Selma Letzing of Manatee county. The proceeds from the
products of her tenth-acre and from 500 cans of tomatoes put up
from the home garden were $305.83. Her expenses were $44.72,
leaving a net profit of $261.11.
Agnes Williams of Citrus county made the following record on
a tenth-acre plot: She harvested 3745 pounds of tomatoes, 119
pounds of onions and then planted the plot in potatoes. She
had an excellent yield from these. She canned and sold 1337
cans of tomatoes. Her receipts from fresh vegetables and canned
goods were $185.24, expenses $65.77, profit $119.47. Agnes was
first-prize winner in her county. She is now a student in the
Florida State College for Women, working her way thru. She
defrays part of her expenses with the money made in club work.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CANNING
The total number of containers may not exceed that of last
year, but the work has been more generally done. More than ten
times as many glass containers were filled in the district of south
and east Florida as were filled in the entire State last year,
522,201 jars being filled. The average glass container was the
quart jar. There were 359,852 tin containers filled, making a
total of 882,053 containers filled in the district.
To encourage canning, "pantry clubs" were originated. Each
member of such a club was pledged to put into the home pantry
not less than 50 containers which she had filled with fruits or
vegetables. In one county in which work had never been main-
tained, an emergency worker was employed for ten weeks. She
enrolled in the pantry club 270 women and three girls. As a
result of the work, 31,000 quart containers were filled. This
county has appropriated $1000 for next year's work, and will
employ an agent for ten months.
The cooperative plan for canning has been successfully fol-
lowed in several counties. Under this plan clubs are formed
among housewives and canning centers equipped. Here the
farmer brings his surplus vegetables and they are canned on a
fifty-fifty basis. The farmer supplies the vegetables and pays
for one half of the cans, solder, fuel, etc. The club furnishes
the labor and pays for the other half of the supplies. A club
member is appointed business manager for the club, and a strict
account is kept of the number of hours that each has worked.
This plan has been in operation in the district for the two years
and has proven entirely satisfactory to farmers and housewives.
In Manatee county four such clubs put up 25,000 cans of vege-
tables. Three of these clubs had the use of domestic science
kitchens. The fourth was without equipment or means of se-
curing it, but with a splendid determination to do its part two
large galvanized zinc tubs were used for a canner. Two cap-
ping steels and two tipping coppers completed this meagre equip-
ment. When the price of beans no longer made it profitable to
ship they were canned. This club put up 10,000 cans of vege-
tables. It sold $25 worth of the club's share of these cans, and
had this amount for the purchase of equipment. A club of Miami
housewives screened and equipped a garage belonging to one of
its members. These women filled 3,000 cans with surplus vege-
tables obtained from truckers.
A Manatee county girl made the highest individual record in







Annual Report, 1918


canning, putting up 3500 cans of vegetables. She finds a ready
sale for all of her work.
In Orlando, at the opening of the canning season, captains of
canning,units were trained to assist the agent during the season,
and busy women converted the kitchen into a canning center
that did very successful work. This kitchen operated in close
connection with the newly established curb market, and surplus
vegetables were brought here by the farmers for cooperative
canning.
In one county when the shipping of tomatoes had been aban-
doned because of low prices, the agent arranged for one club of
girls to stay in the home of a farmer who had 40 acres in to-
matoes and can the surplus crop. The girls were under the care
of the farmer's wife; they received their board and $1.00 a day
for their work. The farm hands picked the tomatoes and brought
them to the house, and the girls canned from morning until
night.
The canning of meat has been extensively carried on; pork,
beef, fish and poultry being conserved in this manner. There
were 146 steam pressure canners bought in the district during
the year. This feature of the work has proven very satisfactory.

PURPOSES OF WORK FOR 1918-1919
Increasing club membership.
Strengthening club organization.
Teaching food values and cookery.
Increasing food production.
Teaching conservation in clothing.
Working for better homes.
Developing the social hour.
Conservation of child life.
Fostering the spirit of Americanism.







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENT FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for
home demonstration work in North and West Florida, for the
year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON,
District Home Demonstration Agent.

ORGANIZATION
At the beginning of this fiscal year, the district of north and
west Florida comprised 27 counties. Of these 18 counties made
local appropriations for the continuance of the work. Out of
the 18 counties only one made an appropriation as large as
$1000.
The nine counties of this district without a home demonstra-
tion agent were placed into three groups, and an emergency
agent secured to take charge of each group. Early in the sum-
mer an emergency canning agent was sent into each of the nine
group counties and into five of the large towns in the district.
GIRLS' WORK
The regular work among girls began in every county com-
pleting the year's work with the fall contest. This was followed
by the organization of clubs holding, where possible, monthly
meetings. Lessons in food and agriculture were studied at
these meetings, and ended with some social activity.
The highest yield yet made in Florida from a club girl's tenth-
acre was made by Julia Holland of Madison county. She made
on her tenth-acre, 4879 pounds of tomatoes and 2538 pounds of
other vegetables, making a total of 7417 pounds.
Eula Trantham of Duval county reports a profit of $195 from
her tenth-acre. This girl took over the farm poultry flock, and
reports over $200 from this source. Living near Jacksonville
she has a good market. Her graded eggs are now selling for
$1 a dozen.
In St. Johns county Marie Bradfish took first county prizes
for canning and poultry club work, and third for pig club work.
She also took the bronze medal at the state fair for best state
record made by a girl in poultry work.
A real beginning has been made this year in the Perennial
Garden for club girls. Thru the cooperation of three nurseries







Annual Report, 1918


,and one or two -individuals, good nursery stock, such as fruit
trees, nut trees, and grape vines have been given as prizes at
the fall contest.
In twelve counties a three-day short course was held. Besides
the girls, many mothers and townspeople attended these lectures
and demonstrations. The principal lessons taught were canning,
both in hot water and steam pressure, drying, wheatless recipes,
the use of potatoes, the use of milk and cheese, cottage cheese,
butter making, and personal hygiene.
WOMEN'S WORK
More than ever before the women have asked for advice and
help. Women's home demonstration clubs, poultry clubs and egg
circles have been formed. Where organized work seemed im-
possible, war gardens and poultry clubs were encouraged. These
required no meetings and no special records. As a result of the
home demonstration work 10,000 women thruout the district
were definitely reached in some active way.
A new phase of work for women has been the home demonstra-
tion and canning kitchens. The women of the towns have been
eager to give their time and labor in order to can the fresh
vegetables from the country. The plan of these kitchens has been
in general similar to the following:
"Thirty women worked in groups of six, five days a week, and
canned on halves for the farmers. Each person paid for his
cans; the farmer furnished the vegetables. The women did
the work. The money for the fuel, etc., was furnished by in-
dividual members of the school board and commissioners."
CAMPAIGNS
At times during the year regular work was suspended and
campaigns put on. The first of these was Victory Week. The
potato campaign was the next in order. But the canning cam-
paign with the slogans "Fill the home pantry" and "Three hun-
dred sixty-five cans in every home" crying on all sides, was per-
haps the greatest movement of all.
CANNING WITH STEAM PRESSURE
The use of the steam pressure canner has increased splen-
didly during the past year. Its greatest value has been the can-
ning of meats, fish and poultry. The following is an agent's
report of one day's work in canning a beef: 35 cans of boiled
beef, 34 cans of roast beef, 15 cans of steak, 12 cans of soup
stock, 1 can of tongue, 2 cans of brains, 1 can of stuffed heart, 6







Florida Cooperative Extension


cans of tripe, 2 cans of liver; making a total of 108 cans of beef
for home use.
WAR WORK
All our work this year might well be classed under the head of
War Work, but especial time and thought have been given to the
following drives: The Food Survey, the Liberty Loan, and the
War Savings Stamps.
At Christmas a donation of jellies, jams and preserves was sent
by the club girls of this district to the Florida convalescents at
the Base Hospital at Camp Wheeler.
SPECIAL MEETINGS
A series of group meetings for special instruction to agents
were held at Pensacola, Tallahassee, and Palatka. At this time
Mr. Charles Dearing, of the Plant Bureau, gave most excellent
instruction in the culture and use of the muscadine grape. This
is one of the most beneficial movements yet made for north and
west Florida. We have an abundance of muscadine grapes. This
report from St. Johns county tells the possibilities of this work:
"The most interesting special work has been with muscadine grapes.
St. Johns county has always made and sold large quantities of home-made
wines. This was not made in factories but in the homes. There were many
homes, both in the town and country, that had large arbors, and had out
the sign 'Home-made Wine for Sale Here'. When the prohibition law
was passed the people were forced to get rid of their wine at a sacrifice,
the market for it being purely local. I got permission from the sheriff
for them to turn it into vinegar and over 1000 gallons of wine of a doubtful
quality was turned into vinegar of an excellent quality.
"I talked the manufacture of unfermented juice all thru the year, and in
August, with the assistance of Mr. Dearing and Miss Heist, had quite a
quantity made, using the equipment of the wine cellars. I hope that this
is the basis of a good industry."
DEMONSTRATIONS
Wheat substitutes and wheatless breads, cakes, puddings, etc.,
the use of peanuts, cornmeal and potatoes, the conservation of
meat, sugar and fat, and the steam pressure canner formed the
subjects for the demonstrations most generally given. The
whole year's work, with Miss Harris away, has been very strenu-
ous. My work has been principally that of supervising and
organizing 27 counties. Of necessity, fewer meetings have been
attended and fewer schools and homes visited.
The following are the chief aims in view for the work of the
coming year: To increase production by means of home gardens;
to continue conservation of food; to give the women of each
county the opportunity of attending a housekeepers' school; to
provide planned monthly lessons for club girls; to plant peren-
nials; and to push grape work.






Annual Report, 1918


REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB WORK
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the poultry club work
for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
MINNIE FLOYD,
Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent.

POULTRY WORK EXTENDED
Because of war conditions this year there has been a decided
breaking away from the original plans of extending the poultry
club work. Instead of adding a few counties gradually, as had
been planned, opportunity was given all county home demonstra-
tion agents of one or more years' experience to begin poultry
club work. No first year, nor emergency group county agent
was required to begin poultry club work, exceptions to the plan,
however, being made in Okeechobee, Baker, Leon and DeSoto
counties, where conditions were especially favorable for poultry
club work. In Wakulla county, altho it was handled by an
emergency agent, the opportunity to begin the work could not be
neglected. Four successful egg circles have demonstrated the
wisdom of the undertaking in that county.

PLAN OF THE WORK
The work this year has been conducted the same as last year,
under two divisions: girls' poultry clubs, in which a few boys
also were enrolled; and women's poultry clubs. All the counties
beginning last year have continued thru 1918. In Hillsboro,
Dade and Polk counties the assistant agents devoted a part of
their time to looking after the poultry club work. One agent
did the poultry club work for Duval and St. Johns counties.
There has been some organized poultry club work in about half
the counties of the State, but the same plan of work has not been
carried out in all of them. Some counties began with only one
club; some did only girls' work; others women's work, while most
of them had clubs for both women and girls.

GIRLS' CLUBS
Girls who have done successful canning club work for one year
or more have been given the opportunity to join both the canning
and poultry clubs. Girls who had not been members of any club






Florida Cooperative Extension


formerly have been given the choice of membership in either
club, but girls have not been permitted to join both clubs for the
first time in the same year. The plan adopted by some agents of
joint meetings for the girls' and boys' canning, corn and pig
clubs is to be recommended wherever it is possible.




















FIG. 17.-Dade county poultry club
Realizing that the girls need the same instructions in cooking,
sewing, etc., whether they are members of poultry or canning
clubs, the home demonstration agents in Escambia, Santa Rosa
and St. Johns counties have girls from both clubs working to-
gether in short courses, as well as in regular monthly meetings.
COOPERATION FROM POULTRYMEN
Special mention is made of the poultry club work in Baker
county, as the results obtained proved to be the best in the State
and would be a good example for other counties to follow. Mr.
Ventling, a poultryman near Glen St. Mary, made an offer thru
the county home demonstration agent to furnish 100 settings
of purebred eggs (white Leghorn or white Wyandotte) to the
poultry club girls and boys of Baker county, and take two pullets
raised from each sitting as pay. Many girls and boys eagerly
took advantage of this offer, with the result that at the county
short course, held April 20, over 500 growing chicks were re-
ported, with more eggs incubating.







Annual Report, 1918


In Duval county members of the Jacksonville Poultry Asso-
ciation gave 19 settings of eggs to Duval county club members
as prizes on exhibits made at the Jacksonville poultry show held
in December, 1917.

COUNTY CONTESTS AND SHORT COURSES
Of the seven original counties doing poultry club work, viz:
Escambia, Duval, St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Hillsboro, DeSoto and
Polk, all except DeSoto and Polk held contests and made credit-
able exhibits at the county fall contests.
The poultry club girl making the best record in each of Es-
cambia, Santa Rosa and St. Johns counties was awarded a
scholarship to the girls' short course. In St. Johns county the
poultry club boy making the best record also received a scholar-
ship, to attend the boys' short course at the University of
Florida.
The state poultry club agent attended 16 county contests and
short courses during the year, and gave lectures on poultry work
at each one.
















FIG. 18.-Poultry club girl, Santa Rosa county
GIRLS AND BOYS' EXHIBITS AT THE JACKSONVILLE POULTRY SHOW
The Jacksonville Poultry Association extended an invitation
to all the girls and boys' poultry clubs of the State to exhibit
their birds at the Jacksonville poultry show held December 4-8,
1917. The clubs in Duval, Escambia and Hillsboro counties took
advantage of the opportunity, and exhibited 21 coops. Small







Florida Cooperative Extension


cash prizes and settings of purebred eggs were given for best
exhibits. The exhibit attracted so much attention that a de-
partment for the girls and boys' poultry club has been created in
the poultry department of the state fair.
POULTRY WORK AT THE SHORT COURSES
The State College for Women gave lectures and demonstra-
tions on poultry in the Methods Class in Home Economics.
Students received practical work in operating an incubator,
grading, scoring, candling market eggs, and testing the fertility
of eggs in the incubator. At the annual meeting of the county
home demonstration agents the mornings were given almost en-
tirely to poultry instruction. Lectures on poultry management
were given daily at the girls' short course. The poultry club
agent lectured on poultry work at the meeting of county agents,
boys' short course, and the farmers' short course.
TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL WORK
A series of monthly programs were outlined on poultry sub-
jects, and these were sent out for use in girls' and women's meet-
ings. The outline was as follows:
September, marketing of eggs (organization of cooperative
egg circles).
October, grading and scoring of commercial eggs.
November, breeds of poultry.
December, feeds and feeding of poultry.
January, natural and artificial incubation.
February, diseases of poultry.
March, eggs in the diet.
April, preserving eggs.
May, rooster day.
WOMEN'S WORK
Poultry club work with women has been more strongly em-
phasized than in the past. More stress was placed on economical
than on increased production.
Where women lived too far apart to attend club meetings,
they were enrolled as individual members of the county club.
Community poultry clubs have been organized where there was
not an appreciative need of help with marketing of products.
Where there was a realization of the need, cooperative egg circles
have been organized, the results obtained being the most satis-
factory of any phase of the work.







Annual Report, 1918


EXHIBITS
Since the organization of poultry club work was begun with
whatever stock a member might have, few attempts were made
to have women's club exhibits. However, Escambia, Orange and
Osceola counties had a few women's exhibits at the fall contests.
The Osceola county agent was successful in getting most of the
members of the women's clubs to buy purebred eggs for hatching,
and also to arrange for early hatching.
The poultry club work in Dade county was started by having
quite a few members buy purebred stock. The club members
furnished more than half the exhibits of the poultry show at
the Miami fair.

PRODUCTION OF POULTRY FEEDS
Special emphasis has been laid on the production of feed at
home and it is a noticeable fact that more poultry work is done
in the counties where feed is raised. Where most of the feed
must be purchased the price was so high that many people sacri-
ficed their poultry last year.

RECORDS
The agents have emphasized the value of well kept records.
Some satisfactory reports of production and marketing have
been obtained, but very few accurate ones on feeding. On farms
where feed is produced it is usually taken as needed without
measuring or estimating its value or cost each day. If the
feed is bought other farm animals are usually fed from the same
supply. These conditions make it very difficult to procure accu-
rate records on cost of production.

ROOSTER DAY
Realizing that the feed consumed by male birds increases the
feed bill, also that one third of the loss from bad eggs is caused
by the partial hatching of fertile eggs, a campaign was conducted
for getting rid of the male birds after the hatching season was
over. Accordingly newspaper articles, programs for club meet-
ings, etc., were sent out asking that June 1 be observed as
"Rooster Day" by selling, killing, or confining all male birds
during the summer months.
In Baker county the agent secured the promise of merchants
to pay five cents per dozen more for guaranteed infertile eggs
than for fertile ones during the summer months. With this