<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal to governor...
 Credits
 Director's report
 Report of the state agent
 Report of the district agent for...
 Report of the district agent for...
 Report of the boys' agricultural...
 Report of the sweet potato storage...
 Report of the state home demonstration...
 Report of the district home demonstration...
 Report of the district home demonstration...
 Report of poultry club agent
 Farmers' institutes
 Index














Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075774/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title: Annual report
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1917
Publication Date: 1917-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46385656
lccn - 2001229381
System ID: UF00075774:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Report Florida agricultural extension service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal to governor of Florida
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Director's report
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Report of the state agent
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Report of the district agent for east and south Florida
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Report of the district agent for north and west Florida
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Report of the boys' agricultural club agent
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Report of the sweet potato storage specialist
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Report of the state home demonstration agent
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Report of the district home demonstration agent for east and south Florida
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Report of the district home demonstration agent for north and west Florida
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Report of poultry club agent
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Farmers' institutes
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Index
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
Full Text






Cooperative Extension Work in
Agriculture and Home Economics
University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating
P. H. ROLFS, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1917
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1917








Cooperative Extension Work in

Agriculture and Home Economics

University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating
P. H. ROLFS, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1917
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1917


MARCH, 1918









CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF -TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA....... ....................... 3
BOARD OF CONTROL............................... ............. ............. ... .... 4
EXTENSION STAFF ---........................-............- ................. 4
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD OF CONTROL...................... 7
REPORT OF DIRECTOR.......................... .. ..........- ...... .......?.....
Organization ............. .......... ............... ...... ... ........ ..._ 8
Plan of the W ork ........... ......... .............. --........ ......... ......... ...... ........ 12
Financial Statement.... .. --....- .................. ...............15
Publications*' ........... .. --- -------.....- .................. ..................... 15
Cooperative Enterprises......................................... ........... -........ 16
Educational and Demonstrational Hog Cholera Work.................................. 18
Expansion of Work for Next Year.............................................................. 21
Value of Cooperative Demonstration Work to Farmers.............................. 22
REPORT OF THE STATE AGENT............. .. ........................................... .......... 24
Agents' M meetings ...... ..-..-.. ........----- ------------.............. .................. 26
Activities Especially Stressed-----......................... ... .............. 27
Activities of Extension Workers (statistical).................................... 28
Hog Cholera Inoculation....................................................... 36
Work with Negro Farmers..-............................ ....... ......... 36
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, EAST AND SOUTH ................................... 39
Cattle and Hogs....................................... ... .. .................... 39
Citrus Demonstrations................. ............-- ........................... 40
Truck Demonstrations... .......................................... 41
Appropriations to Support County Work..................................................... 41
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND WEST.......................... 42
Corn .......... ...................... ..... .......... .. 43
Cotton .......... .......- ........-......... ....... ................ 43
Velvet Beans......... .... .... .............. ................. 43
Peanuts .. .......................... ...... .. .. ....... ................ 43
Livestock ............................................................. .......... 44
REPORT OF BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT................................ 47
Summary of Corn Club W ork............................................................... ........... 49
Pig Clubs.... ............. ..... .. .................... ..... .... ........................ 50
Peanut Clubs .......................................................... .................. 51
Boys' M meetings. ... .. ........ ............. ............ ......................................... 52
Boys Attending Short Course at University.................. .......................54
REPORT OF SWEET POTATO STORAGE SPECIALIST... ..-.............. .... ......... ... 57
REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT....--.............................. 60
The County Home Demonstration Agent.......................................... 60
General Plan of the W ork............................................ ........ ...................... 62
Fairs, Contests and Short Courses .................... ....... ................... 63
State M meetings ....................................... .... ................ 64
W ar Changed Conditions ................. ................ ............ ........... .... 66
M eat and Fish Canning................ ................ ..... ....................... 71
Summary of Girls' Club W ork................. .................................................. 73
Statistical Reports...... .................... ..................... .................................. 74
REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, EAST AND SOUTH......... 75
County Short Courses........... .... ....................................... .... .... .... .. 77
Club Members at Fairs...............-- ...................... ..-..................... 78
Statistical Report.............................. .........79
REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST. .... 80
Special County Work................. .............. ............ 82
Statistical Report ............. .............. ....... ..........83
REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB AGENT... ................... ................ 84
Plan of Poultry Club W ork.................... ............ ... ......... 85
Cooperative Egg Circles............ ................................ 86
Progress of W ork.... ............ ................................... 87
Statistical Report...... ........... ....... ... .... ......... 88
FARMERS' INSTITUTES ... ......................................... ... 89
County Agents' Institutes...................... .... .. .................... .................. 89
Women's and Girls' Institutes.................. .................... ...... 9
Food Production Campaign Meetings.... ... ......................... 91
INDEX ... ................................. ............ 92






















Hon. Sidney J. Catts,
SGovernor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Fla.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the
Director of the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in
the University of Florida for the calendar year ending December
31, 1917, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1917.
Respectfully,
JOE L. EARMAN,
Chairman of the Board of Control.








Florida Cooperative Extension


BOARD OF CONTROL
JOE L. EARMAN, Chairman, Jacksonville, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Fla.
J. B. HODGES, Lake City, Fla.
J. T. DIAMOND, Milton, Fla.
SBRYAN MACK, Secretary, Tallahassee, Fla.

OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
BRADFORD KNAPP, Chief.
H. E. SAVELY, Agriculturist and Field Agent.
O. B. MARTIN, Assistant in Charge Demonstration Club Work.
I. W. HILL, Assistant in Demonstration Club Work.

COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND
HOME ECONOMICS STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University.
P. H. ROLFS, Director.
C. K. MCQUARRIE, State Agent.
A. P. SPENCER, Assistant Director.
AGNES ELLEN HARRIS, State Agent, Home Demonstration Work.
GERTRUDE I. YORK, Acting State Agent, Home Demonstration Work.
H. S. MCLENDON, District Agent for South Florida.
E. W. JENKINS, District Agent for North and East Florida.
S. W. HIATT, District Agent for West Florida.
G. L. HERRINGTON, Boys' Agricultural Club Agent.
E. M. MANNING, Assistant Boys' Agricultural Club Agent.
MINNIE FLOYD, Poultry Club Agent.
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, District Agent for East and South Florida, Home
Demonstration Work.
HARRIET B. LAYTON, District Agent for North and West Florida, Home
Demonstration Work.
MAY MORSE, Dairy Specialist.
A. H. LOGAN, Veterinary Inspector in Charge, Bureau of Animal Industry,
U. S. D. A.
A. S. HOUCHIN, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A.
L. N. PETERSON, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A.
H. F. WALKER, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A.
J. A. GENUNG, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A.
D. H. WATTSON, Scientific Assistant in Beef Cattle Investigations, Bureau of
Animal Industry, U. S. D. A.
R. L. CLUTE, Insect Control in Stored Grain, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A.
O. K. COURTNEY, Insects of Truck Crops, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A.
JOHN M. SCOTT, Lecturer, Animal Industry.
B. F. FLOYD, Lecturer, Citrus.
J. R. WATSON, Lecturer, Entomology.
H. E. STEVENS, Lecturer, Plant Pathology.
S. E. COLLISON, Lecturer, Soils and Fertilizers.
0. W. WEAVER, Editor.
BESSIE V. GLOVER, Secretary.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor.

COUNTY COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua ....................................W E. Brown ........................... Gainesville
B aker ........................................ J. S. Johns ................................M acclenny
Bay ...................................... .D. G. McQuagge......................Panama City
Bradford ................................C. D. Gunn................................Starke
Brevard ....................................C. D. Kime* -.......................... Titusville
Broward .................................J. S. Rainey*............................Ft. Lauderdale
Calhoun ....................................J. E. Yon*................................Blountstown
Citrus ....................................... Lecanto






Annual Report, 1917 5

Clay .........................................W T. Nettles*.-.......................Green Cove Springs
Columbia ...............-----.................. S. Smith .............................Jennings
Dade ....................-----................. J. McKinley-........................Miami
DeSoto ..................................... W A. Sessom s ......................... Arcadia
Duval ..---......................... .......W L. W atson ..........................Jacksonville
Escambia .............................C. A. Fulford---.... ---..................Pensacola
Flagler ...............................W. H. Deant..----........ ---.................---Bunnell
Franklin ................. .............. Vacancy* .....................---------........- Apalachicola
Gadsden ............................-..... M. N. Smith -_....................... River Junction
Hamilton ..........................-----......S. S. Smitht... ---- ----..................... Jennings
Hernando -----......... ...........J.... as. Mountain*-..-...................- Brooksville
Hillsboro ..................................R. T. Kelley*............................ Plant City
Holmes .----------.................................. J. Sechrest----.................--......... Bonifay
Jackson ..-................................J. 0. Traxler-........................... Marianna
Jefferson ................ -----.................T. C. Bradford-----..... --..................-- Monticello
LaFayette ............................ D. C. Geigert.-...................----. Mayo
Lake ......................................... Wm. Gomme .........----........------ Tavares
Lee .........................................J. M. Boring* ------..........................Ft. Myers
Leon ....---------................................R. I. Matthews....................... Tallahassee
Levy .... ---------..................................R. L. Denson*..........................Bronson
Liberty ......-...-......................... .J. Hathaway.................---....--Bristol
Madison ........................-...........C. E. Matthews.... ---..................Madison
Manatee ....................................0. W. Caswell*---.....................-- Bradentown
Marion ..........................-............. W. Blacklock.....................----- Ocala
Nassau ............----......................... James Shaw* .....................---- Hilliard
Okaloosa ....................-...........-- J. Hartt.......................--Laurel Hill
Okeechobee ............................. L. E. Davist ----... ---...--- Okeechobee
Orange ......................................E. F. DeBusk*......................----Orlando
Osceola .................................. B. E. Evans................-------- Kissimmee
Palm Beach ..............................R. N. Wilson* .-...............--.---West Palm Beach
Pasco ......-............................. R. T. Weaver.----..................----Dade City
Pinellas --..................................R. L. McMullent...................------ Largo
Polk .. -----........................................A. A. Lewis*............................------- Kathleen
Putnam ..- ----..........................-- .......L. Cantrell* ......................------- Palatka
Santa Rosa ........ ---......................R. T. Oglesby..............--.-----... Milton
Seminole .................................C. M. Berry* ....-----................-----Sanford
Sumter .................................... M. S. Hillt--..-.-....... ------- Coleman
Suwannee ................................D. A. Armstrong...............-----Live Oak
St. Johns .................................J. E. Cheatham..............-------.. St. Augustine
St. Lucie .................................Alfred Warren* .--.........--..----F.t. Pierce
Taylor .....................................L. R. Moore..............----......-----Perry
Volusia .................----...............R. E. Lenfest* -------.......... .....DeLand
Wakulla .............-....................W. T. Green. ............................Arran
Walton ......................................Q. C. Webb*.............................DeFuniak Springs
Washington .............................Geo. E. Mead-.-....... --............. Chipley

COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Baker ................... ---.....................Miss Harriet Hawthorn ..........- acclenny
Bay .-----...................................... Mrs. Etta Matthews-----......... Panama City
Bradford --................................ Miss Margaret Burleigh ..- Starke
Brevard ....-.---- ........---....Mrs. W. W. Gay...................... Melbourne
Clay .................................... Mrs. W. T. Nettles*............... Green Cove Springs
Calhoun ....................................Mrs. Grace F. Warren .......... Blountstown
Citrus ..........................------..---........ Miss Connie DeVane .............Inverness
Dade .................................---......Miss Genevieve Crawford......Miami
Mrs. C. W. Bush, Asst.*........ Goulds
DeSoto -------..........-...... ...Mrs. Ann J. Campbell*..........Arcadia
Duval ............ -------.--- ..Mrs. Effie Wellington*..........Jacksonville
SMiss Mary Gray, Asst.*........Jacksonville

*Emergency, cooDerative. fEmergency, total.






6 Florida Cooperative Extenston

Escambia ................................Miss Lonnie Landrum-.......... Pensacola
Gadsden ...................................Miss Ruby McDavid...............Hinson
Hernando .................-...............Miss Kate Townsend..............Brooksville
Hillsboro ..................................Miss Isabelle Story.................Tampa
Miss Irma Higgins, Asst....... Plant City
Jackso .....................................Mrs. Ivie Turnbull..................Marianna
Jefferson ..................................Miss Jennie Carter..................Monticello
Lake ...-------.....................................Miss Clarine Hoyt*.............. Tavares
Lee ..-------....-.....-- .....---- Mrs. Enid A. Parker..........Ft. Myers
Leon ........................................Miss Laura Dyer*.... .....-..Tallahassee
Madison .-.........--.. ....-...-- Miss Edna Smith....................Madison
Manatee ..............................--Miss Eloise McGriff................Bradentown
Marion ..........--------..........................Mrs. Caroline Moorhead........Ocala
Okaloosa ............. ...............---.Miss Margaret Cobb................Crestview
Okeechobee ............................--..Miss Marie Benedictt............Okeechobee
Orange ...............................-- -Mrs. Nellie Taylor ................. Orlando
Osceola ...................-.......-------Miss Albina Smith--...............--- Kissimmee
Palm Beach .........................---Miss Elizabeth Hopkins..........West Palm Beach
Pinellas ....--....-........-----------..... Miss Hazel Carter*................ Largo
Polk ........................-----.......... Mrs. Dora Barnes..................Bartow
Putnam .......... -----........................Miss Josephine Sipprell-........Palatka
St. Johns .............. .-------------Miss Lois Godbey-----....................St. Augustine
St. Lucie ..------...............................Miss Bessie Partee ---..................Ft. Pierce
Santa Rosa ....................-----..........Miss Winnie Warren..............Milton
Seminole ....--...................--------- Mrs. C. M. Berryt............. Sanford
Taylor ......................................Miss E. H. Roberts-..............-- Perry
Volusia ..............-------.....Mrs. Willa Steed......................DeLand
Washington ................--.......... Mrs. Susie Sapp Croftont..... Chipley
Nassau .--.---.. ............
Suwannee... .........
Columbia ............................ Miss Marianna Rublet..........Lake City
Hamilton .......................---
Alachua ............ ... ..........
LaFayette .......................... Miss Stella Harmst---......--. Gainesville
Levy ...................------------ .----...........-
Sumter ---------- ---------- ........ aeCt
Sumtco ----------- Miss Myrtle Floyd*......... Dade City
Walton ............................--
Holmes ..-- _- ------ Miss Jennie Chappellet........DeFuniak Springs
Franklin ...... ---... ............---
Wakulla ....... Miss Alice Dorsett..............Sopchoppy
Liberty ....i.......----...........-- ..
*Emergency, cooperative. tEmergency, total.

CITY AGENTS*
Arm s, M rs. Jessie Rich.................................................... Jacksonville
Armstrong, Miss Rena K. ...........- : ... ......Tampa
Carter, Miss Helen .........................-----............ Pensacola
Cushman, Miss Lucy ------.... .---------- -....--Miami
Felkel, Mrs. H. A. ........................................... Tallahassee
Nevins, Miss Bessie .. ----------- --- --...............
Pratt, Miss Dorothy ....-..----------...--..- ------ ..Orlando
Weaver, Mrs. O. W. .. ..-- ----------.. ............... Gainesville and Ocala

*All City Agents are paid entirely from Emergency Funds.










Report of General Activities for 1917

with
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year

Ending June 30, 1917

Hon. Joe L. Earman,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of
the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the University
of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1917, and the report of the activities of
the Extension Division for the calendar year 1917. I respectfully
request that you transmit the same, in accordance with the law,
to the Governor of the State of Florida.
Respectfully,
P. H. ROLFS,
Director.

INTRODUCTION
The Agricultural Extension Division of the University of Florida
*concerns itself primarily with giving instruction and practical
demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to persons not
resident on the campus. The Smith-Lever Agricultural Extension
Act is the basis for this work. Thru it the State of Florida receives
annually $10,000. An additional sum of $17,298.52 became avail-
able, July 1, 1917, on condition that an equal amount be appropri-
ated by the State.
The Legislature of Florida passed an Act, which was approved
by the Governor, May 25, 1915 (Chap. 6839), accepting these funds
and the provisions of the Smith-Lever Act. The Act provides for
cooperation between the agricultural colleges in the several states
and the U. S. Department of Agriculture. A quotation from it will
show the general purposes of this Act:
"That cooperative agricultural extension work shall consist of the giving
of instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home econom-
ics to persons not attending or resident in said colleges in the several
communities, and imparting to such persons information on said subjects
through field demonstrations, publications, and otherwise; and this work





Florida Cooperative Extension


shall be carried on in such a manner as may be mutually agreed, upon by the
Secretary of Agriculture and the State agricultural college or colleges re-
ceiving the benefits of this act."
In addition to the amount derived directly from the Smith-Lever
Fund, the U. S. Department of Agriculture has appropriated the
sum of $23,000.
The principal work carried on with these funds is the county
cooperative demonstration work among farmers and the home
demonstration work in farm homes. The sum of $600 is allotted
to each county availing itself of this opportunity to cooperate in
the county demonstration work, provided the county appropriates
an equal or larger amount for this same purpose. In the home
demonstration work, each new county cooperating is allotted $400
for the year provided an equal or larger amount is appropriated
by the county for augmenting this work. In counties where home
demonstration work has made favorable progress, $500 is made
available under the condition that the county provides an equal
amount. Provision for carrying on the county demonstration work
is made in the general revenue bill (Chap. 6949) "to levy a tax
of not more than one-half of one mill for the encouragement and
protection of agriculture." The Legislature of 1915 passed (Chap.
6833) an act authorizing county boards of education to make appro-
priations for home demonstration work.
WAR EMERGENCY ACT
To provide for the national security and defence by stimulating
agriculture and facilitating the distribution of agricultural prod-
ucts as a war measure, Congress authorized the expenditure of'
$4,348,400, approved by the President, August 10, 1917, for in-
creasing food production, eliminating waste and promoting con-
servation of food by education and demonstration thru county,
district and urban agents and others in the United States.
Florida received a proportional part of these funds, which will
be expended before June 30, 1918, in extending the general ex-
tension work for greater food production into every county in
Florida.
Reports of the various departments or projects of the extension
work are attached hereto and will show the work in detail.
ORGANIZATION
The Smith-Lever Act requires the appointment of a director for
each state, who is responsible to the Board of Control and to the
Secretary of Agriculture for carrying out the plans mutually agreed
upon. Inasmuch as the budget system is used to govern the working






Annual Report, 1917


plans, such budget is submitted to the Board of Control and the
United States Department of Agriculture before going into effect,
and reports are made upon the completion of the year's work.
The Cooperative Extension Work in Florida is carried on in six
divisions or projects, the most important projects being that of the
county cooperative and home demonstration agents. This provides
for county agents being located in as many of the counties as
can be induced to cooperate with the Extension Division. The
work of these agents is fully illustrated in the accompanying
reports of the state and district agents. The object of this work
is to make farms more productive and make farm life more attrac-
tive; in other words, it is intended to improve farm conditions
in Florida. The county home demonstration work is carried on by
cooperative arrangements with the Florida State College for
Women, located at Tallahassee. The object of the home demonstra-
tion work is to improve the home life of the rural population of the
state, principally thru instruction given the women and girls on the
farms. The instruction includes all lines of work that may be met
with on an ordinary farm.
The state agent has supervision over all the different projects in
connection with the cooperative demonstration work. His duties
are to coordinate and harmonize the different activities in such a
way as to secure full and free cooperation among the different
projects and also with the rural people of the state. He is also
charged with definite and detailed supervision over the county
cooperative demonstration agents and thru the district agents
keeps himself constantly in touch with the activities conducted in
each county. He is entrusted also with making arrangements for
farmers' institutes and other agricultural gatherings. The state
has been divided into three districts for carrying on the county
cooperative demonstration work and two districts for carrying on
the home demonstration work. The district agents for the county
cooperative demonstration work and for the home demonstration
work spend nearly all of their time instructing and assisting the
various county agents and home demonstration agents. The state
agents for the boys' club work and for the negro home makers'
clubs, spend the greater portion of their time in the field in the
interests of their respective work.
The boys' agricultural club agent has headquarters at the Uni-
versity. His work covers the state. The clubs are organized by
the county agents and, with the cooperation of school boards and
county superintendents, they receive general approval and support.






Florida Cooperative Extension


M-1











FIG. 1.-Cowpeas grown on new land

This work is intended to harmonize with other phases of demon-
stration work according to a well regulated plan and especially to
demonstrate correct practice and to instruct club members in the
best agricultural methods and practices suited to Florida con-
ditions.
The county agents usually have their headquarters at the county
seat, with an office in the courthouse. The agent's most important
work is that of conducting demonstrations with farm crops, usually
on a small area, to show the best farming practices. A great deal
of his time is given to the control of hog diseases, to garden work,
public meetings and, since the United States entered into the world
war, to additional duties such as, farm surveys, labor distribution,
and to the many activities stimulated by the need of greater agri-
cultural production. The county agent is looked upon as the agri-
cultural leader and adviser for a community and uses his office
for the promotion of all legitimate agricultural enterprises. He
has at his call the assistance of the University of Florida and the
States Relations Service, United States Department of Agriculture,
when needed for the benefit of agricultural interests in his county.
In connection with the general extension work, specialists from
various bureaus of the United States Department of Agriculture
are assigned to Florida. The most important part of their work
has been the control of hog cholera. The special agent in charge
of hog cholera works cooperatively with the state, district, and





Annual Report, 1917


county agents and is at the call of the farmers working with
county agents, as far as conditions permit. This applies to all
agencies working cooperatively with the extension forces.
The attention of the state agent for home demonstration work
is given to the improvement of homes, primarily for the instruction
of girls, teaching them the underlying principles of home life;
special instruction is given in gardening, preserving, canning,
poultry raising, and domestic art. The work is under her direct
supervision. The state agent and her assistants come in contact
with the problems of country life, and spend much time with the
county home demonstration agents, helping them where possible
.with assistance and encouragement to greater effort.
Two district agents are employed to supervise the work in the
counties. These district agents travel continuously, giving their
full time to the direction of the home demonstration work in
counties.
The poultry club agent works in counties with the county home
demonstration agent. A limited number of counties best suited
were selected this year for poultry work. The purpose is to in-
crease interest in farm poultry by making the work more profitable
and to encourage the production of better poultry by girls and
women. As conditions are made suitable the poultry work will be
extended into every county.
The office of the county home demonstration agent is usually at
the courthouse altho the agent spends most of her time in the
farm homes and with rural clubs to give instruction in gardening,
home economics, home sanitation, and the proper use of foods.
All county and home demonstration agents are selected for their
special fitness to handle the work in the county to which they are
assigned. As far as possible graduates of agricultural colleges
or of home economics courses are secured. All county workers
have had special training for extension teaching and receive uni-
form instruction so there may be harmony of purpose thruout the
state.
All employees of the Extension Division are required to make
weekly reports to the University of Florida and the Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
WORK WITH NEGRO FARMERS
The negro work is being continued under the same plans that
obtained in previous years, with boys and girls in the organization
of home makers' clubs; but the work has been enlarged in scope
to include the negro farmers. Since the declaration of war in-






Florida Cooperative Extension


FIG. 2.-Citrus grove sprayed under county agent's supervision
creased production has been the most important phase of the work
undertaken. Practically all assistant workers equip themselves.
with canning outfits and try to prevent, as far as possible, the
usual waste in gardens and especially the usual waste in sweet-
potato banks. Since the negro farmer's principal meat supply is
pork negro farmers are being instructed how to prevent hog
cholera. The disregard by negro farmers of measures to prevent
cholera has been serious in that sources of infection to hogs owned
by other farmers have been maintained. The assistant agents are
under the supervision of the agents in charge of home makers"
clubs. They report to the boys' agricultural club agent.

PLAN OF THE WORK
The whole work of the Extension Division is carried forward in
separate lines, known as projects. These special lines of work
are provided for by the Smith-Lever Act creating the fund, and
the annual statement as to the sources of the funds and the direc-
tion in which they were expended will be found herewith.
Project I is designed to carry out the provision of this act. It
provides for the carrying on of the administrative part of the work.
Under Project I-A are grouped salaries for clerical help and
expenses not directly chargeable to special projects. A total of
$5,518.13 was used for this purpose.
Under Project I-B are the expenditures for publications.. The
law provides that not more than five percent of the Smith-Lever







Annual Report, 1917


fund shall be used for printing and distribution of publications.
The amount used for this purpose was $1,648.34.
Project II is the demonstration work with adult farmers. This
-project carries on demonstrations in all the principal crops pro-
duced in the state, special attention having been.given to the im-
provement of staple crops. Close study is given to the adaptability
of special crops wherever they seem promising. This project in-
cludes nearly the entire range of activities on the farm, from the
production of crops and livestock to improvement of the home.
The expenditure under this project from all sources was $58,257.38.
Project III includes the organization of boys' agricultural clubs,
.and is confined to corn and pig clubs. This year's work in corn
clubs as herewith reported is especially noteworthy in that a num-
ber of boys have produced more than 75 bushels, and 4 boys
produced more than 100 bushels of corn to the acre. The average
cost a bushel for the entire crop raised by the corn-club boys was
46 cents.
The work in the pig clubs has been equally successful. Final
records show that 652 purebred pigs were distributed among club
members. From 225 reports received it was found that the pigs
gained approximately one pound a day at a cost of six cents. The
average cost of each pig and its feed for five months was approxi-
mately $20 while the value was approximately $50, showing an
approximate profit of $30 each, or $6,750 for the 225 pigs reported.
These clubs work in cooperation with the schools and have re-
ceived the generous and unstinted assistance of the county super-


FIG. 3.-Baling Natal hay






Florida Cooperative Extension


intendents and teachers. The amount expended for this work was
$2,348.11.
Project IV has been called the home demonstration project. This
includes two lines of club work in rural districts, one for women's
clubs and the other for girls' clubs. The women's clubs are organ-
ized to study the needs of the home, its surroundings and improve-
ment, and sanitary measures for the preservation of the health of
the family.
Girls' clubs occupy a large part of the county home demonstration
agent's time and are considered the most important work she
undertakes. Thru the cooperation of the school and church
organizations, canning, preserving, sewing, and poultry clubs are
conducted in such a way that every girl between the ages of ten
and eighteen years may become an active member.
The excellent reports submitted herewith indicate the splendid
work accomplished by the clubs and individual members. The
amount expended from all sources for this work was $45,135.09.
Project V deals with hog cholera. The work undertaken is con-
ducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S.
D. A. Specialists are assigned to Florida and give their entire
time to educational and control work in hog cholera. The aim of
the work is to inform farmers how to use hog cholera serum and
virus properly and to urge the adoption of sanitary precautions
necessary to prevent the spread of contagious diseases of livestock.
Thru the county agent this information is taken direct to the farms
where the serum and virus.treatment is demonstrated and the
importance of sanitation is emphasized.
Project VI is planned to give agricultural instruction to negro
boys and girls living on farms, thru the home makers' clubs for
negro youth. A special negro agent works in cooperation with
the Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes at Tallahassee
and under the supervision of the state agent. The work is confined
to counties having the largest rural negro population. One assist-
ant agent for home makers' clubs was employed in each of six
counties for four months during the planting and canning season,
chiefly to encourage greater food production and to prevent waste.
SUPERVISION OF EXPENDITURES
The funds arising from the Smith-Lever Act are strictly trust.
funds that must be employed in accordance with the laws and
regulations governing the appropriation. The method of account-
ing and the plans for the work must be submitted to the U. S.
Department of Agriculture before the year's work is begun. A







Annual Report, 1917


Federal officer audits the accounts and inspects the work underway.
All other funds used to supplement the Smith-Lever fund have been
expended and accounted for in the same way as the Smith-Lever
fund.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Following is the financial statement for the year ending June
30, 1917:
RECEIPTS
Agricultural College Fund-
Smith-Lever Federal ...................... ........ $21,892.73
Smith-Lever State ...................... ...... ..... 11,892.73
U. S. D. A. Appropriation ................. ............ 23,450.00
State Appropriation ........................... ......... 5,000.00
Florida State College for Women.............................. 10,733.29
County Appropriations .-----.. ...........--- .......... .... 42,932.15 $115,900.90
EXPENDITURES
Administration Project ................... ....................... $ 5,518.13
Printing and Publications Project............................... 1,648.34
County Agents' Project ................................. .... .. 58,257.38
Home Demonstration Project ..................................... 45,135.09
Boys' Club W ork Project.............................................. 2,348.11
Negro Home Makers' Project ............................... 2,993.85 $115,900.90

PUBLICATIONS
Four bulletins, two circulars and three posters have been printed
and distributed by the Extension Division in the year in addition
to a large quantity of multigraphed circulars issued at intervals
to the state press and sent to county agents for general distribution.
The agricultural news service, published weekly, is sent to news-
papers in the state as a clipsheet, and to all workers in the Ex-
tension Division.
Bulletin
No. Title Edition
8. Boys' Club Work in Florida............................ ... 8,000
9. Poultry in Florida .............. .... ....... ......... 15,000
10. Kill Corn W eevils ........ ................... .............................. 6,000
11. Home Curing Pork ......... ..........-................. .. 15,000
Circular
No. Title Edition
1. Increased Hog Production Essential ................................... 6,000
2. Castor Beans -.-......-..... ....................... 3,000
Poster
No. Title Edition
1. Increase Poultry Production ............. ...................... 3,000
2. Sweet Potato Storage ............ ...................... 1,500
3. Sweet Potato Root Weevils ....---.. ..... .................. 1,500
Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1916.
SUMMARY OF BULLETINS
8. Boys' Club Work in Florida.-This is a special report of the work
of the boys' clubs for the previous year prepared especially for the instruction
of club members. It gives a description of the cultural methods employed by
members making high crop yields, also some interesting facts concerning the






Florida Cooperative Extension


pig-club work. This being the first report of the pig-club work it is of special
interest to hog raisers.
9. Poultry in Florida.-This is a revision of Bulletin 3. This publication
supplies general information for increasing poultry production on farms to
those who make inquiry as to the possibilities of the industry in Florida.
10. Kill Corn Weevils.-This publication is an eight-page folder printed
on cardboard so that it may be posted conveniently by county agents for ready
reference. It deals with the best methods for applying carbon bisulphide, the
importance of the proper temperature in fumigation, treating small grains,
and the effect of the treatment on the germination of seeds.
11. Home Curing Pork.-This bulletin was specially needed this year
because of the high price of pork and the usual loss that occurs when pork
is not properly cured. It deals with the methods of and temperature for
scalding, brine curing, dry curing and smoking pork, and gives in detail the
plans and specifications for small meat storage houses that can be used success-
fully on Florida farms.
SUMMARY OF CIRCULARS
1. Increased Hog Production Essential.-This is an appeal to farmers
for a fifteen percent increase in hog production estimated by the United States
Department of Agriculture as necessary, due to war conditions.
2. Castor Beans.-This circular describes the cultural methods for castor
beans and was prepared on account of the large acreage to be planted in 1918
thru the efforts of the War Department.
CHANGES IN STAFF
On July 1, 1916, Miss Sarah W. Partridge took up the work of
district agent for East and South Florida, and at the same time
Miss Harriette B. Layton began similar work for the counties in
North and West Florida. On July 16, 1916, Miss Minnie Floyd
took charge of the poultry clubs organized by county agents. On
October 1, 1916, A. P. Spencer, district agent for South Florida,
was assigned to the duties of assistant director. On December 1,
1916, M. N. Beeler, editor, resigned and was succeeded on the 4th
of the same month by O. W. Weaver. On January 1, 1917, H. S.
McLendon took up the duties of district agent for South Florida.
On February 15, 1917, E. S. Pace resigned the position of district
agent for North and West Florida, and was immediately succeeded.
by E. W. Jenkins.
COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISES
The furtherance of enterprises undertaken cooperatively with
the Department of Agriculture, aside from those provided for in
the Smith-Lever Act, has been somewhat limited by the lack of
State funds.
The most important cooperative enterprise is with the Bureau
of Animal Industry in hog cholera control. This has proven a
valuable line of work and one that fits into the county agent's
program. Inasmuch as Florida is largely an open range territory
all infectious diseases of livestock are more difficult to control than
where animals are on pastures and in divided fields. The primary






Annual Report, 1917


object of this work is educational. The specialist in charge accom-
panies county agents to farms where the disease exists and conducts
demonstrations, inoculating and properly disinfecting, and dis-
cussing the best means at hand to control hog cholera. Special
instructions are given as to how the disease may be prevented
when hogs have access to the open range and herds from different
farms have an opportunity to intermingle. Florida has made
substantial progress in swine improvement since farmers under-
stand that hog cholera can be controlled. Hog cholera control work
has properly occupied a large share 'of the county agent's time
because it is one of the most important things undertaken by them.
Thru persistent effort many stubborn outbreaks have been con-
trolled and thousands of dollars worth of hogs saved.
Another important cooperative enterprise was that undertaken
with the Bureau of Chemistry working with home demonstration
agents. Temporary assistance was rendered to work out some
of the problems in preserving Florida fruits and by-products. This
undertaking dealt with some complex problems due to the sub-
tropical climate and the nature of sub-tropical products. Thru
this cooperation the home economics workers of the Extension
Division have been able to offer to club members and farmers
valuable information on the canning and preserving of fruits.
Additional assistance was obtained thru the office of Extension
Work in the South by securing the services of an expert in canning
meats and fish and drying vegetables. The specialist assigned was
able to spend only a short time in the state giving instructions to
the home demonstration agents in the best methods of canning meat
and fish, and preserving fruit and vegetables by drying and sealing
them in paper catons. This method promises to be of special
value during the period of can shortage.
It is important that'cooperative enterprises should be undertaken
on a proper basis and consist of problems in which the Government
is best able to offer the greatest aid. The various bureaus in the
Department of Agriculture have been provided with funds for co-
operative projects to be used in different states but in most cases the
states receiving such assistance are required to offset the funds by
an appropriation of equal amount, and while the Florida Legislature
has met the Smith-Lever requirements the amount of money appro-
priated was only sufficient to place agents in a little more than
half the counties, leaving no funds for additional cooperative enter-
prises. Had Florida been provided with the necessary funds to
carry out such plans it is probable that cooperation could have
f.e.e-2






Florida Cooperative Extension


been secured to extend the h6g cholera work, pig clubs, beef and
dairy production, and other projects, but inasmuch as our funds
are insufficient other states have'secured these benefits. It is a
matter of serious importance, particularly at this time, when emer-
gencies caused by war conditions are to be met. County agents
have endeavored thru every means at their command to stimulate
food production but because of their many duties can not specialize
on individual projects except in a few instances.

EDUCATIONAL AND DEMIONSTRATIONAL HOG CHOLERA WORK
The report of Dr. A. H. Logan, Veterinary Inspector in charge
of hog cholera work indicates that a large part of Florida has been
covered during the past two years and that much interest has been
aroused in the control of hog diseases and general improvement of
hogs. The work is being directed toward the final eradication' of
hog cholera in Florida and it must be understood that such a big
undertaking can only be accomplished thru a state-wide propa-
ganda of education.
The specialist in charge has actually treated 1,531 hogs using
both the serum and simultaneous method. He has also visited 379
farms usually accompanied by the county agent for the purpose of
diagnosing hog cholera, applying the treatment and advising on
the importance of sanitary precautions as the most effective means
of prevention and control. He has personally interviewed 2,183
farmers, or an average of about 40 in each county, most of whom
have been revisited by the county agent who helps to. carry out
the recommendations. He has made 115 addresses to 8,789 persons
and has given personal instructions to"1 35 persons aside from
county agents that would qualify them to administer the serum.
Local farmers' organizations have considered hog cholera control
one of their most important undertakings and have secured valu-
able instruction in handling their individual herds.
Heretofore the usual losses from hog cholera have seriously
interfered with the progress in hog raising, and many farmers who
would otherwise undertake the work have not done so because it
seemed impossible to make hog raising profitable. The marked
increase in number of purebred hogs now found thruout the state
and the fact that two meat-packing houses have been established,
are fair indications of the expansion of hog raising and the success
of the educational work that has been underway since demonstra-
tion work was undertaken. This work is attracting much attention
from the state press and all interests related to farming.







Annual Report, 1917 19

Doctor Logan submits the following statistical report for the
year ending December 31, 1917.

STATISTICAL REPORT
Number of visits made to counties during the year................ .............. 152
Number of addresses made ............................... ... ...... .......... 115
(a) Number illustrated by stereopticon views...............................-.. 12
(b) Total attendance ................................... .. ..-...-........ 8789
Number of demonstrations of preventive treatment............................. 69
(a) Where serum alone was used..................................... 29
(b) Where simultaneous inoculation was used ............-.............. 40
(c) Number of hogs treated ................. ... ....... .....--...... 1531
(d) Total attendance at demonstrations.. ........................................ 534
Number of visits made to farms for purpose of diagnosing hog cholera
or observing conditions and giving advice.................................. 379
Number of farmers and hog raisers personally interviewed........................ 2183
Number of persons individually instructed and placed in a position to
properly administer the serum preventive treatment.............. 135
(a) County agents ............ ................ .............. 28
(b) Practicing veterinarians .............. ........... .... .. ... ... .. 5
(c) H og owners .............. .. ..... ................ ............. 102
Respectfully,
A. H. LOGAN,
Veterinary Field Agent.

INTRODUCTION OF BEEF CATTLE FROM TEXAS
A part of the Extension Division's work from the first has been
to improve Florida livestock. The most important accomplishment
in many years for the improvement of beef cattle was the intro-
duction from Texas of beef animals to be used as foundation stock
on Florida farms and ranges.


FIG. 4.-Angus cattle imported from Texas to Alachua County






Florida Cooperative Extension


When it was realized that the continued drouth in Texas would
result in the loss of many thousand high-grade purebred beef cattle
the Bureau of Animal Industry, working with the States Relations
Service, made an effort to move them t6 places where they could
be taken care of. A representative of the Bureau was stationed
in Fort Worth, Texas, to keep in touch with the cattle situation in
that state as to quality, prices and condition, of the breeding stock
offered from the ranges and stock yards. This resulted in the
distribution of several car loads of Shorthorn, Hereford and Angus
cattle,.most of which were females, to be used as foundation stock
for the improvement of Florida -herds. While these cattle were
sold at good prices they were distributed over a wide area and the
effect will be far reaching in the general improvement in beef
cattle that will result thruout the state About 1,500 head of these
*cattle were distributed in the following named counties: Alachua,
Brevard, Clay, Jefferson, Holmes, Polk, Walton, Osceola, Jackson,
Duval, Bradford, Putnam, St. Lucie, Volusia, Suwannee and Santa
Rosa.
MONTHLY CONFERENCES
In order to coordinate all branches of the extension work all
members of the staff meet in the director's office the third Monday
of each month to discuss plans for furthering the progress of the
work. The number of state workers has been materially increased
and the work in all branches has been expanded, which necessitates
a thoro understanding of relationships that must exist under such
organization.
War emergency projects have modified many plans in practically
all branches, as food production and conservation must have first
consideration during the period of the war. Nevertheless, it is
not the better policy to overlook the constructive educational work
that the Agricultural Extension Division has carried on so success-
fully to this point in its period of growth.

THE FOOD CRISIS
From the beginning of extension work in Florida all workers
have been impressed with the need for greater food production
thruout the state. When a survey of the food supply was made
following the declaration of war it was clear to everyone that the
food situation was critical and that Florida must awaken in re-
sponse to the call for more food.
Inasmuch as the main work of county and home demonstration
agents had been in this direction it was only necessary to speed






Annual Report, 1917


up the machinery in order to carry out President Wilson's order for
greater food production. It was not necessary to remind the state
workers for each caught the spirit and endeavored by every means
to transmit it to every producer in the state. Committees were
organized, timely planting instructions were distributed, the: avail-
able seed supply in farmers' hands was located and distributed,
facilities for canning and storage were arranged, and every in-
terest was appealed to so that food production and conservation
should be uppermost in the minds of every thoughtful person.
At the request of Governor Sidney J. Catts, the Food Prepared-
ness Commission and State Council of Defense was organized, made
*up of leaders in the state's most important business affairs.' Or-
ganizations in each county made the work effective. In each of
these the county agents and home demonstration agents were active
members and the most important accomplishments were centered
in their activities.

EXPANSION OF WORK FOR NEXT YEAR
The plans already approved for the coming year contemplate
expansion of the present projects with an addition of new lines
of work.
The lists of county and home demonstration agents published
herewith show that each county in the state is being served by a
county agent and a home demonstration worker regardless of
county appropriations. The Food Production Act to stimulate
food production as a war measure has made this possible. It is
further planned to assign assistant county agents in a few of the
largest agricultural counties and city and urban workers to a'few
large centers, each agent having to deal with a special phase of food
production. :"
Additional supervision is made necessary because of this ex-
pansion. One additional district agent, one assistant corn-club
agent and one assistant pig-club agent have been assigned for the
men's and boys' work, also two assistant district agents and one
special agent in charge of all city home demonstration work.
The home demonstration work has been enlarged by the addition
of a project for home dairy work. This contemplates the improve-
ment of dairy products made and consumed largely on farms. and,
in particular, an increase in butter and -cheese making and the
use of milk products as meat savers.
Thru the cooperation of the Bureau of Animal Industry four
additional veterinary field agents have been employed to assist. the






22 Florida Cooperative Extension

agent in charge of hog cholera educational work. These men have
been assigned to districts and work in cooperation with county
agents in the district. This Bureau has also assigned a beef cattle
specialist to work cooperatively with the extension forces in
Florida for the promotion of the beef cattle interests on farms and
ranges.
Thru the cooperation of the Bureau of Entomology two men have
been assigned to Florida to work in cooperation with the Extension
Division and under the direct supervision of the entomologist to
the Florida Experiment Station. One specialist will give his atten-
tioi to the control df insects attacking truck crops, and the 6ther
to the control of insects that damage stored'grains. "
A specialist for stimulating city gardening is to be employed.
This 'is a war emergency measure for the proper direction of city
gardening.

VALUE OF COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK TO FARMERS
BY INCREASED CROP PRODUCTION
Increase of corn at $1.50 'a Iushel....::..: ....: ........ $144,344
Increase of silage crop at $4 a ton ........................... ..... 22,484
-Increase of hay at $25,............... .. .. 35,993 .;
Increase of oats at 90c a bushel............ .. 23,096
:Increase of peanuts at-'$1.50 per bushel ............:-. 10,447
Increase of velvet beans at $1.50 per bushel............. 44,400
-'---T-ffotal -.. .. .. ...... ..... :-.... .. .... -. -: $280,764
SBY LIVESTOCK AtiDED TO FARMS OR SAVED FROM DISEASES
-.Purebred dairy bulls at $100. each..--:. .,:....... $ 4,800
Purebred dairy cows or heifers at $125 each............. 31,875
Grade dairy cows brought into 'counties....... 15,225'
.Purebred beef cows, or heifers at $100 each, .,......... .110,000
Purebred beef bulls at $150 each .. .. ....... 42,000
'Grade cows at $50 each : ..... ..;..... .. 156,000
,Valu.e of hogs saved by treatment..-. ................. ...... 160,203
Boars at $15 each --... .. .. 4,350
St~ws or gilts'at $20 each... -- : .- 21,060
Increased value of citrus fruits by proper spraying...: 70,500
S Total .. ...... ......... .... ..... ........... $616,013
BY IMPROVEMENTS TO FARMS
Increased value .of lands by stumping .... ........ ........... $166,260
Value of improved implements and tools.................. 62,575
'Vhlueof silds at $250 each..'... ....... ...... 14,000
Tofal .... .... ..... .... ................... $242,835
BY FERTILIZER OR MANURE APPLIED
Value fTe rtillizr bought cooperatively ................... $ 47,080
Amount sav1-l to: fanrm :rs ...........-- .......-... 5,885
Value nmrnu r. at :3.i50 a ton........... .................. 1,036,000
Valdee grouindl linmtoine applied'at $2.50 a ton.......... 12,447
Total ----..--- .....-- ...-...-- $1,101,412
.G,'- r ,d Tl, F1, of,.Valuep ? _.. ...... -. ........ ..$2,241,024







Annual Report, 1917


oI~'


KEY WEST
FIG. 5.-Shaded areas indicate counties having Farmers' Cooperative Demon-
stration work during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE STATE AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the state agent for the
year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully,
C. K. McQUARRIE,
State Agent.
INTRODUCTION
An unusual interest and progress has been shown in all activities
connected with the work. The county commissioners, bankers,
merchants, teachers, and other leaders are showing their apprecia-
tion to a larger degree than ever before of the work done by the
county agents in that they are supporting the movement and what
it stands for by their endorsement and assistance. This is par-
ticularly true of the county commissioners where in a large per-
centage of the counties they make substantial increases in the
supplementary appropriation for the work; the total increase for
the state being .about 30 percent over last year. The total county
appropriation for the current year is now in excess of forty thou-
sand dollars.
CHANGES.
A number of changes have taken place in the county agent staff
in the last year, a few agents resigning to take up other work,
others returning to the farm because of better prospects for the
farmer than heretofore. The vacancies due to such resignations
have been' filled with competent men and in most cases at increased
salaries, this being made possible by an increase in the supple-
mentary_ appropriations made by county commissioners and others.
Owing to the number of counties making, supplementary appro-
priations being increased to forty-four and the additional war
emergency appropriation to increase food production being avail-
able, provisions were made to place an agricultural agent in every
county in the state except Monroe. This made additional super-
vision necessary and another district agent was appointed. S. W.
Hiatt assumed the duties of the position September 15, 1917.
An assistant in boys' club work, E. M. Manning, was also ap-
pointed, and assumed his duties October 1.

CROPS
The acreage planted to staple crops was increased over previous
years, especially that of corn, sweet potatoes, velvet beans, and







Annual Report, 1917


peanuts. A prolonged drouth in late spring and early summer cut
down the average acre-yield to a considerable extent. The earlier
planted crops did not suffer as much as the later planted ones, and
sweet potatoes were far below the normal average because of this
drouth, and the inferior quality of seed planted.
The acreage planted to small grains for winter cover crops is
above the average, but owing to lack of moisture in the soil at
planting time a low percentage of germination in these crops is
reported.
MEETINGS
A number of important public meetings was held in which the
state and district agents took an active part. The first of these
was the Livestock Seminar held on the University campus, Jan-
uary 16 to 19, inclusive. The annual meeting of the State Horti-
cultural Society was held at West Palm Beach on April 17 to 20.
As this meeting is promoted in the interest of fruit growers and
attended by influential horticulturists, it proves a source of in-
spiration and education for all who can attend and is especially
valuable to extension workers.
A very important meeting, known as the "Livestock Round-Up,"
was held on the University campus September 25 to 28, inclusive.
This meeting was well attended by livestock leaders, from Florida
and other states. Many important discussions for the benefit of
the livestock industry were presented.
The "Citrus Seminar," an annual meeting, was held on the Uni-
versity campus October 9 to 15, in which the extension workers
took an active part. These seminars are increasing in attendance


FIG. 6-Poland-China gilts owned by pig-club boys






Florida Cooperative Extension


and popularity every year and .are attended by a large number of
the citrus growers of the state.
AGENTS' MEETINGS
,Group meetings of the county agents were held at Marianna,
February 27; Graceville and Cottoidale, February 28; Jackson-
ville, March:2 and 3; Plant City, March .5; and Tampa, March 6.
At these meetings the agents had an opportunity to see what was
being done in the other counties and it gave them a better under-
standing of the agricultural development in sections other than
their own. The entire daytime was: occupied visiting farms where
special .work was being done, also invisiting livestock herds, grain
elevators, feed mills, etc. At the Jacksonville meeting the agents
inspected the Armour packing ,plant and received full information
as to how livestock is-handled by the packers. This was valuable
instruction and all felt that such information was important to
them,. The.agents and others in the party.were entertained at
luncheon by the Armour. Company.
The annual county agent's conference was held on the University
campus October 1 to 6, at which all the agents but one were present.
Subjects most pertinent to the county agent work were discussed
and most of the men took an active part in the program and dis-
cussions.
.. AGRICULTURAL .PREPAREDNESS COMMISSION
The Seaboard Air Line railroad provided a special car for a
systematic trip over their lines in Florida from -May 28 to June
9 for the purpose of stimulating food production, and meetings
were.held'at:the courthouses of the counties visited. The party was
made up of members of the Agricultural Preparedness Commission
and representatives from the Extension Divisionf of.th .l IUiersity
of Florida.- Theattendance in the central and southern part~fof
the state was fairly good, but only" fair 'nlthe.western counties.
However; at every meeting a keen appreciation of the importance
of the movement was manifest.
FARMERS', ORGANIZATIONS
The agents devoted considerable time during the year to planning
and organizing farmers' associations. In some counties consider-
able success has been attained. :In several counties the agents have
been -able to get a county coriniissioner lto assist iri linin"ig up the
work in the commissioner's district, tb act as: chairman "f an
agricultural .committee, and to preside at all farm imeetfiigs held
there.






Annual Report, 1917


FIG. 7.-The first silos erected in Seminole County; filled with corn grown
following winter vegetables
FAIRS
Twelve counties held fairs. One or more of the extension force
in addition to the county and home demonstration, agents were
present to help in judging agricultural and livestock exhibits.
These fairs seem .to be yearly increasing in popularity and in
quality and variety of materials exhibited.
SILO AND DIPPING VAT CONSTRUCTION
The county agents have been especially active in helping farmers
construct silos. They have given suggestions and information as
to capacity needed, materials for and methods of mixing concrete,
and building wooden silos. Some agents have also been active in
supervising cattle dipping on occasions when a representative of
the tick eradication force could not be present.
ACTIVITIES ESPECIALLY STRESSED
Ever since the declaration of war and the coming into existence
of the Food Preparedness Commission and State Council of De-
fense county agents have been bending all possible energy toward
getting farmers and others to increase the production of food and
feed crops. A large number of meetings have been held thruout
the state, called especially for the purpose of stimulating increased







28 Florida Cooperative Extension

food supply. The response to these calls has been satisfactory and
in most cases the attendance good. We propose to push these
farmers' "Get-Together" meetings to the limit. The "Home
Garden" has also been one of the live topics under discussion at
most of these meetings, and it is quite evident that a great in-
crease in the production of vegetables for home use has resulted.

FIELD SEED SELECTION
The desirability of selecting home-grown seed has been empha-
sized and instructions given for properly storing it. Quantities
of inferior seeds are sold in Florida each year that give a low yield
and in many cases inferior quality of products. Testing garden
seeds before planting is also strongly urged.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES.
Number of visits made by county agents................. .... ................. 26317
Number of miles traveled..............- .... ............ 32
Calls on agent relative to work.....-:-- ........ ......... 21505
Number of farmers' meetings held....................... .... -- 674
Number of meetings addressed 1817
Total attendance---...... .... 49280
Number of field meetings held by agents................-................ 174
Total attendance at these meetings.................................... ....................... 6040
Percentage of time spent in office work-.---------............................... .. 22
Percentage of time spent in field work............................................. 78
Number of official letters written............................ ... 16804
Number of articles prepared for publication ................--......... ......... 755
Number of circular letters issued...... .......--......----............. -. 13323
Number of bulletins of U. S. D. A. distributed...................... ............. 32998
Number of bulletins or circulars from State sources distributed..-.:-- 8504
Number of visits to schools.......- ........................... 531
Number of schools assisted in outlining agricultural course....................... 39
Number of short courses assisted in........... .. ..... .... --. ....... ............... 19
Total attendance......................................................... 1171
Total number of days engaged in these courses............................. 98
ORGANIZATIONS
Number of farmers' clubs agents.have assisted in organizing .............. 60
Total membership of these clubs........................... ... ..... ............ -......... ....1.... 978
MISCELLANEOUS
Number of farmers attending short course at college as result of agents'
efforts .... .... .... ..... ....... .. ..... ... ...-...... -- 36
Number of boys attending agricultural or other ,schools or colleges as
result of club work................ ..........-- ...... ...................... 103
Number of girls attending industrial or other schools as iesult.of girls'
club w ork ............ -........ .................... ............................................. ....... 39
Number of times visited by specialists from College or the Department.... 491
Number of county fairs held.................................... .................-..... 12
Number of demonstrators, cooperators and club members making exhibits 249
Number of prizes won.................... ..................... 170
Number of demonstrations in truck or small fruit....:.....:.......'................ 226
Number of:farmers keeping cost records at agents' instance: : : ,
Complete ....................... 93
Partial ....... .......... ........ .............-- 478
Number of farmers practicing fall plowing as -result of county -agents',,
work -. .---.........-- ........--- ................... ......2372







Anfual Report,-1917 29

FARM AND FARMSTEA- IMPROVEMENTS'
Number of buildings erected.............------..---------......----. 130
Number of farm buildings improved--..................................... 154
Number of new building plans furnished-................... .................. 43
Number of farm buildings painted or whitewashed-..-...............: ----------108
Number of home water systems installed or improved------................... ..: 132
Number of water systems in State before demonstration work was started 84
Number in the State now.............----..---....... ----- -- ----.................. 296
Number of home lighting systems installed...:..:............ ----------- .......... 131
Number of lighting systems in the State before demonstration work was
started ...--.........................-.................. ......... -------- .............. 19
Number in the State now-............- ... ......... :.: ..-- -- .---- ............. 164
Number of home grounds improved .----... ..-- ...... .. -:............... 153
Number of farm and home sanitary conditions improved.................-------....... 429
Number of homes screened against flies and moquitoes........................ .-.... 414
Number of fly traps installed........ -----.. ........... ......... ...... 77
Number of sanitary privies erected-.......-...............-. ..... -- --- 79
Number of telephone systems installed-..... ... ...................-.. 103
Number of farmers induced to adopt a systematic rotation............................ 315
Total acreage.:..- .................. .......... .......... .... ........... ........ 3796
Total acreage----------------------- ------------------------39
Number of new pastures established.----............ ...-----........-------- 288
Number of old pastures renovated... ------................ ....-............. 62
Acreage comprised---......................-----------......------................. 1115
Number of drainage systems established.............------....................--- 60
Number of farmers induced to drain their lands-------........:-....... ....... 4405
Total acreage drained:
SBy tile....--.----... ----.....--....-- ...-- .-----------......... 103
By ditch..........-..........--- ----------.-.-----..... ..................----- 6768
Number of farmers who removed stumps.......------------...................................... 566
Total acreage stumped- ....------------.................................. 8313
Number of farmers induced to terrace sloping land....-----.....--.........-- ...--- ... 24
Total acreage terraced--------..---....................... 1080
Number of home gardens planted- -.......... ...................... ......-----.... 7161
Number of farmers saving surplus farm products for winter use............. 4456
Number of farmers turning under cover crops....................--- ................ 664
Total acreage.....------ ......- ............. .........-...-....... 12900
Number of new implements and tools bought ................-..._- .......----- 2503
EFFECT OF DEMONSTRATION WORK
Number of demonstrators and cooperators who:
Are raising practically all their home supplies................................ 1079
Have opened new bank accounts since beginning demonstration
w ork -- -----------................................................. ....... 425
Have increased their bank deposits since beginning demonstration
work ..................... :-------- ...----------------- 509
Are trading on a cash basis since beginning demonstration work 698
Are showing a desire to study their farm business-........................... 77
Additional industries established since demonstration work was begun:
2 meat packing plants,
1 peanut oil mill,
6 elevators and feed mills.
Number of demonstrators and cooperators installing labor-saving
devices in the hom e---..... ..................................................... .. 383
Corn increase for 1916, in bushels..----................. ....... -..-.. ... -1,500,000
Peanut acreage increased, percentage..----...........--------- ------ 300
Indications of improved rural conditions:,
Purebred hogs in every county.
Cattle dipping vats in nearly every county.
Many thousand acres wild land fenced for pasture.
Legislative appropriations to support Livestock Sanitary Board....$ 150000
Increased appropriation for cooperative demonstration work.
State organization of livestock association.
State organization of hog breeders' association.







30 Florida Cooperative Extension

DEMONSTRATIONS AND COOPERATION
CORN
Number of demonstrators............................... ..... ...... ...... 598
Number of demonstrators reporting.................... ... .................. 310
Total acreage grown under improved methods.....................................4264
Average yield per acre, in bushels.................................. .... ..... .... ....... 31.5
Increased yield over ordinary methods........................ ................ 16.5
Number of cooperators.............................. .... ........... .... ................... 600
Total acreage grown by cooperators.... ................ ................ 6090
Average yield per acre, in bushels.............-............ .. ... ..........21
Number planting selected seed.......... .................. ............. ........ 416
Number of farmers selecting seed for next crop- .......... ..................... ... 737
Estimated number bushels seed selected............................. .......... ...2336
Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres.......... .............. 302
Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres......... 250
Number of acres harvested for silage................................. .. .................. 855
Yield per acre, in tons ........................ ..... ... ... .. ............... 6.6
Number of acres "hogged down" --.....---................ ...................1825
Number of acres treated for diseases or insect pests.................................. 40.
Number of farmers using better methods in growing corn this year......2063
Number of farmers so influenced since county agent work was, started......5447
COTTON
Number of demonstrators...................... ..................... .......... 106
Number of demonstrators reporting. ............................. .. ....50
Total acreage grown under improved methods................. ................1341
Average yield seed cotton per acre, pounds................... ............... 616
Increased yield over ordinary methods................................ ............. 256
Number of cooperators.... ----. .. ...................... ......... 193
Total acreage grown by cooperators.... ................... .........1589
Average yield per acre, in pounds seed cotton........ .. ......... 532
Number of demonstrators who planted selected seed ........... ....:.......... :63
Number of farmers field selecting seed for next year's crop....:........... .... 73
Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres....:.. ....: : ...... 72
Number who turned under cover crops on-their demonstration acres;...... 7
Number of acres treated for diseases or insect pests.........-.......- _.. ...... 773
Number of farmers using better cultural methods.......:---.--- ............. ..... 891
Note: Farmers have not confined their efforts at growing cotton to one
variety. Several varieties are being tested because of the boll weevil situation.
OATS
Number of demonstrators------ ........... ................. 92
Number of demonstrators reporting ....................... ...... ... ... 23
Total acreage grown under improved methods.....................-..... ..... 2333
Average yield per acre, bushels....................................... 26
Increased yield over ordinary methods ..-.................. ................. 11
Number of cooperators..................... .. .......... .................. 44
Total acreage grown by cooperators..... ........ .......................... 187
Average yield per acre, bushels-.. ....... ......--............... 17
Number of acres thrashed for grain..................................:......... 127
Number of acres cut for hay..... ............ ... ............. ........... ....... 289
Average yield of cured hay per acre, tons.................................. ......... 1
Increased yield of hay per acre over ordinary methods, tons--.....-......... .. %
Number of acres grazed off..... .... ......... .................. 1685
Estimated value per acre........................ ............ $
Number of acres turned under for soil improvement............................. 45
Number bushels of seed treated for smut, rust, etc......... ............... 90
Number of farmers planting oats for the first time..:.......... ............ 6
RICE
Number of demonstrators...........--... ...... .................... ......25
Number of demonstrators reporting-----.................. ........................1
Total acreage grown under improved methods...... ........ :....................91
Average yield per acre, bushels.. ----............... -- --............... .......39
Increased yield over ordinary methods............ ............. ... ............ .15







Annual Report, 1917 3S

Number of cooperators................... ...----------- ... ...... ........ ---...-.. --...-- 4
Number of acres thrashed for grain..-----...-....-...-..-------- -..... .....-- .: ...........85
Average yield of cured hay per acre, tons..... -..-.......-----....... .... -~- :. ...... 1
Increased yield of hay per acre over ordinary methods, tons..... --.--...--........--
Number of farmers planting rice for the first time.............. --...................16
RYE
Number of demonstrators......... ...... .............-- .. --............ 34
Number of demonstrators reporting.........----- ....... .... ..........-......... 9
Total acreage grown under improved methods----- ----..........:: .. --:....... 280
Average yield per acre, bushels-....................- ............ ..........-.... .. ... 11
Number of cooperators............................ ............. ........... ... ..... .... 21
Total acreage grown by cooperators--.....--....--------...- -... ....- ...... 45
Number of demonstration acres thrashed for grain......... ..............----..- ... 36
Number of demonstration acres cut for hay----......---... ---... .. ..... ... .. .. 127
Average yield of cured hay per acre on demonstrations, tons-... --..---........ 1%1a
Increased yield of cured hay per acre over ordinary methods, tons..--.....- 1/
Number of acres grazed off......... ....... ........ ---....... -148
Estimated value, per acre-...-....--...................------- .. .. .. 8
Number of acres turned under....---... ---- ----------- ...... 25
Number of farmers planting rye for the first time....--- .......... ......--.... 41
Note: Rye is grown almost entirely for a winter cover or pasture crop.

SORGHUM-
Number of demonstrators.....-..-.. --.....------- --.. ......... ------............ 61
Number of demonstrators reporting... .......-.....................-..................... 20
Total acreage grown on demonstration farms....--------.............---- --..--....... 148
Average yield hay per acre, tons--...........-- -- .----..........--- .................... 4
Number of acres cut for hay............--.........-------.---.- ...........-..... 63
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons--........................................ 2
Number of acres grazed off----........ .....................-................. 51
Estimated value per acre of grazing.... --................... .---- ..........-...-. $- 11
Number of cooperators......................... --- -...---.. -- ---------.......- 64
Total acreage grown by cooperators.............. .................... ......... 89
Number of acres sown this fall for late green feeding.:......................:......--- 150
Percentage increase in acreage of sorghum in the State as result of county
agents' influence: First year, 10%; second year, 20%; third year,
30%; fourth year, 40%. :
SUDAN GRASS
Number of demonstrators --.... ---- ..-------- ----.......---- ..--- 70
Number of demonstrators reporting-.............-- ...................................... ............. 18
Total acreage grown under improved methods on demonstration farms...... 133
Average yield hay per acre, tons............. .................. ........................... 2
N um ber of acres cut for hay......................................................... ......... ...... 93
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons .................-................... 1
Number of acres grazed off---.......................---..... -... 6
Estimated value per acre of grazing--.....................-..............................-$ 17
Number of cooperators.--- .... .................................. ..... ... .. .... 25
Total acreage grown by cooperators--.......--........................... 35
Average yield hay per acre, tons---..--------...............-----................ 2
Number of demonstration acres turned under for soil improvement....---....... 4
Estimated acreage grown in the State before the county agents' work was
started -.----------- ----.---.........-.... 50
Percentage increase in acreage of Sudan grass as result of county agents'
influence: First year, 10%; second- yeaf, 15%; third year, 18%;
fourth year, 20%.
JAPANESE CANE
Number of demonstrators........... ............. 4
Numbe of demonstrators-------------- ---------------------------4
Number of demonstrators reporting......---......... ......- ................ 2
Total acreage grown on demonstration farms.................... ................ 16
Average yield green forage per acre, tons.---.. ...............- ------...........-... 35
Increased yield green forage over ordinary methods, tons............................. 20
Number of acres cut for hay ........... .. ............................. 10
Number of cooperators.....---- .........-----------------.. 3
Total acreage grown by cooperators............................................. 1







32 Florida Co6perative Extension

Number of acres planted this fall................................-....... --. 225
Estimated acreage grown in the State before the countyy agents' work was
started .---...........- ---------------- ----- -------------------- ---2000
Percentage increase in acreage of Japanese cane as result of county
agents' influence: First year, 10%; second year, 12%; third year,
16%; fourth year, 20%.
MILLET
Number of demonstrators............-----........ ------. .. ------ 43
Number of demonstrators reporting.. ...- .. .------- 16
Total acreage grown under improved niethods.:... ------.. ....... 60
Average yield hay per acre, tons. .......----- ....... ...... .- 1
Number of acres cut for hay.................--------------........-- ----- .... 32
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons' ....- 1
Number of acres grazed off... :..- ----- ........ ......--- 15
Estimated value per acre of grazing........:...... ....:.- -.. $3.50
Number of acres sown for fall grFiaz'in 50
NATAL GRASS
Number of demonstrators............... ........ ...... ...... 29
Number of demonstrators reporting --....................:.... 8
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods ---- ._........ 201
Average yield hay per acre, .tons. -: ... .. --.. ........------- 1%
Number of acres cut for hay....-........-- .................. ........ 200
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons........................................
Estimated value of that grazed off, per acre................-------............... $7.50
Number of cooperators-----...... ..--............... .... ----------------- ... 18
Estimated acreage grown in the State'before the county agents' work was
started .............. ........................................... ....-..............---- ......... 1000
Percentage increase in acreage of Natal grass as result of county agents'
influence: First year, 15; -second year, 25%; third year, 35%;
fourth year, 25%.
RHODES GRASS
Number of demonstrators..........---....... -.......- ...........--.. 13
Number of demonstrators reporting....... .............. ........ ......... 1
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods -.....-.......--............ 44
Average yield hay per acre, tons .......-....... ...........-...-... ..... 1%
Number of acres cut for hay.............- ------ -........-..... 42
Number of acres grazed off.....---------........-- ..-----------........... 2
Estimated value per acre of grazing.,_ ,.. ...... ..... .... ................ .$ 8
Average yield hay per acre, tons--.... ---..... ...............- .... .................. 1
Estimated percentage increase as a result of county agents' influence........ 100
CRAB GRASS
Number of demonstrators...-------.......... -----....... --....--- ........... 15
Number of demonstrators reporting-----------........................... 10
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods................................... 60
Average yield hay per acre, tons ............--------------- .........................11
Number of acres cut for hay ........................ .-..... -........-- ---- 50
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons--- -------..................................---- .
Note: Crab grass grows as a volunteer crop in cultivated fields in summer.
BUR CLOVER
Number of demonstrators ................................------ --- ..----- 4
Number of demonstrators reporting... ....... ..-................... ............... ..--- .--- 2
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods.......--..................... 48
Numbers of acres grazed off.................. ............ ........ 48
Estimated value per acre of grazing--------..............------ .............-....$3.30
Number of acres inoculated......................- ..--- .................----- ... ...... 48
VELVET BEANS
Number of demonstrators................................. .. 138
Number of demonstrators reporting-.....:...-..-...:.._:.-------.:.:... ---.... .... -----. 68
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods.............................2960
Average yield seed per acre, bushels ..-------..... ---------....--........ 18
Increased yield over ordinary methods, bushels.....-.............--- .. ...... -----10
Number of cooperators..............----------..--.... -............... -------.-....- 213
Total acreage grown by cooperators-.......... .-...::.....----------....... 4815







Annual Report, 1917 ,33

Average yield seed per acre, bushels...------................------- ............... ...........--16
Total acreage threshed for seed-..... ---- ----............ ............. ....... --...........- 187
Total acreage cut for hay----..................---- ......................................... 40
Number of acres grazed off.......-....-... -------..----.. --....---............4697
Estimated value per acre of grazing ........... ---------... ---------................... $ 11
Total acreage turned under for soil improvement...........................----. 8225
Estimated acreage planted in the State thru the county agents' influence....8080
Percentage increase in acreage of velvet beans as result of county agents'
influence: First year, 10%; second year, 10%; third year, 10%; fourth
year, 10%.
SOY BEANS
Number of demonstrators ....... ...-..-......----.... ....---....--.......-........ 10
Number of demonstrators reporting....................................... .......................... 8
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods...............-......---- ........... 33
Average yield seed per acre, bushels-......-............-.....------........- -----.. 12
Average yield hay per acre, tons.........................--------............. .-- 1
A create cut for hay...................................... ...............---- .... .....-....-............... 5
Number of acres grazed off.............---...-----------.......................... 18
Total acreage turned under for soil improvement................................... 10
Total number of acres inoculated.... ..--------.............- ........ ...--. 11
Note: Soy beans are grown experimentally on a small acreage.
PEANUTS
Number of demonstrators ----.............. -.....-....----... ---..............-............-- 93
Number of demonstrators reporting -...-----......................................................... 45
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods----.................................... 995
Average yield seed per acre, bushels..---. ----------.......................................- ......... 32
Average yield hay per acre, tons.----............. -............---..........----. 1
Increased yield seed over ordinary methods, bushels...............---..................... 7
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons............................................ 2/5
Number of cooperators .......---- ................................................ 157
Total acreage grown by cooperators.-----....... ---------.................... 1960
Average yield seed per acre, bushels-------...............---------.. ... ............. 27
Average yield hay per acre, tons--..........-............ ... ------ 4/5
Total acreage picked for seed...---.... ----.......................................... 748
Total acreage cut for hay.......................------...... .........-.......... --............................- 438
Number of acres grazed off ........------- .......-.-........................ ......1958
Estimated value per acre of grazing....----------.............$16.85
Total acreage turned under for soil improvement-- --- --........................ ..... 12
Total number of acres inoculated--....---------..........---- -- ---........................ 54
Estimated acreage planted in the State thru the county agents' influence....2036
Percentage increase in acreage of peanuts as a result of county agents'
influence: First year, 10%; second year, 15%; third year, 25%; fourth
year, 40%.
COWPEAS
Number of demonstrators--- .......-.. ....---- ----..-- -- 68
Number of demonstrators reporting...------- -- ------ .... ................. 27
Total acreage grown on demonstration farms---.............-------................--...... 666
Average yield seed per acre on demonstrations, bushels--------................................. 15
Average yield hay per acre on demonstrations, tons-........................-...... ....... 2
Increased yield seed over ordinary methods, bushels -------------............................... 5
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons...................................... 1---
Number of cooperators ---. ... ------.-.......... --......... -------. 46
Total acreage grown by cooperators-- ..--- .--------..------.--- 196
Average yield seed per acre, bushels...... ............ ...... .......... .......- 16
Average yield hay per acre, tons---....... --------................... 1
Total acreage thrashed for seed--.....--............-...............-. -- 57
Total acreage cut for hay- --------------~~~.- ...... ......... 78
Number of acres grazed off-......................---- ------------ 207
Estimated value per acre of grazing-...............---------............... $ 7
Acreage turned under for soil improvement--..--......------.......- 168
Total number of acres inoculated ..... .........-----------------105
Estimated acreage planted thru the county agents' influence.......................... 787
Percentage increase in acreage of cowpeas as a result of county Agents'
influence: First year, 10%; second year, 15%; third year, 15%;
fourth year, 15%.
f.c.e.-3







34 Florida Cooperative Extension

SWEET POTATOES
Number of demonstrators....... ..... ................. ....... 131
Number of demonstrators reporting.............. ....................-- 45
Total acreage grown by demonstrators............................. ........ 518
Acreage treated for diseases and pests... ........ ........... 64
Acreage worked by improved methods ...................................--......1294
Estimated increased acreage ............................... ........... ... 3710
IRISH POTATOES
Number of demonstrators......... --.........-----............ 225
Number of demonstrators reporting.............................. 12
Total acreage grown by demonstrators -.................... ...... 138
Acreage treated for diseases and pests ........ ................... .......... 675
Acreage worked by improved methods................................ .. 530
Estimated increased acreage....................................... 831
CITRUS
Number of demonstration groves........... ........................ 57
Total number of trees in these demonstrations........................... 93800
Groves inspected .............. ............... .... 95; number of trees 36200
Groves pruned ..- ... ............. 74; number of trees 41000
Groves sprayed ..... ...........-----...................... 80; number of trees 20000
Groves planted ................................ ..20; number of trees 12000
Totals........................ ........ .............. .........269; 109200
Number of other groves where agents gave assistance............................. 95
DAIRY CATTLE
Number of purebred dairy cattle introduced thru county agents' influence:
B ulls ......................................... ............. 48
Cows or heifers.................... ............... ............................... 263
Number of cows tested for production... ............ .............. 102
Number of farmers induced to feed balanced rations..--.................- 339
Number of cattle fed...................... ......... ...... ....... ............... 957
Number of demonstrations in dairy work supervised................................ 6
Number of cows in these demonstrations................................. 158
Number of purebred dairy cows when county agent work was started...... 1421
Number of purebred dairy cows now............................................... 1820
BEEF CATTLE.
Number of pure blood beef cattle bought through county agents' influence:
Bulls ................. .... .......... ........... .. .... 280
Cows or heifers ..................................................-.............. 960
Number of grade cows introduced for breeding purposes............................2600
Number of beef breeding herds started............ ........... ...... ........... 59
Number of feeding cattle introduced.................. ........................... 387
Number of beef feeding demonstrations.......... ................. 6
N umber of cattle fed................................................... ..................... 281
Estimated number of beef cattle handled according to methods advocated
by county agents...................................-.......----- 289
Number of beef cattle breeders' associations formed.............................. 7
Number of members....................................................... .............. 102
Note: The number of beef cattle has not increased but the quality is show-
ing general improvement.
DIPPING VATS
Number of dipping vats built this year thru county agents' influence.... 129
Number agents helped to construct.......... .............................................. 37
Number agents helped to fill with dipping solution................................... 85
Number in which agents tested the solution............... ............. 119
Total number in the State at this time........................... .... ......... 304
Estimated total number of cattle dipped during the year............................167,930
Increase in the number of vats in the State, by years: First year, 24;
second year, 38; third year, 94; fourth year, 78.
Tick eradication work is supported by the Florida State Live Stock Sanitary
Board and the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry cooperating.







AnnualReport, 1917 35

HOGS
Purebred hogs brought into the State this year due to county agents' influence:
Boars .. --- -...................... .............. 290
Sows or gilts....... ..... ..- ............................. .... ... ...... -. -.............. 1053
Extra head of purebred and grade sows bred ......................-.. ...1919
Number of herds started......................................................... .... 433
Number of hog feeding demonstrations supervised by agents....................... 98
Number of hogs.......... ......... ... ............. .. .. 1262
Number of hog pastures started........:......... ................ ..- 345
Number of farmers induced to grow grazing crops for hogs...-................ 766
Estimated number of hogs cared for according to methods advocated by
county agents ............................................18,413
POULTRY
Number of poultry demonstrations supervised..... --................................. 4
Number of poultry cared for according to methods advocated by agents....1745
Number of farms on which poultry management has been improved...........- 108
Number of birds on these farms............. .........................3645
Number of farmers producing non-fertile eggs............................ ........... 5
Number of eggs produced..................... ..... ......................... 784
Average price, dozen........ .................. ............... ........... $ .35
LIVESTOCK DISEASES AND PESTS
Number of head of livestock extension workers have induced farmers to have
treated for diseases or pests:
Cattle .................................... ----- 30,979
Hogs ................................... ......................100,227
Sheep --. .... ............................ ------...................... 25
Horses .................. ..... ...... ........................... 352
FERTILIZER
Number of farmers advised regarding proper use. of fertilizers ........... 3,663
Number of fertilizer demonstrations ................. .............. 209
Tons of fertilizer used.. .................................... 1,690
Number of communities buying fertilizers cooperatively........................... 40
Tons of fertilizer bought cooperatively...................... ..... 1,177
Value of fertilizer bought cooperatively..-....--- ................ ...$47,080
Amount saved to farmers..--- ....... ...... ..................$ 5,885
Number of farmers home-mixing fertilizers....... .-- ............. 347
Estimated saving to farmers....- ........ -......................$ 1,672
Number of farmers who top-dressed crops with fertilizers-- ............. 646
MANURE
Number of farmers induced to take better care of manure................ .... 1,386
Number that provided sheds....... ................. ............ ......... 264
Number composting farm manure-........ --..............-----.-- ............ ......... 759
Number of manure spreaders purchased by demonstrators.--.....-...-.....-.... 19
Number of farmers mixing raw phosphate with farm manure.....--........ 1,112
Estimated quantity of farm manure saved, tons --2.._. .... ............29600
SILOS
Number of silos built in the State this year.......... ..................-..... 88
Number built as result of county -agents' advice ............. -.. .:.::' .56
Number in State when county agents' work was started.....-... ........... 64
Number of silos in the State now ................................ .................... 182
Title, 4; cement, 44; stave, 90; other material, 44.
Growth in number of silos by years: First year, 20; second year, 35;
third year, 16; fourth year, 46.
LIME
Number of farmers usinh lime due to county agents' influence........... 681
Quantity of lime used, in tons......... ........-- -......................4879
Number of local sources of lime -.... ........18.
Number of crushers installed.. ... ... ..1.; --... ......--.. ...... .






36 Florida Cooperative Extension

Number of acres limed first year of demonstration work ....................... 717
Number of acres limed second year..... -.....-.....----- ....1038
Number of acres limed third year..... ............... 625
Number of acres limed fourth year............ .....-- -- .-.. .........2750
'Number of acres limed fifth year.............. 54
Total acreage limed............ ............ .. .........-......... 184
HOG CHOLERA INOCULATION WORK
The cooperative arrangement between the Bureau of Animal
Industry, U. S. D. A., and the University Extension Division con-
tinues with Dr. A. H. Logan in charge. He has strived persistently
to make the work of greatest value to the state. The county agents
have cooperated to the fullest extent .to make the work effective.
Doctor Logan's report shows that 152 farmers' meetings in which
he took part were held.
Three assistants to Doctor Logan were appointed for the coming
year,-Drs. L. N. Peterson, H. F. Walker, and A. S. Houchin.
With these assistants the work will be systematized to prevent
the customary heavy losses sustained by swine breeders.
Late reports from the county agents indicate a reduction of hog
cholera which shows that this educational work is having good
effect on the hog industry in Florida.
WORK WITH NEGRO FARMERS
The work among negroes has been conducted along the same
lines as last year. There is one regularly appointed negro county
agent, in Leon County, who works four days a week in the field
and two days at the A. & M. College, Tallahassee. The farm and
home makers' club -work among negroes has been conducted with
the usual crops in six counties.
The names "farm maker" and "home maker" are applied to
negro clubs organized under the supervision of the Extension Di-
vision, University of Florida, as provided for in the Smith-Lever
Act.. While the agricultural club agent has direct supervision of
this extension work among negroes the activities are supervised
by A. A. Turner, agent for farm and home makers' clubs, who has
headquarters at the Florida A. & M. College for negroes, Talla-
hassee. The purpose of this extension work is to increase produc-
tion from the farms operated by negroes in the state. So far it has
been undertaken only where the work would count for the most
and where such work seemed most feasible.
The project has been directed toward agricultural training for
colored youth, inducing them to raise food crops on a better plan
than is generally followed by negro farmers in the state. The main






Annual Report, 1917. 37

crops undertaken have been corn, peanuts, and sweet potatoes. The
agent for farm and home makers' clubs reports that 175 negro
members each raised one-half acre of corn, one-fourth acre peanuts
and one-fourth acre sweet potatoes. The yield from 871/ acres of
corn showed a higher average than that for the state. After de-
ducting the cost of production from the value of the crop a profit of
more than $2,500, or a little more than $14 an acre was left.
There were 43 acres planted to peanuts which produced an
average yield of about 48 bushels. This crop netted an average
profit of $6.50 for the quarter acre.
For the sweet potatoes planted, the yield was estimated at about
90 bushels to the acre which is considerably above the average for
the state.
Comparing this report with last year's it shows an increase of
four bushels to the acre in corn. No comparison can be made with
the peanut and sweet-potato yields as these crops were not grown
the previous year by club members.
HOME MAKERS' CLUBS
The home makers' clubs enroll negro girls and encourage vege-
table gardening. For the most part the main vegetable crop has
been tomatoes and the surplus was canned for home use. During
the spring and summer seasons six assistant agents were appointed
in as many counties whose time was given chiefly to canning vege-
tables. In most cases excellent products were preserved which
added considerably to the food supply and as this is the most im-
portant consideration during the present emergency it is important
to increase the food supply as far as conditions permit.
NEGRO FARMERS' MEETINGS
More than 2,000 negro farmers attended public meetings ar-
ranged by the negro club agent and assistants. There were ar-
ranged at convenient places and times and the subjects discussed
were mainly on increased food production with special emphasis
placed on better cultural methods. At each one of these places
the essentials of hog cholera control were made plain to the negro
farmers. This is especially important as these club workers have
been instrumental in saving many hogs from cholera by having
them vaccinated, and, what was more important, to emphasize
that outbreaks of hog cholera are often started by allowing the
negro's sick hogs to mingle with his neighbor's healthy ones.
Aside from the work undertaken in the counties planned for,
additional counties carried on voluntary work induced by the de-
mand for food conservation. The following counties had the






38 Florida Cooperative Extension

services of an assistant home-makers' club agent for four months: -
Washington, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, Alachua, and Marion, with
assistant agents employed in each.
COUNTIES THAT VOLUNTEERED TO CARRY ON WORK
Following is a report of seven other counties that volunteered to
organize clubs last season, in which considerable food conservation
was accomplished.
Duval County, 12 clubs organized, 1165 cans of fruit and vegetables put up.
Hillsboro, 4 clubs organized, 550 cans put up.
Volusia, Daytona Industrial School, 2750 cans put up.
Putnam, instructor employed by county, 1165 cans put up.
Madison, 2 clubs organized, 450 cans put up.
Suwannee, 2 clubs organized, 275 cans put up.
Columbia, 3 clubs organized, 650 cans put up.
Total number of clubs organized, 23; cans put up, 7,840.
Arrangements were made with the Department whereby the
negro club agent was able to give some assistance.
STATISTICAL REPORT
The reports of the negro club' agent made during the year to the
state agent show the following:
Days worked in office.............. ........ ....... ....... .. .......... 60
D ays w worked in field.....- ....... ...- .......- .....- ..- .. ............ .. .... ........ 250
Total days worked ................-......-... -............ 310
Total number of letters written .......------...... .............. 4,125
Bulletins sent out ..................................- 7,718
Individual visits made:
To club members ---- -... ................ .. ....... 368
To Farmers .............. ------........... ........... 296
Meetings held ..................... .........-.........---.....----------....... 217
Total attendance, or number of people reached.......--- .....------ 8,990
Miles traveled by rail ................. .. .........-......... 9,331
Miles traveled by auto and other conveyances-----.........-----... 3,773
Total miles traveled ........................... ................ 13,101






Annual Report, 1917


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR EAST AND
SOUTH FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for East
and South Florida for the year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully,
H. S. MCLENDON,
-District Agent.

INTRODUCTION
The farmers' cooperative demonstration work in the district of
East and South Florida has made satisfactory progress, altho after
the declaration of war in April it was found inadvisable to carry
out all the plans as arranged during the first of the year.
The production of more feeds for livestock and the growing of
more staple crops have been pushed in every county in this district,
and in most of them with-marked success. Farmers are making
a greater effort to produce home supplies and by another year this
increase will have a noticeable effect on the total food production
of Florida.
CATTLE AND HOGS
In Brevard County the farmers were induced to grow an in-
creased acreage of feed which influenced the bankers to buy one car
of dairy cattle. This stock was distributed over the county to
individual farmers, the banks received a cash payment and carried
the balance when the farmers needed help.
The dairy industry has been generally increased, especially iri
Dade and Pasco counties. In Dade County several carloads of
dairy cattle have been brought in and more will come in the near
future. The growing of forage crops for these cattle and 'the
erection of silos is progressing.
The beef cattle industry has also received special attention. Steer
feeding in the truck counties from crops grown on vegetable fields
during the summer gives a new source of income from the truck
fields. The fields being well fertilized and cultivated, produce a
heavy tonnage of corn in, the summer. This crop makes a large
amount of excellent silage where formerly the summer crops grown
on these farms were largely wasted. Seminole, Manatee and Marion
counties have erected silos for this purpose and most of the other
counties have erected one or more silos for steer feeding.
Hogs are being given a prominent place on most of the farms.
Where only a few years ago the native piney-woods razorback






Florida Cooperative Extension


rw*e~


FIG. 8.-Registered Hereford herd bull, Holmes County
roamed at will, one can see fields enclosed with wire fences growing
forage crops to be used for grazing purebred hogs. Forty pure-
bred gilts were purchased for Brevard County farmers. Some of
these were bred gilts and cost approximately $100 each.
The agents are still doing a great deal of hog cholera vaccination.
In some counties this work is nearly all the agents can handle at
times, but with the assistance of the individual hog raisers some
counties are able to keep the disease pretty well under control.
A special effort is being made to encourage farmers to grow feed
for one or two milk cows, for his work stock, and sufficient to
fatten enough animals to furnish meat for his own table.
CITRUS DEMONSTRATIONS
The freezes in February affected a number of groves in which
spraying demonstrations had been planned to such an extent that
it was impracticable to continue them. However, a sufficient num-
ber of groves have been sprayed under demonstration methods to
impress grove owners that if the spraying is properly done and
at the right time it is profitable to spray. In every county the
agent tries to encourage the growers to keep in touch with the
Experiment Station and follow its recommendations in controlling
fungus and insect troubles.






Annual Report, 1917


TRUCK DEMONSTRATIONS
A number of demonstrations in the treatment of the soil with
cyanamid for the control of root-knot have been conducted in
counties where truck is the principal cash crop. This treatment is
usually applied to seed beds, yet some fields have been treated.
The use of fungicides and other insecticides in the seed bed and
field has also been greatly encouraged with marked success, all
this work being done cooperatively, with the Experiment Station
directing and outlining the work.
Another feature that has been given considerable attention in
some of the truck districts is that of collecting samples of fertilizer
and forwarding them to the State Chemist for analysis. A large
number of these samples have shown an analysis below that guar-
anteed on the tag. One agent drew and sent in samples that showed
a shortage sufficient to cause the fertilizer manufacturers to return
to the growers more than $15,000.
APPROPRIATION TO SUPPORT COUNTY WORK
Due to the increased expenses in the.operation of a car, it has
been necessary to increase county agents' salaries. Inasmuch as
the funds from Federal and State sources have been insufficient to
make the increases, the counties have been asked to increase their
appropriation. In practically all cases, this increase has been
granted.
The average appropriations from counties for the coming year
is more than $1,100. It is gratifying to note that boards of county
commissioners have come to realize that the county agent's appro-
priation is one of the most profitable expenditures they can make.
They further realize the necessity of sufficient appropriation to
secure the services of well trained agricultural leaders, so that
each year experiences less difficulty in securing the necessary
appropriations than formerly.
DeSoto, Dade and Broward counties were added to the co-operat-
ing list during the year.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH AND
WEST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for
North and West Florida for the year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully,
E. W. JENKINS,
District Agent.

INTRODUCTION
The farmers' cooperative demonstration work in the district of
North and West Florida has been conducted in twenty-one counties.
The work in'Bay, Bradford, Franklin and Walton counties was not
begun until October 1. Leon County was without an agent from
March 1 until April 1, and from June 1 until October 1.
Since beginning the work, February 15, I have traveled by rail
16,816 miles, and by automobile 2,620, making a total of 19,436
miles; 122 official visits have been made to the county agents, and
55 farmers' meetings have been attended. At these meetings
there was a total attendance of 5,347. Accompanied by, the county
agents 216 farmers were visited. From these farms I was able
to see the average conditions and to give the greatest assistance to
the county agent for his general work.
The general interest in the work is shown by the appropriation
for the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1918, which is. $19,290 as
compared with $12,800 for the year ending June 30, 1917.

i ORGANIZATION
Organization has been made a special feature of the county
work this year. Several of the counties are now organized and in
others the plans are made. The general plan is for the county
agent to meet the commissioners' court and have each commissioner
appoint a man in his respective district. These five men constitute
a county agricultural committee. Each man, with the help of the
county agent, appoints in his respective district four other men
who compose a district agricultural committee. Each district com-
mittee assists the county agent in planning and carrying out the
work in his district.
Owing to the fact that a great portion of the county agent's time
is required to further crop production, food conservation, and
food surveys, the organization work has been of more than usual
benefit to the county agents.






Annual Report, 1917


CORN
The acreage planted to corn was greatly increased. In some
sections of the district the lack of rain reduced the yield to some
extent. In these sections the demonstration fields suffered very
little, thus showing the value of proper methods of soil prepara-
tion, fertilization, and cultivation.
In one county thirty-three demonstrators having ten acres each
in their demonstration plots, made an average yield of 37.3 bushels
per acre at a cost of 24.8 cents per bushel.
Several grain elevators have been erected in the district to assist
in preparing the corn for market. The county agents have done
much work in showing farmers how to build cribs and treat their
corn to kill the weevils.
COTTON
The acreage planted to cotton was more than that of last year,
but owing to the spread of the boll weevil thru the entire district
the yield was less. Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton, and Suwannee
counties suffered the greatest losses from the weevil this year.
Madison County produced only twenty-seven percent as much as
last year.
A great effort was made to teach the farmers the proper method
of cultivation under boll weevil conditions, but owing to excessive
rainfalls during the summer months, which furnished ideal con-
ditions for the multiplication of boll weevils, and also to the fact
that Sea Island cotton was planted, it being a late-maturing variety,
the loss was exceedingly heavy.
VELVET BEANS
An effort was made by the county agents to induce as many
farmers as possible to plant velvet beans as a soil builder and a
forage crop. A large acreage was planted thruout the district.
In a number of towns feed mills have been installed for the
purpose of making feed of velvet beans, corn, and other products.
Mixtures of velvet beans and corn ground together make an ex-
cellent feed for horses and cattle. This feed finds a ready market
and has already become an important industry. Large quantities
of beans are fed whole on farms or in feedlots in the pods either
dry or soaked. There is an increasing demand for such feed. This
bean is coming to be a staple article, and great improvement to the
soil by growing this crop is seen.
PEANUTS
Peanuts have become an important crop in the northern and
western .part of the state. A peanut-oil mill built at Malone this






Florida Cooperative Extension


year has proven of great value to the farmers of that section. The
indications are that several mills will be erected in the district
another year which will give the farmers a cash market for all
the peanuts they grow. The farmers of the Malone section find
the peanuts much more valuable as a cash crop than cotton was
even before the appearance of the boll weevil.
LIVESTOCK
Quite a large part of the activities of all county agents has to do
with fostering the production of more and better livestock. The
need of such work is evident. The efforts of the county agents have
been very successful along this line. In West Florida the world
has developed so far that a one hundred thousand dollar packing
house has been erected at Chipley. This packing house, together
with the one already in operation in Jacksonville, will give th(
farmer a nearby market. Many farmers are shipping in carloaC
lots. In some sections where farmers do not have enough hogs
to make a carload the county agents assist them in making a co
operative shipment. A great many purebred hogs for breeding
purposes have been brought into the state thru the influence of the
county agent.
Much improvement in pastures and grazing crops, as well as in
methods of feeding has been made.
The cattle industry has not been neglected. Carloads of grade!
or purebred beef cattle have been shipped into the district.
HOG CHOLERA
All agents give a good portion of their time to the control of
hog cholera. Thru the assistance of the hog cholera specialist they
have full instructions and information on diagnosis of the disease,
and the use of serum and virus has consequently added materially
to the value of the herds in the district by preventing or control-
ling hog cholera outbreaks. Farmers are instructed in the use of
the serum and are shown the advantage of equipping themselves
with outfits for administering it. The agent frequently having
other engagements is prevented from getting to an outbreak as
quickly as may be necessary to avoid the loss of a good part of the
herd, whereas, if the farmer has the outfit he can administer the
treatment promptly and avoid unnecessary losses.

DIPPING VATS
Demonstration agents are working with other forces in the
educational campaign leading to the eradication of the cattle tick






Annual Report, 1917


This work has consisted in pointing out and explaining the loss
caused by the tick, also in giving aid in the construction of dipping
vats. Most of the dipping vats constructed under agents' super-
vision this year are community vats. By means of such vats some
of the most effective tick eradication educational work is accom-
plished. The cattle owners in a community, or within a radius of
a few miles, join in constructing a central vat, each one contributing
either money or labor. Such citizens thus feel that the vat belongs
to them, they use it freely and take pride in telling others of the
merits of dipping cattle. The sentiment thus created is much
more wholesome than that which sometimes follows the installa-
tion of a county or public vat before the necessary educational work
has been done. In the latter case the cattle owners sometimes re-
sent the seemingly outside interference with their personal matters.


FIG. 9.-Corn club and pig club members, Madison County







1!
LS~ ~ RIW


FIG. 10.-Corn club and pig club members attending the Boys' Short Course, University of Florida






Annual Report, 1917


REPORT OF THE BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the boys' agricultural club
agent for the year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully,
G. L. HERRINGTON,
Boys' Club Agent.
INTRODUCTION
The organization of boys' clubs was begun early in the year in
each county by sending out enrollment cards to all former club
members, to be signed and mailed to the office at Gainesville by all
who desired to continue the work. The roll was augmented almost
daily thru the personal work of county agents as they visited farms
and schools.
All plans were definitely made and in the hands of club members
when war was declared. Inasmuch as club work is directed toward
greater food production there was no reason for radical changes
when the campaign for increased food production was started;
however, special effort was made to enlarge the scope of the work'
and to grow and conserve all additional products possible.
Two main projects, the corn and pig clubs, and two minor pro-
jects, the peanut and truck-crop clubs, have been followed this
year. In all of these clubs 1900 boys in 41 counties are at work.
Some are in only one branch of the work, while others are in two
or more branches.
Circular letters are sent out from the club agent's office to all
members every three or four weeks during the spring and summer,
and less frequently at other seasons. Copies of these letters are
also mailed to county agents and to superintendents of public in-
struction. This keeps all workers pulling together. The county
agents then visit the boys at schools and on farms and give all
necessary instruction relative to the work.
- There is a growing tendency to correlate the club work with
the public schools thruout the state. We have the hearty coopera-
tion of all county superintendents of public instruction and the
teachers in rural schools. This cooperation has been won by the
actual results the boys attained in their community.
Adverse weather at a time when it meant so much to crop pro-
duction was a serious handicap to some branches of the club work.
This was especially true with the corn club for dry weather pre-
vailed during midsummer when the crop was reaching maturity.
Many boys whose ambition it was to produce a maximum crop







Florida Cooperative Extension


were entirely defeated by the dry. weather, but.they do not seem
discouraged. Boys of this kind usually have a determination to
try again next year. Many boys failed to report because their
yields were not as good as they had expected. We are sure much


FIG. 11.-Poland-China gilt; age 8/2 months; weight,
367 pounds. Owned by Dan Gamble, Suwannee
County
more good has been accomplished this year than during any previ-
ous year in the history of the club work.
The following summary of the corn-club work gives an idea of
its extent in Florida:
Total number of boys enrolled in the state----............ ----........-... 1,132
Total number of boys reporting in the state -..--............. -..-.......-- 413
Total number of bushels reported in the state.....-.... ..... ...............15,531.54
Total cost of production ..... -...... ............ ... ...... ..... ..... ..$6,969.31
Average cost per bushel ...................-.... ----. ....... $ 0.461
Average number of bushels per acre .................. ................... 37.67
This summary was taken from the reports of the various coun-
ties thruout the state. There were six counties in which clubs were







Annual Report, 1917 49

organized that failed to report. This was due to not having county
agents present in the fall to work up the contests and assist the
boys thru the fall season. These reports do not give the complete
results of the corn-club work. Many boys conducted excellent dem-
onstrations but it is not possible to collect the results from all.
The following table gives an idea of the work as it stands in
the various counties:
SUMMARY CORN CLUB WORK



COUNTY P


Hernando .......................... 36 38.0' .37 73.6 $0.15
Hillsboro ..'......;...-......-- ... 33 28.2 ..49 60.0 .16
Washington ................ 30 36.7 .60 78.2 .42
Liberty ....................... 26 41.4 .36 70.5 .23
Polk ....-:. ------------------ 26 37.6 .42 102.1 .27
Holmes .................... 25 36.8 .35 80.5 .16
Madison ...........:........ : 21 36.7 .39 62.0 .22
Marion .................. 19 31.9 .49 100.1 .13
Nassau ...... ..................... 18 50.7 .57 76.0 .48
Wakulla ........................ i 16 17.4 .66 29.0 .67
St. Johns ..........-....-........... 14 34.2 .42 65.0 .30
Duval ......... .................... 12 39.4 .63 57.5 .80
W alton ............................... 12 47.9 .34 85.3 .19
Calhoun ........................- 11 46.2 .25 92.4 .19
Santa Rosa ................... 10 14.0 .79 26.5 .42
Alachua ....................! 10 33.7 .69 45.7 .53
Suwannee ...........-...-- ... 9 30.9 .47 71.8 .44
Clay .................. 9 46.4 .39 63.7 .46
Hamilton ............ ....... 9 61.9 .45 98.0 .30
Putnam ......-- -- 8 44.7 .40 82.4 .10
Jackson ............................... 8 26.0 .42 70.7 .32
Citrus .................. 7 32.4 .35 58.0 .16
Leon ........................-.. 5 29.1 .42 58.3 .19
Baker ........ ........... 5 37.9 .45 67.0 .28
Gadsden .................. 5 50.6 .44 58.7 .36
Lee .................... ............ 3 24.2 .74 30.0 .59
Lake ............................ 3 79.1 .24 106.5 .39
Orange ........... 3 23.6 .65 27.0 .64
Sumter -..........- ........- 3 61.6 .28 69.0 .17
Okeechobee ...................... 3 23.8 .52 25.0 .62
Taylor ......................... 2 56.4 .35 56.5 .35
Escambia ........................ 2 56.4 .23 80.3 .15
Brevard ........... ........ 2 28.0 .66 50.0 .40
LaFayette ................ ....... 1 50.0 .42 50.0 '.42
Jefferson. ......---- ............. 1 38.5 .36 38.5 .36

It is interesting to note that there has been a gradual increase
in number of 100-bushel yields each year. In 1915 one boy pro-
duced more than a hundred bushels. In 1916'three boys made sim-
ilar records and this year four boys produced more than a hundred
bushels per acre. Their names and reports are as follows:
f.c.e-4






Florida Cooperative Extension


CLUB BOY COUNTY YIELD COST RANK
LeRoy Alderman................. Lake................... 106.5 .39 First
Lawton Martin.................... Marion............... 100.1 .13 Second
Edgar Locke........................ Lake.................... 100.5 .27 Third
Paul Parrish...................... Polk....... ...... .. 102.2 .27 Fourth

These four demonstrations created much interest in the corn
club thruout the state and a large number of boys will make plans
to obtain similar results next year.
The corn-club boys have learned valuable lessons in crop rota-
tion. A great many planted peanuts, cowpeas or velvet beans with
their corn and produced about the same yield of corn that they have
been accustomed to without the legume crop. They find that the
legume crop is almost a net profit.
PIG CLUBS
The pig clubs have made unusual progress this year and created
more interest among the boys, farmers, and business men thruout
the state than any other branch of the club work. The swine
breeders of Florida have been able to supply about half of the pigs
needed by pig-club members, and the other members ordered from
breeders in Southeastern states. There were 652 boys who joined
the pig clubs and raised purebred pigs. The different breeds were
represented as follows: Duroc-Jerseys, 520; Poland-Chinas, 77;
Berkshires, 40; and Hampshires, 15.
Each boy keeps a record of all his work, but on account of the
difficulty in bringing the animals to the exhibits complete data was
collected from only 225. This report is summarized as follows:
Weight of pigs at beginning of contest, pounds.................................... 8,955.0
Weight at end of contest, pounds....................... .................. .. 41,670.0
Net gain in weight, pounds ............ ..................... ... ........ .......... 32,715.0
Average weight at beginning of contest, pounds............................. 39.8
Average weight at end of contest, pounds.................................. 185.2
Average net gain in weight, pounds......................... .............. 145.4
Length of feeding period, days................. ....................... 147.3
Average daily gain in weight, pounds................ ..................... .99
Average cost per pound of gain....... .......... ... .............................$ .06
Average price paid for pigs...................................... ... ..........$ 10.38
Average cost of gain per pig............... ......... ............ ....................$ 9.23
Average value at close of contest.........---.-........ ...................-..$.. 50.30
Average net profit per pig................... .................. ................................$ 30.69
The bankers of the state have again this year loaned money to
all boys recommended by the county agents to be used in purchasing
purebred swine. The boys are required to give their notes and in
most cases no endorsement is necessary. They have the use of the
money for a year and a half at six percent interest. This gives
ample time to raise pigs from those bought and to sell a few before
the notes are due.






Annual Report, 1917


One of the most interesting reports was that of Dan Gamble, a
Suwannee County boy. Dan purchased a twelve-weeks-old Poland-
China pig, weighing 18 pounds, for $13. He fed it and gave it
good attention during the summer and fall, and exhibited it at the
Suwannee County fair. This pig was placed in the entrance of
the swine building and was by far the most attractive animal on
exhibition. It was eight months and twelve days old, and weighed
367 pounds. Before the fair was over it sold for $125, gold. The
pig cost $5.50 to raise, making a total cost of $18.50. The net profit
for the six months' work with this animal was $106.50.
Arthur Powers of St. Johns County made a similar record.
When his pig was purchased it weighed 23 pounds and cost him
$11.15. He fed it 159 days at an expense of $8.35. At the end of
the feeding period the animal weighed 280 pounds, making a net
gain of 257 pounds. It was sold to the highest bidder on contest
day in St. Augustine for $95, which left a net profit of $75.50.
The three hundred boys who raised purebred gilts last year'
have bred their animals and raised one or two litters this year. A
great many who gave $10 for their original gilts have sold pigs
this year for $12.50 each.
The boys in the pig clubs have made special effort to grow green
feed for their animals. Many have provided pastures, but those
who live in towns where this was not possible grew small plots of
green feed to be used as soiling crops. The increased cost of con-
centrated feeds made it hard for some who had to buy them but
the increase in the price of breeding stock as well as pork gave them
the assurance of a good profit. Practically every boy fed his animal
himself and the boys have obtained some valuable experience in
feeding balanced rations.
Some boys have exhibited their animals at practically all the
fairs this year. Their pigs, as a whole, ranked among the best
livestock on exhibition. Not only the boys but the farmers and
the general public have seen the good results of the pig-club work
by having the animals exhibited.
We have made plans to hold a state pig contest during the State
Fair in Jacksonville next spring. It has not been possible so far
to hold a state contest but with the assistance of the state fair
management and the various swine breeders' associations it will
no doubt develop into an interesting feature of the pig-club work.
PEANUT CLUBS
The peanut club has made some progress this year and there
seems to be an increased interest in the growing of this crop in all






Florida Cooperative Extension


general farming sections of the state. Thirty-four boys in this club
made an average yield of 51.2 bushels of peanuts per acre at a cost
of 39 cents a bushel. With our present price for peanuts they made
good profits. Many other boys who planted peanuts with their
corn left them in the field for their pigs to harvest.
TRUCK-CROP CLUBS
The truck-crop clubs are being developed in the most southern
counties where the conditions are most suitable.' The crops are
grown during the winter months and reports are not ready at this
time.
BOYS' MEETINGS
We have held a great many interesting meetings with the boys
in practically all counties. Each boy felt himself a part of the
organization. regardless of the branch of club work in which he
was engaged. They. usually met at the school houses if the schools
were not in session or at the county seat or at some picnic ground.
The program was given in the forenoon and the afternoon was
spent as an outing. Contests were held in thirty-five counties this
fall and the exhibits of corn and peanuts showed that the boys had
improved a great deal in their methods of selecting products for
exhibition. There is also a marked improvement in'the pigs shown
this year over those of last year.
The results of the year's work were brought out at the boys'
short course in agriculture at the University, December 3 to 8.
There were 112 boys present from 34 counties, an increase of 53
percent over the attendance last year. Fifteen boys who attended
last year returned. There were 48 boys above 16 years of age and
many of that number are planning to enter the College of Agri-
culture.
SThe officers and instructors at the University gave every possible
assistance in presenting a good program and'made the short course
a success. The bankers, railroads, boards of trade and business
men thruout the state paid the expenses of most of these boys to
the short course. On the last night of their stay in Gainesville
the bankers of Gainesville gave them an excellent supper, at which
time the state prizes were awarded and every boy received a
diploma for the excellent work he had done.
The boys' club agent took part in 90 meetings in the interest
of the club work and the total estimated attendance at those meet-
ings was,6,570. From. one to three days were spent at each of the
118,viits, made, to county agents and considerable time, was spent
in counties that have no agents, visiting 330 farms. The distance







Annual Report, 1917


FIG. 12.-Three of the four boys making more than one hundred bushels of
corn to the acre. (Left to right) Leroy Alderman, Lawton Martin, Edgar
Locke
traveled by rail was 15,740 miles, by auto 4,345, by team 57;
making a total of 20,144 miles.
E. M. Manning, who was appointed assistant emergency boys'
club agent the first of October, has taken charge of the field
work in the northern and western counties. He works directly
with the county agents, giving any necessary assistance in the
development of the boys' club work.







54 Florida Cooperative Extension

- The farm and home makers' clubs under the supervision of A. A.
Turner of the A. & M. College, Tallahassee, have made very credit-
able progress. He has had assistant club agents working in Jack-
son, Washington, Gadsden, Leon, Marion, Alachua and Jefferson
counties.
i In the farm makers' clubs the negro boys cultivate one acre of
land to the following crops: one half corn, one quarter peanuts
and one quarter sweet potatoes.
SIn the home makers' clubs the negro girls grow one-tenth acre
bf tomatoes and can and preserve many products from the farm.
SAbout 1250 negro boys and girls are enrolled in the farm and
hbme makers' clubs and many are getting very creditable results.
BOYS ATTENDING SHORT COURSE AT UNIVERSITY
|i ALACHUA COUNTY
NAME AGE ADDRESS
tarrol Beacham Emerson ............................18................. Micanopy
Joe S. Fryar.-....-------------------17--....------Hawthorne
Horace O. Gay............... ....----- ..-- 15..............-----Trenton
John G. Herlong............ ----16.........................Micanopy
Karl M. Jones.--- ----- -----....--... 15----------.....-......Micanopy
Clarence W. Maddox----..... --- ...--15.----...--..--Micanopy
Arthur William Saarinen...--... 15.........................Alachua
Henry Dorsey Sanchez..----...---15--------.......................Newberry
Merrill Mildredge Shaw.......... .. 14........................----- -..Gainesville
William S. Williams..----------- 16-----...................Micanopy
Albert R. Zetrouer-- -- ...---- 17.....................Micanopy
; BAKER COUNTY
Alton Lucious Driggers...............................14...----................... Lake Butler
BREVARD COUNTY
Clarence W Hughes.................................... 18 ..........................Eau Gallie
BROWARD COUNTY
Fowler J. Howard------.......................--- ........18------ ......Ft. Lauderdale
CALHOUN COUNTY
James Lewis Atkins ----- ---................................. 13..........................Selman
CITRUS COUNTY
Edwin Henry Fitzgerald------ .................... 13..........................Inverness
Earnest Drew Miley............................16.............-------Inverness
Asa Corlin Sharp................... .....................15..........................Brooksville
Eugene Edward Turner................................13.------. -Crystal River
Charles B. Zellner---.....--....................-15---.......--.. ..Floral City
CLAY COUNTY
Alton Conway.............................................13-------..........................Green Cove Springs
Willie Guy Hall.......-...... ---.-- 11--... .-------West Tocoi
John Lewis McDaniel..........................14..........................Green Cove Springs
Roy Queen Saunders...- --........................... 16.........................Green Cove Springs
SDUVAL COUNTY
eorge N. Barber..............-------.........13 ------.............Jacksonville
Aubrey C. Brinson:. --...... -..................... ..1. ............. ....... -Fiftone
Leo W illiam -Curry..........,............. ...-- .16.: .....-...............Loretto
Gpy Hartley................ ...-.. .......----- 15 ................-.....- Loretto
OWeriAE. Taylo-:.---.....-.. ---...... 13. .. .................Jacksonville
Sidney Floyd Thomas-............................ .... ... .................. Baldwin







Annual Report, 1917 ... 55

ESCAMBIA COUNTY
NAME AGE ADDRESS
Tom W illiam Floyd.. ..................................17..........................Cantonment
HERNANDO COUNTY
Raymond Walter Wernicke ......-..............15--....... --Brooksville
HILLSBORO COUNTY
Jesse Bryant Alderman.... -....-----. 16...-.......----- Youmans
Hugh Charlie Davis..--------- 16......................Plant City
Jesse Lee Driggers ..... .---- ......1 .............Wimauma
Elmer Franklin Futch.............. .....17-........--....-..-..--- Plant City
Raymond Howell---....................... 16.... ---- -..Plant City
C. H. Taylor, Jr.. ----- .............13........................Plant City
Jam es G. Viers................................. 14.........................Dover
Luther LeRoy Webb---............................------ 13----..-- Plant City
JACKSON COUNTY
Wm. Jack Forshee.................................-----16---..........................-----Marianna
LAKE COUNTY
Leroy Alderman........ .. -----. 15--..................----........Montverde
Paul S. Kirkland-- ...---------..17....--- ........Altoona
Edgar Locke................................... 13..........................---- -- ---Montverde
Ellis Allen Sheppard--..-----....15.........-------.. Montverde
Alec Smith--------------- 13----------..........................Montverde
Leo Edward Starrs..-....._-.-..........................15. -------Montverde
W illiam Earl Varn.....................................16.........................Groveland
LIBERTY COUNTY
Lawrence L. Hentz--- ------.............. ............ 15---------..Bristol
Million Owens......... ................. ........ 15------...--..... Bristol
MADISON COUNTY
Malcom Tucker Chason..............................19.--...... ----Ebb
Clarence H. Lamb...------....----........................... 14------..........................Madison
William Orvin McCullough--.....................17-....----.--.Lee
Joe P. Smith................................... --- 13..........................------ Ebb
MANATEE COUNTY
John W Collins ..................... ..... 14..........................------ Oneco
MARION COUNTY
Jacob Lynn Feaster....................-----..... 14..........................Micanopy
Lawton M Martin .................. .-.............. 13... ------.......................Electra
Alonzo P. M eadows............................... 14.........................Anthony
Vernon F. Neil........... ................. 14 ..... ........--...Ocala
Geo. M yron Rou.....................................- 15..........................Lowell
Clyde B. Seckinger ............................. ----- 17 ------........................Martel
NASSAU COUNTY
Edwin Caswell Brown ----................................16 -------Callahan
Ellis Van Dyal.............----------.............. 16 ----........................Callahan
John Upton Davis ..............--.........-... 17- -------........ Callahan
Pasco Fouraker...............................----... 18.........-- -- Baldwin
Allen Fouraker.......... ...... ......................14 ------..... Baldwin
W alter K. Green........................ -- 17..........................Callahan
Ray Haddock......-.................. ............... 18..........................Boulogne
Cecil Johns------ -...................... ........14 -.....--- *-. Crawford
Charles Roland Owens---......................... 15.........................Callahan
Warren W. Pittman---... ----.......................15 ... ......... Crawford
Frank E. W alker....... ................................. 18---................-- .......--Kings Ferry
OKEECHOBEE COUNTY
James Weymon Potter-- ---...........................16..........................Okeechobee
Hubert Vaser Raulerson............----................-- 16..........................Okeechobee
Arthur Franklin Raulerson.......................15..................... Okeechobee







56 Florida Cooperative Extension

ORANGE COUNTY
Thomas Livingston Link........................12...- -............Orlando
OSCEOLA COUNTY
Irlo Overstreet Bronson ....................... ---..17--....------ ....Kissimmee
Edward Campbell.............. .....18-...-....Kissimmee
Henry Tollie Simmons---.... -----....14--......-------St. Cloud
Malcolm Curtis Yates---..............-------....------17-----------Kissimmee
PALM BEACH COUNTY
Robert Taylor Egbert...................--- ... 17..---.....................Boynton
Tuffic Tabit. ................................--- 12---......................--- Boynton
POLK COUNTY
Juel Jackson Barksdale..................------- 13.........................Lakeland
Allen Reuben Hall..............................---- 16..........................Bartow
Marvyn Ludwig Hum--------...................-- 14- -----.....--askell
John Allen Williams.. .--------- ..16.........-------Haskell
PUTNAM COUNTY
Radcliffe W Carrington........................ 17..........................San Mateo
George W Davies.............. 16..........................Florahome
Russell Warren Strange -.... -------...17-......................... Palatka
SAINT JOHNS COUNTY
Oma Carl Minton..........................-............- 13---....................Hastiigs
Carl Trueman Morrison............................ 13-...... --..... -...........Hastings
James Henry Stevens...................-----------. 15-...-..........-........New Augustine
SAINT LUCIE COUNTY
George Holmes Braddock..... ..............................Sebastian
Charles Hersey Harris--.........-----... 13--......................Vero
SANTA ROSA COUNTY
Max A. W ise.......................... ............ 12----.... -----............ Milton
SEMINOLE COUNTY
W allace W Bell......................... ... 14.--...- -................Sanford
John Lester Brumley............ 12....................... ..Sanford
Watson L. Wallace--....--. -------.-12--.........-...........Sanford
SUMTER COUNTY
Sidney Luther Fussell .----------15.........---...... Coleman
Tom Fussell ........ ...... ...17................ St. Catherine
Teddie R. Hill.......................................... 15...................----- ---- .......Colem an
SUWANNEE COUNTY
Milledge A. Baker----.....--... -----.... 17-..----..................O'Brien
Jack S. Henry .. .......................... ---- 18 -------..........................Live Oak
W alter N. Skeen..................---- --- ....14.........................Live Oak
TAYLOR COUNTY
Artie Bowdoin.........------ ..............--15-..---...........Perry
John Andrew Bowdoin........................- 17...........------Perry
Floyd Calhoun....... ---------............ 15........................Perry
Alvin N. W ilder.................. ---.... 17................. Perry
VOLUSIA COUNTY
Aaron S. Tedder..........................--........- ..18.........................De Leon Springs
WAKULLA COUNTY
John James Revill........................................16---..........................Sopchoppy
W ilmer Clyde Rouse................................... 15..........................----Sopchoppy
WASHINGTON COUNTY
Preston Hasty-...-...................-....--......-. .17............ .........--..Bonifay






Annual Report, 1917


REPORT OF THE SWEET POTATO STORAGE SPECIALIST
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the specialist in sweet po-
tato storage for the year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully, SAMUEL C. HOOD,
Storage Specialist.
INTRODUCTION
SThe Office of Horticulture of the U. S. Department of Agriculture
in cooperation with the Extension Division began active work on
September 1, 1917, to improve the sweet potato storage conditions
in Florida. This work continued for the remainder of the year.
It is estimated that fully thirty percent of the crop in past years has
rotted due to improper methods of storage, and owing to the greatly
increased plantings in 1917 it was thought that the loss would be
unusually heavy in that year.
The object of the work was to encourage the erection of approved
storage houses where slight heat could be applied to dry out the
extra moisture and prevent sweating, thereby avoiding the loss
that commonly occurs when potatoes are banked in the usual way.
In these houses potatoes can be held at proper temperature with
small loss, enabling the grower to hold his crop until late winter or
spring and to place it on the market in good condition. On many
farms sweet potatoes are grown for home consumption only and
the amount produced is not sufficient to justify building a storage
house. In such cases a properly constructed ventilated bank was
advocated, and a large number of farmers used this method in
1917. This part of the work alone has saved a considerable quantity
of sweet potatoes from rotting on the farms.
The work was carried on thru the cooperation of the county
agents who gave it their hearty support. Considering the condi-
tions in Florida it was thought that the best results would be
secured by working with the farmers direct, and to encourage the
larger growers to build their own houses rather than to work for
central storage houses in the towns. Further work justified this
view.
Several meetings were held in farming counties but most of the
work was conducted by personal visits to the larger growers in
each county. Twenty-two counties were visited, eighteen formal
meetings were held, and calls made at more than 300 plantations.
As a result of the work, 47 storage houses were projected for the
season and a considerable additional number were assured for next
year. Owing to the serious crop failure, however, which did not






Florida Cooperative Extension


become evident until late in the fall, only 15 of thesehouses were
constructed for use in 1917 and some of them only half the intended
size. There has been difficulty in getting enough sweet potatoes
to fill some of the houses built.
SMALL CROP PRODUCED
The work this season indicated that the most important part of
the sweet potato storage work in Florida is growing the crop. In
spite of the increased planting in 1917, more than half the counties
did not produce enough for local use, and only one-fourth of the
counties had a slight surplus over local needs.
From the acreage planted in the state, the crop should have been
about 7,000,000 bushels, but the actual crop was probably not more
than one-third that. This condition was largely due to drouth, poor
seed, late planting, and improper cultural methods. The Florida
farmer can well afford to pay more attention to the sweet potato
crop and to regardit as a possible money crop. To bring this about
emphasis should be placed on the following:
(1) The planting of improved varieties and the endeavor to keep
them pure.
(2) The planting of seed properly selected for productivity,
uniformity, and disease resistance.
(3) Proper methods of culture to give the most profitable re-
turns.
(4) A study of the proper methods of harvesting and handling
to prevent injury.
(5) Grading in the field so that diseased, ill-formed and stringy
potatoes are kept for hog feed.
(6) Proper storage in banks and houses.
All these points lead up to the successful operation of the storage
house and insure the maximum returns for the crop marketed.
SWEET POTATO STORAGE HOUSES IN FLORIDA, DECEMBER 31, 1917
CAPACITY
OWNER POSTOFFICE IN BUSHELS
W. H. Leonard...................Grand Ridge ..................... ..................... 5000
Hall & Scidmore ....................Green Cove Springs .-................................ 1000
C. C. Parsons..........................Bluff Springs ......:........- ....................... 100
W D. W illis................... .. .....Pensacola ............................... ............. 2500
L. S. Gilmore..........................Bluff Springs ................................. ......... 100
W C. Barrineau....................Pensacola ......... ....------ ...... ..... ................. 2500
J. M M cLaughlin...................Bonifay .............-.... ..... ................ .... 1200
D. H. M orris..........................Noma ......... ............................................. 1000
The Traders Exchange..-......Campbelltown .................. ................... .. 5000
J. C. Braswell.......................M onticello ............................ ...................... 500
Nathan Mayo .............. ........ Summerfield ................ ........... ........... ......... 5000
H. L. Shearer........................cala .......................... ............. ... 1200
L. R H illfill..............................Largo ..............- .... .......... ................... 500
D. E. M urphey......................Glendale ................. .- ...... .................. 300
W H. Folk ................ ..: .......Chipley ..................... ...................... 1500







Annual Report, 1917


MAP


40..r
IHEY WEST ..,-s

FIG. 13.-Shaded areas indicate counties having Home Demonstration work
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the state agent for home
demonstration work for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917, and
with it statistics of the work done by women and club girls for the
year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully,
AGNES ELLEN HARRIS,
State Home Demonstration Agent.
INTRODUCTION
Prior to the declaration of war, the entire staff engaged in home
demonstration work consisted of, the state agent; two district
agents, each in charge of the work in one-half the counties of the
state; a poultry-club organizer; a secretary to the Extension Di-
vision; and thirty-three county home demonstration agents. Fol-
lowing that declaration, the staff-was increased by the addition of,
one stenographer; two emergency home demonstration agents; and
one assistant to a county home demonstration agent.
This staff was not nearly adequate to meet the demands under
war conditions but, since the conditions could not have been antici-
pated, no financial assistance was available and the fiscal year had
ended before the emergency appropriations became available to
increase the force materially. For the maintenance of the work,
the following funds were available:
Florida State College for W omen...................................... $10,733.29
U. S. D. A. Funds..-..-......-------------.......... ............ 5,400.29
Smith-Lever Federal Fund -----................--............--.---. 11,525.00
County Boards of Education, for.agents' salaries.-....... 13,350.00
County Commissioners, for agents' salaries.............---...... 3,950.00

Total ..--......-- ..----------...--- ..--- ...... ..-- $44,958.58
Besides the county appropriations for agents' salaries, appropria-
tions were made for equipment for demonstration centers, com-
munity kitchens, offices for county home demonstration agents,
demonstration materials, and for materials used at county short
courses.
THE COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
Consistent with the policy in force since the Florida work was
started, the county agent is the factor around which all the work
is centered. This year the average salary paid our agents was
$108 a month, the average term of employment being 9.4 months.







Annual Report, 1917


One great advance made has been in the employment of women
trained in county home demonstration agent work. All newly ap-
pointed agents were graduated from either a college or normal
school, and each agent was thoroly acquainted with conditions in
Florida or in one of the nearby states.
As the scope of the work has broadened counties have furnished
the home demonstration agent with the equipment and materials
necessary for her to do her work well. The home demonstration
agent now needs in this work, which is constantly broadening in
scope, well equipped demonstration rooms in different parts of the
county, and materials with which to carry on demonstrations. She
also needs models of household conveniences, a suitable office as
headquarters for her work and a place for storing and distributing
literature which she constantly needs to send out in the county.
Most of the home demonstration agents have been furnished
offices in the courthouse or some suitable store. Notable among the
offices is the one furnished Mrs. Matthews, home demonstration
agent for Bay County. Her office is a large airy room near the
county superintendent's office, splendidly equipped for holding
demonstrations, and with desk, and shelves for bulletins.
By careful observation it has been found that adequate work
cannot be done by the home demonstration agent in Florida unless
she has an automobile constantly at her disposal. In the district of
North and West Florida all agents, with one exception, own their


FIG. 14.-Home economics class, State College for Women, Tallahassee






Florida Cooperative Extension


cars. In the southern district all but eight had cars. This is a
great financial tax on the agents that is constantly increasing, and
for this reason every effort must be made to secure from each
county sufficient appropriations to take care of the car, besides
paying a sufficient salary to employ well trained women.
In order to keep the standard of women employed high, good
salaries exclusive of the cost of running a car must be provided.
This will necessitate an effort to materially increase the salaries
of home demonstration agents. At a conservative estimate $37.36
a month is the cost of the up-keep of a Ford for the second year,
counting the depreciation in value of the car as $10 a month. The
minimum amount to allow an agent for the up-keep and running
expenses of her car is $50 a month.
A well prepared woman with a car at her disposal, and an
adequate expense account, will be of far greater value to a com-
munity than a poorly prepared, poorly paid woman without means
of transportation. Until a community can make sufficient appro-
priations to support an efficient agent, it is probably better not to
undertake home demonstration work in the county.
GENERAL PLAN OF THE WORK
The work this year has been conducted on much the same general
plan as it was last year, excepting that greater emphasis was placed
on organization. In March we had a far better organization in
the state than ever before, practically all girls and women working
under our supervision had been banded into clubs. A book con-
taining a constitution, with suggestions for holding club meetings,
and a roll for keeping attendance records, was furnished all clubs
from the state agent's office. Minutes of all club meetings were
carefully kept, and on any visit the county and state workers could
readily see the kind of work the club had been doing. At the
general agent's conference, the district and county agents planned
a program to be used as a guide by these clubs and in the majority
of clubs these programs were closely followed.
WOMEN'S CLUBS
We have been able, because of the previous work done with the
girls' clubs, to add to our organization clubs of country and urban
women. The following is an extract from the annual report of the
county home demonstration agent for Lee County, showing what
she had accomplished in organizing clubs among the rural women.
Ten classes have been formed, with a membership of 180. These classes
held meetings once a month. The agent attended and gave a demonstration
at each meeting. In the fall and winter the work was with the citrus fruits






Annual Report, 1917


in jellies, preserves, marmalades and crystallization. Next, the building and
use of the fireless cooker. After that the work with the substitute breads.
Each woman was given the recipe and assigned a particular kind to make.
At the next meeting each brought her loaf, and a bread judging contest was
held, followed by a talk on the nutritive value of bread, and a warning given
for the conservation of wheat flour. Corn meal bulletins were also distributed.
These lessons were well observed, many women abandoning the, making of
all wheat breads because their families preferred the substitute breads, and
they were so much cheaper. Next came a round of canning demonstrations.
In these the club girls in their neat uniforms were eager to assist. The new
method of preserving strawberries was given several classes, and each had
one demonstration in pickling.
There are 125 well organized and successful home demonstration
clubs in'the state. The members of these clubs are actively carry-
ing on demonstrations at home between meetings. One home
demonstration agent reports that after a demonstration with the
fireless cooker, eighteen women bought material and made fireless
cookers.
EGG CIRCLES
Of the women's clubs, none are more profitable than the egg
circles. In Escambia County the Burnville and Wardville egg
circles, working under the county home demonstration agent's
supervision, are successful from both a commercial and a social
standpoint. This bit of cooperative selling is helping to increase
the spirit of cooperation in their community.
For the work done in poultry, reference may be had to the report
of Miss Floyd, state poultry club organizer.
GIRLS' CLUBS
Two thousand four hundred and eighty-three girls were enrolled
in 243 clubs for canning, gardening and poultry raising. The total
production and profit was materially decreased by the February
freeze. For instance, in Dade County sixty club gardens just ready
for harvesting, were all killed.
FAIRS, CONTESTS AND SHORT COURSES
The home demonstration work was featured at two fairs, the
Duval County and the Tampa fair, which answered the purpose in
Florida of the state fair. Miss Partridge was in charge at the
Tampa fair and a description of it is included in her report.
When the work first began the annual county fair, wherever it
was held in the county, was the regular place for holding the county
contest. At each county having a home demonstration agent and
where a fair was held we have had a home demonstration exhibit.
In some counties the demonstration exhibits have developed into
fairs composed very largely of poultry displays, exhibits of sewing,
basketry, canning and preserving done by the girls and additional
exhibits of the women's club work.






64 Florida Cooperative Extension

Each county had its contest to compare individual records, judge
the products and award prizes to club members. Short courses of
two or three days were held in each of 21 counties either in the
fall or spring with an attendance of 608 club girls. The program
for these short courses usually consisted of lessons in drying vege-
tables, pickling and canning, the care of crops, the preparation of
peanut products and breadmaking.
Besides the regular program of work the town women enter-
tained the girls and made their visit to the short course a' delightful
experience. The effect of this has been felt thruout the state, as
one county home demonstration agent writes: "Now when I meet
the girls they do not mind talking; they ask'questions and tell me
what they are doing in the way of raising and saving food,"
A most important result of these courses seems to have been the
development of initiative in the girl and a broadening of her ideas
of life, quite. as much as her increased knowledge in food prepara-
tion and other phases of home economics.
STATE MEETINGS
AGENTS' CONFERENCES
In October, twelve newly appointed home demonstration agents
attended the annual meeting of county agents at the University
of Florida. At this time separate meetings were held for these
newly appointed agents for instruction in organization, canning,
preserving, gardening and dairying, by members of the faculty
of the Agricultural College and the -State College for Women.
This meeting was, successful and excellent results followed the
joint sessions of men and women agents, but owing to the greater
expense of meeting in Gainesville than in Tallahassee it was neces-
sary to hold the next annual meeting of county home demonstration
agents in Tallahassee in January, just preceding the opening of
the winter session when the dormitories are vacated by regular
students. There were thirty-three home demonstration agents in
attendance, and instead of the conference being conducted as a
school as in the past, it was a series of conferences. The county
home demonstration agents discussed their problems and estab-
lished uniform policies to be followed thruout the year.
,WOMEN'S SHORT COURSE
In the past the women's shortcourse and the county home demon-
stration agent's,:annual meeting were held at the same time, but
this year because of; crowded dormitories the women's short course
was held in February. This short course: is especially planned .to
meet the needs of county home demonstration agents who require






Annual Report, 1917


training. As the facilities for training prospective agents can be
increased, the need for the home demonstration agent attending
such short courses will be lessened. Seven county home demonstra-
tion agents paid their own expenses to this two-week short course.
The College employed Miss Anna Barrows, a woman of national
reputation, to present food preparation facts, and to give daily
lectures and demonstrations in nutrition, canning and preserving
and in phases of home making. Sixty-two women of Florida were
enrolled, but in each demonstration given by Miss Barrows one
hundred or more were in attendance. A few of these women mani-
fested distinct ability for county work and have since been em-
ployed, as county home demonstration agents.
The following is a list of food conserved by Stella Mae Biddle,
a club woman who attended the short course, after her return home:
10 glasses apple jelly, 48 pints fig preserves, 4 quarts dried shelled
peas, 14 quarts tomatoes, 3 quarts okra, 6 quarts okra and tomatoes,
1 peck dried corn, 4 quarts preserved peaches, 10 quarts canned
peaches, 8 quarts canned figs, 12 quarts applesauce, 8 quarts black-
berries, 1 pint mulberries, 3 quarts buby relish, 1 quart apple
vinegar, 2 quarts canned beans, 4 cans of beans in tins.
GIRLS' SHORT COURSE
The fifth short course offered by the Florida State College for
Women for the canning-club girls was held November 27 to Decem-
ber 9, 1916. The girls' expenses were paid by county commis-
sioners, boards of trade, women's clubs and public-spirited men in
the respective counties. There were 41 girls sent from the 33
counties.
As the type and training of county home demonstration agents
has improved there has been a corresponding improvement in the
preparation and fitness of canning-club girls as compared with
those in attendance at the beginning of the girls' short courses. No
girls are sent to the short course unless they have made good
records as club members. These girls showed unusual ability to
grasp the work offered them. Regular lessons in cooking, sewing,
home nursing, nutrition and gardening were given, besides there
were inspirational lectures and trips planned for their benefit.
The recreation hall was used as a dormitory for these girls be-
cause of crowded conditions at the college, and proved most satis-
factory. Enroute to their homes, the South Florida girls stopped
in Jacksonville and were the guests of honor at the Duval County
fair; they visited also the home of Mrs. Okle Painter Williams, who
presented each first-prize winner with a gold watch. Mrs. Williams
f.c.e.-5






Florida Cooperative Extension


has presented eighty-five gold watches to Florida prize-winning
girls.
SUMMER SCHOOL FOR COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
Because the woman who understands Florida is most efficient in
our work, provided she is well trained, and because of the necessity
of giving the strong Florida woman opportunities to secure train-
ing, an appropriation was asked from the State Legislature for
the support of a home economics summer school. This was granted,
but it was not known until May 26 that this course could be offered.
For this reason no information could be given thruout the state.
As soon as the appropriation was definitely made, a letter was
sent to all county home demonstration agents, and a warning given
that no appointments for home demonstration work in this state
would be made the next year unless the applicant had at least the
training which could be secured at the summer school. It is hoped
later to demand at least two summer's courses.
More. than fifty women registered in these courses. One course
was called the home demonstration methods course, the instruction
being given entirely by the extension workers. Practical home
demonstration work was given and opportunities to visit demon-
strations and club meetings in Leon County were offered. One day
the entire class was transported eleven miles into the country and
an all day canning was held at the home of the Leon County agent.
It is hoped to develop this summer school for county agents until
any of the strong teachers in the state who wish to prepare them-
selves for this work can, during summer sessions, secure the neces-
sary preparation.
WAR CHANGED CONDITIONS
A general survey of the work during March in each county
gave evidence that the work with both girls and women was well
organized, but when war was declared and it became necessary to
aid the Government in food conservation, the general plan of work
was largely changed. Instead of working entirely with organized
groups we began a state-wide campaign of instruction in canning
and preserving. Each home demonstration agent took a leading
part in the county campaigns for food conservation and produc-
tion, and rendered the maximum assistance to her people for food
conservation. A great drive was made for saving foodstuffs.
CONTAINERS
In the drive for food conservation the problem of containers was
a serious one. Tin cans that formerly cost two cents each were
difficult to obtain at five, and five and a half cents. Glass was






Annual Report, 1917


equally as difficult to secure and because of the unprecedented
increase in price and disturbed business conditions merchants re-
fused to lay in an adequate stock of cans, even tho the price was
constantly rising. For this reason every county home demonstra-
tion agent had to spend a great deal of time in working out plans
to overcome these inconveniences. Finally, thru the efforts of Mr.
Knapp and other officials in the Department of Agriculture, we
were able to secure a sufficient supply at a reasonable price. The
cans were shipped direct to both district home demonstration agents
in car lots for redistribution to the counties. The district agents
personally handled three carloads of cans, had them unpacked and
reshipped to the home demonstration agents, who distributed them
in the counties.
FINANCING THE CONTAINER PURCHASES
Financing the movement of these cans was done in various ways.
In several instances the county commissioners bought the cans out-
right with county funds or with money borrowed for the purpose,
in other cases the bankers loaned money without interest. In one
county the teachers' association bought the cans and handled them
free from their own store room. In three counties the bankers
loaned the money to the club girls, who deposited it with the county
home demonstration agent, to secure delivery of the cans. Few
merchants were willing to handle the cans without profit so
without this persistent effort on the part of the agents many people
would have failed to secure containers.
One of the emergency workers, employed for six weeks in the
canning season, reported that she gave thirty-three demonstrations
with eight hundred and seven in attendance, and sold, repacked and
delivered twenty thousand cans. One home demonstration agent
personally handled sixty thousand cans for her county. Another
home demonstration agent, in her report, says, "approximately
three times as many people are canning this year as were canning
last year; far more foodstuffs were planted."
In all, there were a million and a half cans sold under the super-
vision of the home demonstration agents. It is believed that only
a very small proportion of this number of cans would have been
used had not this can campaign been carried on. Every available
glass container was used.
EMERGENCY WORKERS
When war was declared a great army of women volunteered to
take part in the food conservation campaign each one calling on
the home demonstration agent for instruction until the agent had






Florida Cooperative Extension


1-' "1 .' "i "" "

FIG. 15.-A Jefferson County canning club member
many more calls for help than she could fill. For relief, assistance
from the women whom they had previously trained was secured
by the agent until there were hundreds of women canning regu-
larly thruout the season to supply these women with information
and to conserve food against a possible shortage.
One home demonstration club in Manatee County, having no
gardens of their own, but surrounded by farms where tons of
vegetables were wasting, advised the farmers that they would
gladly can on shares. For three weeks they ran a small emergency
canning factory under the supervision of the county home demon-
stration agent, giving the farmer who brought the vegetables half
the product and keeping half, each one paying for his own cans.
Seventeen thousand cans were put up by this band of women. As
only seven women could work together conveniently they were di-
vided into groups of seven, one group working in the forenoon and
another in the afternoon. The president of the club reported that
she had a difficult time to keep people from coming to the kitchen
to can. Each day the little factory was well supplied with vege-
tables. At the end of the period the farmers had saved their vege-
tables, the farmer's wife had been relieved from this work, and
the town women without the garden had utilized their spare time
to secure a goodly supply of canned vegetables at small cost. Even
tho the cans were five cents apiece, it was a great saving.
A group of women in Redlands, Dade County, on finding that
beans were wasting in the fields because of. poor markets, secured







Annual Report, 1917


them for the picking and within a week had organized themselves
into a canning band and put up fifteen thousand cans. These
women managed their own work. Thruout the state there were
instances of this kind of work.
CANNING KITCHENS
Because of the ready response to assist in food production and
conservation by the women of towns and cities it became necessary
to provide canning kitchens or a place to can with sufficient equip-
ment to carry on the work. As a result, Jacksonville equipped
eight community kitchens, Palatka one community kitchen, and in
Tampa a number were established. Most of the canning kitchens
were equipped with steam pressure cookers, hot water canners
heated by gas, running water, bottle cappers, pans and bowls, show
cases for exhibits, tables and chairs. Containers were procurable
either at the kitchen or nearby enabling the town woman with a
few vegetables to come to the kitchen, receive her instruction, put
up her products and take them home to be stored away. In some
counties community canning factories were established in a similar
way.
The following is an extract from the report of the home demon-


FIG. 16.-A demonstration.kitchen equipment furnished by the business men
of Palatka







Florida Cooperative Extension


station agent for Duval County: "I have assisted in establishing
the canning work in Jacksonville in community kitchens, and in
the Y. W. C. A.; one community cannery has been established in
the country; three girls have built sheds, screened them, and are
canning for neighbors."
Negro women were organized into clubs for similar work and
were able to conserve large quantities of garden products that
otherwise would have been wasted.
DRYING VEGETABLES
Owing to the several emergencies during the canning season the
Office of Extension Work of the South detailed Frantz P. Lund to
Florida to demonstrate the canning of fish and the drying of
vegetables. Demonstration agents were called together in clubs for
instruction. The instruction in drying vegetables was especially
applicable and was promptly put into practice by the agents in
their respective counties. They have had sufficient success to war-
rant the conclusion that this method of preserving vegetables is
practical in Florida if the precaution is taken to properly paraffin
the containers to make them insect proof. This method of drying
was used most extensively with blackberries, corn, beans and peas,
and it is believed that by another year this method of preserving
vegetables will be brought into general use.
CONSERVATION AND PRODUCTION CAMPAIGNS
In most of the counties having home demonstration work the
county officials planned conservation and production campaigns.
Meetings were arranged in various sections so that practically
everybody was reached with the message to plant more and to
save everything. The county and home demonstration agents were
largely responsible for the interest taken. The state workers as-
sisted in these campaigns as far as it was possible.
WORK WITH NEGROES
In January, the state home demonstration agent had been called
to the negro college to give a lecture and demonstration and there
the possibilities in giving the negroes instruction in food produc-
tion and conservation were most evident. Plans were being formu-
lated for starting the work for negroes in the state the following
year. From various parts of the state came announcements that
the county home demonstration agents were working voluntarily
with negroes; as a rule this work was carried on by getting two
?r three leading negroes in the county to the home of the demon-
stration agent, and there with her equipment giving them instruc-
tions. The demonstration agent personally attended some of these






Annual Report, 1917


demonstrations, and saw that the work was well done by the negro
women. Two of the county home demonstration agents equipped
canning sheds in their yards and allowed the negroes to come and
use the canners, bringing their vegetables and putting them up
under the agent's supervision.
There is a great need for this work among the negroes, and there
has been every indication that the negroes will do their part in
getting the instruction. Under the supervision of the negro farm
agent, public demonstrations were held. As a result of all this
help, there were not only negro volunteer canning agents employed,
but in Putnam and Duval counties regularly paid canning agents
were employed by the board of county commissioners. The imme-
diate results of this work were excellent, some clubs putting up
fifteen thousand cans. It is a splendid foundation for the work with
negroes for another year.
WORK WITH CITY WOMEN
The home demonstration work has been planned primarily for
the rural women. Some work, however, has been undertaken in
the cities and urban centers-there being an urgent demand for it.
Regular canning demonstrations were given, in various cities in
the state under the instruction of the county home demonstration
agent with the assistance of the domestic science teacher of the
city schools.
COLLEGE GIRLS HELP
During the month of May a specialist in canning was employed
at the college and every college girl was given definite instructions
in both canning and drying. An appeal was made to them to help
in food conservation work in their communities when they re-
turned home. This appeal was received with a generous response.
Some college girls gave their time, furnished their automobiles.and
spent many days out in the country assisting in canning. Others
organized their social clubs into canning and drying clubs. A num-
ber of girls secured cans and equipment before leaving college, and
on returning to their homes filled every available can.
MEAT AND FISH CANNING
The introduction of meat and fish canning was made by Mr. Lund
who was assigned to Florida to give instructions in canning these
products. Thirteen home demonstration agents who needed help in
meat canning were brought together in groups and given this irn-
struction. Group meetings were held in the home economics de-
partment of the schools under the direction of the home demon-
stration agent and the district agents. Special instruction was







Florida Cooperative Extension


given to the agents in the use of the steam pressure canner, in the
process of canning fish and meat, and in drying vegetables, and in
each section one public demonstration was given which gave Mr.
Lund an opportunity to present the process to a large number of
people.
Following this, a campaign to introduce steam pressure canners
into leading communities in the counties was made by the demon-
stration agents. Steam pressure canners were bought by groups of
families. Two commercial canning factories for putting up fish
have been established and many women who went to the resorts
for the summer were able to buy fish at reasonable prices and can
them. The following are two reports of this kind of work done:
Mrs. Burleigh reports that she canned 23 No. 2 cans fish, bass,
mullet, and others; 10 No. 2 cans shrimp, and 10 No. 2 cans crab.
Miss Preston reports that after Mr. Lund's visit to Anna Maria,
she filled 250 cans with coquina soup, mullet, shrimp, scallops, and
red fish, and that other women on the island filled hundreds of
cans and jars with fish, and the tropical fruits found in abundance
on the island.
EFFECT OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK IN SCHOOLS
There is a closer relationship between the schools and the home
demonstration work each year. In Lee, Duval and Santa Rosa
counties, with the assistance of the home demonstration agents,
teachers have had the pupils prepare one hot dish for their lunch
each day. In many counties equipment for home demonstration
club work has been placed in the schools, which has resulted in the
county making definite provision for teaching home economics.
In Osceola County the teachers are assisting the home demon-


FIG. 17.-Girls in canning demonstration, Marion County







Annual Report, 1917 73

station agent to have a garden planted in every home represented
in the schools. In nine schools home demonstration rooms are
being equipped so that domestic science teachers can work in close
cooperation with the home demonstration agent, giving lessons in
breads, meat substitutes, etc.

SUMMARY OF GIRLS' CLUB WORK
That we have had our most successful year in girls' club work
is evident after studying the summary of yearly reports. The fol-
lowing highest ten records made on the tenth acre plots are the
best I have ever had the honor to report:
CLUB GIRL COUNTY LBS. PROFIT
Mattie Elmore.............................. Manate.............................. 5760 ......... $ 98.75
Gertie Bishop............................... M anatee ............................. 5325.................... 226.62
Inez Pearson................................ Gadsden........................... 4944................... 46.89
Julia Squires................................ W ashingto .................. ...4703................... 44.39
Barbara Moore ............................Bradford............................. 4686.................... 126.27
Elsie Stoutam ire.........................Leon ....................................510.................... 108.59
Ruth Johnson ................................ Hernando............................442 .................... 99.45
Mattie Ferrell..............................Gadsden.............................. 4179.................... 44.09
Ethel Gibson................................M anatee..............................4130.................... 150.96
Alm a Priest.................................. M arion................................3982.................... 191.92
Statistics hardly give an idea of the total work accomplished by
the home demonstration agents, but the following report of one
home demonstration agent indicates the variety of work done.
I gave demonstrations and assisted toward getting the canning club work
established in the city for the white people, also for the colored people, and a
canning school for Y. W. C. A. The girls have been taught to sew, have
studied the textiles, have been taught plain simple economical ways of pre-
paring food, household accounts, and care of sick in the home.
One large community cannery, fully equipped has been established in the
county and three girls in different parts of the county have built sheds in the
yard and screened them and are canning on shares for their neighbors.
A number of the canning-club women are going into homes and canning
on shares for other women who are too busy to can for themselves. One
canning-club girl has built up a steady trade for palmetto hats as the club
women of the city have adopted this for their morning wear.
Several canning-club women have yearly contracts for supplying hotels,
restaurants and ice cream parlors with fresh eggs, while two women are
making a great success in the sale of capons. I have established libraries in
five rural schools. Two kitchens have been fully equipped in two rural schools,
and a penny lunch is served each day in one.
RESULTS FROM HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Total number cans filled ........................ ... .......................................1,265,627
Total number glass jars filled............................. .................. .. 50,622
Total girls enrolled, 243 clubs...................................-----------....... 2,567
Total number women enrolled for regular work, 125 clubs.................... 1,628
Total enrollment of girls and women in regular work.............................. 4,095
Enrollment women war emergency work.................................. 6,813
Number of women making war breads regularly....................................... 1,136
Number iceless refrigerators made................................................ ........... 82
Number fireless cookers made.......................................... .. ............ 115
Number canners bought............................ ---...--................ 797
Number houses screened ......................... ..... ................. ........... 92
Number water systems installed--- -----............... ............................. 17







74 Florida Cooperative Extension

STATISTICAL REPORT OF WORK BY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
Number employed in State............... ..... ........................ 33
Average number months employed................. ................................. 9.4
Average salary ... ...... ....-........ .................. ...$ 108
Average traveling expenses per month.............. ...............................$ 38.62
Average number miles traveled.... ....... ............. ..........4216
Average number miles per month..-......... .................... 493.2
Average number meetings held by each agent:..................... ........ 106
Total number meetings held........... ... ....... ....... ........ 3,515
Total attendance at these meetings................... ........... 55,783
Total number canning demonstrations......... ...................... ....... 1,662
Total number visits to club members ............................ ....... 10,357
Total number visits to schools....... ............... .............3,650
Total number visits to.home demonstrators.............................. .......... 3,379
Magazines distributed in eight counties.......................... .............. 2,924
Bulletins distributed from county offices....:. .............. ...-......... 25,229
REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
Vacation ........---- ............. --........... 26 days
Attending national and out-of-State meetings................:.:........... 22
Field work ...-..................... ............. ........ ........ 91 "
Office work .....-................... .......... ......1601 "
Conferences at Gainesville.... ........... .......... .. ......... 7 "
Miles traveled in State..............................--... .. ..-- ....... 19,835
Miles traveled attending out-of-State meetings..-.. .-........ ........... 9,150
Total miles traveled.......... .......................... 28,985
Meetings attended within State.................... .. ............. 103
Total attendance, about...................... ....... ........ ........ -....... 15,000
Girls' homes visited ....... ...... ............-.... .......:.. .. 90
Club m meetings held........................ ....... .... ................................. 108
Conferences with county agents, exclusive of meetings'in Talla-
hassee and Gainesville..... ....................... ........................... 72
County boards of public instruction visited................................. 13
County commissioners visited ..................... ................... ..... 3
Conference with county superintendents of public instruction.............. 36
Demonstrations given ----- .....................- ........... 18
Contests visited ..................... ..... ........ .. ........ 8
Schools visited ...--..... ........... ..... ...... 17
PUBLICATIONS
Besides the annual report of home demonstration work, six
bulletins have been published and distributed by the home demon-
stration extension division of the Florida State College for Women,
as follows:
BULLETIN No. 7.-Poultry Clubs in Florida, by Minnie Floyd.
BULLETIN NO. 9.-Pickles and Relishes, by Sarah W. Partridge.
BULLETIN No. 12.-Farm Butter Aluking, by Harriette B. Layton.
BULLETIN NO. 13.-Canning Meats and Vegetables in Steam Pressure Canner,
by Sarah W. Partridge.
BULLETIN NO. 14.-Home Drying of Vegetables, by Sarah W. Partridge.
BULLETIN NO. 15.-Moderate Cost Menus and Recipes from Florida Food Ma-
terials, by Nan Henderson.
The following bulletins were revised:
BULLETIN No. 8.-Jellies, Preserves and Marmalades, by Sarah W, Partridge.
BULLETIN NO. 11.-The Iceless Refrigerator, by Mrs. Herbert W.-Felkel.
Poultry work was organized this year ard most satisfactory
results obtained for which I refer to Miss Floyd's reports
Reports from the district agents and from the poultry club
organizer are included.






Annual Report, 1917


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
FOR EAST AND SOUTH FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district home demon-
stration agent, for East and South Florida for the year ending
December 31, 1917.. Respectfully,
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE,
District Home Demonstration Agent.

INTRODUCTION
This district, on July 1, 1916, comprised the following named
sixteen counties: Marion, Citrus, Hernando, Pinellas, Hillsboro,
Manatee, Lee, DeSotQ, Polk, Osceola, Orange, Volusia, Brevard,
Palm Beach, Broward, and Dade. Upon taking up the work in
this district it was determined, if possible:
First, to strengthen the work in the district thru better organized
clubs among the women and girls, and thru better systematized
work on the part of the home demonstration agents.
Second, to urge greater conservation of staple foods by canning
in tin and glass rather than to emphasize the fancy special products
that may be produced from Florida fruits.
Third, to secure larger county appropriations for the salaries of
home demonstration agents, thereby enabling us to secure better
trained workers and to provide them with an expense account
sufficient to. enable them to visit the various parts of their re-
spective counties as often as the needs of the work demanded.
In an effort to perfect a better organized work in the district, a
simple plan for the organization of clubs among women and girls
was submitted at the agents' meeting in Gainesville, September,
1916. This was adopted and incorporated in a record book which
was prepared for the use of such clubs.
In conference'with the district agent for North and West Florida
monthly programs for club'meetings were outlined and prepared.
One home demonstration club has taken a correspondence course in
serving from the University of Wisconsin. Fourteen home demon-
stration centers where club members can meet for study and demon-
strations have been furnished in the past year. These have been
equipped by school boards, by members themselves, or by enter-
prising communities. In one community a community house has
been built. The movement to build it grew out of the organization
of a h6me demonstration club, .which, tho retaining its identity as
a-home demonstration: lub, is in-fact a community club and is doing







Florida Cooperative Extension


the work of such. The organized clubs are developing team work.
Thru them women and girls can in groups. In two instances they
have provided themselves with large pressure canners and have
developed the community canner.


FIG. 18.-One of the four steam pressure canners placed in
Putnam County, 1917

In planning to emphasize canning in tin, we planned more wisely
than we knew. The declaration of war gave this work a tremen-
dous impetus. Manatee, Hillsboro and Polk counties were far above
the 100,000-mark in products put up. Some good results have been
obtained in the drying of vegetables. One woman who had a dryer
suspended above her stove and filled its trays each day with vege-






Annual Report, 1917


tables from the garden, had by the end of the season filled her
pantry with dried products.
The following items from a neighborhood survey made by the
Manatee County home demonstration agent are of interest. They
show how generally the gardening and canning were done in this
particular place:
"There are 77 families in the community. Of these 73 had home
gardens. Canning had been done by 74 families. They had filled
12,966 containers and had dried 1,367 pounds of vegetables."
The canning of meats, fish and vegetables under steam pressure
has been successfully done. Following the instructions given by
Frantz P. Lund, sent out by the Department of Agriculture to
teach this work, a bulletin on "The Home Drying of Vegetables"
and one on "The Canning of Meats and Vegetables under Pressure,"
were written. Steam pressure canners are being used in almost
every county in the district.
Organized poultry work has been carried on in three counties
in the district. A growing interest is shown in the work.

COUNTY SHORT COURSES
The county short courses held for canning-club girls have stimu-
lated interest in the work not only among the club members, but on
the part of the general public as well. Assistance in conducting
these courses has been given by professional men and women in
the communities where courses were held. Teachers, doctors,
dentists, nurses, have all assisted in giving demonstrations and
instructions. Where schools had well equipped domestic science
departments the laboratories were used in giving the cooking
lessons to club girls. In some instances the teacher of the depart-
ment has given the lessons. In one town the girls of the domestic
science department were hostesses at noon to the club girls. The
short course promotes a better understanding between the people
of the country and the town. In one of the county short courses
a lesson was given in well selected clothes and a model outfit, in-
cluding a blue serge middy suit, was used for illustration. This
suit was given as one of the canning club prizes in the county, and
proved to be a much coveted prize.
During the housekeepers' two-weeks short course held in Talla-
hassee at the Florida State College for Women, the agent taught
the class of thirty-two who registered for "Preserves, Jellies and
Marmalades," giving a series of six lessons covering these subjects.
Much interest has been shown by women and girls thruout the






Florida Cooperative Extension


state in this phase of work and a high degree of skill in production
has been attained by many of them.
Ten days were spent in assisting Dr. Straughn, Bureau of Chem-
istry, Washington, D. C., in special work with guavas. Valuable
results were obtained. Following the work Extension Bulletin No.
6 was revised and "Jellies, Preserves, and Marmalades" added.
Extension Bulletin No. 9, "Pickles and Relishes," was also written.

CLUB MEMBERS AT FAIRS
Seven fairs have been attended, in each of which a good exhibit
of home demonstration work was made. In most of these fairs,
club day was featured. On this day girls in the uniform of the
canning clubs of the county, boys of the corn and pig clubs, at-
tended in mass and often took some part in the public program.
The exhibit made at the South Florida fair held in Tampa in
February was planned to show the various activities carried on in
the state by club members. The exhibit asked of individual coun-
ties was small but the whole was most creditable. Preserving,
canning, cooking, sewing, basketry, fine needle work, rug weaving,
household conveniences, gardening, poultry work, and health work
were shown. The exhibit did much to place our work in its broader
aspects before the public.
The year shows a large increase in membership; especially is this
true of the home demonstration clubs. The enrollment of women
has more than doubled and the interest in the broader lines of


FIG. 19.-Methods class on way to canning demonstration






Annual Report, 1917 79

study and demonstration is greatly increased. This has strength-
ened the demand for the well trained, experienced worker in the
field.
In organizing the work for another year this demand with the
very large demand made upon our agents by war conditions has
led us to ask for larger appropriations for agents' salaries and
increased expense accounts in every county in the district. These
requests in every instance have been granted, enabling us to or-
ganize our work for another year upon a better basis.
STATISTICAL REPORT
Number of miles traveled by rail..................................... 15,722
auto ............. .. ........ .... ................ 1,555
meetings held ....................................... 86
Attendance ........... ...... .................. ..... 9,101
Attendance .... ......... .. ...................- ... 3,170
Number of conferences with Agents....................................... 125
." County Superintendents ......................... 38
i" School Boards ........... ......... .... 15
Commissioners ............................. 8
4" contests held .... ............. ..... ...... ................. ........ 10
short courses held .................. .......................... 8
girls attending short courses ... .............. ..... ............ ... 317
c schools and clubs visited ....---....... .. .....-..-....... 47
homes visited ....-.......... -........... ..........- 35
gardens visited ........................... .... ...-- ...... .. ... 88
letters written ..----- ................. .. ........ .......... 686






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for home
demonstration work in North and West Florida for the year ending
December 31, 1917. Respectfully,
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON,
District Home Demonstration Agent.

INTRODUCTION
The district home demonstration agent spent the first month,
July, 1916, in visiting the nine counties then at work, acquainting
herself with the conditions. By September, 1916, three more coun-
ties began work, and by January, 1917, five new counties were
organized. In March, the last county was added, making in all
seventeen counties carrying on home demonstration work in North
and West Florida. Splendid results have been accomplished in
these counties. In almost every one interest has increased and
larger appropriations have been made.
The most important work of the fall was the county contests.
In spite of the severe July storm in West Florida, the quantity and
quality of products shown were gratifying. The attendance of
girls and their parents at these meetings was good. In Washing-
ton County, five hundred persons came to the contest. Forty-five
girls in costume marched from the depot to the school house with
club banners flying. An excursion train was run from the southern
part of the county to bring in the people.
Very little time was given to county fairs this fall. At two,
county contests were held and at one, three days were given to
judging exhibits in the women's department.
Short courses have been held at intervals; the first in July, 1916,
the second in October, 1916, and the remaining nine in the spring
and summer of 1917. There have been three types of short courses.
One type, consisting of a one-day meeting in three centers of the
county, works well where the county is large and sparsely settled.
The second type consists of a three-day meeting in the county seat,
to which all the canning-club girls in the county are invited. This
is a.popular type and certainly creates interest in and knowledge of
the work of the canning clubs. The third type is the three-day
meeting at the county seat to which is invited a representative girl
from each club. These girls return to their clubs and instruct the
members in the things they learned at the meetings. This is the






Annual Report, 1917


most satisfactory type, I believe. It was planned to hold a short
course in each county: this year, but owing to the declaration of
war, those which had not been advertised were called off in order
to give the time to gardening and canning. However, programs.
for the short courses to be held were immediately changed to-meet
the new situation. All work was based on food economy and preser-
vation. We found that thru these meetings we have been able to
reach a larger number of persons. Women and men have attended,
some came regularly to every session.
The largest gathering of canning-club girls was held at a short
course of the second type in Chipley, Washington County. More
than one hundred girls attended. The people of Chipley were so
eager to cooperate that homes were opened to one hundred and
fifty girls. Those homes not receiving a girl were really disap-
pointed. One afternoon twenty cars took these girls on a ride
after which a round-up was made in the business street and
patriotic songs and talks were made. I feel sure this meeting did
much toward retaining the work in the county as it gave the people
an opportunity to see and know of the great work being done by
this band of girls.
SRapid strides have been made in the women's work this year.
Special time has been given this phase of the home demonstration
work both in the office and field. Since canning time, however,
greater work is being done. Women who have never canned before
are now canning. Constant demands are made upon the county
home demonstration agents. Especially in counties in which large
towns are situated is this true; first with home gardens, then
canning.
Besides the regular county club meetings thruout the year, I
have assisted at the two state meetings for county agents, the state
short course for canning-club girls, and the state- short course for
housekeepers, and have given four demonstration lessons in the
summer school. I have also attended the monthly staff meetings
at Gainesville and the conference for agents at Washington, D. C.
SPECIAL STATE WORK
Some time has been given to experimental work with both Dr.
Straughn and Mr. Lund.
Monthly programs have been prepared by the district agents for
the women's club work.
One bulletin, "Home Butter Making," has been published.
Only four demonstrations have been given before the Federated
f.c.e.-6






Florida Cooperative Extension


ti .. .








FIG. 20.-Emergency agent giving canning demonstration, Suwannee County

Women's Clubs this year as county work has demanded every
possible moment.
SPECIAL COUNTY WORK
This spring the county agents have urged the girls to plant not
only tomatoes on their tenth acre, but other vegetables, such as
beans, okra and peas,'and to keep the plot working by planting a
summer crop.
Emergency work was carried on in three counties. In Putnam
County an assistant agent was employed. In Suwannee County
an agent was put in for June. In Jacksonville, Duval County, thru
the advice of this department, an urban agent was employed for
the canning month, by the Chamber of Commerce.
In two or three counties the girls' clubs are sewing for the
Red Cross.
Canning kitchens are being equipped by boards of trade and by
individuals, in some cases, for the use of the people in canning
A few small canning plants are canning for the surrounding farms
Santa Rosa County has had three very successful club rally days.
At this time the club boys and girls together with all county school
children spent the day in athletic contests. These meetings have
promoted splendid cooperation between school and club work. As
a result valuable assistance is being secured from the teachers in
the county. In one school the one-hot-dish lunch, thru the sug-
gestion.and aid of the county home demonstration agent, has been
most successfully carried on. In another school one of the teachers
gives weekly a lesson in sewing, basketry or cooking to the club
girls in that school.






Annual Report, 1917 83

The agent in Bay County has been instrumental in placing in
the school two kitchen equipment. Here her clubs have a weekly
meeting for cookery work. In this county the school board has
granted credit for canning-club work. It is interesting to, note as
a result, that the credit thus received by one girl enabled her to
pass her grade. It was a source of gratification to both herself
and the agent. Probably this young girl would have left school
otherwise as she was almost too large to remain in the grade with-
out embarrassment to herself.
Good cooperation with teachers has been secured by the county
agent in Duval County. One school has put in sewing and the hot
lunches at the home demonstration agent's suggestion.
In Escambia County a lesson in preparation and conservation
of foods will be given weekly to the teachers of the summer normal
at Pensacola by the county home demonstration agent. This fre-
quent, close contact will further strengthen the assistance of
teachers in club work and food economy.

STATISTICAL REPORT
Number of miles traveled .--........................ 13,980
by rail .. ............ -- --------------- 12,246
by auto ............ ........... ............................. 1,734
Number of meetings held ....................... ............................ ...... .... 72
girls' club meetings held ........................ .............. .......... 26
Estimated attendance ...... ....... ........... ... -.................... 4,124
Number of demonstrations given ................................... .. ...................... 103
canning demonstrations ............................................ 32
other ...................... ... .............. 71
talks made .......................... ............. 15
fairs attended ............................................... 5
contests held .....- ..----........ .. ............ ....... 10
short courses held ......... .......... .............. ................ 12
Estimated attendance at short courses ..... .......... ............................. 590
Number of schools visited ............... ......... ............... 33
homes ........ ............................ 65
club members visited ............................... ........... 71
Conferences with County Home Demonstration Agents......................... 62
Superintendents ........ : --........... ............. 24
School Boards ............................... .. .... 7
Commissioners .............-..................-...... .. 2
Number of cars owned by county home demonstration agents ..............- 15






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the poultry club agent for
the year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully,
MINNIE M. FLOYD,
Poultry Club Agent.
INTRODUCTION
State supervision of poultry-club work was begun in August,
1916. After consultation with the state, home and county coopera-
tive demonstration agents it was decided best to undertake poultry
work in but five counties. However, the demand for the work be-
came so urgent that it was started in seven counties; namely,
Escambia, Leon, Duval, St. Johns, Polk, DeSoto, and Hillsboro.
At the annual meeting of the county home demonstration agents
in Tallahassee, January, 1917, a number of the agents asked per-
mission to begin poultry work in their counties with only a few
members in the most favorable localities. Accordingly, Osceola,
Putnam, and Santa Rosa county home demonstration agents were
granted this request.
POULTRY CLUB WORK IN COUNTIES
Only one county, DeSoto, had regularly organized poultry clubs;
thirteen of these made exhibits of good breeds of poultry. The girl
making the best record was awarded a scholarship, which paid all
expenses to the girls' short course in home economics, held in
Tallahassee November 28 to December 9, 1916. The club members
at the DeSoto County short course were taken to an inexpensive
but well managed poultry plant and were given the benefit of the
owner's experience
in hand ing her
poultry.
In St. Johns Coun-
ty the club mem-
Sbers were given a
boat trip on the St.
Johns River to Cres-
cent Beach where
they were taken
thru one of the larg-
FIG. 21.-Leghorn chickens owned by a poultry club est poultry plants in
member the state.







Annual Report, 1917


Poultry lectures
were given at the
short course and
contests in Polk
and Hillsboro coun-
ties and lectures
and demonstra-
tions on poultry
work were given at
the short courses
in Escambia, St.
Johns, and Wash-
ington counties in FIG. 22.-Egg circle, Escambia County
the spring of 1917,
altho there were no well organized poultry clubs.

PLAN OF POULTRY CLUB WORK
The poultry club work has been conducted under two divisions:
girls' poultry clubs, in which a few boys also were enrolled, and
women's poultry clubs.
GIRLS' POULTRY CLUBS
It is the plan to have eventually none but purebred poultry
owned by the poultry-club members. The girls were required to
start with at least one setting of purebred eggs. During this first
year they have not been urged to raise more than they can care
for properly, but rather to start on a small scale, save their pullets,
and increase their flocks gradually. They were given instructions
in proper methods of incubating, brooding, feeding, housing, etc.,
of their chickens.
WOMEN'S WORK
Poultry work among women has been strongly emphasized. Local
conditions determined whether this should be conducted with or-
:anized clubs or with individuals. It is considered that the best
results have been obtained where regular monthly club meetings
ave been held with definite programs, inasmuch as more members
in receive instruction in methods of production, management,
handling and marketing of poultry products. Altho members were
ot required to have purebred poultry, as a result of the better
turns of purebreds over mongrels and, in particular, the uni-
)rmity of product, a number of members have reported that they
ave made a start toward keeping purebred poultry.






Florida Cooperative Extension


COOPERATIVE EGG CIRCLES
In certain localities there is no steady market for eggs. Seven
cooperative egg circles have been organized in the counties having
poultry-club work. Members were taught to grade, candle, pack
and handle eggs for market. Each member guaranteed the quality
of eggs marketed. It is thought that this work helped more toward
standardizing the market egg than did any other phase of the work.
Eggs were packed at a central place in the community and de-
livered, according to local facilities, by parcel post, freight or
boat.
The increased price per dozen over the local market quotation
was as high as fifteen cents in some instances during the period
of scarcity, but when eggs became plentiful the increase varied.
The average increase was about five cents a dozen over store prices.
It is believed that there will be a greater demand for carefully
packed, guaranteed fresh eggs when the public generally appre-
ciates the difference between guaranteed eggs and the average
quality supplied from grocery stores.
Some of the egg circles marketed only infertile eggs. Others
were planning to observe "Rooster Day" and to produce only in-
fertile eggs for market during the summer months, but when the
country entered the war, the director of extension work advised
that hatching be continued every month to help increase the meat
supply for Florida. In some instances the women were able to
have yards and pens for chickens for the production of eggs for
market separate from those for breeding purposes.
From March 4 to August 1, the Florahome Circle sold coopera-
tively 1800 dozen eggs for $576. From January to August the
Citrus Center Club sold 1,585 dozen for about $500, or an average
of about 32 cents a dozen.
WAR EMERGENCY SUGGESTIONS FOR INCREASED POULTRY
PRODUCTION
At a meeting of the state extension workers in Gainesville, April
16, the director insisted that the poultry work be extended into
more territory and requested that the poultry club agent send a
letter to every county cooperative and home demonstration agent,
urging increased production of poultry. Pamphlets urging in-
creased production were sent to every poultry club member and
newspaper in the state. A poster on "Poultry" was prepared and
a supply sent to every extension worker and postoffice in the state.
This was followed by circulars and press notices intended primarily
to increase the production of poultry products.







Annual Report, 1917


SHORT COURSE AT STATE COLLEGE
Poultry lectures and demonstrations were given at the girls' short
course at the State College for Women, November 28 to December
9, 1916, at the annual county home demonstration agents' meeting,
January 1 to 6, at the housekeepers' short course and at the annual
meeting of county agents in February, 1917. During the summer
session at the State College for Women, a regular course was given




















FIG. 23.-Two poultry club girls FIG. 24.-Two canning-club girls,
Jackson County
consisting of lectures and demonstrations on poultry. Students
had practical work in operating an incubator, grading, scoring, and
candling market eggs and testing incubating eggs for fertility by
candling on the seventh and fourteenth days of incubation.
PROGRESS OF WORK
As reports of the work will not all be available until the fall
contests are held, it is impossible to make a statistical report of
the club members' work at present. Assuming responsibility for
so many counties prevented close follow-up work by the poultry
club agent. Altho no marvelous results have been obtained interest
has been aroused and the foundation laid for good work in the
future.
One of the most serious handicaps in the work has been the
high cost of poultry feeds. The price of poultry and eggs has not
advanced in accordance with the advance in the price of feed.







88 Florida Cooperative Extension

Special stress has been put on the production of feed at home. For
wheat, one of the best poultry feeds but not grown in Florida,
members have been urged to substitute in the ration as high as
fifteen percent of such protein feeds as peas, beans, and peanuts,
which can be grown in the state.

STATISTICAL REPORT
Number of miles traveled ........ .................... ........ 13,944
by rail .-... .......... ...... ...... ................ ...... 10,284
by auto and other conveyances............................ 3,660
Total number of meetings held .............-.. ..................-.. 123
Total estimated attendance ............. .. .... ........... ............. -4,794
Number of schools visited ....... ................................... 66
homes ... ...... ... ..... ....... ...-.......... 485
Visits to County Agents ........-............... ...... ............ ..... 39
Number of County Superintendents visited ... .. .......................... 10
,, short courses attended .... ......... ..... .. ........: 6* 6
fairs and poultry shows attended ............... ...... ::.:..... 4
demonstrations given ................ ................... .......... 36
Stamping and packing eggs for shipping................... .... 10
Candling eggs .................................: ............................ :.. -........ 11
Suggested equipment for poultry club work.............,, ......* 1
Model poultry house ........ .............................. 5.
Preserving eggs with sodium silicate.................................. .... 6
Toe punching chicks ............................. ............................... .
Circulars and bulletins sent ....... ............ ............................................. .. 3,256
Letters written -- .................. .......... .......... ............ 516
Number of days spent in office work........................ .......... 111
"" field work and travel .......:.... ....:............... 160






Annual Report, 1917


FARMERS' INSTITUTES
P. H. ROLFS, Superintendent.
C. K. MCQUARRIE, Assistant Superintendent.
Farmers' Institutes have been conducted in all agricultural sec-
tions of Florida. The total attendance was 17,887 or an average
of 153 at each of the 117 institutes. Most of these institutes were
held in county school houses, churches or at farmers' picnics, where
the attendance was from 20 to 60, nearly all of which was farmers
and their families. Other meetings were held in country towns and
cities where the attendance varied from 100 to 500. These meet-
ings were held under the auspices of groups of farmers, who had
special agricultural matters to discuss or by business men with
farming interests. The meetings were advertised by posters issued
by the Extension Division of the University and by local news-
papers, which gave this advertising free. The arrangements were
usually completed by the county agents.
The lecturers were the regular farmers' institute staff from the
Extension Division, the Experiment Station and the College of
Agriculture of the University of Florida; specialists from the U. S.
Department of Agriculture, who have given considerable assistance
to the county agents and extension workers; successful farmers,
truckers or citrus growers, and representative business men having
farming interests.
As Florida has a diversity of agricultural interests, the programs
were made to conform with the agricultural interests of the com-
munity. In North and West Florida the lectures have been con-
fined to farming under boll weevil conditions; peanuts; legume
crops for feed and soil improvement; breeds and care of hogs and
cattle; and feeds that can be grown on North -and West Florida
lands for this livestock. In middle Florida where the boll weevil
has recently gained entrance, many farmers are planting cotton
for the first time and these have called for -discussions on varieties
and methods of growing cotton. In middle and South Florida,
trucking, citrus growing, but more especially the planting of feed
and staple crops, led to a greater variety of topics.
Thruout the state, corn, feed crops, hog cholera control and
better livestock have been discussed in nearly every, county.
COUNTY AGENTS' INSTITUTES
County cooperative demonstration agents have held many meet-
ings where truckers would come together to make plans for grow-
ing a special crop so that by combining their products they could






Florida Cooperative Extension


ship in car lots, which would require the planting of the same
variety about the same date, to make the product uniform and of
sufficient quantity to make up car lots. Where such plans re-
quired the advice of specialists, this was supplied thru the office
of the superintendent of farmers' institutes. In other cases meet-
ings were held to discuss plans for cooperative marketing of live-
stock by farmers having less than car lots of marketable animals.
The county agents conducted 674 such meetings, and made 1,864
addresses in various meetings with a total attendance of 49,280.
BOYS' CLUB MEETINGS
Boys' corn- and pig-club meetings have been held to discuss sub-
jects of vital interest to the clubs and to conduct club contests.
These are arranged by the county agents and are usually attended
by either the boys' club agent, the district, or the state agent. Many
of these have been combined with the girls' club meetings. These
institutes are held at school houses or at the home of one of the club
members, where the crops and stock can be seen and discussed.
WOMEN'S AND GIRLS' INSTITUTES
Women's and girls' club institutes have been conducted under
the leadership of the home demonstration agents. The county
home demonstration agent selects the time and the place for these
so that the interest in her work can be aroused. As these clubs are
organized for uniform methods of production, it is desirable to
bring the women and girls together as frequently as possible. As
the girls work chiefly with vegetable crops, the methods of plant-
ing crops and the control of diseases and insects that interfere with
growing the crops must be understood by the girls. Specialists
who can discuss insect pests and diseases have given lectures and
demonstrations so that the girls are able to combat outbreaks.
Special meetings have been conducted to arouse interest in
poultry raising. At these meetings the topics for discussion are
planned sometime in advance. The state poultry club agent ar-
ranges a series of topics and the county home demonstration agent
follows this plan thru a succession of meetings so that at the end
of the term, systematic lecture courses have been given and bulle-
tins supplied to correspond with each lecture.
In women's institutes, rural sanitation, home conveniences, home
gardening, and canning and preserving of surplus vegetables and
fruits, are systematically discussed, followed with suitable litera-
ture for home study. In many communities it is advisable to
bring the people in the community together and have both men






Annual Report, 1917


and women lecturers. In such cases joint meetings are held during
the forenoon and separate meetings in the afternoon. There were
3,575 meetings conducted by county home demonstration agents
with a total attendance of 55,783.
FOOD PRODUCTION CAMPAIGN MEETINGS
Immediately following the declaration of war it became evident
that every effort should be made to increase food production. The
county and home demonstration agents whose work had been very
largely in this direction heretofore were the logical workers to
promote this campaign in each county.
In the organization of the "Food Preparedness Commission" the
county agents and home demonstration agents were members of
the county commission in each county. By their efforts food cam-
paigns were conducted thruout the state. In each case they re-
ceived hearty support from all members of the county commission
and, in particular, the chairmen of the boards of county commis-
sioners and the county school superintendents. The matter of food
production and conservation was emphasized on every occasion.
It was made clear at all meetings that an increase in the pro-
duction of staple crops was especially needed and that an increase
in perishable crops should not be made at the expense of staple
crops. Poultry production and home gardening was especially
urged.
A good part of the counties in the state carried out food cam-
paigns. In all about 150 meetings were held with a total attendance
of approximately 25,000 people. The results of these campaigns
are evident from the reports submitted by county agents, showing
the increased production of food crops and the number of cans of
fruit and vegetables conserved as reported by home demonstration
agents.
MEETINGS HELD
Farmers' institutes ......................... ........ ........... 117............Attendance 17,887
County agents' meetings ..................................................... 49,280
Home demonstration agents' meetings ................3515..~~.-... 55,783
Food production campaign meetings ........-..... .. 125......... 25,000
Total attendance ................ ....................... ....... 147,950









INDEX


Act, Smith-Lever, 7
war emergency, 8
Activities, especially stressed, 27
general, 28
Agents, city, 6
conferences, 64
county cooperative, 4
county home demonstration, 5, 60
group meetings, 26
improvements by, 22, 28
Agricultural clubs, boys', 47
Agricultural preparedness commis-
sion, 26
Appropriations, 7, 8, 41, 60

Beef cattle, demonstrations, 34
introduction from Texas, 19
Board of Control, 4
Boys, agricultural clubs, report, 47
at state short course, 54
club agent, 9
club meetings, 90
meetings, 52
Bulletins published, 15, 74
summary of, 15
Bur clover, demonstration, 32

Canning, containers for, 66
kitchens, 69, 82
meat and fish, 71
Cattle, and hogs, 39
beef, 34
dairy, 34
Texas, 19
Changes in staff, 16
Cholera control, 18
Circulars published, 15
summary of, 16
Citrus, demonstrations, 34, 40
seminar, 25
Club members at fairs, 78
Clubs, corn, 48
girls, 63, 85
home makers', 37
negro children, 37, 54
peanut, 51
pig, 50
poultry, 84
truck crops, 52
women's, 62


Commission, food preparedness, 21
Conferences, agents' annual, 26
demonstration agents, 64
monthly, 20
Conservation and production cam-
paigns, 70
Containers, for canning, 66
financing purchase, 67
Cooperations and demonstrations, 30
Cooperative, demonstration agents, 4
egg circles, 86
enterprises, 16,,17
Corn, 30, 43
Corn clubs, boys', 47
summary, 49
Corn, demonstrations, 30
Cotton, 43
demonstrations,, 30
County agents, 10
changes, 24
effect of work, 29
County fairs, 27, 63
County sort courses, 77
County work, poultry clubs, 84
special, 82
Cowpeas, demonstrations, 33
Crab grass, demonstrations, 32
Crop production, value of increased, 22
Crops, 24
truck, clubs, 24

Dairy cattle, demonstrations, 34
Demonstration work, effect of, 29
value to farmers, 22
Demonstrations and cooperation,
beef cattle, 34
bur clover, 32
citrus, 34, 40
corn, 30, 43
cotton, 30, 43
cowpeas, 33
crab grass, 32
dairy cattle, 34
dipping vats, 34
fertilizer, 35
hogs, 35
Japanese cane, 31
lime, 35
livestock diseases, 35
manure, 35







Annual Report, 1917


Demonstrations-continued
millet, 32
Natal grass, 32
oats, 30
peanuts, 33, 43
potatoes, 34
poultry, 35
Rhodes grass, 32
rice, 30
rye, 31
silos, 35
sorghum, 31
soy beans, 33
Sudan grass, 31
truck, 41
velvet beans, 32, 43
Dipping vats, 44
construction, 27
demonstrations, 34
Director, report of, 7
Diseases, livestock, 35
District agent, report-
east and south, 39, 75
north and west, 42, 80
Drying vegetables, 70

Educational work, 28
Effect of demonstration work, 29
Egg circles, 63
cooperative, 86
Emergency workers, 67
Expansion of work, 21
Expenditures, supervision of, 14
Extension, appropriations, 7, 8, 60
changes in staff, 16
conferences, 20, 64
expansion of work, 21
legislation, 7, 8
organization, 8
plan of work, 12, 62
publications, 15, 74
purposes of, 7
value of work, 22
Extension division staff, 4

Fairs, club members at, 78
county, 27, 63
Farm and home makers' clubs, 36
Farm improvements, 29
value of, 22


Farmers', clubs organized, 28
institutes, 89
organizations, 26
Fertilizer, demonstrations, 35
Financial statement, 15, 60
Financing container purchases, 67
Floyd, Minnie M., report of poultry
club agent, 84
Food crisis, 20
Food Preparedness Commission, 21
Food production, 91

General activities, agents', 28, 74
Girls' clubs, 63
summary of work, 73
best records, 73
Girls, college, 71
short course, 65

Harris, Agnes E., report of state home
demonstration agent, 60
Herrington, G. L., report of boys' club
agent, 47
Hog cholera, 44
educational and demonstrational
work, 18
inoculation, 36
Hogs, cattle and, 39
demonstrations, 35
inoculation, 36
Home canning, 68, 71
Home demonstration-
effect of work in schools, 72
fairs, contests, short courses, 63
funds, 60
meat and fish canning, 71
plan of work, 62
publications, 74
results from, 73
state meetings, 64
statistical report, 74
war conditions, 66
Home demonstration agent, state, 60
city, 6
county, 5, .60
district, 75, 80
Home makers' clubs, 37
Hood, Samuel C., report of sweet
potato storage specialist, 57

Improvements, farm, 29
value of, 22







Florida Cooperative Extension


Inoculation of hogs, 36
Institutes, county agents', 89
farmers', 89
meetings held, 91
women's and girls', 90
Irish potatoes, demonstrations, 34

Japanese cane, demonstrations, 31
Jenkins, E. W., report of district
agent, 42

Kitchens, canning, 69, 82

Layton, Harriette B., report of dis-
trict agent, 80
Legislation, extension, 7, 8
Lime, demonstrations, 35
Livestock, 44
diseases and pests, 35
round-up, 25
value of, 22
Logan, Dr. A. H., report of veterinary
inspector, 19

McLendon, H. S., report of district
agent, 39
McQuarrie, C. K., report of state
agent, 24
Manure, demonstrations, 35
Manure and fertilizer, value of, 22
Meat and fish canning, 71
Meetings, agents' group, 26
agents' annual, 26, 64
boys', 52
boys' club, 90
negro farmers', 37
state, 25, 64
Millet, demonstrations, 32
Monthly conferences, 20
Natal grass, demonstrations, 32
Negro clubs, 37, 54
Negro farmers, meetings, 37
work with, 36
Negro work, 11, 70
report of, 36
county volunteers, 38

Oats, demonstrations, 30
Officers, States Relations Service, 4
Organization, county, 42
extension, 8
farmers, 26
farmers' clubs, 28


Partridge, Sarah W., report of district
agent, 75
Peanuts, 43
clubs, 51
demonstrations, 33
Pig clubs, boys', 50
Poultry club, agent, 11
report, 84
Poultry clubs, girls', 85
plan of work, 85
Progress of work, 87
short course, 87
war emergency, 86
Poultry, demonstrations, 35
production, 86
Posters published, 15
Potatoes, demonstrations, 34
Prizes, boys' club, 52
Projects, extension, 12
Publications, 15, 74

Reports, boys' club agent, 47
director of extension, 7
district agents, 39, 42, 75, 80
farmers' institutes, 89
-negro club agent, 38
poultry club agent, 84
state agent, 24
state home demonstration agent, 60
sweet potato storage, 57
veterinary field agent, 19
Results, cooperative demonstration, 22
home demonstration, 73
Rhodes grass, demonstrations, 32
Rice, demonstrations, 30
Rolfs, P. H., report of director, 7
report of superintendent of farm-
ers' institutes, 89
Rye, demonstrations, 31


Schools, effect of home
work in, 72
Seed selection, 28
Short course, boys', 52
boys attending, 54
county, 77
girls', 65
state, 52, 87
women's, 64


demonstration







Annual Report, 1917


Silo construction, 27
Silos, demonstrations, 35
Smith-Lever Act, 7
Sorghum, demonstrations, 31
Soy beans, demonstrations, 33
Special, county work, 82
state work, 81
Staff, changes in, 16
extension division, 4
State agent, 9
report, 24
State College, short course, 87
State home demonstration agent, 11
report, 60
State work, special, 81
'Statement of finances, 15
Storage houses, sweet potato, 58
Sudan grass, demonstrations, 31
Summary of bulletins, 15
Summer school, 66
Supervision of expenditures, 14


Sweet potatoes, demonstrations, 34
production, 58
storage houses, 58
storage report, 57

Texas cattle, introduction, 19
Truck-crop clubs, 52
Truck demonstrations, 41

University, boys' short course, 52

Value of demonstration work to farm-
ers, 22
Vats, cattle dipping, 27, 34, 44
Vegetables, drying, 70
Velvet beans, 43
demonstrations, 32

War conditions, 66
War emergency act, 8
Women, city, 71
poultry work, 85
short course, 64