<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Credits
 Director's report
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering and farm...
 Agronomy
 Animal husbandry
 Beekeeping
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Citriculture and minor fruits
 Dairy husbandry
 Editorial department
 Entomology
 Farm and home development
 Farm and home safety
 Farm forestry
 Ornamental horticulture
 Plant pathology
 Poultry husbandry
 Soil and water conservation
 Vegetable production and marke...
 Home demonstration work
 Clothing and textiles
 Editorial and visual aids
 Food and nutrition
 Food conservation
 Food production
 Girls' 4-H club work
 Health education
 Home improvement
 Home industries and marketing
 Negro farm demonstration work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Report Florida agricultural extension service
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00017
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1956
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00017
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Director's report
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Agricultural economics
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Agricultural engineering and farm electrification
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Agronomy
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Animal husbandry
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Beekeeping
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Citriculture and minor fruits
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Dairy husbandry
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Editorial department
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Entomology
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Farm and home development
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Farm and home safety
        Page 47
    Farm forestry
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Ornamental horticulture
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Plant pathology
        Page 53
    Poultry husbandry
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Soil and water conservation
        Page 58
    Vegetable production and marketing
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Home demonstration work
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Editorial and visual aids
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Food and nutrition
        Page 75
    Food conservation
        Page 76
    Food production
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Girls' 4-H club work
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Health education
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Home improvement
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Home industries and marketing
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Negro farm demonstration work
        Page 90
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 91
    Index
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
Full Text



COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 80, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENsION SERVICE, UNIVESIar or FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
AND UNITED STATES DmPrTMNT or AORICULTUtR
CooPERATNm
M. O. WATKINS, Director









1956 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE









REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1956
with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1956








COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
M. O. WATKINS, Director.









1956 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE









REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1956
with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1956







BOARD OF CONTROL


Fred H. Kent, Chairman, Jacksonville
J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg
James J. Love, Quincy
James D. Camp, Ft. Lauderdale


Ralph L. Miller, Plymouth
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
S. K. Guernsey, Jacksonville


STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE


Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for
Agriculture I
Marshall O. Watkins, D.P.A., Director
J. N. Busby, B.S.A., Assistant Director
F. W. Parvin, M.S.A., Assistant to the
Director 2
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Administrative
Assistant

AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION
WORK, GAINESVILLE
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor'
M. H. Sharpe, Ph.D., Assistant Editor
Glenn F. Schotten, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
K. S. McMullen, M.Agr., District Agent
F. S. Perry, M.Agr., District Agent
W. J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A., District Agent
C. W. Reaves, M.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
T. W. Sparks, B.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Husbandman
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman
J. S. Moore, M.S.A., Poultryman
L. W. Kaleh, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry
Husbandman
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor Egg-
Laying Test, Chipley
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist 1
J. E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
R. L. Reddish, Ph.D., Asst. Animal
Industrialist
K. L. Durrance, B.S.A., Asst. Animal
Industrialist
L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester
A. S. Jensen, B.S., Asst. Forester
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural
Economist 1
E. W. Cake, Ph.D., Marketing Economist
Clifford Alston, M.S.A., Vegetable Market-
ing Specialist
Clyde E. Murphree, M.S.A., Farm and Home
Development
C. C. Moxley, Ph.D., Assoc. Economist
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental
Horticulturist 1
S. A. Rose, M.S., Asst. Ornamental
Horticulturist
Fred P. Lawrence, M.Agr., Citriculturist
J. N. Joiner, M.Agr., Asst. Horticulturist
Jack T. McCown, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
W. W. Brown, M.Agr., Boys' 4-H Agent
G. M. Godwin, M.Agr., Asst. Boys'
4-H Club Agent
Ben H. Floyd, B.S.A., Asst. Boys'
4-H Club Agent

1Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
2On leave.
SIn cooperation with U. S.
4Cooperative, Florida State University.


T. C. Skinner, M.Agr., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Farm Electrification
Specialist
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
V. L. Johnson, Rodent Control Specialist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist
S. L. Brothers, B.S.A., Acting Asst.
Agronomist
A. C. Mixon, M.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.IY., Vegetable Crops
Specialist
Stanley E. Rosenberger, M.Agr., Asst.
Vegetable Crops Specialist
Forrest E. Myers, M.Agr., Asst. Vegetable
Crops Specialist
J. D. Norton, M.S., Asst. Vegetable Crops
Specialist
James E. Brogdon, M.Agr., Entomologist
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Asst. Soil
Conservationist
Donald M. Coe, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
TALLAHASSEE

Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Agent
Eunice Grady, M.S., Asst. to State HDA
Helen D. Holstein, M.A., District Agent
Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus, B.A., District Agent
Joyce Bevis, M.A., District Agent
Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, B.S., Home
Improvement Specialist
Elizabeth Dickenson, M.A., Clothing and
Textile Specialist
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, B.A., Home Industries
and Marketing Specialist
Emily King, M.Ed., State Girls' 4-H Club
Agent
Bronna Mae Elkins, M.E., Asst. State Girls'
4-H Club Agent
Susan R. Christian, M.S., Asst. Economist
in Food Conservation
Lena E. Sturges, M.S.H.E., Asst. Economist
in Food Conservation 4
Alma Warren, M.A., in L.S., Asst. Editor
and Visual Aids Specialist
Frances C. Cannon, M.S., Health Education
Specialist
Alice L. Cromartie, M.S., Extension
Nutritionist

NEGRO WORK, TALLAHASSEE
Floy Britt, B.S.H.E., District Agent
J. A. Gresham, B.S.A., District Agent







CONTENTS

Director's Report ...................... ..-..... ....-... ..
Statistical Report ................. ..........................
Agricultural Economics ..........-.........-..-...
Citrus Grove Management ................. ......
Farm Management ............................-...
M ari:~ tiig .................... ...... ............ ................
Agricultural Engineering and Farm Electrification
Agricultural Engineering .........................-..-
Farm Electrification .................... -.............
Agronomy .... ........... ..... ............. ....
Animal Husbandry .............. ................
Beekeeping ................ .. ............. ............-....
Boys' 4-H Club Work ....................... ...........
Citriculture and Minor Fruits .................-.....
Dairy Husbandry ...... ..... ............
Editorial Department .........-...... ..............
Entomology ............................................ .....
Farm and Home Development .....- ........ .........
Farm and Home Safety ..........................


Page
....-- ............. .....-- 8
................. ........ 12
..... .............. 15
... ......I.. .......... 15
........................ 16
......................... 17
.................. ..... 21


............. ................. 21
........ ...... ............. 22
........... ........... ...... 25
-..- .- ...... .......... ... 27
........... ......... ....... 30
. ..... ... ....... ......... 32
.......... ...-... .. ....... 35
.... ........ ... ......... 37
.. ............... .... ...... 40
--.-.-. ..... .. .... 43
.-- ..- ..... .....- ....... 45


Farm Forestry ....................................... ............... 48
Ornamental Horticulture .............-. ..... ...... ...... ..........-.... 51
Plant Pathology ......... --. ............ ......................... 53
Poultry Husbandry ...................... .... ... ............ .......... .. 54
Soil and W ater Conservation .. .................. .. ........ .... ........... .... 58
Vegetable Production and Marketing ............................... ..... ... 59
Commercial Vegetable Production .............. .... ...- ......-............ 59
Vegetable Gardening ................ ........... ......... ............-...... 60
Vegetable Marketing .................... ...... .... ........... 61
Home Demonstration Work ....................... ..... 66
Clothing and Textiles ................. ...... ...... ..... .. ......... ... ... 71
Editorial and Visual Aids ...... .......... ... .......... .. .......... .. 73
Food and Nutrition ......................... .... .... ............. ......... 75
Food Conservation ................... ....... ...........76.. 76
Food Production ............................... ........-. .............. ....77
Girls' 4-H Club Work ................ ...................................... 79
Health Education .................... ............... ..................... ..... ......... 81
Home Improvement .....-........ ... ................-............ 84
Home Industries and Marketing ................................. ............. 87
Negro Farm Demonstration Work ...... --.....--.. ...... .. ....-....... 90
Negro Home Demonstration Work ................. ............ .............- 91

[3]


jjl






COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
(As of November 30, 1956)
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Alachua............Loonis Blitch...................Gainesville....Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Alachua
(Asst.)..........A. T. Andrews..............Gainesville
-Mrs. Delores Y. Shamsedin
Baker................A. L. Harrell.................M acclenny ............................ ........
Bay....................H. M. Carr....-. .......-- Panama City
-Miss Emma L. Stevenson
Bay (Asst.)......Howard C. Gray .-......Panama City ...............................
Bradford...........G. T. Huggins............Starke----..................Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Brevard...........J. T. Oxford-..................Cocoa......................Mrs. Sue B. Young
Brevard
(Asst.).........H. W. Cunningham........Cocoa..........Mrs. Marguriette F. Reese
Broward..........Robert S. Pryor............Fr. Lauderdale......Miss Louise Taylor
Broward
(Asst.)..........Matthew W. Collier.......Ft. Lauderdale ........-..---......
Broward
(Asst.).........Lewis E. Watson-..........Ft. Lauderdale ............. .............
Calhoun...........Thomas B. Jones...........Blountstown........Mrs. Annie W. Finlay
Calhoun
(Asst.).........Russell S. Rudd.....-- Blountstown ... .....................
Charlotte ........N. H. McQueen ..............Punta Gorda ...........................
Citrus................Quentin Medlin...............Inverness...---.....--Mrs. Ray C. Baxter
Citrus
(Asst.).........Theodore Gallo, III ......Inverness ....... ....... -.... ......
Clay...................Emmett D. McCall ........Green Cove Springs
-Mrs. Sue P. Glennan
Clay (Asst.).....George M. Owens...........Green Cove Springs
-Mrs. Laura W. Williams
Collier...............D. W. Lander-.................Everglades .. ..................
Collier
(Asst.)..........W. F. Wortman...-..........Everglades ..........................
Columbia..........Neal M. Dukes...............Lake City..........Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Columbia
(Asst.)..-.......E. J. Cowen ................ Lake City .................................. ......
Dade.................John D. Campbell......-..Miami ...........----.................-- iss Olga Kent
Dade (Asst.)....Roy J. Champagne-........Miami...........Mrs. Helen B. MacTavish
Dade (Asst.)....Ralph E. Huffaker......Miami----..........Mrs. Camille N. Helgren
Dade (Asst.)....Douglas M. KEil.lpp ilIit,-i .. ... -------.--.--
Dade (Asst.)._.Nolan L. Durre............Homestead.......Mrs. Erma L. Butcher
Dade (Asst.)... W. R. Llewellyn ....-... Homestead .......
Dade (Asst.)....Hugh C. Whelehel, Jr...Homestead .-.......--------- ----........
DeSoto..............W. L. Woods -----...................Arcadia......Miss Virginia J. Holland
Dixie-...............Ben Floyd...-....................Cross City ....................................
Dixie
(Asst.).........Charles E. Rowan.........Cross City ....................................
Duval.........-.....James N. Watson........ Jacksonville-.........Mrs. Nellie D. Mills
Duval (Asst.)..Wm. E. Kloeppel............Jacksonville....Mrs. Nannie M. Cochran
Duval (Asst.)..J. R. Yelvington--.....-.. Jacksonville
-Mrs. Josephine M. Cameron
Duval (Asst.)..Howard Taylor, Jr .......Jacksonville .......................................
Escambia-........E. N. Stephens ...-......- ..Pensacola ..............Miss Ethel Atkinson
Escambia
(Asst.).........Calvin A. Winter..........Pensacola..--.......Miss Myndall I. Hall
Escambia
(Asst.) ........James H. Walker.........-- Pensacola .... -.....................
Flagler.............F. L. Polhill..................Bunnell ....................... ..........
Franklin..-......-.W. C. Zorn-...........-.........Apalachicola .. ...............
Gadsden-...........John C. Russell.............. Quincy..........Mrs. Marjorie B. Gregory
[4]







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Gadsden
(Asst.) .........Bernard H. Clark..........Quincy........Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson
Gilchrist...........L. C. Cobb.... .......... ....Trenton ... .............. .........
Glades.............Harold H. Cook..............Moore Haven ..................... ......
Gulf..................C. R. Laird.......................W ewahitchka .. .....................
Hamilton..........R. A. Andrews ............Jasper..........Mrs. Wylma B. White
Hardee..............J. F. Barco................. Wauchula............ Miss Sara Horton
Hendry..............Frederick M. Shuler......LaBelle ...........................---
Hernando..........Harry J. Brinkley........ Brooksville. ..Mrs. Margaret R. Nelson
Highlands......... 3. J. Harris, Jr..............Sebring............Miss Catherine Brabson
Highlands
(Asst.).........J. C. Hayman..................Sebring ----.... .......---.
Hillsborough....Alec White....... .....Tampa--..........Miss Lora Kiser
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........C. F. O'Quinn............... Tampa.............Mrs. Mamie G. Bassett
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........Jean Beem......................Tampa ............... ................
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........W. L. Hatcher...............Tampa .........................-.....-
Hillsborough
(Asst.).......... M. Caldwell........... Plant City........Miss Doris E. Wetters
Hillsborough
(Asst.).........J. 0. Armor .... ... .... Plant City ...................... ............
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........M. C. Jorgensen...........Ruskin.......... Miss Virginia R. Hill
Holmes..............C. U. Storey.................Bonifay .................................
Indian River....Forrest N. McCullars....Vero Beach ............. ........-- ...-
Jackson.............Woodrow W. Glenn...... Marianna .............Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jackson
(Asst.)..........L D. Taylor................Marianna........Mrs. Jane R. Burgess
Jefferson...........Albert H. Odom...........Monticello.......... Miss Fern S. Nix
Lafayette.........W. O. Whittle............Mayo .. ............. ......
Lake................R. E. Norris........... Tavares.............Mrs. Marian Valentine
Lake (Asst.) ...B. 0. Bass...................--Tavares.............Mrs. Mary 0. Rowley
Lee.................C. P. Heuck..................-Fort Myers ...... ....................
Leon..................James L. Rhoden...........Tallahassee....Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
Leon (Asst.)....T. E. Thomaston.........Tallahassee....Mrs. Evelyn C. Presley
Leon (Asst.)....Lenzy M. Scott ........ Tallahassee ....... ........
Levy.............Wilburn C. Farrell.......Bronson....-.....Mrs. Linnie R. Coburn
Levy (Asst.)....Oscar L. Joiner, Jr.......Bronson .. ..... ..............
Liberty..........Charles R. Smith.............Bristol........Mrs. Camilla R. Alexander
Madison .........Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr....Madison..........Mrs. Almon S. Zipperer
Madison
(Asst.)..........H. T. Paulk-..................Madison ....................
Manatee ...........Wilson H. Kendrick.......Palmetto..........Mrs. Ethel W. Hanson
Manatee
(Asst.)..........E. M. Kelly-- ................ Palmetto....Miss Patricia L. Denmark
Manatee
(Asst.)..........Robert G. Curtis............Palmetto ... --...................--.....
Marion..............Edsel W. Rowan............Ocala--....-...Miss Elsie M. Garrett
Marion
(Asst.)..........G. B. Harrison................Ocala .............--...........
Marion
(Asst.)..........Everette H. Fischer......Ocala ................................
Martin..........L. M. Johnson..................Stuart.............Miss Martha C. Burdine
Nassau..............Gordon B. Ellis...............Hilliard.......Mrs. Evelyn I. Sabbarese
Okaloosa--.........F. A. McMillan, Jr .......Crestview....Mrs. Dora S. Stubblefield
Okaloosa*
(Assoc.) ........Jack D. Patten---.........- Crestview ............. .........
Also Associate Agent in Santa Rosa County,
[5]







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Okeechobee......C. R. Boyles................. Okeechobee ........................................
Orange..............F. E. Baetzman..............Orlando......Miss Marjorie K. Ludeman
Orange
(Asst.).........Henry F. Swanson.........Orlando................Mrs. Mary A. Moore
Orange
(Asst.) ........A. F. Cribbett.....-.........Orlando..............Miss Joyce McDonald
Osceola.............J. B. Smith..................Kissimmee..........Miss Marilyn Dietrich
Palm Beach......M. U. Mounts..............W. Palm Beach........Miss Mary L. Todd
Palm Beach
(Asst.)..........John H. Causey.............. W. Palm Beach
-Mrs. Elizabeth H. Pierce
Palm Beach
(Asst.).........Rayburn K. Price...........W. Palm Beach ..........................
Palm Beach
(Asst.)..........Raleigh S. Griffis...........W. Palm Beach ..........................
Palm Beach
(Asst.).........H. L. Speer....................Belle Glade ........ .....................
Pasco.................J. F. Higgins..................Dade City............Mrs. Mary R. Stearns
Pasco (Asst.)...C. A. Byrd....................Dade City......Miss Caroline L. DeVore
Pinellas.............J. H. Logan.................. Largo........Mrs. Chl i: tr- M. Lattimer
Pinellas
(Asst.).........H. A. Williams..-..........Largo.......................Miss Jo Ann Tilley
Pinellas
(Asst.).........L. E. Cunningham........Largo ... .........................
Polk---...............W. P. Hayman.......... Barow......Bat ..........Mrs. Ruth M. Elkins
Polk (Asst.).....Paul A. Daly..................Bartow..............Mrs. Cora Sue Johnson
Polk (Asst.)....Robert Yates............Bartow ....................................
Polk (Asst.).....Jackson A. Haddox ......Bartow ............ ............... ........
Polk (Asst.)....James D. Pierce...........Bartow -.............................. ......
Putnam............,H. E. Maltby ................Palatka......Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird
Putnam
(Asst.)..........Ralph T. Clay, Jr..........Palatka .............................. ......
St. Johns..........P. R. McMullen ..............St. Augustine .....Mrs. Ruth T. Penner
St. Johns
(Asst.)..........Paul L. Dinkins, Jr.......St. Augustine ............ .......
St. Lucie..........Charles D. Kime............Fort Pierce .......Mrs. Mary H. Bennett
Santa Rosa......S. C. Kierce.....................Milton........... Miss Lora A. Botts
Santa Rosa
(Asst.)................................... Milton...................Mrs. Ann P. Jeter
Sarasota...........Kenneth A. Clark..........Sarasota..............Mrs. Laleah B. Brown
Sarasota
(Asst.)..........Hal Hopson...............Sarasota ................................ ..
Seminole...........Cecil Tucker, II..............Sanford.............Miss Myrtie C. Wilson
Sumter..............0. M. Maines, Jr............Bushnell................Mrs. May O. Fulton
Sumter
(Asst.).........Donald A. George..........Bushnell ......................-........
Suwannee.........J. P. Crews---.............Live Oak-......Mrs. Helen R. Hardiman
Suwannee
(Asst.)..........A. K. Doke...... .....-.......Live Oak .......... ..................
Taylor.....-.........H. P. Davis...................Perry.................Mrs. Sallie R. Childers
Union......-.....William J. Cowen...........Lake Butler ................................
Volusia.............T. R. Townsend..............DeLand...................Mrs. Edna S. Eby
Volusia
(Asst.)..........J. N. Luttrell.............DeLand .............. .................
Wakulla............A. S. Laird................... Crawfordville .................................
Walton..............H. 0. Harrison ............De Funii:l. Springs
-Miss Betty J. Duckett
W.,i ig'tnp Johnnie E. Davis............Chipley........ Mrs. Dorcas L. Payne






NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS

Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Alachua............English M. Greene-........Gainesville................Leontine Williams
Columbia..........McKinley Jeffers............Lake City........................Gladys Wilkins
Dade............................................................. Miami --- Victoria M. Simpson
Duval............................................................ Jacksonville............... Ethel M Powell
Gadsden............Russell Stephens.............Quincy---........ .....Ursula H. Williams
Hamilton..........Isaac Chandler, Jr..........Jasper .-.. --................ ----------
Hillsborough---- ... ....-- .....--- ........... ----Tampa --.... ................ Sudella J. Ford
Jackson.............Virgil Elkins....................Marianna................Virginia V. Dickens
Jefferson...........M. E. Groover.................Monticello ..............................
Leon..................Richard A. Hartsfield-..Tallahassee................. Irie Mae Clark
Madison............James C. Miller...............Madison----.......................Lola E. Preston
Marion..............Eugene P. Smith.............Ocala ............ ..................... ....
Marion ...................................................Reddick--.............Sarah K. Thomas
Putnam .......................................................Palatka..........................Leala M Reaves
Sumter..............Richard L. Bradley........Bushnell ........................................
Volusia............................... ...................... DeLand ........................ Ida T. Pem berton







Foi,,r', 1 Cooperative Extension


DIRECTOR'S REPORT

H. G. Clayton, Director1
M. O. Watkins, Assistant Director and Director 2
Joe N. Busby, Assistant Director I
F. W. Parvin, Assistant to the Director
K. S. McMullen, District Agent
F. S. Perry, District Agent
W. J. Platt, District Agent

The total volume of work handled by agents in 1956 was considerably
more than the year before. For example, all agents combined made more
than 101,492 farm or home visits to give first hand assistance with prob-
lems. This was an increase of 10,129 over the year before.
The number of office calls totaled 259,208, an increase of 24,342 from
the year before. Telephone calls increased by 54,381 to a total of 320,622.
The number of news articles, radio and television broadcasts showed con-
siderable increase over the year before.
In carrying out the work in the counties, agents worked closely with
local leaders. Some 2,564 training meetings were held for leaders. The
leaders, in turn, held 2,928 meetings for adults, attended by 51,921, and
2,528 meetings for 4-H members, attended by 43,242.
In attempting to work more closely with farm families on broad farm
and home management problems, agents worked with 416 families.
Agents gave more attention to marketing problems during 1956. For
example, a total of 132 formally organized cooperatives with a combined
membership of 17,197 were assisted with marketing and purchasing. The
cooperatives were assisted with organization, financial, and operating
problems.
More farmers were given help with soil and water conservation and
management, forestry and wildlife protection.
Increased emphasis was given to problems involving planning and
management of the farm business. Farmers were given assistance with
keeping and analyzing their farm records, agricultural outlook, income
tax accounting, social security, and making needed adjustments in the
farm organization.
Home demonstration agents gave increased attention to home manage-
ment and clothing construction. They reached more families with informa-
tion on foods and nutrition, health, and safety problems.
Both county and home demonstration agents devoted more time to
educational projects or programs relating to citizenship activities.
Total number of 4-H Clubs in the state was 1,498, an increase of 50
over 1955. Number of club members enrolled increased from 35,212 to
37,130. Number of projects carried by 4-H members increased from 77,742
to 82,148. More club members received training in judging, giving demon-
strations, farm and home safety, citizenship, forestry and health, nursing,
and first aid.
More families were assisted by the Extension Service to make changes
in agricultural and homemaking practices than ever before. A total of
270,426 Florida families were reached in 1956, an increase of more than
52,138 over 1955. An increasingly large number of these families, 171,725,

1 Director, December 1, 1955, to May 31, 1956.
2 Assistant Director, Dec. 1, 1955, to May 31, 1956; Director, June 1 to Nov. 30, 1956.
3 Assistant Director, July 1, 1956, to November 30, 1956.
SGranted leave of absence to continue graduate work.






Annual Report, 1956


lived in towns. They called on county agents for help with lawns, back-
yard fruit trees, ornamental production and other problems of an agricul-
tural nature. Some 54,580 families worked with were classified as rural
nonfarm-and 44,121 were farm families.

IMPORTANT CHANGES OR DEVELOPMENTS IN THE ADMINISTRA-
TION OF THE STATE EXTENSION SERVICE
A. Financing Extension Work.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1955-56
Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended ......................................$517,036.50
Agricultural Marketing ........................................ 9,700.00
Bureau of Indian Affairs ...................................... 7,350.00

$ 534,086.50


State Appropriation:
Legislature .................. .... .. .....................$729,649.00
State Trust Funds:
Incidental (Actual) ................. .................... ... 19,989.33
County Appropriations ...................-------------..--. 593,908.00


729,649.00


19,989.33
593,908.00


Grand Total ...................................... ........ ......... ........ $1,877,632.83

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1956-57
Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended ................................... $561,826.94
Agricultural Marketing ........................................ 9,900.00
Bureau of Indian Affairs ...........................-........ 12,600.00
$ 584,326.94
State Appropriation:
Legislature .............. ------. .... $810,154.06 810,154.06*
State Trust Funds:
Incidental (Estimated) ....................................-- 21,600.00 21,600.00
County Appropriations .....................- ................... 640,689.00 640,689.00

Grand Total ............... .......----.................. $2,056,770.00
Includes $73,893.06 in carryover funds from 1955-56.

Increases in federal and county funds during the year made it possible
to add new positions at state and county levels as follows: 1 assistant
agricultural engineer, 1 assistant horticulturist, 8 assistant county agents,
3 assistant home demonstration agents, 7 county clerical assistants, and
4 state office clerical personnel.
During the year the position of Assistant Agronomist for tobacco work
was filled by promoting a county agricultural agent from a tobacco county
to this position. This specialist has begun to organize his program to
give special attention to this important crop.
There have been no major changes in Extension organization. Director
H. G. Clayton retired May 31. Dr. M. O. Watkins was promoted to this
position June 1. A former Acting County Agent and Assistant State Boys'
4-H Club Agent, Mr. J. N. Busby, was appointed to the Assistant Director
position. The Assistant to the Director position is vacant temporarily
while Mr. F. W. Parvin is away working toward his doctorate degree.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Personnel Training.-A series of one- or two-day area training confer-
ences was held with county and home demonstration agents to give the
agents new research information available in the more important fields
of work. These training conferences included only subject matter recog-
nized as of major concern to the agents in a given area. The agents were
enthusiastic about this system of training and are asking for "repeats"
on this type of school during the coming year. In addition, specialists
continue to provide agents with new information through the usual chan-
nels of communication.
The annual conference of all Extension agents in Florida is considered
a major device for training of agents. While little actual subject matter
is presented at this time, agents are brought information on such items
as program projection, rural development, farm and home development, etc.
This is a week-long conference and is held in late August of each year
on the campus of the University of Florida.
The annual three-week summer school for Extension workers was held
at the University of Florida June 18 to July 7, 1956. A total of 34 exten-
sion workers attended. Most took two courses for graduate credit. Four
courses were offered, each carrying 1% hours of credit.
Arrangements were again made for home demonstration agents to
enroll for the first three weeks of the regular six-week summer school
courses at Florida State University. Three agents attended.
A two-day orientation school for new assistant county agents was held.
An attempt was made to bring to agents information on policies of the
Agricultural Extension Service and to answer questions that they might
have on Extension work. The agents had been in the counties for a period
of from one to 11 months.
All prospective home demonstration workers underwent a period of
orientation at Florida State University before going into the counties for
work.
District agents and specialists carried on a continuous program of in-
service training for agents. Agents attended the Experiment Stations
throughout the year as field days were held and otherwise kept up-to-date
on subject matter.
Water Conservation.-During 1956 a Water Resources Study Commis-
sion, provided for by the 1955 legislature, completed a study of water
problems in all counties of Florida. County Extension personnel assisted
with the organization of the committees at the county level and with the
holding of meetings to discuss water problems. At the state level, state
Extension Service staff personnel served on a number of different com-
mittees which investigated various aspects of Florida's water problems.
The findings of the county and state committee are to be presented to the
1957 session of the Florida legislature with a view to the passage of
legislation which would correct the more serious water problems in Florida.
Farm Forest Management, Protection and Planting.-This phase of
Florida agriculture is receiving increased attention from county and state
groups as they envision the importance of forests to the economic future
of Florida. Attention is being given by county Extension agents and
the state specialists to increased farm income from gum farming and the
growing of a crop .of pine timber. The Extension Service is working and
will continue to work closely with state and federal forest services, Soil
Conservation Service, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation, voca-
tional agriculture teachers and others in this important work.
Health Problems.-The state home demonstration program emphasizes
good health practices in practically all of its aspects. Recently a state
Rural Health Committee was organized, made up of representatives from







Annual Report, 1956


the State Board of Health, Florida Medical Association, Florida Farm
Bureau and Agricultural Extension Service. Efforts will be made through
this committee to coordinate work on major health problems throughout
Florida, working through county groups.
Problems of Low Farm Income.-Major attention has been given to
assisting farmers to develop supplemental sources of income, locate off-
the-farm employment, increase net income through use of more efficient
practices and the latest research information, more efficient use of outlook
information, record keeping, use of family budgets and otherwise. In this
important work practically all staff members play some part, at both state
and county levels.
Youth Work.-All staff members in Florida devote a portion of their
time to 4-H Club and other youth work. A major effort is given by all
in concerted action to provide the youth of the state, and especially the
rural youth, with an opportunity to improve themselves through work
with agricultural or home economics projects, by following better health
practices, by participation in community or county projects, and active
participation in citizenship affairs. Florida's Extension program includes
the operation of five state 4-H Club camps. These provide an opportunity
for training in subject matter, citizenship and health practices. Four-H
Club short courses and other state, district and county activities are aimed
at fullest development of youth.
Extension Training for Foreign Visitors.-In 1956 the Extension Service
provided training for a total of 83 visitors from 26 countries. The countries
represented by these trainees were Belgian Congo, Bolivia, Brazil, British
Honduras, Chile, China (Nationalist), Costa Rica, Cuba, Formosa, France,
Greece, Gautemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Korea, Netherlands,
Nicaragua, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Thialand,
and Turkey.
Training included a short course on youth work and farm and home
development for personnel doing Extension work in Chile, Costa Rica,
Guatemala, and Peru.








Florida Cooperative Extension


STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN

Data from White and Negro County and Home Demonstration
Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Farm and home visits made ...--...........-.... .................-..................... ..... 101,492
Calls relating to Extension work ....... ..... office 259,208; telephone 320,622
News articles or stories prepared ....-............. ................................... 14,280
Broadcasts made or prepared ............................ television 322; radio 3,490
Bulletins distributed ......................... ............... ......................... 616,547
Adult result demonstrations conducted ....--....--------.......... ..--....--... 4,141
Training meetings held for local leaders:
N um ber ....................................................................... ...... ...... ...... 2,626
Total attendance ....................................... ...... .................. 71,096

All other meetings agents held or participated in:
Number .........--.................- ........... 31,483
Total attendance ..................... ........................... ................... 1,159,554

Meetings held or conducted by local leaders:
N um ber .................... ............ ........... ...-.---- 5,496
Total attendance ................ ..... ...... ........ ............ 96,103

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Total number of different voluntary leaders assisting Extension agents
with organization, planning and conducting of Extension work in counties:

M en ...... .......... ............... ......- .. .............. 2,602
W om en ..................................... .. ..................... .......... 5,462
Older club boys ..................................... .................. 200
Older club girls ................................ .................. 1,104

Individuals assisted to adopt recommended production and marketing
practices in subject matter fields:


Crop Production
Individuals assisted with:
Grain crops .........................
Hay and other forage,
pasture, range ...............
Cotton and other
fibre crops ........................
Tobacco ......................
Oil and sugar crops ..........
Fruits and nuts ..................
Vegetables, including
potatoes ............................
Flowers, ornamental
shrubs .........................


15,684

19,084

6,795
8,061
5,954
51,546

48,219

107,235


Conservation of Natural
Resources
Individuals assisted with:
Soil and water conserva-
tion and management .. 24,184
Forestry .............................. 8,530
W wildlife ................................ 4,424
Livestock
Individuals assisted with:
Dairy animals and
products .......................... 14,254
Poultry and products ........ 16,930
Beef cattle .......................... 22,860
Sheep and goats ................ 304
Swine ................................... 15,000
Other livestock .................... 2,420







Annual Report, 1956


Planning and Management of the
Farm Business
Individuals assisted with ...... 20,955
Farm Build'ngs and Mechanical
Equipment
Individuals assisted with:
Farm buildings ............... 3,408
Farm mechanical
equipment ........................ 6,593

The House and Surroundings,
Furnishings and Equipment
Individuals or families assisted with:
The house and
surroundings .................. 50,676
Furnishings and equip-
m ent ..........-.................... 28,791


Foods and Nutrition, Health, Family
Life and Safety
Families assisted with:
Foods and nutrition .......... 51,139
Health .................................. 29,728
Family life .......................... 23,098
Safety .................................. 29,987
Home Management, Family
Economics and Clothing
Individuals assisted with:
Home management ............ 19,321
Family economics .............. 16,420
Clothing .............................. 41,481
Marketing and Distribution
Individuals assisted with:
Consumer information on
agricultural products .... 56,526


ASSISTANCE GIVEN TO FORMALLY ORGANIZED COOPERATIVES
AND TO INFORMALLY ORGANIZED GROUPS

Formally organized groups assisted Informally organized groups assisted
with: with:


Marketing and purchasing:
Number ............................ 132
Members .......................... 17,197
Farm and home service:
Number ............................ 80
Members .......................... 19,963


Marketing and purchasing:
Number ...........................
Members .........................
Farm and home service:
Number .........................
Members ......................


PERSONS PARTICIPATING IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND
PUBLIC AFFAIRS PROJECTS, PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES
ON WHICH AGENTS WORK

Citizenship activities ................................................................... ....... 19,355
Developing and improving county or community organization ........ 25,464


Local projects of a general public
nature:
General community
problems .......................... 20,705
Improving health facilities 47,127
Improving schools .............. 5,696
Improving churches .......... 6,419
Bettering town-country
relations .......................... 23,043


Libraries ..............................
Roads ..................................
Telephones .........................
Community centers ..........
Recreation programs and
facilities ..........................
Community beautification


Regional or area development programs ........................................
National programs ........-............-... -- --.---------
World affairs ..................-....-.... --------- --------.---
Emergency activities ........-..........-...... ---- --------.. ----


150
5,442

287
3,745


2,104
1,882
1,918
7,447

21,946
5,893



7,725
13,594
6,624
10,549








Florida Cooperative Extension


SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB WORK

N um ber of 4-H Clubs ......................... ............... ....... .........................
Number of 4-H members enrolled in and completing projects:
Enrolled: Boys-15,466; girls-21,664; total ....................................
Completing: Boys-11,130; girls-14,115; total ....................................

4-H membership:
Boys: Farm-8,031; rural non-farm-4,464; urban ....................
Girls: Farm-7,298; rural non-farm-7,427; urban ....................


4-H projects completed:
Corn ................................
Other cereals ......................
Peanuts ................ ............
Cotton .............................
Tobacco ................................
Vegetables ...... ..........
F ruits ..................................
Range and pasture ............
Other crops ........................
Soil and water conserva-
tion and management ....
Forestry .............................
Wildlife and nature study
Poultry ...............................
Dairy cattle ........................
Beef cattle .........................
Swine ...................................
Sheep ...............................
Rabbits ...............................
Other livestock ..................
Bees ....................................
Entomology ......................
Tractor maintenance ........
Electricity ........................


1,281
70
309
163
89
4,828
574
397
134

235
502
454
2,603
1,323
1,092
1,646
10
666
225
209
252
541
1,119


Soybeans and other
legumes ..........................
Potatoes, Irish and sweet
Farm shop ..........................
Other engineering
projects ............................
Farm management ............
Beautification of home
grounds ............................
Meal planning and
preparation ......................
Canning and preserving ..
Freezing of food ............
Health, nursing, first aid..
Child care ............................
Clothing ..............................
Home management ............
Home furnishings and
room improvement ........
Home industries, arts,
crafts ................................
Junior leadership ..............
All other .............................
Total projects completed ..


SUMMARY OF EXTENSION

Farm families making changes in agricultural practices ................ 37,400
Rural non-farm families making changes in agricultural practices.... 37,435
Urban families making changes in agricultural practices ................ 127,326
Farm families making changes in homemaking practices ................ 18,051
Rural non-farm families making changes in homemaking practices 26,740
Urban families making changes in homemaking practices ................ 73,778
Total different farm families assisted by Extension programs ........ 44,121
Total different rural non-farm families assisted by Extension
programs .............................................. 54,580
Total different urban families assisted by Extension programs ........ 171,725


1,498

37,130
25,245


2,971
6,939



160
351
64

13
30

2,669

8,874
1,202
690
2,042
1,941
8,859
1,243

2,390

2,160
913
830
53,153







Annual Report, 1956


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Agricultural Economist

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT
Zach Savage, Agricultural Economist (Agricultural Experiment Station)
Citrus production costs were at their highest in 24 years on a per-acre
basis during the 1954-55 season. An increase of 10 percent over the
previous high season of 1953-54 brought the operating or cash costs to
$203 per acre last season. This was an increase of 37 percent over the
five-year average of 1946-51. Each of the three main items of cash cost
in 1954-55 increased 11 percent over the previous season. These items
were labor, power and equipment, fertilizer materials and spray and dust
materials.
Operating costs per acre for bearing groves at $184 in 1953-54 were
an increase of 8 percent over the previous season and 4 percent over
1951-52-the previous high. The 1953-54 yield at 447 boxes was 103 boxes,
or 30 percent, higher than the previous season. This yield in 1953-54 was
the highest of these records. The average age at 30 years was a year older
than the previous two seasons. The increase in yield reduced operating
costs per box to 41 cents, which was 9 cents below the previous season.
Per-box costs were the lowest in 1953-54 since the 1948-49 season. Returns
above operating costs in 1953-54 at $140 per acre were lower than the
previous season, due largely to lower fruit prices. The average price per
box in 1953-54 was 72 cents, in the 1952-53 season 95 cents.
Operating costs per acre in 1954-55 exceeded $200 per acre for the
first time. Money spent per acre for labor, power and equipment, fertilizer
materials and spray and dust materials was the highest of these records.
Expenditures for spray and dust materials at $22.45 per acre were 11
percent higher than the previous high season of 1953-54. Twelve bearing
groves-7 percent-received no spray or dust. On the other hand, in
excess of $40.00 per acre was spent for spray and dust materials on 15
groves-8 percent.
In 1955-56 there were 594,600 acres of oranges, grapefruit and tanger-
ines in Florida, which included 516,900 acres of bearing and 77,700 acres
of non-bearing. The increase in bearing acreage was 19,500 acres. In
1954-55 there were 571,000 acres of these three kinds of citrus of all ages
in Florida. During that season there were 7,174 acres of citrus included
in these accounts, which was 1.3 percent of the state acreage.
Cash receipts from marketing of oranges, grapefruit and tangerines
made up 33 percent of Florida cash farm receipts in 1954 and 32 percent
in 1955. Florida growers received 63 percent of the cash receipts from
these three kinds of citrus in the United States in 1954 and 64 percent in
1955. These receipts in Florida were $200,254,000 in 1955.
Florida produced 33 percent of the world supply of oranges, grapefruit
and tangerines in 1955-56 and 32 percent the previous season. Other areas
of the United States produced 12 percent in 1955-56. The highest propor-
tion produced in Florida was in the 1953-54 season, 35 percent. The world
production of oranges and tangerines in 1955-56 reached a new record at
352 million boxes despite a severe freeze in Spain, which caused a loss
of an estimated 19.8 million boxes. Also, grapefruit and lime crops were
larger than in 1954-55, but the lemon crop was slightly smaller.
The Bureau of Census of the U. S. Department of Commerce reported
an equivalent of 486 acres of lemon trees in Florida in 1949. Two-thirds







Florida Cooperative Extension


of these trees were bearing and one-third non-bearing. An equivalent
acreage of 1,944 was reported in 1954, 26 percent of which was bearing and
74 percent non-bearing. Lemon production was reported at 84,944 field
boxes in 1954.
Data collected indicate yields of oranges and grapefruit are related
to age of trees and number of trees set per acre. Some of the difficulties
encountered in some of the older groves no doubt were brought about or
intensified by trees not having enough space. Hedging is one way of
alleviating some of the bad effects of crowding and no doubt would be
more effective if done to prevent crowding than if done several years after
the limbs had interlocked. There was not enough hedging on the groves
of these data to affect the results presented. Double setting with the
removal of alternate trees at the proper time is another means of relieving
or postponing of trees crowding each other. However, a chief hazard to
this method is the lack of sufficient intestinal fortitude by the management
to remove the trees at the proper time.
The best citrus land available should be used when planting new groves.
Good citrus land is worth several times as much as poor or unsuitable land.
Suitable land is a necessity in order to compete in efficient citrus produc-
tion. If suitable land cannot be obtained, it would be best to purchase
a good grove already set on good citrus land. The use of the proper root-
stock is also very important.
Fertilizer materials remain the most important items of production
cost and should be studied continuously for improving grove efficiency.
If possible, poundage of some of the elements should be reduced. Excesses
of some elements not only cost money but some of them tie up other ele-
ments, thus reducing efficiency. If additional fertilizer is needed its addi-
tion would increase grove efficiency and result in higher profits. Generally
speaking, all needed fertilizer should be added. There should be no elimina-
tion of or reduction in needed fertilizer elements.
Four publications, 11 different sheets of data, and two form letters
were issued, representing 17,075 copies, or a total of 207,075 pages of
.material. In addition, there were 15 magazine articles prepared and
published.

FARM MANAGEMENT

C. C. Moxley, Associate Economist

The Farm Management Specialist gave major attention to outlook,
income tax, social security and farm accounting.
Outlook.-Following his attendance at the National Outlook Conference
in Washington, the specialist collected and analyzed data pertinent to the
current situation and future outlook. His analysis and predictions were
made public in the mimeographed Florida Agricultural Outlook, Economic
Series 56-2. Three additional brief outlook reports were sent subsequently
to all extension personnel at intervals throughout the year. Radio and
television programs, press releases and meetings were utilized in the
dissemination of outlook information. Additional outlook work was done
as a member of the Florida Outlook Committee, whose report, Looking
Ahead for Florida Agriculture, received widespread distribution and usage
throughout the state. This, as well as the Florida Agricultural Outlook,
served as reference material for growers and ranchers in production plan-
ning.
Social Security.-Special emphasis was given to helping farm families
understand the new provisions of social security laws. This was the subject
of 32 meetings held in 23 counties, at which the average attendance was








Annual Report, 1956


98 per meeting. The press and radio also were used in the social security
educational program. County and home agents reported giving assistance
on social security and related matters to a total of more than 6,000 persons.
It has been conservatively estimated that educational work by the
Extension Service will result in social security benefits being received by
at least 600 families who otherwise would not have qualified. If each of
these families received only the minimum retirement benefits the total
would amount to $324,000 a year. Based on an average expectation of 10
years' benefits, it appears that Florida farm families will have additional
net income amounting to more than three million dollars that would not
have come to Florida without this educational work by the Extension
Service. In addition to those families who otherwise would not have quali-
fied for any social security benefits, a large number already participating
in social security were shown how to earn more benefits.
'Accounting.-Information given farmers on income tax reporting and
income tax management helped many Florida farmers reduce tax payments
to more nearly the legal minimum requirement. This work to eliminate
unnecessary tax payment was not limited to individual farmers. Assistance
and instruction were given to those who assist farmers in such matters
as income tax, legal proceedings, business management and related prob-
lems. Extension agents reported giving assistance to nearly 1,500 such
individuals or firms during 1956.
The Florida Farm Family Record Book was designed to simplify and
make easier the task of keeping adequate farm and home records. Except
for very large and highly specialized operations, farmers find this book
especially suited for handily keeping all records necessary for income tax
and social security reporting. It also fits the needs of families in farm
and home development. Television and radio programs, supplemented by
press releases, were used to publicize the need, the value and the mechanics
of good record keeping.
Farmers faced with the need to make decisions relative to participation
in the Soil Bank program found a valuable aid in the kit of materials
developed for this purpose. This tool, with instructions for adaptation to
different farm situations, also served to illustrate a logical method of
decision making, i.e., considering and selecting alternatives.
The Southern Extension Farm Management Committee, working through
its income tax and social security subcommittee, of which the Specialist
is a member, was responsible for two very useful publications that are now
available to farmers in all the Southern states. One, Farm Families and
Social Security, combines into a 28-page bulletin most of the latest social
security information that is needed by farm operators, landlords and hired
workers. It deals with both management and the provisions of the law.
The other bulletin, Farm Income Tax Management, places emphasis on tax
reduction through management and deals with some of the major tax
planning decisions that farmers must face.

MARKETING
E. W. Cake, Economist in Marketing
Clifford Allston, Vegetable Marketing Specialist
County agents estimated that they had assisted farmers in more than
50,000 instances during the year with marketing problems by furnishing
either publications, information or advice. They also estimated that they
had given assistance to 118 marketing and farm supply cooperatives.
Youth Education on Farmer Cooperatives.--The Extension Service again
joined with the Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives in sponsoring co-








Florida Cooperative Extension


operative activity contests among 4-H Clubs and FFA chapters in the
state. These contests are designed to teach rural youth the benefits farm-
ers can derive from working together in groups on their marketing and
other problems. Number of groups participating and interest in the con-
tests increased during the year. There was also an increase in number
of farmer cooperatives working with 4-H Club and FFA chapters on these
contests.
A total of 118 Florida youth and their leaders, who were representatives
of district winning groups in these contests, attended the annual meeting
of the state co-op council in Miami on expense-paid trips awarded by
the council. In addition, 28 Florida youths and their leaders attended the
annual meeting of the American Institute of Cooperation at North Carolina
State College in Raleigh with expenses paid by the council and individual
cooperatives in the state. The Winter Haven 4-H Club and Live Oak FFA
Chapter, as state winners in the two contests, sent delegates to Raleigh.
The Live Oak FFA Chapter was also Southeast winner.
Dairy Marketing Agreements or Orders.-Milk producer groups in south-
eastern and central Flor'da were assisted by the Extension Service in their
efforts to get federal milk marketing orders into effect in their areas. The
southeastern Florida group with Extension assistance formed and put into
operation a very strong producers' bargaining association with which to
make their efforts effective. They have carried the federal milk marketing
order as far as the producer-referendum stage. It is expected to be in
operation by July. Through their association they also bargained effec-
tively on price and classification of their milk with distributors in the area.

Fig. 1.-Representatives of nine of 10 district winning 4-H clubs were
awarded plaques by the Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives, which
sponsored the cooperative activities program.







Annual Report, 1956


The central Florida group, which already had a bargaining association,
doubled the membership and territory of their association, hired a full-
time manager and increased their budget 10-fold. The association did some
very effective bargaining with the State Milk Commission and with milk
distributors. The federal milk marketing order which the association is
proposing for the central Florida area will probably be considered at a
hearing next year.
Assistance to New Grower Marketing Groups.-County agents and
specialists worked with six new grower groups during the year in forming
and operating new farmer co-operatives and other organizations to help
solve their marketing problems. A fern growers' group was assisted with
state legislation to tax themselves for a budget to promote use of their
ferns. A new feed cooperative is operating effectively at Masaryktown
after help on organization papers, operating and financing plans. A new
cantaloupe and tomato cooperative was given similar assistance at Oxford,
as well as a new egg marketing cooperative which is in operation with
good volume at High Springs. Polk County poultrymen formed an educa-
tional and promotional association. Milk producers in southeastern Florida
formed the Independent Dairy Farmers' Association, the excellent work
of which was mentioned in connection with dairy marketing agreements.
Assistance to Existing Grower Marketing Groups.-Included in the 118
cooperatives to which county agents reported they gave marketing assist-
ance were several co-operatives and other groups with which Extension
personnel worked quite extensively during the year. Cucumber and water-
melon grower groups continued to push for federal marketing agreements.
An egg marketing cooperative at Orlando reorganized and got book-keeping
and financing straightened out.
A honey co-op at Umatilla increased its volume 25 percent after an
improved operating plan with larger advance payments. Another egg
co-op at Masaryktown ironed out sales problems with Extension assistance.
The Florida Citrus Exchange has a membership relations study under way
with similar assistance. A large vegetable marketing co-op was assisted in
grower relations. Considerable time of the Extension personnel was spent
in work with the Central Florida Milk Producers' Association and the
Florida Council of farmer Cooperatives, which were mentioned previously.
Other Marketing Work.-Citrus marketing work included marketing
talks at numerous grower meetings, seminars and institutes, citrus market-
ing articles in citrus magazines and work with citrus co-ops. Truck crop
marketing included work with groups selling at state farmers' markets
and help for avocado and lime growers in getting a marketing research
study in their South Florida area. Dairy and poultry marketing work with
grower groups has been previously mentioned. Marketing work on other
commodities, and general marketing work, included marketing talks at
numerous cattlemen's, Farm Bureau and Civic club meetings and on eight
radio and one TV program.
Vegetable Marketing.-Vegetable production in 1956 amounted to 27%
of the total state farm income. During the past five years acreage of
vegetable crops has increased from 352,200 to 412,450, while income has
increased from $146,482,000 to $187,203,000. At least 90% of all vegetables
are shipped outside of Florida. This, plus the fact that marketing methods
and practices are continually changing, causes marketing to be one of
the foremost problems in the state.
Activities reported here cover the last six months of the year.
Economic Information.-Basic economic information on long-time trends
in marketing and utilization of vegetable crops was prepared and made
available to county agents for use in program projection. Information was







Florida Cooperative Extension


prepared on the competitive position of Florida vegetables, both domestic
and foreign. This included tariff rates, acreages, volume production, acre-
age potential and marketing costs as related to foreign production.
Production figures from Cuba and Mexico were secured from time to
time and sent to county agents. Foreign production offers more competi-
tion for winter vegetables than domestic production.
Marketing Facilities and Organizations.-Work has been carried on
with producer groups in the Pompano and Wauchula markets to determine
problem areas and devise possible solutions. Work has been done also
with other state farmers markets to help increase efficiency of operations.
Research Information.-Good cooperation has been received from the
agriculture economics department in helping to provide needed research
information. Latest research information from the Experiment Station
and United States Department of Agriculture has been sent to county agents
as fast as it became available.
Commodity Organizations.-Excellent cooperation has been received
from commodity and farm organizations such as the Florida Fruit and
Vegetable Association and the Florida Farm Bureau. Work with organiza-
tions included analysis of market conditions and problems, analysis and
use of economic information, and attack of problems on an industry-wide
basis. The newly formed Florida Cucumber Growers Association asked for
and received assistance on articles of incorporation and by-laws to be
adopted by the group. Assistance was given also to the Wauchula Cucum-
ber and Tomato Growers Association in revising their articles of incorpor-
ation and by-laws.
Marketing Agreements.-Marketing agreements are now in effect on
tomatoes, limes and avocados. The Specialist has attended three tomato,
one lime and one avocado committee meetings. Information on supply,
demand, production, consumption and other economic trends was given the
tomato committee for use in formulating a marketing policy. An analysis
of statistical information, gathered by the tomato committee, was made.
Hearings were completed on a proposed cucumber marketing agreement.
The Specialist attended the hearings. No decision has been reached by the
Secretary.
The Watermelon Growers and Shippers Association has held two meet-
ings relative to a proposed watermelon marketing agreement. A proposed
order has been submitted to the Secretary of Agriculture but no determina-
tion has been made relative to a hearing.
Conferences have been held with county agents and farmers relative
to operation of marketing agreements and orders.







Annual Report, 1956


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND FARM
ELECTRIFICATION

The Extension agricultural engineering program emphasizes farm build-
ings, farm housing, farm machinery, irrigation, farm electrification and
safety. County and home demonstration agents reported assisting 101,228
individual farm persons in various phases of the engineering program dur-
ing the year.

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Thomas C. Skinner, Agricultural Engineer
Farm Structures.-The farm structures program is really a three-phase
program which includes farm service buildings, farm housing and the
Florida Farm Buildings Plan Service. According to agents' annual reports,
this program reached 83,274 farmers and farm families in 1956.
During the year 4,200 farm building plans and 550 farm house plans
were distributed in response to requests. Five radio talks, one television
program, two magazine articles and seven news articles were prepared
dealing with timely farm structures subjects. In addition, farm structures
subjects were discussed at a number of county agent, home demonstration
and farmer meetings.
Eighteen plans with an estimated construction value of $175,000 were
prepared by the specialist's staff in 1956. Supervision was given to the
construction of two cabins, one staff cottage and one latrine at 4-H Camp
Cherry Lake. Two shuffleboard courts were constructed at 4-H Camp Mc-
Quarrie and a bath was added to the leader's cab n at 4-H Camp Doe Lake.
At 4-H Camp Cloverleaf, the dining hall and kitchen, the honey house and
an addition to the farm machinery shed were completed. Covered walks
for the auditorium and dining hall, a flagpole base, and an entrance to the
camp were constructed.
Farm Machinery.-Each year Florida's agriculture becomes more mech-
anized as a result of the effort of farmers to reduce labor costs, to increase
production and to reduce the drudgery often associated with farm work.
County agents reported that 12,704 farmers were assisted with farm
machinery problems in 1956.
Farm machinery and equipment dealers and distributors were encour-
aged and assisted to display and demonstrate their equipment at farmer
meetings and fairs.
During the year the Agricultural Engineer aided in the promotion of
the Third Annual Central Florida Farm Machinery and Garden Equipment
Show. This show was held in conjunction with the Lake County Fair.
He also worked with a program on garden tools in Dade County and a
farm machinery maintenance clinic in Pasco County.
The specialist made two television films on farm machinery subjects,
made one radio talk and released six news articles.
Irrigation.-Interest in irrigation continued at the same high level as
in 1955. County agents reported 5,250 farmers assisted with irrigation
problems in 1956. The specialist discussed irrigation at six county agent
and farmer meetings and made 17 trips into counties to assist with specific
irrigation problems. He made two radio talks, published one magazine
article, and released three news articles this year.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Agricultural Engineer maintains close contact with manufacturers
and distributors of irrigation equipment and was instrumental in securing
many displays and demonstrations of irrigation equipment in 1956.
4-H Club Activities.-This year 874 boys from 36 counties participated
in the 4-H tractor care program. The specialist conducted two area leader
training clinics at which 95 leaders were trained. The tractor care project
was discussed at each of the 10 4-H district planning conferences. Each
of the 10 districts was represented in the State 4-H Tractor Operators'
Contest held in Gainesville at the State Boys' Short Course. The state
winner was accompanied to Richmond, Virginia, where he placed third in
the Eastern United States 4-H Tractor Operators' Contest. The Agricul-
tural Engineer personally assisted with this program in over 20 of the 36
counties having an active program.


M:OORAM


Fig. 2.-The Agricultural Engineer congratulates Jimmy Moore on winning
the 4-H tractor operator's contest.

FARM ELECTRIFICATION
A. M. Pettis, Assistant Agricultural Engineer
and Farm Electrification Specialist
The Farm Electrification Specialist conducted an electric program to
meet the needs of all Florida farmers and other interested rural and urban
people. This specialist has had the added responsibility of promoting
farm and home safety.
Electrical Farm Equipment.-Electric brooding of pigs and chicks was
actively promoted. The specialist obtained 150 infra-red brooders and they
were used by 300 4-H members in 5C counties to brood 25,000 chicks and







Annual Report, 1956


300 pigs. County Extension workers during the year assisted 2,088 people
in 53 counties in using electricity for income purposes.
Proper Wiring.-A demonstration wiring panel was effectively used to
teach the benefits of good wiring. Also this panel dramatically proves that
using a penny behind a blown fuse is a dangerous practice. Approximately
1,618 people in 45 counties were assisted by county Extension workers in
planning electrical systems.
Good Lighting.-Good lighting was extensively promoted throughout
the state. State good reading lamp contests were organized and county
competition was encouraged. This specialist obtained 100 reading lamp
kits for county agents to use in teaching. This activity resulted in 6,500
people being taught about good lighting and 600 lamps being built.
Electrical Home Equipment.-The specialist has promoted electrical home
uses in cooperation with the Extension Home Improvement Specialist.
Negro home demonstration club women in four counties were taught how
to convert a treadle sewing machine to electric. County Extension workers
assisted 9,111 farm people in 52 counties with problems concerning house
furnishings and equipment.
4-H Electric Program.-Considerable effort has been spent in the pro-
motion of the 4-H Electric Program. The Florida REA Cooperatives As-
sociation sponsored this program for the fifth year. This organization
provided a trip to National 4-H Club Congress and four other state awards
consisting of appliances.


Fig. 3.-Club boys receive a radio and an electric fan for finishing first
and second in the good reading lamp contest. The presentation is made by
a representative of a power company.








Florida Cooperative Extension


More than 10,000 copies of publications in this program were distributed
by county Extension workers. Some 600 4-H members received instruction
in the use of electricity at two 4-H camps, 4-H Boys Short Course, and the
Negro Short Course. In addition, many adult and junior 4-H leaders re-
ceived training in county and district meetings. There were 1,661 4-H
members in 55 counties enrolled in electric projects; 1,119 members com-
pleted the project and made 2,298 articles.
Six major awards were presented to state winners. Marilyn Cox of
Bradford County and David Manley of Polk County won trips to Chicago;
Fred Gaylord of Suwannee County won a radio-record player; Clarence
Edens of Nassau County won an electric razor; Annie Lou White of Alachua
County won a steam and dry iron; Sibyl Bell of Marion County won a
fluorescent lamp.
The 1956 winner of the county plaque was Hardee County. The negro
state winner of a $50 savings bond was James D. Clary of Gadsden County.
Power Suppliers' Cooperation.-On July 1, 1956, 52,200 Florida farms,
or 90.7 percent of the farms, were receiving electric service from 15 rural
electric (REA) cooperatives, five power companies, and several municipali-
ties with rural lines. Eight counties organized 4-H electric clubs with
personnel from the power suppliers serving as leaders. Eighteen electric
suppliers provided helpful materials in 50 counties.
Rural Telephones.-Advice, assistance and cooperation were extended
farm leaders interested in helping rural people obtain telephone service.
This year the government made three telephone loans totaling almost two
million dollars to increase and improve Florida telephone service. At
present about 45% of the Florida farms have telephones.
Publicity.-The specialist prepared and submitted 45 articles and other
news releases during the year. Material was sent to co-op publications,
power company publications, national and 'state magazines, and to the
Agricultural Editor. Eight radio talks and tape recordings were made for
use over the state. Two TV shows were presented over WFLA-TV in
Tampa.
A Significant Achievement of Extension Work.-The state sponsor of
the 4-H Electric Program provided $200 to train leaders in electricity.
Seven training meetings for adult and junior 4-H leaders were held, with
an attendance of 313. Visual aids and workshops were effectively used
to give the leaders a large amount of instruction in the one-day schools.







Annual Report, 1956


AGRONOMY

J. R. Henderson, Agronomist
Aubrey C. Mixon, Assistant Agronomist
S. L. Brothers, Assistant Agronomist

Agronomy work during the year consisted primarily of assembling,
summarizing, interpreting and bringing to the attention of the county
agents, industry groups and others who work with farm people information
on soil and crop management practices that would be of help to farmers
in maintaining or improving soil fertility and increasing yields and im-
proving the quality of their field crops and pastures.
Major activities included: Assembling for various uses available re-
search data and related information on field crops and pastures; distributing
three revised field crop production guides; making major revisions in the
"Field Crops and Pastures Section" of the Florida County Agent Hand-
book; holding meetings with industry groups to better acquaint them with
research results and Extension recommendations relating to the production
and management of field crops and pastures; holding conferences with
county agents for the presentation of subject matter information and the
discussion of Extension methods; distributing foundation seed of superior
varieties of field crops; preparing and presenting radio programs; furnish-
ing information for news articles; handling office and letter requests for
information; carrying out weed control demonstrations; promoting crop
production contests and crop judging contests among 4-H club members;
supervising the 4-H field crops program and assisting county agents in
the development and execution of county programs of work.
Distribution of Foundation Seed.-The Agronomist solicited applications
and distributed through the county agents' offices, Experiment Station pro-
duced foundation seed of Lee soybeans and Dixie Runner peanuts.
Radio Programs, News Articles and Letter and Office Inquiries.-Eight
radio talks were made on the Florida Farm Hour over Station WRUF and
several tape recordings were made for use by county agents on their local
radio programs.
The project leaders furnished the editors with timely information for
preparation of releases to county agents, newspapers and magazines, and
handled hundreds of requests for information on soils, fertilizers and
field crops.
Demonstrations and Trials.-The Assistant Agronomist, through the
cooperation of several seed corn producers and county agents, supervised
the distribution of samples of recommended hybrids to many 4-H members
who carried out corn projects in north and northwestern Florida, and,
through the cooperation of an agricultural chemical company, supervised
the distribution of chemicals to several county agents in the peanut pro-
ducing area of Florida for use in demonstrations on control of weeds in
peanut fields. He also assisted the citriculturists and Dr. E. O. Burt,
Assistant Agronomist with the Agricui~ural Experiment Station, in carry-
ing out chemical weed control trials in citrus groves in Lake County.
4-H Field Crop Judging Contest.-The project leaders helped stage a
judging contest in connection with the North Florida Fair in which teams
from 17 counties judged four classes of field crops and one class each of
beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine and poultry.
Activities and Results.-The Agronomist spent 83 days in the field, of
which 43 were spent on area or state-wide activities and 40 were spent in







Florida Cooperative Extension


assisting county agents individually. The Assistant Agronomist spent 85
days in the field, 43 on area activities and 42 in working with county agents.
Reports from the county workers show that they spent a total of
9,887 days on crop production. A breakdown of this activity, showing the
number of farmers assisted with various phases of field crop production,
is given below:


Hay and
Grain Forage
Crops Crops


Use of improved
varieties and strains .... 9,076
Use of fertilizers .............. 8,662
Control of injurious
insects .................- .......... 5,615
Control of diseases .......... 2,530
Harvesting, storing,
and curing ............... ... 4,913


Cotton
and Other
Fiber
Crops


Oil and
Sugar
Tobacco Crops


8,626 3,157 2,726 4,260
11,671 3,427 4,426 3,685

5,240 3,503 3,730 2,250
2,626 1,424 2,391 1,133

4,782 1,354 2,637 2,510


Yields per acre are considered to be good indicators of the effectiveness
of Extension programs in crop production. However, yields for a single
year are less reliable indicators than those for longer periods. Comparative
yields of the major field crops for the two five-year periods were as follows:


Crop
Corn, bushel ..............................
Cotton, pounds ........................
Peanuts, pounds ....................
Flue-cured tobacco, pounds -
Oats, bushels .....................


Yield per Acre
1947-1951 1952-1956


13.2
215
772
1,073
19.0


18.1
270
955
1,231
25.4


% Increase During
Last 5-Year Period
37
26
24
15
34


Problem







Annual Report, 1956


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

J. E. Pace, Animal Husbandman
R. L. Reddish, Assistant Animal Industrialist
K. L. Durrance, Assistant Animal Industrialist
Beef Cattle.-Interest in the improvement of the merit of their breed-
ing herds was of primary concern to Florida cattlement during 1956.
Throughout 1956 the Extension Animal Husbandmen stressed the import-
ance of producing quality "two-way" calves that could go either for slaugh-
ter or as feeders, depending on the most profitable outlet.
The Animal Husbandmen assisted breed associations in sponsoring four
feeder cattle sales. Throughout the year it was stressed that the greatest
potential of the cattle industry in Florida lies in the production of high
quality feeder cattle. The production of a quality product necessitates a
better understanding of grades and grading values when buying and sell-
ing. Therefore, considerable effort was placed on this important aspect
of the industry.
The importance of a well-planned feeding program, especially during
the winter months for brood cows and herd replacements, was emphasized.
Poor feeding practices continue to be the primary contributing factor to
Florida's having the lowest calf crop percentage among the states. Silage
making was encouraged to provide reserve feed to be used during periods
of short supply.
In addition to better feeding practices, Florida cattlemen were advised
to have their cows checked for pregnancy at the end of the breeding season
and to have the fertility of their bulls checked prior to the breeding season.
The low calving percentage in Florida herds continues to be the greatest
deterrent to rapid improvement.
There was little change from the previous year in the number of cattle
fed in Florida. Cattle feeders were continuously advised on advanced feed-
ing methods, such as the use of stilbestrol in fattening rations. Also,
since no central markets are operating in the state, breeders were advised
through county agents regarding the most profitable methods of marketing
their cattle.
A system of production testing was initiated with a small number of
cattle producers. This program was limited during 1956 so as to efficiently
correct any problems that would arise and to make the program more
successful in future years.
Two cattlemen's schools were held. They were conducted in cooperation
with the cattlemen's associations of Marion and Lee counties. Also, the
third annual Cattlemen's Institute was held at Lake Placid, Florida. This
institute was of two days' duration and approximately 125 people were
in attendance each day. Other branches of the Extension Service and
certain personnel of the Agricultural Experiment Station contributed to
the success of this event.
The specialist devoted 138 days to beef cattle work in the field.
Swine.-The potential production of swine on Florida farms was stressed.
The importance of a well-planned and balanced feeding program received
considerable attention from the Extension Swine Specialist.
That Florida-produced swine are discriminated against was voiced by
a number of packers at meetings. To alleviate this discrimination a num-
ber of demonstrations were held suggesting a change in type of swine
produced to meet consumer and packer demands. The importance of using
meat type boars, proper selection of herd replacements, and the importance







Florida Cooperative Extension


of adequate record keeping as means of improving the meatiness and
productivity of Florida swine received considerable attention.
In September, in cooperation with the Agricultural Experiment Station,
a one-day Swine Short Course was held at the University of Florida.
A number of swine producers were assisted in making better use of
available feed and in marketing their swine over a period of months rather
than marketing them during the months of depressed prices.
Florida swine producers were continually advised during 1956 of means
of controlling such dread diseases as atrophic rhinitis. Also, they were
kept abreast of new methods of controlling internal parasites.
In 1956 the Extension Swine Specialist spent 142 days in the field
working primarily with county agents.
Sheep.-A few producers in the state during 1956 imported Western
ewes and are crossing them with mutton rams. The Animal Husbandmen
rendered every service possible to these breeders.
At present there are less than 8,000 sheep in Florida and, since only
a small part of the state is adapted to their production, the outlook for a
large increase in numbers is rather dim.
Meats and Marketing.-In 1956 the Meats Specialist made a complete
survey of problems confronting the meat curing and locker plant industry
in Florida. Many problems were encountered from a processing standpoint
and assistance was rendered processors when requested.
In cooperation with home demonstration workers, a number of beef
and pork cutting demonstrations were conducted during the year. The
proper preparation of meats for freezing received considerable attention
at these meetings.
A number of hog slaughtering and pork cutting demonstrations were
conducted for negro farmers. In addition to these demonstrations, a work-
shop on hog slaughtering and pork cutting was held for negro county agents
at the University of Florida.
During 1956 a series of consumer education and preference studies as
related to beef were conducted.

Fig. 4.-Extension Animal Husbandmen stressed not only efficient
production methods but also efficient use of meats at home.







Annual Report, 1956 29

In cooperation with various meat packers and cattlemen's associations,
seven on-foot and carcass grading demonstrations were conducted. Where
possible, packer buyers were asked to assist with these events. Also, to
better give Florida swine producers a thorough understanding of grades
and grading, a number of producers were assisted during the year in
marketing their swine on a grade-yield basis.
The Meats Specialist supervised swine carcass contests in conjunction
with the North Florida Fair and the Florida State Fair.
He maintained very close liaison with the State Board of Health. As-
sistance was rendered in training county sanitarians.
On November 1, 1956, in cooperation with the Agricultural Experiment
Station, a short course was held at the University of Florida for freezer
locker and meat curing plant operators. Certain personnel of the State
Board of Health also contributed materially to the success of this event.
The Meats Specialist spent 140 days in the field working primarily with
county agents.
4-H Club.-County agents were rendered assistance at every opportunity
in making club work one of the more important phases of county work.
The state champion 4-H livestock judging team participated in the national
contest in Chicago. The Florida team finished 12th, with 29 teams com-
peting.
In October the first Florida meats identification and judging contest
for 4-H Club members was held in Ocala. The seventh annual 4-H barrow
and swine breeding show was held in Tallahassee during October also.
Both were very successful. Three very successful steer shows of state-wide
importance were held at Quincy, Ocala and Tampa.
Summaries.-The following table summarizes 4-H animal husbandry
activities for 1956:
Members Members Units Involved in
Project Enrolled Completing Completed Projects
Beef cattle .............................. 1,585 1,092 2,968
Sheep ..................... .............. 13 10 52
Swine .......... ........... 2,419 1,646 4,891
Other livestock ...................... 313 666 589

Farmers assisted in employing proper selection and breeding practices
with beef cattle, 8,348; swine, 6,482; sheep and goats, 131; other live-
stock, 959.
Farmers assisted in employing proper feeding practices with beef cattle,
11,026; swine, 8,165; sheep and goats, 161; other livestock, 1,131.
Farmers assisted in initiating practices for controlling external para-
sites of beef cattle, 8,402; swine, 7,006; sheep and goats, 132; other live-
stock, 821.
Farmers assisted in initiating proper disease and external parasite
control in beef cattle, 9,047; swine, 8,214; sheep and goats, 162; other
livestock, 880.
Farmers assisted in employing more efficient work methods with beef
cattle, 4,322; swine, 3,950; sheep and goats, 93; other livestock, 607.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BEEKEEPING

John D. Haynie, Apiculturist

Florida's honey crop in 1956 is estimated by the Agricultural Marketing
Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, Orlando, at
17,360,000 pounds. Florida is again third in honey production, exceeded
only by California with 29,592,000 pounds and Minnesota with 19,280,000
pounds. The total estimated crop for the United States is 213,719,000 pounds.
Florida produces practically 8% of the total crop of the United States.
The tupelo crop was exceedingly good but slightly affected by cold
weather. The citrus honey crop was very near normal but Ilex and saw
palmetto produced well in a few spots and were practically a failure in
other areas. Black mangrove was a complete failure in nectar production.
In spite of the continued drouth and some cold weather, the 1956 crop of
honey in Florida was two and one-half million pounds above the 1955 crop.
The average colony production was 70 pounds, 15 pounds more than in
1955. Only four states had a state average for colony production higher
than Florida.


Fig. 5.-County Agent and 4-H Club boys install package bees.






Annual Report, 1956


The planting and establishment of a tupelo gum nursery on Lake Talquin
in 1952 by Joe Malone, County Agent, L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester, and
the Extension Apiculturist proved to be good foresight for reforesting oper-
ations presently started on the Jim Woodruff Reservoir, Chattahoochee.
It gave the Tupelo District Beekeepers' Association quite a program to back
up and sponsor from their district level.
This year the 4-H Club camp apiary buildings at Timpoochee and Clover-
leaf were completed and colonies established. Some honey was produced
at the new camp apiaries and 4-H Club members were served all the honey
they wanted three times a day while at camp. Much training took place
with agents, leaders and camp caretakers in establishing the camp apiaries.
Most of those now working with the camp apiaries were most fearful of
bees at first but gained confidence with experience. They are now progress-
ing in the art and skill of honey production.
The Extension Apiculturist was appointed regional chairman by C. D.
Floyd, American Beekeepers' Federation, St. Paul, Minnesota, for the 1956
Honey Promotional Campaign in the Southeastern States. A chairman
was appointed in each of the Southeastern States. The State Chairman
in each case selected around one-half dozen beekeepers to put on window
displays, exhibits of honey and bees during National Honey Week the last
week in October. A kit of posters and information on honey was mailed
all beekeepers participating in the honey and bee exhibits. The Extension
Apiculturist attended the American Beekeepers' Federation Meeting in
Biloxi in January 1956. Reports and pictures were sent to American
Beekeepers' Federation to be judged for trophies awarded.
In Florida honey was promoted also during the week of "Florida Products
Festival." General information on bees and honey was sent County Agents,
Home Agents, newspapers and radio stations. Wherever Florida products
appeared for sale a Florida Products Festival label was attached. There
was an increase of several million dollars in sales at this time over sales
for the same period a year ago. The Florida State Advertising Commission,
Tallahassee, handles overall promotion of Florida products, with many
other organizations and agencies cooperating.
A Honey-Electric-Insect short-course was held for two days in May at
4-H Club Camp McQuarrie, Ocala National Forest. The Extension Api-
culturist, Rural Electrical Specialist and Extension Entomologist gave lec-
tures and demonstrations and showed films. Seventy 4-H Club boys, leaders
and county agents attended.
During the four-day 4-H Club Short Course at the University of Florida
in June instruction on bees was given to 200 boys.
The Extension Apiculturist made 195 personal service visits in the field
on beekeeping during 1956.
Twenty-nine meetings were assisted and promoted by the Extension
Apiculturist in the field for beekeepers, schools and civic organizations;
489 letters were written furnishing personal service; and 700 beekeepers
were sent 6 newsletters during the year.
Two hundred and seventy-two 4-H Club members enrolled in beekeeping
in 53 counties and 209 completed projects in 48 counties. They had 189
colonies in completed projects.
Agents in 60 counties assisted 3,652 beekeepers and others with problems
in the care of bees, honey and honey products.






Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK

W. W. Brown, State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Grant M. Godwin, Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Ben H. Floyd, Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent

This has been another banner year for 4-H Club work in Florida. This
has been demonstrated through increased 4-H participation in club meet-
ings, community activities, more productive projects, and method and result
demonstrations. Also there has been better participation in special 4-H
Club events, such as the State Boys' 4-H Short Course, summer camps,
state-wide encampments, and 4-H shows and fairs.
Division of the state into 10 4-H districts has continued to improve
4-H Club work. The 10 district meetings provided a way to develop 4-H
programs based on the joint planning of the administrative, specialist and
county staffs.
County participation in the state and national 4-H awards programs
has been gratifying this year. Numbers also were larger, with 15,466
white and negro 4-H Club boys enrolled during 1956, as compared with
14,411 in 1955. Members satisfactorily completed 2.9 projects per member.
4-H Camps.-There were 4,192 4-H Club boys and girls who attended the
five state 4-H Club camps for one week in the summer of 1956. These state
camps are located at permanent sites in Okaloosa, Madison, Marion, Lake
and Highlands counties. Legislative appropriations made possible needed
improvements in camp buildings and recreational facilities at four of these.
Camp Cloverleaf in Highlands County, which has been under construction
since 1949, was completed in 1956.
In addition to 4-H use, 3,223 adults attended institutes in citrus, poultry,
and cattle at three of these state 4-H camps. This gives a grand total of
7,415 different 4-H members and adults who enjoyed the educational and
recreational facilities of 4-H camps during the 1956 camping season.
Short Courses.-The 37th Annual Boys' 4-H Short Course was held on
the campus of the University of Florida in June. The purpose was to pro-
vide outstanding 4-H Club boys from counties throughout the state with a
week of training and inspiration at their land grant college.
The 1956 Short Course was attended by 361 4-H boys from 56 counties.
The boys were selected on the basis of their 4-H Club work. Two delegates
from each county attended State 4-H Council meetings during short
course. Four state-wide special 4-H events were held in conjunction with
this Short Course. They were (1) the State Dairy Judg ng Contest, (2)
the State Tractor Operators' Contest, (3) the State Public Speaking Con-
test, and (4) the State Reading Lamp Building Contest.
The Annual Negro 4-H Short Course was held at Florida A & M Uni-
versity, Tallahassee, the first week in June.
Livestock Judging.-The State 4-H Club staff arranged a series of five
area livestock judging schools throughout the state for the purpose of
providing timely instruction in basic and current livestock judging tech-
niques. Over 400 Extension workers and 4-H members participated in
these training schools. Thirty-nine trained county teams participated in
the State 4-H Livestock Judging Contest at the Florida State Fair in Tampa.
Wildlife Camp.-The Annual 4-H Wildlife Camp was held at Camp Mc-
Quarrie during the week of July 23-29. There were 20 counties represented;
a total of 94 4-H Club members, adult leaders, and Extension agents at-
tended. The purpose of this camp was to create an appreciation on the
part of our rural youth for wildlife and its importance and to instill in







Annual Report, 1956


them a strong desire for its conservation and preservation. Those in at-
tendance received organized instruction in game, forest and fresh water
fish management. A special course in gun safety was featured.
Tractor Program.-For the past 11 years special clinics on tractor care
have been held to provide training for older 4-H Club members, interested
adult leaders and county agents. These clinics provide training in tractor
care and instruction in how to conduct 4-H tractor programs in local 4-H
Clubs. This year two state 4-H tractor clinics were held, one at Camp
Cloverleaf August 13-16 and one at the University of Florida August 20-22.
There were 94 4-H Club junior leaders, adult 4-H Club leaders and Exten-
sion agents representing 26 counties in attendance.
4-H Activities and Projects.-The major 4-H Club activities and agri-
cultural projects in which 4-H members-both white and negro-receive
training and experience under the direction of county Extension workers
throughout the state are summarized below:
Members (boys and girls) participating by activities: Judging, 10,541;
giving demonstrations, 15,992; group recreation leadership, 5,813; music
appreciation, 4,395; money management (thirft), 8,503; farm and home
safety, 14,834; citizenship, 15,399; personality improvement, 15,747; wild-
life and nature study, 763; forestry, 6,077; entomology, 481; beautification
of home grounds, 4,496; health, nursing and first aid, 9,633; junior leader-
ship, 1,093; camping, 5,259; community activities (improved school grounds,
conducting achievement programs and fairs), 1,219.
Scope of 4-H projects carried by boys and girls: Corn, 3,158 acres;
peanuts, 814 acres; soybeans, field peas, and other legumes, 485 acres;
potatoes, Irish and sweet, 572 acres; cotton, 266 acres; tobacco, 140 acres;
vegetable growing, 2,930 acres; fruits, 1,232 acres; range and pasture,
3,843 acres; other crops, 409 acres; soil and water conservation and manage-
ment, 4,797 acres; forestry, 83,661 acres; poultry (including turkeys),
175,573 birds; dairy cattle, 2,205 animals; beef cattle, 2,968 animals; swine,
4,891 animals; other livestock, 589 animals; bees, 189 colonies; tractor
program, 598 tractors; electricity, 2,298 articles.
The state 4-H staff has been actively involved in numerous county,
district and state 4-H activities. During 1956 assistance was given to
county Extension workers in carrying out over 90 special events.

Fig. 6.-The State Council of boys' 4-H Club Work, whose officers are shown
here, gave valuable assistance to the 4-H program.







34 Florida Cooperative Extension

4-H Awards Programs and Other Recognition.-There were 27 state and
national awards programs available for Florida 4-H members in 1956.
These included free trips to the National 4-H Club Camp and Congress,
gold watches, cash awards, trophies, county medals and scholarships. This
year 11 champion 4-H boys attended the National 4-H Club Congress in
Chicago.
The trip to the National 4-H Camp in Washington, D. C., is considered
to be the highest award for outstanding leadership and achievement in 4-H
Club work. Annually, two 4-H boys are awarded this trip, while the citizen-
ship winner receives a trip to the Danforth Leadership Camp in Shelby,
Michigan.
State and local donors make possible many additional awards to stimu-
late interest in 4-H projects and club work.







Annual Report, 1956


CITRICULTURE AND MINOR FRUITS

Fred P. Lawrence, Citriculturist
Jack T. McCown, Assistant Horticulturist

The citrus crop of 134,000,000 boxes was the second highest production
on record. Processors utilized 63 percent of the crop, with the remaining
37 percent moving through fresh fruit channels. The processors utilized
85,000,000 boxes of raw fruit, the largest amount on record. While utiliz-
ing 65,000,000 boxes of oranges the processors returned to the grower an
average on-tree return of $1.82 per box. This amount was 40 cents per
box more than last year's average. This record fruit utilization and grower
return indicates that consumer acceptance for processed oranges was much
better than anticipated.
Citrus plantings in Florida now total approximately 625,300 acres.
This acreage provided the state's economy in 1956 an income of over $244,-
000,000 derived from the sale of citrus fruits evaluated at packinghouse
door levels. This was an increase of $51,000,000 over the previous year.
In addition to the Citriculturist and Assistant Horticulturist, the Ex-
tension Marketing Specialist and the Experiment Station Economist do
Extension work in the field of citrus.
Citrus Advisory Committee.-The objective of this committee is two-
fold: First, to assist county agents to become more thoroughly trained
in citrus production, and secondly, to promote a dynamic Extension program
in the citrus industry. The Advisory Committee held two meetings during

Fig. 7.-The Extension Citriculturist (hand on tree) stages a citrus
grafting demonstration.
























c-* Kyt 4








Florida Cooperative Extension


the year, concentrating their efforts on revising their long-range planning
program to keep stride with the over-all Extension program projection.
4-H Club Work.-Increased activity by the Citrus Specialist, county and
assistant county agents resulted in 940 club members from 43 counties
enrolling in citrus projects. Of these, 574 members from 41 counties com-
pleted 12,232 projects.
For the first time, a 4-H Junior Citrus Institute was held for 4-H Club
boys completing the best citrus projects in their respective counties. The
institute provided specific training by industry men and Extension special-
ists in citrus nursery management, citrus production and citrus marketing,
which was not available to club members in the past.
Agent Training.-Major emphasis was placed on providing adequate
in-service citrus training for each agent in citrus-producing counties by
the citrus specialist staff. Three one-day training meetings were held
providing the agents instruction by classroom lectures and grove observa-
tion. Specific information, including latest research, production practices,
developing program projection and ways to effectively develop farm plan-
ning, was provided on numerous occasions throughout the year. In addi-
tion, 24 agents completed a graduate citrus production course at the Uni-
versity of Florida.
Institutes.-Through the medium of four citrus institutes, one citrus-
subtropical institute and one lime-avocado institute the Extension Service
was able to keep Florida growers well posted and abreast of current re-
search. More than 1,645 growers attended the institutes, which varied in
length from one day to a week.
Schools and Clinics.-This year we were able to conduct four citrus
schools. The schools, varying in length from five to eight weeks, met
weekly for a two-hour class.
Over 1,200 people attended eight clinics which were held throughout
the state during the year. By attending the clinics, home owners were
able to solve many problems concerning plant deficiencies and insect and
disease damage, as well as receiving other valuable information.
Demonstrations and Tours.-The result demonstration followed by a
tour is an effective Extension teaching method. Realizing the value of
good result demonstrations, this office assisted with 40 demonstrations and
12 tours in citrus producing counties. In addition to tours of demonstra-
tions, grower tours were held at federal and state experiment stations.
Demonstrations were based o6n research obtained from the experiment
stations and accepted grower practices.







Annual Report, 1956


DAIRY HUSBANDRY

C. W. Reaves, Dairy Husbandman
T. W. Sparks, Assistant Dairy Husbandman

The major dairy extension programs during the year were those set
out in 1947, namely dairy herd improvement association production testing
and culling, better nutrition of dairy herds, production of more pasture and
forages, a breeding program for raising herd replacements, 4-H dairy work,
and cooperation in dairy cattle breed association programs. Improved
dairy methods are indicated by an increase of cows on dairy herd improve-
ment association (DHIA) test from approximately 1,200 in 1947 to 15,605
in November 1956, more herds feeding according to production, an approxi-
mately doubled acreage of improved pasture, a quadrupled tonnage of
silage stored, the development of organized artificial breeding with 35,000
dairy cows artificially bred to high production bulls in 1956, a 58 percent
increase in enrollment in 4-H dairy projects, and cooperative work with
four state purebred dairy cattle breed clubs.
The state's production of milk for the five-year period 1951-55 exceeded
the 1941-45 period by 80 percent, according to a USDA Agricultural Market-
ing Service release. The next highest percentage increase in milk pro-
duction for the 10-year period was made by Maryland with 39 percent.
The average production of milk per cow in Florida was 3,100 pounds in
1940, 4,200 in 1950, and 4,900 in 1955. This 58 percent increase in produc-
tion per cow indicates improvement in dairy efficiency and management
practices for the state as a whole.
1955-56 DHIA Results.-Nine dairy herd improvement associations with
11 DHIA supervisors operated in 28 counties. The number of cows in-
creased from 11,483 in 1955 to 15,605 in 1956. All but one of the associations
increased in size and one new association was organized during the year.
The DHIA supervisors visit each member's herd monthly, get milk weights
and samples for butterfat testing, and secure the amounts and prices of
feeds fed. They compute a complete record of production and feed cost.
The yearly summary of all herds finishing a year's test showed an
average production of 6,725 pounds milk, 4.5 percent test, and 303 pounds
of butterfat per cow. Production and income above feed costs were slightly
higher than the previous year, despite the addition of new herds in the
program which tends to hold down the average. The production per cow
in DHIA herds exceeded the average Florida milk cow's production by
37 percent in milk and 47 percent in pounds butterfat.
The Orange County DHIA showed the remarkable increase of 1,031
pounds in milk production per cow in the seven years it has operated.
This is an average increase of 120 gallons milk per year per cow in the
association.
New Dairy Record Program Started.-A new dairy herd record keeping
system was added to the state and national cooperative dairy herd improve-
ment program in the fall of 1956. Three counties started the program
with seven herds consisting of 1,225 cows. The owners will weigh the
milk and turn the weights into the county agent's office. A person selected
to do the record work in each county will compute the month's and total-
to-date milk records of the individual cows and the herd totals for milk,
value of product and feed costs. The records are not as complete as DHIA
records, but the new system offers a simple, economical method of keeping
the minimum records of herds not securing DHIA service. Eleven counties







Florida Cooperative Extension


have enrolled herds and made the necessary arrangements for carrying
out the program in 1957.
Advanced Registry and Herd Improvement Registry Testing.-The
Extension Dairyman served as State Superintendent of Official Testing.
Twenty-one purebred herds representing all five of the major dairy breeds
tested a total of 2,139 cows. Many herd owners combined the official test
of their breed association with DHIA test.
Better Dairy Replacements Through Breeding.-The production testing
programs find the best sires and breeding stock. The breeding and better
sire work was designed to spread the use of the top production bulls. Over
35,000 dairy cows were bred artificially during the fiscal year, of which
over 30,000 were bred to production-proved bulls rating in the top 2
percent of all dairy sires proved in the national DHIA system.
Assistance was given individual dairymen in finding desirably bred
bulls for use in their own herds as requested. Forty bulls were proved
in DHIA herds during the year.
Pasture, Feed Production and Dairy Management.-Studies were made
on DHIA herds for use as demonstrations of the economy of the production
of a larger percentage of the feed supply of Florida dairy herds in the
form of pasture and silage or other home-grown feed crops. Most DHIA
herds have reached the first goal of 35 percent and some exceeded 50
percent, with a lowered cost of milk production. The Florida dairy pasture
contest, sponsored by the Florida Dairy Association and directed by the
Agricultural Extension Service, served to point up excellent pasture and
forage programs on many farms. The outstanding winners were M. A.
Schack of Greenwood on his over-all program and F. E. Willis of Talla-
hassee on the most improvement.
The feeding analysis of the large Duval DHIA showed that only 59
percent of the herds' feed supplies had come from concentrates, with the
remaining 41 percent being provided by pasture, hay and silage.
The efficient dairy production program selected county, district and
state winners based on a score card of improved practices and efficiency.

Fig. 8.-High-producing cows graze Starr millet on farm of M. A. Schack,
winner of the 1955-56 Florida dairy pasture and forage contest.







Annual Report, 1956


County agents' reports showed a total of 6,927 farmers-including family
cow owners and 4-H members-assisted in feeding, 5,023 in controlling
external parasites, and 5,381 in controlling diseases and internal parasites.
4-H Dairy Work.-A total of 1,720 boys and girls enrolled in 4-H dairy
projects, of which 1,323 (77%) completed. It was an increase of 58 per-
cent in enrollment and 98 percent in completions since 1947. The 1,323
members who completed owned 2,205 project animals. Four production
projects, nine district shows and a state 4-H dairy show, judging contests,
and other events provided valuable training and experience in an important
farm enterprise. In addition it developed pride in ownership, taught re-
sponsibility and helped develop more valuable young men.
Cooperative Work with Other Groups.-Cooperative work was carried
out with the state purebred dairy cattle associations in sales, judging
schools, provision of suitable 4-H project animals, and other 4-H activities.
The Florida Dairy Association and National Dairy Products Corporation
and Sears, Roebuck Foundation sponsored various dairy projects. The
State Department of Agriculture, Florida Times-Union, Tampa and Jack-
sonville chambers of commerce and other civic groups, firms and individuals
assisted in work of mutual interest. Assistance also was given and re-
ceived from the state dairy supervisors, the vocational agriculture depart-
ment and other state and federal agencies.
Special Activities.-The Extension Dairyman served on the Board of
Directors of the Southern Section of the American Dairy Science Association
and on the Extension Teaching Methods Committee of the national asso-
ciation. He assisted with the Georgia State DHIA Supervisors' Conference
and judged the Santiago, Cuba, dairy cattle show.







Florida Cooperative Extension


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
M. H. Sharpe, Assistant Editor
G. F. Schotten, Assistant Editor

Loss of three members of the staff during 1956 points up the difficulties
being encountered in finding and keeping trained editorial workers. Only
one staff vacancy exists at the end of the year, however, and it will be
filled soon. Since the Agriculture Library moved into Dan McCarty Hall
this fall there has been some additional space available for the Editorial
Department.

NEWS STORIES AND FARM PAPER ARTICLES
Newspapers and farm journals continued to use generously of both
straight news and hints articles released from the Agricultural Extension
Service. The weekly clipsheet, AGRICULTURAL NEWS SERVICE, carry-
ing eight to 13 separate stories each week, is sent to weekly newspapers
and those dailies requesting it, radio stations, farm papers, county and
home demonstration agents, vocational agriculture teachers and other deal-
ing with groups of farm people. It serves the Agricultural Experiment
Station and State Plant Board also, as well as carrying some releases from
the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
We continued to make frequent releases over the wire services to daily
papers and occasionally sent stories direct to one or more papers.
From two to three "skeleton" stories, to be filled in with the name of
the county agent, were sent to county agents each week, as for the past
few years. These seem to have served a very useful purpose for the agents,
making it easy for them to release "suggestion" type materials to their
papers.
County and home demonstration agents in 66 counties report having
made 14,280 news'releases to their newspapers during the year.
Materials from Extension Editors printed by farm papers and related
journals continues in good volume also. Of materials written by Extension
Editors during 1956, five farm papers and magazines printed in Florida
carried nine stories totaling 168 column inches of space; two Southern
journals carried seven articles for 125 column inches; and four national
farm magazines printed six articles for 126 column inches. The grand
totals are 11 magazines, 22 articles and 419 column inches of space.

RADIO AND TELEVISION

Radio work continued to occupy a major portion of editorial time.
Television production was put on a much more satisfactory basis during
the year.
The Florida Farm Hour over University Station WRUF was 30 minutes
in length five days a week and 15 minutes Saturday until May 21, when
it was cut to 15 minutes six days a week. Occasionally it was omitted
entirely for other special broadcasts.
We staged 306 broadcasts of this program, which included 677 separate
talks or interviews. Regular features by members of the Editorial staff
accounted for 307 of these. Features and number of broadcasts included
farm news highlights 115, home economics notes 50, the farm question
box 48, farm news and views 46 and the editorial of the week 48.







Annual Report, 1956


In addition, Agricultural Experiment Station workers made 169 talks,
Extension workers not on the Editorial staff 135, College of Agriculture
faculty members 17, and others 49. The miscellaneous features included
speakers from the State Plant Board, State Soil Conservation Board, general
University faculty, Future Farmers of America, Agricultural Stabilization
and Conservation Committee, an electric cooperative, home demonstration
and 4-H Club members, Soil Conservation Service, Farmers' Home Admin-
istration, and materials from the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Remote
control broadcasts were made from the Lake County Fair at Eustis and
from an agronomy field day program on the Experiment Station farm.
Farm Flashes, from five to seven minutes each, were sent five days a
week to 52 Florida radio stations and a bi-weekly roundup of farm news
to 35. We sent a five-minute Florida farm review each week to the Asso-
ciated Press for distribution over its teletype system to member stations.
Stations which sent tapes were given taped features, some regularly
and others sporadically. For 10 stations we cut 93 tapes which included
122 by Extension workers, 76 by Experiment Station staff members, seven
by College of Agriculture faculty and six others.
The Extension Editor appeared once on the National Farm and Home
Hour.
County and home demonstration agents in 45 counties reported making
3,490 radio talks.
We secured a sound camera during the year and began to film television
shows, thus making it unnecessary to stage live shows as frequently as
formerly. We staged 18 live shows and presented eight on film, each
about 14 minutes in length. One live show was presented on three different
stations, the filmed one on from one to nine stations. Both live and filmed
shows totaled 50 showings.
In addition, a farm program director from one station brought film to
us from time to time and we filmed 13 shows for him. His features ranged
from 2 to 7/2 minutes.
County and home demonstration agents in 30 counties reported doing
322 television shows.

PUBLISHED MATERIALS
Fewer expensive bulletins and more circulars, many of them small enough
to be inserted in envelopes with letters, were printed during the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1956. We printed 45,000 copies of two bulletins that totaled
56 pages and 162,000 copies of 12 circulars that totaled 120 pages. Three
circulars were reprinted. Following is a list of the bulletins and circulars:

Pages Edition
Bul. 162 Ornamental Hedges for Florida ................................ 36 30,000
Bul. 163 Jellies, Jams and Preserves .......................... ........ 20 15,000
Circ. 138 Goodbye, Mr. Roach ................................................. 8 25,000
Circ. 139 Control of Insects and Diseases of Dooryard
Citrus Trees ................................. ..................... 8 15,000
Circ. 140 Some Questions and Answers on Vegetable
Pesticide Tolerances ............................................ 8 12,000
Circ. 141 Propagation of Ornamental Plants by Layering.. 8 20,000
Circ. 142 Strawberry Production Guide ............................... 6 10,000
Circ. 143 Cotton Production Guide ........................................ 6 7,500
Circ. 144 Field Corn Production Guide ................................... 8 15,000
Circ. 145 Peanut Production Guide ........................................ 6 7,500
Circ. 146 Chemical Weed Control in Peanut Fields ........... 8 10,000
Circ. 147 Controlling Mango Insect Pests ......................... 16 15,000







Florida Cooperative Extension


Circ. 148 Home Propagating Units ......................... ............. 4 10,000
Circ. 149 Terrarium s ............................. ............. ..-..-..- ..... 4 15,000
Circ. 96R Watermelon Production Guide (reprinted) .......... 6 7,500
Circ. 109R Eggplant Production Guide (reprinted) ............ 4 7,500
Circ. 113 An Electric Chick Brooder (reprinted) ................. 4 10,000
Single copies of all new publications were sent to libraries, specialists
and county and home demonstration agents. Afterwards they were dis-
tributed only on request and largely through county and home demonstra-
tion agents.
Miscellaneous materials and supplies printed included the final report
of the Florida National Egg-Laying Test for 1954-55, programs for the
Boys' 4-H Short Course, the annual Extension Conference, and poultry and
cattlemen's institutes, six record books for use by 4-H Club members in
various projects, a 4-H Vegetable Garden Handbook, 4-H beef and swine
breeding judging cards, letterheads, window cards, gummed labels and
certificates.
The Extension Editor served again as distribution control officer for
U. S. Department of Agriculture publications to Extension workers and
county and home demonstration agents in 66 counties reported distributing
616,547 state and federal publications.

VISUAL AIDS AND MISCELLANEOUS
With three still cameras and two motion picture cameras, we now are
able to give satisfactory photographic service in practically any field and
have a large supply of still pictures. We are slowly building a file of
colored slides and are aiding specialists to obtain files of their own. We
maintain a large number of slide throwers, motion picture projectors,
public address systems and other equipment used by staff members and
agents.
Extension Editors held two training sessions for 4-H Club members in
two counties, training 11 reporters.
The Extension Editor assisted in entertaining members of the Ameri-
can Agricultural Editors' Association from all parts of the United States
and one from Canada for four days in April, when they visited peninsular
Florida.
All Editors devote approximately half of their time to work for the
Agricultural Experiment Station, by whom they are jointly employed.







Annual Report, 1956


ENTOMOLOGY

James E. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist

The principal features of the Extension program in entomology included
(1) Mediterranean fruit fly work, (2) publications, (3) 4-H entomology
program, (4) training meetings, (5) radio talks, TV programs and news-
paper stories, and (6) work with other specialists.
Mediterranean Fruit Fly.-After the Medfly was found in Miami on
April 13, 1956, the Extension Entomologist spent a considerable portion
of his time cooperating with the Florida State Plant Board and USDA in
this program. Information on the description, life history and habits of
the fly and copies of various regulations and procedures were obtained
and sent to county Extension workers and many other interested people
as rapidly as was practical.
Twenty sets of 2 x 2 color slides of the Medfly and several phases of
the program were obtained and made available to agents in citrus counties
to be used in their educational program.
The Extension Entomologist made several talks to citrus institutes,
civic clubs and grower meetings, on the Medfly program. The talks in-
cluded the Florida Mango Forum, Citrus Institute at Camp McQuarrie,
Citrus and Sub-Tropical Fruits Institute, Indian River Citrus Seminar,
Agricultural Extension Workers Annual Conference and the Annual Con-
ference of Veterans and Vocational Agriculture Teachers.
Publications.-The Extension Entomologist cooperated in the prepara-
tion of Circulars 152, Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide, and 159,
Vegetable Pesticide Tolerance Guide. Several mimeographs were prepared
and distributed. Among these were: Major Mites of Citrus and Their
Control and Suggestions for Making Counts, Control of Some Insects and
Mites of Ornamnetal Plants (revised) and Insects and Mites of Citrus and
Their Control.
4-H Entomology.-Interest in the 4-H entomology project is increasing.
Ninety-one members in 17 counties completed projects in 1954. In 1955
there were 198 completions in 28 counties. During 1956 the number in-
creased to 252 in 32 counties.
Jimmy Gray, Suwannee County, won first place in the national 4-H
entomology awards program, but entered the Navy before 4-H Congress
met in Chicago. The alternate Richard Sears, Lake County, was awarded
the trip to Chicago.
The 4-H entomology program was discussed at the Girls' State 4-H
Short Course at Florida State University and at the Honey-Electric-Ento-
mology Short Course at Camp McQuarrie.
Training Meetings.-Insect identification, injury and control were dis-
cussed at three area agents' training meetings in field crops, two in vege-
table crops, two in citrus, and four in ornamental horticulture.
Entomology was taught at three ornamental horticulture schools, two
citrus schools, and the Nurserymen and Growers' Short Course at the
University which had over 200 registrants.
Radio, TV and Newspapers.-The Editorial Department, in cooperation
with the Extension Entomologist, prepared seven timely stories on insect
control to be used by county agents in local newspapers.
Two radio talks were given at the University and two TV programs
staged. One of these latter was made on film and sent to several TV







44 Florida Cooperative Extension

stations in the state. Two radio tapes were made with the Editorial De-
partment and two with county agents.
Other Activities.-The Extension Entomologist worked with the Florida
State Plant Board and USDA on problems of mutual interest, including
sweetpotato weevil control and quarantine. He worked with the College
Entomology Department in making 2 x 2 color slides. Over 400 color
slides have been made and obtained for use by Extension specialists and
county workers.







Annual Report, 1956


FARM AND HOME DEVELOPMENT

Susan Christian, Farm and Home Development Specialist
Clyde Murphree, Farm and Home Development Specialist

The use of the farm and home development approach was expanded
considerably. According to reports of county personnel, the farm and
home development method was employed with a total of 416 families
during the year. This represents an approximate increase of 230 families
over 1955.
The farm families involved included 89 with which the Extension Service
had had little or no contact in the past. Families assisted just getting
started in farming numbered 45. Of the total, agents classified 188 as
low income and 103 as part-time farmers.
Individual contacts only were used for assisting 273 of the families
develop operating plans and a combination of individual and group contacts
were used with 138. The remaining 5 families were contacted exclusively
in groups. Approximately this same ratio was used in assisting families
put their plans into action.
Determining long-time goals was a part of the planning process with
340 of the families and 287 families were assisted in determining short-
time goals.
The development of a written plan was a part of the Farm and Home
Development process with 256 families. However, 334 families were as-
sisted in analyzing their resources in an effort to more effectively formulate
solutions for farm and home problems. The plans of 278 families were
reviewed and revised at the end of the year.
A total of 176 families had 4-H Club members whose project activities
directly supported the farm and home plan.
A county committee to give guidance to farm and home development
work was used in six counties. These counties were originally selected for
intensive work in 1954 and committees were created for this purpose at
the time.
Training activities during the year were concentrated on subject matter
specialists and negro personnel.
Each of the production specialists on the Gainesville staff was requested
to prepare a typical hypothetical farming operation involving his subject
matter field. The operation included a detailed summary of receipts and
expenses. In addition, various opportunities were outlined for increasing
the income of the operation. Each of these changes was expressed in
terms of effect on receipts and expenses.
The Tallahassee staff prepared material representing a typical farm
family. The goals of the family and problems related to the achievement
of goals were enumerated. Possible solutions to each of the problems were
explored by appropriate members of the subject matter staff.
A part of this material was presented and discussed at a joint staff
meeting attended by all subject matter specialists. It is felt that the
entire staff gained a considerable amount of understanding of the farm and
home development method.
The negro training included the distribution of a questionnaire to all
county personnel designed to determine their progress in farm and home
development. At the negro annual agents conference a discussion session
was conducted on the basis of the assembled information. Following this
conference project leaders individually spent a day each in training the
team of negro district agents.






46 Florida Cooperative Extension

The training of the white county personnel was largely limited to a
series of topics presented during the annual agents conference and con-
tacts of the project leaders with individuals during the year.
A preliminary evaluation of farm and home development work outside
the pilot counties during the year indicated the need for a partial planning
form. Such a form was devised in the belief that partial planning is a
logical step between informal planning practiced by most families and the
detailed planning procedure outlined for use in the pilot counties.
The problem of adapting the farm and home development approach to
central and southern Florida conditions has been recognized from the out-
set. As the year progressed it was apparent that in some counties the
personnel were encourtering problems for which a solution was not readily
available. The basic problem of this area appears to be complications
arising from the frequent physical separation of the farm and home.
Since farm and home development strongly emphasizes the management
aspects of farming and homemaking, a close working relationship with the
Department of Home Economics is desirable. In order to foster this re-
lationship, the presentation of a series of topics dealing with the work
of the Agricultural Extension Service was arranged for the Agricultural
Economics Seminar. A tangible result apparent at this time is the ex-
pressed interest of a graduate student in selecting a phase of 4-H Club
work for research as a thesis project.







Annual Report, 1956


FARM AND HOME SAFETY

A. M. Pettis, Safety Leader
Frances C. Cannon, Safety Leader

A survey was conducted to learn agents' needs and literature concerning
safety was obtained for them. A safety record book and safety plays were
distributed. Safety exhibits were prepared to teach 4-H members and
adults. At two tractor clinics and at a 4-H camp the project leaders taught
230 4-H members and leaders about safety.
Each week during the summer approximately 500 4-H boys and girls
were taught water safety and highway safety at the 4-H camps. At white
and negro wildlife camps 125 agents and 4-H boys received training con-
cerning safety in the woods, safety in the water, safety with firearms,
and safety with shop tools.
County home demonstration agents devoted 648 days to safety work
this year, compared to 554 days in 1955. Safety information was given
to the people largely through radio, news articles, exhibits, circular letters,
council meetings and 4-H Camp.
There were 4,207 home demonstration programs on safety and fire pre-
vention. Some of these subjects were preparing houses for vacation ab-
sences, family fire drills, home responsibility and protection in case of
an emergency, Christmas safety, care of medicine cabinets, and first aid
in the home.
Safety education was emphasized also in some 4-H Club meetings.
Orange County 4-H Club members were given demonstrations on making
and using safe toys, while in Suwannee County artificial respiration was
demonstrated to, and practiced by, all 4-H Club members.
In Palm Beach County three 4-H Clubs made a survey of their schools
and were instrumental in getting several sidewalks repaired and other
hazards removed. In another county two 4-H Club girls wrote and had
their club stage a safety skit at county council meeting, Farm Bureau meet-
ing and county commissioners' luncheon.
At each 4-H Club camp a safety education trooper with the Florida
Highway Patrol came into camp and spent a morning discussing with the
boys and girls, safety on the streets-walking, riding bicycles and motor
scooters, and driving a car.
Safety exhibits were made and displayed at youth fairs, county fairs,
achievement day, in downtown store windows, and as floats in parades.
The national sponsor of the 4-H safety program is General Motors
and the state winner this year was Willodean Burden of Lake County,
who received a free trip to National 4-H Congress in Chicago.
Negro state winner of the $50 savings bond was Alphonso Sparks of
Gadsden County.
During 1956, 14,834 4-H members in 59 counties received training in
safety.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM FORESTRY

L. T. Nieland, Forester
A. S. Jensen, Assistant Forester

The long-time objectives of the Extension educational program for
farm forestry were consistently promoted during the year. Principal
features of the program were: (1) forest fire prevention, (2) forest plant-
ing, (3) timber marketing, (4) forest management, (5) insect and disease
prevention and control, (6) game and wildlife restoration, and (7) developing
interest in forestry among rural young people through 4-H Clubs and
other youth groups.
As opportunity afforded, the work was coordinated with programs of
other agencies, both public and private, that are in a position to advance
the objectives of the Extension program. Among these were the Florida
Forest Service, U. S. Forest Service, Soil Conservation Service, boards of
county commissioners, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Fish and Wildlife
Service, lumber companies, American Turpentine Farmers' Association,
Florida Bankers' Association, Florida Cattlemen's Association and the
several Florida pulp and paper mills.

FOREST FIRE PREVENTION
Fire in Florida's forests, large or small, still presents one of the main
hindrances to profitable forestry. This was another drouth year in most
of Florida and hundreds of thousands of acres of valuable young pine
forests were destroyed. Some fires were of an incendiary nature but most
resulted from carelessness. Forest owners have the desire to protect their
timber front fire, but during severe drouth years when strong winds blow
they do not yet have the means to stop fires until they get out of hand.
One fire burned a strip almost five miles wide and 35 miles long through
some of the state's choicest pine timber.
To provide the means for successful forest fire protection, the Exten-
sion Forester continued his 15-year campaign for protecting forest land by
establishing 100-foot-wide improved pasture fire guards around forest
boundaries. The forest interior is then divided into suitably sized blocks
of timber, each surrounded by other 100-foot-wide grazing strip. These
will keep an interior fire from getting out of hand if one should get started.
Demonstrations in this type of forest fire protection have proven successful
wherever established. The idea has been adopted in parts of Georgia and
North Carolina also with marked success.
The establishment and maintenance of game and other desirable forms
of wildlife has been added from the beginning. Therefore, it has been
called the Florida Timber-Grazing-Game Program. Although technicians
have been relatively slow to adopt this method of fire protection, forest
landowners like it and more are adopting the program each year. It is
believed to be the most successful, economical, practical, simple and con-
structive multiple and integrated use of forest land yet devised.
During the year, 4,965 farmers in 60 counties were encouraged and
assisted, chiefly through the efforts of Florida's county agents, in safe-
guarding their timber from fire.

FOREST PLANTINGS
Demonstration plantings of forest trees again constituted one of the
big features of the Extension farm forestry program. There does not seem







Annual Report, 1956


to be a better way to develop needed farmer interest in practicing farm
forestry than through the medium of a newly planted forest. It is a
permanent demonstration which grows more effective with each passing
year.
Slash Pine Plantings.-Plantings of slash pine, Florida's most important
native forest tree, received major attention again in 1956. County agents
in 40 counties distributed 16,207,990 slash pine seedlings to 2,519 farmers
and other owners of small forests. This is over 41 million more pine
seedlings than were distributed in 1955, the best previous year. Also,
638 more farmers were furnished seedlings in 1956 than during the best
past year. These seedlings planted 23,835 acres of new farm forest.
Of the total, 354,350 slash pine seedlings were distributed by county
agents to 4-H and FFA members for demonstration plantings. Also,
5,033,640 free seedlings were made available to county agents for distribu-
tion by a cooperative arrangement between Extension and 12 different
public-spirited wood-using industries. Such a cooperative agreement be-
tween Extension and industry has been in effect during the past 17 years,
and has greatly stimulated and extended forest planting on farms.
Red Cedar Plantings.-Hundreds of Florida farmers and ranchers have
been calling for cedar seedlings for forest and Christmas tree plantings
during the past 15 years. Since cedar seedlings have not yet been pro-
duced in State Forest Service nurseries and are not available elsewhere,
the Extension Foresters again assisted in collecting 672,000 cedar seeds
for free distribution to farmers in lots of 10 to 20,000 seeds to each.

Fig. 9.-A Hernando County farmer looks over his three-year-old catalpa
post planting which the Extension Forester helped him make.
ra ml lIInm~gmm







50 Florida Cooperative Extension

Printed instructions on how to produce cedar seedlings in home nurseries
were furnished with the seeds. Many have been successful.
Due to the success of early Christmas tree plantings on farms, and the
quick profits made from yule tree sales, the demand for cedar seedlings
has grown until State Forest Service nurseries are now purchasing cedar
seeds in an effort to supply the farmer demand for cedar seedlings next
winter.
Catalpa Plantings.-Farmers were again assisted in making catalna
fence post plantings. The Extension Foresters collected 132,000 seeds
from trees and distributed them free to 34 farmers and 4-H Club members
for additional fence post demonstration plantings. Since catalpa seed.ings
have not been available from other sources, farmers were furnished with
instructions on how they can grow their own seedlings in a home nursery.
The Extension Forester continued work in six older fence post plantings
to determine best fertilization, cultivation, pruning and other cultural
practices. Growing catalpas for fence posts is a new venture in Florida.
Other Forest Demonstration Plantings.-Other plantings of native trees
promoted by the Extension Foresters included tulip poplar and tupelo
gum for Florida beekeepers, sand pine for sites too dry for slash pine,
windbreak plantings around crop fields, and shade and shelter plantings
for livestock in open pasture land.

TIMBER MARKETING
Agents were assisted with timber marketing problems in their counties.
Individual assistance was given to farmers and land owners in some areas
where services of a Forest Service farm forester were not available and
where a forest marketing demonstration was needed. A landowner who is
well satisfied with a timber marketing job is an excellent example for his
neighbors to observe and follow.

4-H CLUB WORK
Continued efforts were made to provide assistance to agents along 4-H
forestry lines. Forestry was taught at three 4-H summer camps and at
wildlife camps and short course. The Assistant Extension Forester also
taught at many 4-H meetings and visited 4-H forestry projects. County
4-H forests were expanded during the year. Preliminary plans were made
in several counties to establish 4-H county forests. Five hundred and two
boys completed forestry projects this year.

NAVAL STORES
The production of gum continued to decline in Florida demonstrations.
Publicity and publications on the profit from working trees for gum before
cutting were distributed. Individual assistance to landowners may be the
only answer to this problem of getting farmers to begin a profitable gum
farming operation. Due to other work load and limited field time, only
a limited amount of this assistance can be given. Training meetings for
agents are needed.

EXHIBITS AND PUBLICITY
Numerous talks, news articles and mimeographs were prepared on all
phases of forestry. Fair exhibits were erected at county fairs. Leaf and
wood sample exhibits were prepared for exhibit and teaching purposes.
Two forestry TV shows were staged during the year.






Annual Report, 1956 51



ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE

E. W. McElwee, Ornamental Horticulturist
T. J. Sheehan, Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist5
S. A. Rose, Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist 6
J. N. Joiner, Assistant Horticulturist

Principal accomplishments in the field of ornamentals this year included:
Assisting 109 commercial nurserymen, florists and growers; 46 meetings
with industry groups, attended by 1,148; 56 horticultural clinics and asso-
ciated meetings, attended by 3,471; 108 county offices visited, assisted or
supplied with information, including training meetings; 29 home owners
visited or assisted; 29 meetings with garden clubs, home demonstration
clubs and interest groups; attended by 959; five 4-H meetings, camps and
short courses; five news articles; and 13 radio talks and television programs.
4-H Club Activities.-A landscape plan was drawn for and assistance
given in planting the Cloverleaf 4-H Club camp. Assistance was given
to 4-H district and state leaders in judging horticulture work books, par-
ticipating in fairs and conducting classes at 4-H short courses for both
girls and boys.
Special County Program.-The horticultural schools and clinics held in
various areas of the state are established to train county and home demon-
stration agents, as well as homeowners and growers. From them the
agents learn solutions for the more common problems and are thus better
qualified to answer future requests. In addition, one- and two-day train-
ing schools are held for county agents. These give specialized training
to the agents in the fundamentals of ornamental horticulture. Four such
training meetings were held this year at the request of agents. Such
training is planned as a continuing feature of the ornamentals project.
Two three-year home grounds improvement programs for home demon-
stration agents and representatives of local HD clubs are in progress.
Such programs are set up on a county-wide basis. Leaders from each
home demonstration club in the county meet quarterly with the agent and
the specialists for a day of special instruction and demonstration. They
are also provided with printed and mimeographed material. These leaders
then return to their respective clubs and hold training meetings for all
members based on the information received from the specialists. Such
training programs have been highly successful and additional ones are
planned for the future.
Regional and National Cooperation.-The specialists assisted in organ-
izing and participated in the regional program of the Southern Flower
Growers Association meeting, held th's year in Florida, and the SouLhern
Agricultural Workers annual meeting in Atlanta. In addition, a specialist
attended the marketing workshop, sponsored by the Society of American
Florists', held in Washington, D. C. Several articles and papers were con-
tributed to regional and national trade magazines. The specialists also sent
copies of circulars and bulletins to fellow workers in the Southeastern states.
Public Affairs.-City improvement and city beautification programs
were started in copoeration with municipal governments and civic organ-

6 Transferred to the Agricultural Experiment Stations effective July 1, 1956.
SAppointed September 1, 1956.
7 Returned from leave of absence October 17, 1956.







Florida Cooperative Extension


izations. In addition, staff members participated in other public programs,
such as: (1) advising on the planning of grounds and landscaping of
courthouses, school buildings, agricultural buildings, community centers,
churches and youth camps and the care and management of municipal
shade trees; (2) advising and judging fairs, trade and plant shows; (3)
advising and assisting with the programs for conventions and meetings
of industry associations; (4) working with state-wide organizations on
programs of highway beautification.
Other Activities.-The specialists assisted Experiment Station and State
Plant Board personnel in planning a research program designed to control
or eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly and to determine the sensitivity
of ornamental plants to the sprays utilized in Medfly control work. In
addition, they aided State Plant Board personnel in informing growers and
homeowners of ornamental plants likely to be affected by this pest.
Assistance was given State Plant Board members in formulating a
program for the certification of lawn grasses within the state. One
specialist was appointed to the Governor's Citizen Committee to help in
the development of an anti-litter and "Keep Florida Beautiful" program.
At the request of the State Fair committee, the specialists revised the
premium lists, judging regulations and entrance requirements for the horti-
cultural exhibits and judged all exhibits in the horticulture building.
Several bulletins, circulars and mimeographed leaflets were prepared
and made available to county workers.
Fertilizer demonstration plots-one on ferns and one on woody nursery
crops-and a propagation demonstration were established in two different
counties.

Fig. 10.-An ornamental horticulturist instructs 4-H Club girls in
identification, establishment and maintenance of recommended grasses for
a lawn, a basic requirement of any good landscape plan.










ftt..













OiI
4C

Y1lil jI







Annual Report, 1956


PLANT PATHOLOGY

D. M. Coe, Associate Pathologist

It has been 30 years since the Extension Service has had a plant path-
ologist on the staff. During the first year's term of this appointment
considerable effort has been devoted to exploring the best means of using
the appointment with the most effectiveness. In the past the work has
been divided among the crop specialists as a part of their overall programs.
Efforts throughout this past year have been toward complementing exist-
ing Extension programs.
The Extension Plant Pathologist participated in 23 public meetings
such as short courses, clinics and workshops. Through these he developed
an acquaintance with the problems of the area and the personnel of the
various agricultural enterprises. Radio and press stories were prepared
in conjunction with the editorial staff. These activities are in the process
of expansion.
A limited number of result demonstration plots for the control of
potato diseases were established in cooperation with the County Agent
in Hillsborough County and the Potato Investigations Laboratory.






Fig. 11.-An ornamental horticulturist helps one of the many green-
house growers in Florida. The greenhouse industry in this state is valued
at more than 33 million dollars a year.







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY HUSBANDRY

N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman
J. S. Moore, Extension Poultryman
L. W. Kalch, Assistant in Poultry Husbandry
A. W. O'Steen, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley
The production of broilers, eggs and turkeys was increased during the
year. Primarily this increase was a result of larger size of business and
improved efficiency rather than new enterprises.
Production of Chicks.-The number of hatcheries continued to decrease.
Since 1954, the number of hatcheries decreased from 80 to 51, but the in-
cubator capacity increased from 5,040,425 to 5,677,320, indicating increase
in size of hatcheries. Chick production increased to a high of over 35,-
000,000. Approximately 12,000,000 chicks were exported to countries south
of Florida.
Broiler Production.-More than 11,830,000 broilers were grown in Flor-
ida in 1956. Practically all of the broilers were grown under contract,
with a no loss or guaranteed income per bird or per pound with benefit
payments for efficiency practices (feed conversion). Efficiency factors
emphasized during the year included these minimum suggestions: 40,000
broilers per man per year, 4 lots per year, 40 pounds meat per 100 pounds
feed, less than 5% mortality and market before 10 weeks of age.
Growing Pullets and Managing Layers.-The number of layers has re-
mained about the same during the past three years, approximately 31%
million, but total egg production has increased from 501 to over 575 million.
Records from the Random and Egg-Laying Tests have been used to develop
the grow healthy chick and layer management programs. Better chicks,
vaccination and adoption of improved feeding and management practices
during the growing and laying periods have been stressed. Particular
emphasis has been placed on adequate properly arranged feeding and water-
ing equipment for growing and laying birds.
Small Flocks.-Management of small flocks to provide adequate eggs
and poultry meat has been encouraged. A flock of 25 to 30 layers and
100 chicks will provide a sufficient quantity of poultry products for a
family of five. Poultry projects by 4-H Club members have provided
demonstrations on the value of the small flock.
Turkey Management.-Eight turkey hatcheries produced sufficient poults
to sell to growers to raise approximately 200,000 turkeys. Commercial
turkey farms ranged in size from 1,000 to 35,000 birds per farm. Emphasis
was placed on better poults, management practices, equipment, processing
and merchandising.
Home-Grown Feeds and Green Feed.-Feed represents 60 percent of the
total cost of growing pullets and of producing eggs. A program to use
home-grown feeds, especially green feed, has been emphasized by Extension
workers.
Marketing Poultry and Poultry Products.-The production, processing
and merchandising of quality eggs and poultry meat have been stressed.
The jobs of cleaning, cooling, sizing, candling and packaging are performed
by the producer, egg dealer, trucker or cooperative. The trend is to have
the egg dealers and cooperative render this service to provide a more uni-
form package. Additional egg coolers were constructed. Five egg buying
cooperatives are operating at present.
Junior Poultry Work.-A total of 3,732 boys and girls from 63 counties
enrolled in 4-H poultry projects. These club members had production







Annual Report, 1956


demonstrations with broilers and layers, with emphasis on supplying eggs
and meat for home consumption. These boys and girls exhibited eggs
and birds and participated in judging poultry and eggs at county, district
and state contests.
Classes in poultry were held during the week of the Girls' 4-H Short
Course in Tallahassee and the Boys' 4-H Short Course in Gainesville.
Four-H poultry judging schools were conducted in Eustis, Gainesville
and Miami.
Three district 4-H shows and judging contests were held at Jacksonville,
Tampa and Ocala. A total of 1,361 birds and 88 dozen eggs were exhibited.
Twenty-five poultry judging teams participated in these contests, with the
Duval County girls, Lake County boys and Marion County boys top teams
at Jacksonville, Tampa and Ocala.
Twenty-two counties carried the 4-H Club boys' and girls' poultry demon-
stration project sponsored by the Sears, Roebuck Foundation. A total of
22,000 quality day-old chicks were placed with 230 4-H Club members who
gained experience in brooding, feeding and managing chicks, marketing
broilers, raising pullets and managing the laying flock. Pullet shows were
held in the fall and egg shows in the spring.
The 24th Annual State Boys' and Girls' 4-H Poultry and Egg Show
and Judging Contest was held during the week of February 20-25, in con-

Fig. 12.-Florida's 4-H poultry judging team won the 1956 Invitational
Interstate Poultry Judging Contest at Chicago. John Buffington and Bill
Nelson are seated. Others are Mickey McGee, Coach Earl Nelson, Buddy
Frazee and L. W. Kalch. The team represented Marion County.







Florida Cooperative Extension


nection with the Central Florida Fair at Orlando. A total of 1,321 birds
and 157 dozen eggs were exhibited by 4-H Club members.
Fifteen teams competed in the judging contest. The three top teams
were Marion County boys; Duval County girls and Dade County boys. Bill
Nelson, Marion County, was high individual judge and received a $100.00
scholarship offered by the State Department of Agriculture.
The winning team of boys from Marion County composed of Bill Nelson,
Buddy Frazee, Mickey McGee and John Buffington participated in the
Invitational Interstate 4-H Poultry Judging Contest in Chicago on Novem-
ber 24. This team placed first in the country, with 15 state teams com-
peting. The Florida boys placed second, fourth, sixth and ninth in in-
dividual placings. This team won three cups, one wrist watch, 10 medals
and five fountain pens as team and individual awards.
Florida National Egg-Laying Test.-The 30th Test was conducted from
October 1, 1955, to September 14, 1956, a period of 350 days, with 64 pens
(13 pullets per pen) consisting of five breeds of chickens from 18 states
and Canada entered.
Some of the results obtained include (1) an average egg production per
pullet housed of 237.3 eggs valued at 245.9 points, (2) feed consumption
per pullet per year of 103.6 pounds, (3) feed efficiency of 5 pounds of feed
for each dozen eggs produced, (4) 229 eggs from each 100 pounds of feed,
and (5) a mortality of 8.7 percent.
One of the S. C. White Leghorn entries in this test was high pen in
the country in all Standard Tests. These 13 pullets produced 3,965 eggs
for a value of 4,250.05 points, laying at a rate of 87.1 percent.
The high pullet in this test was second high in the country, laying 339
eggs for a value of 368.25 points.
The Fourth Florida Random Sample Poultry Test covered the period
from March 26, 1955, to September 6, 1956-a total of 530 days. The 20
entries of 50 pullet chicks each were sent to Chipley the latter part of
March, where they were brooded and reared for 180 days and then placed
in laying houses, where they were kept for the next 350 days.
Mortality averaged 5.94 percent during the growing period and 7.07
percent during the laying period.
Average feed consumption per pullet housed during the growing period
was 24.2 pounds for the light breeds and 30.7 pounds for the heavy breeds.
Feed consumption during the laying period averaged 100.9 pounds per
pullet housed, 98.8 pounds for the light breeds and 112.1 pounds for the
heavy breeds.
Average egg production per pullet housed for the entire test was 240.3
eggs, 243.3 eggs for the light breeds and 224.0 eggs for the heavy breeds.

Fig. 13.-High pen in the 30th Egg-Laying Test. These birds, owned
by Honeggers' Breeding Farm, laid 3,965 eggs worth 4,250.05 points, ano
were hiqh pen in all United States tests.







Annual Report, 1956 57

Feed required for each dozen eggs was 5.04 pounds-4.87 pounds for
the light breeds and 6.00 pounds for the heavy breeds.
The Fifth Random Sample Poultry Test started April 6, 1956, with 20
entries of 50 pullet chicks each. In this test the growing period was changed
from 180 days to 160 days. Some of the results during the growing period
include (1) a mortality ranging from none to 20 percent per entry, (2)
a range of feed consumption per pullet housed from 18.8 to 25.4 pounds
and (3) a weight range per pullet housed from 2.98 to 4.73 pounds.
These pullets are now in the laying house.
Poultry Institute.-The 15th annual Poultry Institute sponsored by the
Department of Poultry Husbandry, Agricultural Extension Service, Uni-
versity of Florida, and cooperating state agencies and associations, was
held at Camp McQuarrie the week of August 20-25, 1956.
Over 400 poultrymen registered and attended from all sections of the
state, as well as from nine other states and Cuba. The topics presented
by outstanding leaders covered the production and marketing of broilers,
eggs and turkeys.
Cooperating Agencies.-The State Department of Agriculture has been
most helpful in the development of the 4-H poultry club work and a sound
state poultry industry. Officials of the State Marketing Bureau and the
Poultry and Egg Inspection Division have been very cooperative in further-
ing the poultry Extension program.
The Florida Livestock Board has supervision of the National Poultry
Improvement Plan and the poultry diagnostic laboratories. In 1956 there
were 126 flocks with a total of 235,991 birds in this program. The new
diagnostic laboratories have been located in Jackson, Nassau, Flagler and
Dade counties and are being staffed and buildings constructed. Personnel
of this board have assisted in the development of the Extension program
at meetings, conferences and the Poultry Institute.
The Florida State Poultry Producers Association, Florida Hatchery and
Breeders' Association, Florida Turkey Association, Florida Feed Dealers
Association and Florida Poultry and Egg Council are the state organiza-
tions working with the Extension Service.
There are 22 county poultry associations, four of which were organized
during the year.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION

J. H. Herbert, Jr., Assistant Soil Conservationist

County Extension Programs.-Since county Extension personnel are
charged with the responsibility of administering a diversified educational
program, the Assistant Soil Conservationist assists county personnel with
the phases of their program which relate to soil and water conservation.
County Extension workers in 66 Florida counties assisted 28,674 in-
dividuals in adopting recommended conservation practices, including proper
land use, contour. strip cropping, terracing, grassed waterways, water sup-
ply, drainage, irrigation, use of soil amendments, use of fertilizers, soil
improvement crops, crop rotations, land clearing and conservation forestry
plantings. County personnel spent 2,100 days and attended 1,722 meetings
in cooperation with county Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation
committees, the USDA Soil Conservation Service and Soil Conservation
Districts.
Four-H Club Soil and Water Conservation Program.-The teaching of the
principles of soil and water conservation to rural and urban youth is of
inestimable value. There were 4,383 4-H Club members who received from
county Extension workers definite training in soil and water conservation.
Of these, 235 individuals completed projects in soil and water conservation
involving 4,797 acres.
Home Demonstration Program.-A state home demonstration conserva-
tion committee was created to assist in expanding home demonstration
club conservation activities. The committee has been most helpful in
suggesting ways and means for cultivating interest in conservation on the
part of club members.
Soil Conservation District Program.-Cooperation with Soil Conserva-
tion Districts in educational activities is steadily increasing. County agri-
cultural agents serve as secretaries to 46 of the 59 soil conservation
districts in Florida. Educational activities with which Extension personnel
cooperated with districts included farm tours, speaking contests, fair ex-
hibits, demonstrations, public school programs and field days.







Annual Report, 1956


VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

F. S. Jamison, Vegetable Crop Specialist

COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

Forrest E. Myers, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist

Commercial vegetables maintained a prominent place in the 1955-56
agricultural economy, accounting for $187,000,000 value, 412,400 acres har-
vested, 155,000 carlots shipped out of state and 12,000 carlots used within
state.
Activities and accomplishments of the Extension vegetable program
in commercial production were closely cooperative with growers, commercial
representatives, county agricultural agents, research workers and other
Extension specialists. Agencies and organizations such as the United
States Department of Agriculture, Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, State Department of Agriculture, Florida Agricultural Research
Institute and Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association actively supported
mutual undertakings for increased effectiveness of the program.
The Vegetable Crop Specialist became head of the Department of Vege-
table Crops in teaching, research and Extension, and the assistant specialist
position vacancy existing since December 1955 remained unfilled. Emphasis
of available personnel was intensified in key activities.
Publications included seven Extension circulars, two "Vegetarian" news-
letters to county agents, three "Vegegram" letters to growers, Agent
Handbook revisions, and other less formal written reviews and reports.
Thirteen general grower meetings were held over the state in addition
to local meetings on limited topics. Publicity of vegetable field days and
" results at nine Experiment Station locations received Extension effort, and
were supplemented by special plot visits. Two formal area vegetable
training conferences were held for selected agents in key counties.
Extension planning and workbook preparation for the Third Annual
Vegetable Work Conference summarized all research in the state, high-
lighted agent opinion on further needed research, and contributed measur-
ably to evaluation and presentation of additional grower and industry
opinion.'
Other necessary specialist activities included research reviews in liter-
ature and experiment stations over the state; visits to growers and county
agents to check field. developments and to diagnose specific problems; at-
tending and assisting in grower, industry, other agency and professional
organization meetings and activities; answering office calls and correspond-
nence and formal committee appointments.
County agent activities in vegetable production are shown below in a
-*statistical summary;
Vegetables Counties
Item Including Potatoes Reporting
Total number of personal contacts made
individually or through meetings ............... 97,027 66
Estimated total number of DIFFERENT
farmers and other individuals assisted
directly or indirectly TO ADOPT
recommended practices .................................. 48,219 66







Florida Cooperative Extension


Estimated number of farmers and other in-
dividuals reported in above item assisted
with any phase of production ................... 38,816 66
Of this number the following were
assisted with-
a. Use of improved varieties and strains.. 23,028 65
b. Use of fertilizers ............................ 26,052 66
c. Control of injurious insects ................... 20,313 64
d. Control of diseases .................................. 16,342 64
e. Harvesting, storing, and curing ........... 7,606 57
f. Efficient work methods ...................... 7,470 52

VEGETABLE GARDENING

J. D. Norton, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist

Every effort was made to plan and carry out the program of home
vegetable gardening in such a way as to appeal to and inspire all groups
to appreciate what gardening can mean to the entire family. Individuals
were reminded of the financial, physical and social values of gardening.
The garden bulletin, Grow Your Own Vegetables, was developed. Three
home demonstration garden leaders' guides were prepared in cooperation
with the Economist in Food Conservation and Farm and Home Develop-

Fig. 14.-These 4-H Club boys and girls intently study the vegetable classes
at one of Florida's first 4-H judging schools.







Annual Report, 1956 61

ment. To strengthen the 4-H garden program, the leaders' guide for 4-H
vegetable garden projects, exhibiting and judging vegetables, and straw-
berries for 4-H members were prepared. Tape recordings, demonstrations
and two 35 mm. color slide loan sets were developed. A script was pre-
pared for use with the slides.
Leader training meetings were held as requested by county agricultural
and home demonstration agents. Seven home demonstration and eight
4-H leader training sessions were held.
Garden clinics were held at Penney Farms, Sarasota and Orlando. These
clinics were held to take the latest information to the home gardener and
to answer any immediate problem he might have.
Upon the suggestions of district and 4-H agents, eight counties were
selected to initiate vegetable judging and demonstration activities. Ma-
terial for agent use in conducting the county events was prepared. The
Specialist assisted the agents in training the young people and planning
and conducting the county event.
The survey to determine the value of the home vegetable garden was
continued. By determining its value, there would be a better opportunity
for encouraging home owners and 4-H Club members to plant vegetable
gardens.
The Extension Specialist met with district and county agents in all
areas of the state to survey the needs and present the present garden
program.
The Specialist served as State Chairman for the National Junior Vege-
table Growers Association. This required preparation of letters for county
agents and vocational agriculture teachers, correspondence with members
and district and national chairman, and judging records. In addition, the
Specialist attended the national convention in New Orleans. He assisted
in setting up and conducting the national judging, grading and identifica-
tion contest.
Every effort was made to cooperate with other Extension workers in
conducting farm and home development work. Two garden training meet-
ings were held for farm families in this program. In addition, four timely
garden letters were prepared for this group. The Specialist assisted agents
and individual families in home garden activities.
A mimeograph, Vegetable Gardening for Agent Use in Program Pro-
jection Planning, was prepared. Also, the Specialist assisted agents and
men and women leaders in planning their garden program.

VEGETABLE MARKETING
Stanley E. Rosenberger, Assistant Marketing Specialist in Vegetable Crops

The merchandising of fresh fruits and vegetables is of national im-
portance, since these Florida commodities are marketed throughout the
entire country. Retail merchandising is the last activity in the marketing
process but the most vital phase of the fresh fruit and vegetable industry.
It is at retail that the products must attract the consumers' dollar and
prove so satisfactory that the consumer will make repeat purchases. Poor
appearance or low quality can have a very discouraging effect upon con-
sumers and be very detrimental to the fresh fruit and vegetable market.
In an effort to keep retail merchandising of fresh fruits and vegetables
at as high a level as possible and in the most efficient manner known, as
well as to maintain a well informed food industry so that peak production
supplies could be moved on to consumers and not left in the field to rot,
the following activities were carried out:








62 Florida Cooperative Extension


Special feature promotions for periods of unusually heavy supplies.
This program involves daily study of market conditions and shipping trends.
When a large commodity inventory accumulates in the terminal markets
as shipments increase it is a good indication that market conditions are
not adjusting to allow for increased volume movements. Invariably low
FOB prices accompany large terminal market inventory of a commodity.

CABBAGE 1956

DAILY AVERAGES BY WEEKS


b8o--

450-

420--

390--

360-

330-

300-

CARS 270-

240-

210-

180-

150-

120--

90-


-2.00

--1.80

-1.70

--1.60

--1.50

--1.40 DOLLARS

--1.30 PER

--1.20 50#

--1.10 BAG

--1.00

--.90


--.70


ORGANIZED MERCHANDISING PROMOTIONS THROUGHOUT THE SOUTHEAST
60- i i i I ---.50
6 i 21 2& 1 i 1i 2; 5 1 1J 24 5
JAN FEB MAR

Fig. 15.-Promotional campaigns were effective in moving large supplies of
cabbage, of which Florida supplied about 50 percent of the shipments.

As these conditions become apparent a telephone call goes out to as
much food merchandising power in the Southeast as is practical to reach.
The food merchandisers are informed of current market conditions and
trends and they are requested to help move a larger volume of the com-
modity in heavy supply. It takes 10 days to conduct a special feature pro-
motion from organization to completion. Such an item, when given the
special feature promotion, can be expected to move into consumers' hands
at somewhere around 1.5 to 2 times the normal rate for each store featur-
ing it. During the second sweet corn promotion of 1956 calculated FOB
sales increased about $209,000 from week ending May 19 to week ending
May 26.








Annual Report, 1956


Consumer information people in Florida and in some other states are
informed of the marketing picture for a commodity when shipments are
high, terminal inventories are large and FOB prices are low. They are
requested to watch for retail special feature promotions and tie-in good
consumer values with local food ads.


CORN 1956
DAILY AVERAGES BY WEEKS


--3.80

S --3.60

-3.40

--3.20

-3.00

--2.80

--2.60 DOLLARS


11,"4


30-- /
ORGANIZED MERCHANDISING PROMOTIONS THROUGHOUT THE SOUTHEAST
0-- I I 1 J I I
2M 31 P 21 28 R 2 19 26 2
MAR APR MAY JUNE


--.h0 PER 5

--2.20 DOZ.

--2.00 CRATE

--1.80

--1.60


-1.20

-1.00


Fig. 16.-Promotional campaigns also helped move sweet corn, of which
Florida supplied 95 percent.

Retail merchandising information and training in the buying, handling,
displaying, pricing, selling, record keeping, quality maintenance and man-
agement decisions of fresh fruits and vegetables is the activity receiving
most attention. Retail food handlers are worked with as individuals and
as groups of independents as well as chain store personnel. Retailers
are advised on store layout and arrangement and are assisted in initial
produce display for new stores.
Wholesale produce handlers and operators are worked with on care
and quality maintenance, as well as efficiency in their overall operation.
County extension staffs are presented with vegetable merchandising
information that will enable them to gain a better understanding of food


390--

360--

330--

300--

270--

210--

CARS 210--

180--

150--

120--

90--

6n--


420-- 1:






Florida Cooperative Extension


retailers' problems and procedures. An increasing number of contacts is
being reported by the county offices in the merchandising field.
Research personnel of both the Florida Experiment Station and of the
USDA Agricultural Marketing Service are consulted frequently for re-
search results of value to the fresh produce merchandising field. One of
the most interesting research projects currently being conducted and being
followed constantly by retailers is the shelling of fresh peas and lima
beans by machine for sale fresh, with the convenience of "built-in-maid
service" such as the frozen products have. Should this idea be perfected
fresh beans and peas may easily regain their former prominence on the
family dining table. Retailers indicate that they can sell three to four
times as many shelled by hand as they can in the shell, even though the
cost is high.


CORN


,29c


Blist,
4 THR' N ..O
zFAI STOR E NEAR YOU
,19, a?^- "HO N ODY"1


CORN ii.ITi I -0
CO6RN oT


---_SL


Fig. 17.-Food stores throughout Florida joined in advertising promotion
of corn when it was plentiful.

The USDA Florida Crop Reporting Service in Orlando is a constant
source of supply for crop condition reports, shipping trends and peak
harvest periods, as well as short-term supply outlook. The Orlando office
of the Crop Reporting Service and the Extension Service work closely
together on the special feature promotion program.
The State Department of Agriculture's State Marketing Bureau's Mar-
ket News Service and the Extension Service also work closely together
on the special feature promotion program so that adequate and current
information is always available for use.
The Florida Chain Store Council is a supporter of Extension programs
and their interest in the removal of surplus perishables from the market
can be readily seen.


~"~-Y~
,~~U~







Annual Report, 1956 65

The Retail Grocers Association of Florida is an organization that works
well with the Extension Service in program planning.
College classes in vegetable crops are given an insight into the mer-
chandising of fresh produce, the problems involved and how they are fre-
quently handled.
Plentiful food for the USDA Food Distribution Division's monthly list
are recommended each month.
The Florida Outlook Committee meets annually and vegetable market-
ing and merchandising is represented at these committee meetings.
Various trade association meetings are participated in when the oc-
casions arise. Trade association meetings attended this year were the
National Produce Packaging Association, the Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Association, and the Retail Grocers Association of Florida.







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Anna Mae Sikes, State Home Demonstration Agent
Eunice Grady, Assistant to State Home Demonstration Agent in
Training Program
Edith Y. Barrus, District Home Demonstration Agent
Joyce Bevis, District Home Demonstration Agent
Helen Holstein, District Home Demonstration Agent

Home demonstration workers in Florida continued to be responsible for
the development and supervision of integrated and coordinated programs
for both white and negro families, home demonstration club women and
4-H girls, and to the public generally. Insofar as.personnel and facilities
permitted, assistance was given to all families who wished such help-
farm, part-time farm, rural non-farm and urban families.
The program continued to give increasing recognition to the importance
of people thinking and planning as family and community groups. The
problems of home, family and community life continued to be the basic
concern of all home demonstration workers. Families continued to seek
information that would help them with immediate income and technical and
human relation problems which they could solve.
Home demonstration personnel included 112 home demonstration work-
ers, exclusive of clerical assistants, in state and county offices: 53 county
home demonstration agents; 29 assistant county home demonstration agents;
1 Indian home demonstration worker; 12 negro home demonstration agents;
10 specialists and 4 district home demonstration agents; 1 assistant to the
state home demonstration agent in training program.

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
As a part of program projection, county home demonstration workers
emphasized the importance of program planning at the community level
with women and girls and as far as possible with families. Discussion with
community groups centered around: (1) the collection, organization and
analysis of the many facts affecting the situation in which people live;
(2) decision as to goals, in terms of a more efficient and prosperous agri-
culture and more satisfactory family and community living; (3) a determina-
tion of the problems restricting the attainment of goals; (4) the develop-
ment of a program of Extension education to help solve priority problems;
and (5) a determination of the Extension resources needed to expand the
program over a designated period of years. The summarized study on
"Who's Who in Home Demonstration Clubs in Florida" was used as back-
ground information in analyzing county situations and in determining
needed organizational adjustments. Agents made use of various kinds of
opinion and survey sheets to find county and community needs to use as
information and for a basis of group discussion.
Each year district agents and subject-matter specialists supply county
home demonstration agents with situation and outlook information showing
organization trends and in various subject-matter fields to use as a guide
in program planning. This information was prepared by the state office
committees working on the integrated program for home demonstration
work. It was distributed as "Points to Consider in Program Planning" at
the Annual Agents' Conference.
County home demonstration councils, working through county home
demonstration clubs, continued to give valuable assistance in getting an







Annual Report, 1956


expression from women, girls and, in some instances, families as to their
individual and community needs. Home demonstration agents were en-
couraged to hold planning meetings and to include entire family groups;
to present pertinent and reliable factual data; to encourage discussion of
individual and community problems as a basis for setting objectives; and
to set goals in terms of broad objectives which would lead to an expanded
program.
State Councils.-State councils for women and girls aid in developing
a state-wide educational program.
The councils strengthen and systematize home demonstration work in
the state and assist home demonstration agents in the development of
leadership among adults and youth; provide opportunity for homemakers
and 4-H girls in groups to pool their judgment and experience for the
progressive improvement of Florida home and community life; promote
and develop 4-H Club work and other youth activities; extend the services
of home demonstration work to a larger number of individuals and club
groups; and offer a means by which homemakers and 4-H girls may initiate,
interpret and promote state, national and international programs which
affect the security and development of American home and family life.
Community home demonstration clubs were composed of women inter-
ested in planning and carrying through a program to make the most of
community resources, human and material; develop and encourage leader-
ship for an expanding program; assist in extending the services of agents
to individual families through farm and home development.
Problem Approach.-For the past three years counties throughout the
state have been working toward a major and a minor emphasis plan, with
the county-wide program centered on two (one major and one minor)
phases of subject matter and their related areas. The areas to receive
emphasis are decided on by the people themselves at their regular planning
meeting. The major and minor subject-matter areas undertaken result
from the majority of expressed needs and interests of the people.

Fig. 18.-Annual meeting and short course of the State Home Demon-
stration Council give the women training and an opportunity to assist the
state staff in formulating and conducting programs of home demonstration
work.















BD7 IB^^B^^^^^^







Florida Cooperative Extension


At the regular organized clubs one subject-matter area is taught at as
many consecutive meetings as needed to provide a continuity of learning.
Some counties have progressed more than others in this direction. They
are finding already that this major emphasis plan has proven a great help.
Home demonstration agents studying and preparing materials for club
demonstrations find that it is also usable for radio and television broad-
casts, informational news columns, leader training meetings and exhibits,
thus saving time and giving a feeling of greater accomplishment.
Requests for other assistance in subject matter are met through special
interest groups, workshops and open meetings conducted by leaders, agents,
specialists and other qualified people. All phases of mass media are used,
including tours to result demonstrations.


Fig. 19.-President Reitz awards a certificate to Mrs. Walter Acker at
the completion of the annual council session and short course. Director
Watkins beams approval.

Leadership Development.-Methods used so far to develop leaders and
to train home demonstration agents in recognizing opportunities for leaders
to function included leadership training meetings in counties in subject
matter to develop leaders' skills and knowledge of subject. These were
conducted by specialists, agents and trained leaders. Leadership training
meetings for junior and senior organization leaders were held by county
home demonstration agents, assisted by district agents, specialists and
state 4-H Club agents. A short course on "As Leaders We Serve" was
held at the annual meeting of the senior council this year and leadership
training was the emphasis of the Annual 4-H Short Course.
In 1956, 4,260 voluntary leaders assisted with girls' 4-H Club work;
1,994 meetings were held or conducted by leaders in girls' 4-H Club work
with an attendance of 33,046 and 1,120 training meetings were held by
voluntary leaders in adult work with attendance of 27,799.







Annual Report, 1956


PERSONNEL TRAINING
Recruitment.-The State Home Demonstration Agent and the district
agents have effected most of the recruitment of Florida home demonstra-
tion personnel during 1956. The new workers have come from home demon-
stration programs in other states, home economics teaching, home economics
in business, and recent graduates in home economics.
Recruitment for future home demonstration workers was furthered by
giving information on home demonstration work as a career to older 4-H
Club girls and to home economics students at the Florida State University
and as a part of Junior and Senior High School Career Days.
Pre-Service Training.--The State Home Demonstration Agent and staff
continued to advise on suitable courses in preparation for Extension work.
The Assistant to the State Home Demonstration Agent in Training Program
planned and directed the training program for home economists who were
preparing to enter home demonstration work.























Fig. 20.-A USDA field agent gives in-service training to seven Florida
home demonstration agents.

Junior and senior courses in home demonstration education at both
graduate and undergraduate levels were taught at Florida State University.
In the State Home Demonstration Office there were two types of pre-service
training: (a) the long-time study plan of six to eight months for graduate
home economists with no job experience and (b) the short-time study plan
lasting three to eight weeks for graduate home economists with experience
in teaching or some other area of home economics.
During the period of this report, 11 home economists have studied in
the State Home Demonstration Office prior to their appointment to county
positions.
Induction Training.-The induction training given by the district agents
was adapted to individual needs but in general included policies, regula-
tions, records, reports, Extension educational philosophy, education and
organization, job analysis, program planning, leadership and office and







Florida Cooperative Extension


field management. This was done on initial and follow-up conferences,
through printed material, contacts and by letter. The district agents served
as liaison between the Assistant to the State Home Demonstration Agent
in Training Program and the county home demonstration agent.
Training of State Home Demonstration Staff and County Home Demon-
stration Workers.-An extensive and comprehensive program of in-service
training has been in action during 1956 for both county and state workers.
Four members of the federal Extension staff worked with state home
demonstration staff members. Other national workers contributed to the
in-service training for various state staff members. Many conferences and
workshops both in and out of Florida provided training for state staff
members during the year. Other in-service training for state and county
home demonstration workers included summer schools, general Extension
courses, area and county in-service training meetings, committee work,
state-wide meetings and miscellaneous work.

PROGRESS IN PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
Families were given continued assistance with immediate income, tech-
nical and human relationship problems of the home which the family could
solve. In family living, 65,988 families planned an adequate and nutritious
food supply, 73,086 families were assisted with clothing needs, 50,676
families built or remodeled homes, 23,098 families were helped to develop
a satisfying family life, 29,728 families improved their health, 56,526 bene-
fited from consumer education, 7,615 families were assisted w th making
management decisions, 5,024 were assisted with financial planning and 3,791
with keeping and analyzing records.
Families were assisted with problems which have to be approached
through group action in the community. In community cooperation, 528
communities improved conditions affecting health, 242 communities improved
their educational facilities, 546 communities improved their recreational
resources, and 16,791 families were assisted with home and family recreation.
Families were assisted with human relationships-6,590 families with
child development and guidance and 8,032 families with developing har-
monious family life.
Home demonstration work in urban areas comes in response to a grow-
ing demand, as a result of Florida's rapidly increasing population, espec ally
in urban areas; 127,326 urban families were assisted by home demonstration
program with agricultural information, 73,778 urban families were assisted
with homemaking information, 6,939 4-H girls enrolled from urban homes.
In citizenship and public problems, 520 communities or groups assisted
with citizenship activities.

FOREIGN STUDENT ACTIVITIES
During 1955-56 the State Home Demonstration Office continued to assist
foreign students who came to Florida for part of their study programs.
In December 1955, the State Girls' 4-H Club Agent accompanied the Boys'
4-H Club Agent and a group of foreign students who were especially in-
terested in club work in Florida on a trip to several counties in the state.
Other foreign visitors were scheduled for visits in 12 counties where
the county home demonstration agents assisted in showing them agricul-
tural and home economics activities and Extension programs and giving
them some contacts with family life in Florida.
The home demonstration worker with the Seminole Indians reported
that 38 men and 37 women (foreign visitors) visited the Indian craft shop
to learn more of Indian crafts and culture.






Annual Report, 1956


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES

Elizabeth Dickenson, Clothing and Textiles Specialist

The clothing and textile program has continued to hold major emphasis
throughout Florida. The Specialist has directed her efforts toward develop-
ing standards in clothing and textiles which would improve the appearance,
health and comfort of each member of the family and help them realize
the satisfaction of living within a family budget. To meet this goal, work
has been done with agents, volunteer leaders and individuals. Goals set
for 1955 showed much progress, but there was much left to be accom-
plished. Thus during 1956 these goals were continued, giving special em-
phasis to assisting families with the following: Learning to plan family
wardrobe, learning how to make better fitted garments, selecting ready-
made garments, characteristics and best uses of fibers, finishes, blended
fabrics, and making slip covers.
More than 963 homemakers in 45 counties made garments for the first
time. In 1955 49 counties reported 1,067 homemakers who made garments
for the first time.
As a result of training meetings held for white clothing leaders, there
were 957 demonstrations given by women and 1,491 demonstrations by girls
(40 counties). There were 61 demonstrations given by negro women and
86 by negro girls (nine counties).


I I 'S











Fig. 21.-Two 4-H girls explain the poster used at short course to teach
selection of proper sewing equipment.
Fi.2.-w il xli h pse sda hr oret ec
seecio ofpoprseigqipet







72 Florida Cooperative Extension

There were 1,160 white women and 3,493 4-H girls and 66 negro women
and 317 negro girls who modeled their garments during the year. This
was an increase of 99 white women and a decrease of 124 negro women
over 1955. There was an increase of 1,072 white 4-H girls who modeled
their garments and an increase of 128 negro 4-H members. Modeling
garments was a climax to the clothing program and helped to develop grace
and poise among the participants.
Clothing was of main interest to Florida 4-H girls. The following
statistical report shows results of this program during 1956.

Counties Counties
Reporting White Reporting Negro
Girls enrolled .............................. 52 12,476 12 1,986
Girls completing projects ........ 50 7,343 12 1,516
Number of garments made...... 49 23,029 12 6,448

White Negro
1. New garments made ......................... ..................-*133,923 13,329
2. Garments remodeled ....................... ....................... 51,407 5,789
3. Making garments for first time ................................ 963 319
4. Household articles made, including slip covers
and draperies ................................- ................. .... 96,420 6,690
5. Receiving help in family laundry problems ............ 8,715 782
6. Clothing leaders in county:
W om en ................................................... ............. 697 138
G irls .......................................................... ............. 463 173
7. Exhibits, talks, radio programs by:
W om en .............................. .. ...--............ 512 31
Girls ....................-- ....... .................-..................... 1,587 43
8. Demonstrations given by agents on clothing
and textiles for:
W om en ........................................... ....................... 1,690 508
G irls ........................................-................. 4,665 704
9. Demonstrations given by:
W om en ..................................................... 957 61
G irls ......................... ....................... 1,491 86

From supplemental report.

Methods used to meet the needs of adults and 4-H Clubs have been as
follows: County leader training meetings; classes for groups at State
Senior Council Short Course and 4-H Short Course; illustrative material;
simple mimeograph materials; materials for radio and TV programs; home
visits; fair exhibits, window displays, exhibits at achievement days and
dress revues in communities and county-wide; workshops on clothing con-
struction conducted by leaders after attending training meetings; State
Dress Revues (women and girls); news articles; assistance with individual
clothing problems; use of samples of fabrics to teach uses and finishes
and characteristics; and workshops in making slip covers.








Annual Report, 195#


EDITORIAL AND VISUAL AIDS

Alma Warren, Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist

Broadening the widespread influence of the Extension Service through
the media of news releases, radio and television programs, printed materials
and visual aids has been the goal of the Assistant Editor and Visual Aids
Specialist.
By means of releases to Florida's 192 weekly and daily newspapers and
to its radio and television stations, every resident had an opportunity to
receive information from the Agricultural Extension Service.
In addition, the Assistant Editor provided material to state and national
magazines. She supplied services several times during the year to papers
and communities wishing to conduct promotional campaigns and gave
general support to all worthwhile programs of rural groups.
Preparations and editing of publications in all the varied fields of Ex-
tension work also was a responsibility of hers. These publications are
available to all citizens of the state and provide individuals with a ready
source of information on topics in which they are interested.
The work of the Assistant Editor extended beyond the responsibility
of preparing materials. It included training state and county staff mem-
bers, assisting with the preparation of materials and placing in their hands
more effective tools with which to perform their duties.
Among other specialized services performed by the Assistant Editor
was the preparation of exhibit material for specialists' and home demon-
stration agents' use. Radio and television materials were prepared for
both. Visual aids in the form of pictures, movies, and filmstrips were sup-
plied agents in cooperation with the audio-visual center and the photographic
laboratory of Florida State University.

Fig. 22.-Home demonstration and library officials discuss reading facili-
ties and magazines available at a newly opened home demonstration club
library in Alachua County.








74 Florida Cooperative Extension

Florida newspapers printed 6,088 news and feature articles about home
demonstration work. Home demonstration agents contributed 3,566 articles
to the newspapers. Club members wrote 3,254 news stories and seven maga-
zine articles.
News pictures about home demonstration and 4-H Club events and
personalities were widely distributed in the state's press. Ten special
editions on home demonstration work were printed.
One thousand three hundred and fifty-nine radio broadcasts and 214
television programs were staged. Home demonstration agents distributed
351,427 bulletins.
Four new home demonstration bulletins were printed.
Home demonstration clubs maintained 33 libraries, with an estimated
1,646 farm families using them. Home demonstration clubs borrowing
books from state libraries number 41. Assisting with libraries were 34
home demonstration clubs. Clubs exchanged 1,564 books and magazines
at meetings. New books contributed to libraries totaled 599. Clubs sub-
scribed to 424 magazines and papers for their libraries.
Camp libraries were maintained at McQuarrie, Doe Lake, Timipochee,
Cherry Lake and Cloverleaf, the new camp at Lake Placid.
The State Home Demonstration Office has cooperated with local, state,
and federal agencies in the preparation and dissemination of mass media
materials.







Annual Report, 1956


FOOD AND NUTRITION

Alice L. Cromartie, Extension Nutritionist

This year we have been able to establish in home demonstration work
major and minor problem areas and arrange travel to assist directly those
counties where the family's food is to receive the larger portion of emphasis.
There are 13 counties with the family's food as a major activity and 12 who
carry it as a minor problem area. The three members of foods staff share in
the work with these counties. Assistance is given all other counties in the
planning of educational programs for radio and television, and in preparing
articles for the press. The specialists have also prepared timely material
to be used by all counties in promoting better food habits. The home
demonstration staff feels that with this trend in program planning, pro-
gram projection is just a step ahead. We look toward the state-wide
projected program as our long-time goal.
The other objective for 1956 has been that of better family meals for
all ages, with emphasis on weight control. It is reported that 15,629
families are serving better meals as a result of nutrition teaching by mass
media, group meetings, special interest groups and 4-H Club work. Assist-
ance was given to 11,375 families with young children and 7,014 families
made up largely of older folks. Ten thousand and thirty-one families
received help on weight control through better meal planning and prepara-
tion. Information on wise buying with the family's food dollar was used
by families.
There are 14,485 4-H Club girls enrolled in 4-H food and nutrition
projects, which help influence meal planning, preparation and service in
the home.
The foods staff also began development of new 4-H food and nutrition
project materials with leader's guides. The Extension Nutritionist also
prepared two bulletins for printing.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD CONSERVATION

Lena E. Sturges, Assistant Economist in Food Conservation

Basic principles of food conservation have been stressed during the
year. The fact that home freezers are steadily on the increase as major
equipment in Florida homes does not lessen the need for teaching principles
of home canning, which will always have a place in the food conservation
plan.
During 1956 there were 14,147 home freezers in use by home demon-
stration club women. This shows an increase of 3,597 from the 1955 num-
ber. Home demonstration agents reported 5,460 users of commercial frozen
'foods lockers. Meat continues to be the food item most often frozen.
Reports show 1,368,291 pounds of meat frozen during the year, and 815,203
pounds cured. This represents an increase during the year of 65,037 pounds
frozen and 57,046 pounds cured.
A total of 946,880 pints of food were canned in 1956. This shows a
decrease of 136,171 pints over 1955 figures.
Reports show 862,505 pounds of fruits and vegetables frozen in 1956,
an increase of 212,964 pounds over 1955.
Direct assistance was given to agents in 30 counties through leader-
training meetings.
A closer integration of food conservation, production, and utilization
has been stressed. Counties designating the family food as a major or
minor program area for 1957 received assistance in setting up an integrated
program.
Thirty-four records and stories of 4-H Club girls were entered in the
state canning and frozen foods projects.







Annual Report, 1956


FOOD PRODUCTION

Susan R. Christian, Assistant Nutritionist

This program was integrated with other subject-matter programs to
fit the interests and needs of Florida families. It was planned and executed
through the cooperative efforts of State Agricultural Extension Service
staffs, county home demonstration and agricultural agents, volunteer lead-
ers, home demonstration and 4-H Clubs, junior and senior home demonstra-
tion councils, and individuals.
In working with this phase of the program, families were continually
reminded of the relationship between home food production and all phases
of family living. In planning the food production program, emphasis was
placed upon the family's food needs, facilities for producing foods, climatic
and soil conditions, economic factors involved, and suitability and various
sections of the state for certain food crops. The entire family was en-
couraged to plan the production of its own food, taking the above factors
into consideration.
The importance of home food production as a means of providing a
more nutritious diet, of supplementing family income, and of developing
opportunities for family recreation was stressed.
Program emphasis was placed on producing a variety of foods to meet
nutritional needs. Where practical, families were encouraged to grow
gardens to furnish vegetables for home use the year round; produce fruits


Fig. 23.-A home demonstration agent demonstrates choice of plants for
transplanting to the home garden.








Florida Cooperative Extension


adapted to the region as a part of the yard beautification plan or to grow
a small family orchard; to keep at least one or two dairy cows to provide
milk, butter and other dairy products; to keep a poultry flock for meat and
eggs for family meals; and to raise meat animals for a home supply
of meat.
Fifty-five county statistical reports-including white and negro-showed
that 17,339 families were assisted by Extension agents in planning or
producing the home food supply.
Fruits and Vegetables.-This phase of the program was approached
from the standpoint of home grounds beautification as well as nutrition,
health and economy. Increasing the varieties planted was stressed, in
addition to using recommended varieties, improved practices and better
management. Many families participated in this program, as shown below
by statistical reports of home demonstration agents.

Work Done Women Girls
Home gardens planted .................................. .... 11.798 2,760
Fruit trees planted .-........... .... ........... ..... 8,317 1,168
Garden demonstrators ...................... .................. 1,894 974
Orchard demonstrators .................. .........- 706 95
Berries planted this year ...... ....... ..... .............. .. 53,111 10,923
Garden chairmen and leaders .................-............ 393 299
Orchard chairmen ........................... .... ........... 244 120

Livestock and Livestock Products.-Since prices paid the producer for
beef animals have been low compared with previous years, and with an
increase in the purchase of home freezers, families have butchered an in-
creasing number of animals for home use.
The production of livestock was faced from a realistic standpoint and
emphasis placed where production was practical. This program includes
poultry, dairy and meat animals. Statistical reports of home demonstra-
tion agents show that 698 4-H Club girls were poultry demonstrators,
owning 25,502 chickens, and 515 girls kept poultry records. One hundred
and eighty-seven girls had method demonstrations in home dairying. Home
demonstration club members, according to 44 county reports, bought 1,206
milk cows bringing the total up to 8,124 milk cows owned by home demon-
stration and 4-H Club members. It was reported that 17,924 families used
a quart of milk daily for each child and a pint for each adult. This indicated
that these families appreciated the value of milk and milk products in the
diet, which is one of the most important steps in the promotion of home
production of milk and milk products. Families- were urged to use the
offspring from the family milk cow to supply additional meat for the
family diet. During 1956, 20,104 hogs, 5,832 beeves and 3,357 other meat
animals were grown and used at home.
The Assistant Nutritionist and Farm and Home Development Specialist
spent 129 days in the field working with county home demonstration agents
and assistants on farm and home development, food production and nutri-
tion. She has devoted approximately one-third of her time to each of these
three areas. Her contribution in the area of food production has largely
been that of coordinating the food production phase of the home demon-
stration program with that of the agricultural program through confer-
ences with agricultural specialists in program planning and in preparation
of subject-matter materials for use with home demonstration clubs and
councils and 4-H Clubs and councils.








Annual Report, 1956


GIRLS' 4-H CLUB WORK

Emily King, State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Bronna Mae Elkins, Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent

There were 21,764 girls enrolled for the year in 829 4-H Clubs. The
girls gained ability to assume more responsibility and pass subject-matter
information on to others. This program helps 4-H Club members to be-
come better family members and more interested citizens in their com-
munities and counties.
State 4-H Club Short Courses.-The theme for the 41st Annual State
Girls' 4-H Club Short Course at Florida State University was "4-H Oppor-
tunities in Focus". It was planned and developed on the basis of the pur-
poses of short course, which were:
1. To provide opportunity for growth and development of our 4-H
Club girls.
2. To effect better public relations on local, county and state levels.
3. To deepen the appreciation of 4-H Club work.
4. To promote a recruitment program.
Leadership was the keynote of the 1956 Short Course. Besides the
leadership training the 410 4-H Club girls and 37 adult leaders received
in their intensive subject-matter classes, each was given a special assign-
ment such as assisting with special programs.
There were 180 4-H Club girls, 17 local leaders, 12 negro home demon-
stration agents and one district negro home demonstration agent in attend-
ance at the 35th annual State Short Course for Negro Girls and Boys at
Florida A and M University in Tallahassee, June 5-9.
State Girls' 4-H Club Councils.-The State Girls' 4-H Club Council met
during the State Girls' 4-H Club Short Course. Members of the council,
composed of representatives from 41 counties, share ideas with each other
about work being accomplished in their respective counties. Experience
was gained by these girls in working and cooperating with girls of their
own age group. The executive committee met three times during the year
to make plans and carry out responsibility at the State Fair, as well as
make plans for their state meeting.
The Negro State Girls' 4-H Club Council held three sessions during
their week of annual 4-H Short Course.
4-H Camping Program.-There were 2,673 4-H Club girls who camped
during the nine one-week camping sessions held for girls at the four dis-
trict 4-H Club camps and the two county camps (Dade and Pinellas).
The 4-H Club camping experience is valued as another opportunity for
training junior and adult 4-H Club leaders, and for recognition of achieve-
ments of 4-H Club girls and leaders. A special handbook and planning
guide were prepared this year with policy and guidance for camp planning.
Recognition Program.-Recognition is for the purpose of giving credit
for work well done and encouraging a person toward more achievement.
Recognition was given through 10 district demonstration days which were
held simultaneously on March 17. The girls who were county winners gave
dairy foods and other demonstrations, made talks and displayed their
talent. During 1956, 25 girls and two adults received state honors provided
through awards' program for Florida 4-H Club girls.
State 4-H Committee of County Home Demonstration Agents.-This
committee is made up of the home demonstration agents who are chairmen








Florida Cooperative Extension


of the 10 4-H Club districts, the two State Girls' 4-H Club Agents, the
three District Home Demonstration Agents and the State Home Demon-
stration Agent. This committee was reorganized this year with the pur-
pose of improving 4-H Club work with girls in Florida through cooperative
planning, evaluation of results and discussion and understanding of mutual
problems.
Leadership.-Adult home demonstration club members, as individuals
and as organized groups, have perhaps given more encouragement, inspira-
tion and actual assistance to the 4-H Club program than any other Exten-
sion group through their cooperation and leadership.
In the leadership phase of the program, 1,104 4-H Club girls accepted
responsibilities in their local groups and 1,416 women worked in different
ways with 4-H Club girls.
Where there were adequate junior and adult leaders, it was possible
for the 4-H Clubs to meet more often. For training, some 30,459 attended
the 881 leader training meetings in 1956.
Fairs.-Four-H Club girls exhibited and participated in county fairs,
county youth fairs, Florida State Fair, Central Florida Fair, North Florida
Fair, and Greater Jacksonville Fair.
University 4-H Club Girls.-The State Home Demonstration Office spon-
sored this group as a means of helping 4-H Club girls now in college con-
tinue to develop their head, heart, hands and health.
This year for the ninth time this group sponsored the Annual Youth
Conference on the Florida State University Campus. Their topic for dis-
cussion was "What Do You Think?"

Fig. 24.-Annual Rural Youth Conference at Florida State University
provided college 4-H girls and boys an opportunity to do some serious
thinking and discussing, as well as to engage in a few lighter moments
with discussion leaders.







Annual Report, 1956


HEALTH EDUCATION

Frances C. Cannon, Assistant Health Education Specialist

Continuous progress is being made in health education. Evidences were
seen and reported not only on the phases of work emphasized this year
but also on the emphasis programs of past years.
Health Education.-Continued emphasis was placed on including health
education in all Extension activities. This showed the growing concept of
the value of health education.
County home demonstration agents spent 1,186 days furthering the
knowledge of health. This was done through club and council programs,
news articles, radio talks, home visits and counseling. Some of the subjects
covered were: Understanding yourself, work habits, rodent control, sani-
tation, weight control, tuberculosis, cancer and health problems of older
age. Home demonstration agents held programs on health subjects of
this type.
A total of 367 adult home demonstration clubs and 281 girls' 4-H Clubs
have health chairmen. There were 49 leader training meetings held, with
737 women attending. In addition, health education classes were held as
parts of the State Home Demonstration Short Course, the Girls' State 4-H
Short Course and 4-H camps.
4-H Health.-There were 6,560 4-H Club girls who received definite
training in health, nursing, first aid and good grooming. This training
was given in 4-H Club meetings, at 4-H camps, achievement days and
short course.
Progress is being made in having 4-H members receive physical exam-
inations before camps. Each year more and more are having this as a
requirement for protection of the individual as well as the group. This
year 3,914 4-H Club girls received physical examinations. Also 3,542 were
enrolled in health improvement projects and 1,946 completed their work.
Cooperation with other agencies provided additional opportunities for
home demonstration work to promote health education activities. Also, it
served to better inform the general public of home demonstration's interest
and part in community and county-wide health problems.
Three home demonstration agents served on their county cancer boards
while a fourth one helped organize a county cancer unit. Cancer education
films and programs were presented at club meetings, achievement days
and county councils. Seminole County women made gowns for cancer clinic
and many other counties made cancer dressings. Helping with the Cancer
Crusade were 357 home demonstration clubs and 146 4-H Clubs.
Three counties held education programs on tuberculosis, while others
cooperated with X-ray mobile units. In Citrus County two home demon-
stration clubs had charge of the chest X-ray units in their community.
Twenty women worked and around 700 people were X-rayed in,the two
days. In the Christmas seal sales 287 home demonstration clubs and 290
4-H Clubs gave their assistance.
Three hundred and eighty-six home demonstration clubs and 336 4-H
Clubs assisted with the March of Dimes.
Four-H Club members in two counties sold Easter lilies for crippled
children's homes. The Liberty County Home Demonstration Agent made
arrangements with the Crippled Children's Clinic for treatment of a 4-H
girl injured when five years old by a falling ice box.
A few of the other ways home demonstration and 4-H Clubs cooperated
with local agencies were: Helped organize two county health committees,







Florida Cooperative Extension


program on Florida State Alcoholic Rehabilitation plan, brought pre-school
children and their mothers to clinics, supplied toys for a negro nursery,
made lap robes and scuffs for veterans hospital, and made dolls for chil-
dren's home.
Additional close cooperation was given by county health departments,
the State Board of Health, local physicians, the Florida Medical Asso-
ciation, Red Cross chapters, veterans' hospitals and children's homes.
Recreation.-Many of the activities of home demonstration clubs and
4-H Clubs are looked upon by the women and girls as recreation. In
several county reports mention is made of women getting away from their
home and mixing with others only at home demonstration club meetings.
Levy County home demonstration women spoke of State Senior Council
meeting as being their only vacation, as well as educational.
Almost all home demonstration and 4-H Clubs hold Christmas parties in
December and picnics in the summer. In one county the women have
added a new annual recreation affair-a Valentine Dinner for their husbands
only.
In Taylor County some type of recreation is a part of each club meet-
ing as a means of encouraging more family and community recreation.
This is true in many other counties, too.
Recreation has been presented as subject matter also. Jackson County
had a series of meetings on good music in the home, while in another county
good books in the home was the subject.
Home demonstration clubs do not keep recreation just to themselves.
Bay County's women planned and conducted a party for the golden age
people of their county. The 4-H Clubs in other counties have held recre-
ational activities for county homes (for old people), crippled children's
groups and underprivileged children.

Fig. 25.-These youngsters enjoy taking training in recreation methods.

,,-I








Annual Report, 1956 83

The many home demonstration clubs which own their club houses offer
them to their community for recreational activities. In many instances
the home demonstration club house is the only building in the community
where groups may gather.
Realizing the need for more family get-togethers, the 4-H girls and
boys of Pasco County held two county-wide recreation fun nights, inviting
their parents and leaders as guests. The parents took part in the games
with the youngsters.
Recreation plays a big part in 4-H rally days, 4-H achievement days and
4-H camps. In many camps recreation was taught as one of the group
instruction periods.
A 4-H recreation project was developed this year by the Assistant
Health Education Specialist, the Home Industries and Marketing Specialist,
and the 4-H Club agents. The project, as set up, was aimed at guiding
the girls and boys in developing well-rounded recreational interest, as well
as recreational leadership.







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME IMPROVEMENT

Bonnie J. Carter, Home Improvement Specialist

The home improvement program in Florida is designed to meet the
needs of the people for comfortable, convenient, attractive and well managed
homes to enable them to live more satisfying lives and become better
citizens.
The program was planned and carried out in 52 counties by white and
negro home demonstration agents. They were aided by specialists, state
administrative staff, voluntary local leaders and senior and junior councils
of home demonstration work. Information was presented through 4-H,
women's club and special interest meetings, tours, achievement days and
home visits. Work was also carried on with other organizations and per-
sons, and through the press and radio.


Fig. 26.-Girls study color and home furnishings at short course.

Extension agents spent 5,632 days working on all phases of home im-
provement. Voluntary local leaders numbering 3,913 assisted with the
home improvement program. Two hundred and ninety-one meetings were
held for these voluntary local leaders.
House and Surroundings-Furnishings and Equipment.-This phase of
the program is designed to improve housing conditions, create a desire for
a higher standard of living, promote good health, and help bring about







Annual Report, 1956 85

satisfying home and family life. Activities include: (1) building, remodel-
ing, repairing homes and adding conveniences to meet family needs; (2)
beautifying the home and surroundings; (3) furnishing the home for com-
fort, convenience and beauty.
Family Living.-Activities to help people improve family living include:
(1) assistance in making satisfactory adjustments to living cond tions;
(2) adopting good practices in rearing children; (3) improving family
relationships; (4) understanding children; (5) managing the income to
meet needs of the family; (6) making wise use of credit; (7) using human
and material resources to improve family living; (8) adding to the family
income in kind or cash; (9) practicing orderly, systematic and efficient
work habits; (10) practicing everyday good housekeeping; (11) providing
security for old age and medical and dental care; (12) providing and using
opportunities for religious, civic, educational and recreational activities
and (13) becoming informed on matters of law, banking and investments.
Consumer Education.-This phase of the program is designed to help
people make better use of their resources. They are assisted in: (1) learn-
ing to make wise decisions when buying household supplies, equipment,
furnishings and building material; (2) developing skills in building and
in repairing and refinishing floors, walls, work surfaces, furniture and
woodwork; (3) reading and understanding labels, specifications, guarantees
and directions for care and use of equipment and materials used at home;
and (4) following recommended practices for use and care of same.
Home improvement activities promoted through the Extension program
and some of the results are listed below. These figures represent work
of men, women, girls, boys, white and negro from 1955 and 1956:

1955 1956
Total number of persons contacted individually or
through meetings ...................... ...... ............ ........... 156,019 181,886
Estimated number of different families, homemakers
or other individuals assisted directly or indirectly
to adopt recommended practices .................................... 102,655 138,306
Families, Homemakers and Other Individuals
Assisted with:
Building a new house ............ .......... ..-- ................. 788 1,126
Remodeling or repairing the house .............................. 3,618 5,161
Improving kitchen and laundry ................................... 3,592 4,828
Improving storage space ................. ............ ..... 4,518 5,716
Selection, installation and care of:
(a) water and/or sewage system ..................... 1,509 1,445
(b) cooling: systems ...................... ............. 1,184 1,176
Planning electrical systems ....................................... 1,403 1,618
Landscaping home grounds .......................................... 19,195 25,554
Selection, use and care of home equipment
(other than sewing) ................................................... 8,033 9,111
Selection, use and construction of home furnishings.... 8,460 9,149
Repair, reconditioning and care of home furnishings.. 6,300 7,643
Furniture arrangement and use of accessories ....... 8,195 10,826
Color schemes and wall finishes ................................ 9,963 9,299
Floor finishes ............... ............................ 2,203 4,027
In arriving at management decisions .......................... 7,547 7,615
In improving housekeeping methods ...................... 12,868 12,714
W ith family laundering .................................................. 7,324 11,694
In the use of rural family outlook information .......... 5,427 5,894
With family financial planning .................................... 5,490 5,024








Florida Cooperative Extension


1955 1956
With keeping and analyzing home records .................. 3,320 3,791
W ith family legal matters ................................... ..... 2,445 3,951
With legal aspects of farm business ........................... *250 *610
With obtaining and using farm credit .......................... *4 *13
Families Assisted with:
Child development and guidance ..-................................. 5,993 6,590
Providing recommended play, clothing and equip-
ment suited to age of children .................................. 6,691 8,065
Understanding roles of family members and
strengthening family relationships .......................... 6,996 8,032
Individual adjustments and personality
development .....................................-. ..-........... .... 5,861 8,458
Home and family recreation ........................ .............. 9,263 16,791
Home Demonstration Reports only.
4-H Club Work is designed to stimulate the interest of girls in learning
to do simple home tasks well, in making their homes more beautiful, com-
fortable and convenient, both inside and out, and in becoming well adjusted
members of their families and communities. Listed below are activities
and results for 1955 and 1956:
4-H Club Members Receiving Definite Training in: 1955 1956
Money management .......................................... 8,570 8,503
Beautification of home grounds* .................................... 4,245 4,499
Child care ...........................-..........................--.............. 3,056 3,619
Home management (good housekeeping) ...................... 1,527 1,855
Home furnishings and room improvement .................... 4,300 3,781
Electricity ...................................................--............... 1,253 1,661
Meetings held to train 4-H leaders .................................. 93 180
Attendance of these training meetings ........................ 1,900 1,064
Boys and girls in cooperation with Extension Horticulturists and Farm Electrification
Specialist.

Special training in several phases of 4-H Club home improvement was
given to 4-H girls, voluntary local leaders and home demonstration agents
numbering 500 at the annual 4-H short courses. Others in the counties were
assisted through leader training meetings, 4-H Club and junior council
meetings and home visits.
Requests for help with the several phases of home improvement have
increased during the past few years. Apparently the home demonstration
agents, assisted by the home improvement and other Extension specialists
will .need to train more voluntary local leaders and help provide oppor-
tunities for them to help in their communities.







Annual Report, 1956


HOME INDUSTRIES AND MARKETING

Gladys Kendall, Home Industries and Marketing Specialist

To assist families with ways and means of increasing and extending
the family income is the objective of the home industries and marketing
project. Consumer information, management of resources, and production
and marketing quality home-produced products were emphasized in both
adult and youth work during 1956.
Consumer Information, Management and Family Economics.-In the
consumer information phase of the program, major emphasis was on buy-
ing foods, equipment, ready-made clothing and household textiles. In
management of resources emphasis was on managing time, energy and
money. Families were assisted with problems concerning selection, pur-
chasing and "making versus buying" decisions. In family economics, finan-
cial planning, banking, investments, insurance, social security and family
legal affairs were emphasized. County Extension agents spent 1,561 days
working on home management and family economics.


Fig. 27.-A USDA meats specialist points out to the Home Industries and
Marketing Specialist how cuts of beef may be bought economically.

Home Industries, Arts and Crafts.-Home industries were developed to
supplement family income. Use was made of native materials, food
products and other resources of the farm and home. Thirty-three counties
reported that 3,784 4-H and home demonstration club members produced
agricultural and handicraft products for market. One thousand eight hun-
dred and forty-one of them marketed standardized products and 1,912 im-







Florida Cooperative Extension


proved the quality of the products sold. Approximately 93 percent of cash
received was from the sale of food products and the other 7 percent from
the sale of flowers, plants, handicraft articles and services, such as nursing,
baby sitting, catering and sewing. More than 50 percent of the total cash
received was from the sale of eggs. In addition to the cash received for
their products, many families contributed home-made products to charity
and community drives in place of cash.
Home demonstration and 4-H Club members reported marketing the
following food products with values indicted: Eggs, $498,002.72; poultry,
$26,527.28; fresh vegetables, $17,129.39; dairy products, $41,443.13; fresh
fruit, $16,988.86; baked foods, $8,525.60; canned foods, $4,576.21; frozen
and cured foods, $7,705.84; meat, $91,009.06; miscellaneous food products,
$57,609.83; total food products, $769,517.92; other products, including crafts,
flowers, plants and services, $55,984.71; total of all products, $825,502.63.
The demand for learning craft skills was met by helping people know
and apply art principles to homemaking and by helping them create and
produce inexpensive gifts and articles for family use and for sale. All
craft activities were a definite part of a basic family living program.
Seven hundred and eighty-nine volunteer leaders actively assisted with
this part of the program. Agents, leaders and specialists assisted 9,514
families with practices incident to the production of arts and crafts.
There was a ready market for quality handicraft articles that were
suitable for gifts and souvenirs and that sold at a reasonable price. The
development of profitable hobbies and leisure time activities therefore
was encouraged.
Marketing Activities.-The program in marketing and distribution of
agricultural products was conducted by Extension specialists in agricul-
tural economics, marketing and other agricultural subject matter fields.
However, people who worked closely with the home demonstration agents
looked to them for guidance and assistance in marketing farm products.
Home demonstration agents devoted 82 days to assisting with market-
ing agricultural products. They assisted 11 organized cooperatives which
have 1,193 members. In addition, 18 informally organized groups were
assisted with marketing. A total of 3,673 persons were assisted by home
demonstration agents with some phases of farm marketing, including
preparation for market, outlook and market information, arranging to
sell, and selling.
Program Development.-The home industries and marketing program
was integrated with related subject matter. It was planned and developed
in 52 counties by the specialist, working cooperatively with other members
of the Agricultural Extension Service, volunteer leaders, home demonstra-
tion and 4-H Club members, junior and senior councils, and others. In-
struction was given in: (1) improving consumer buying practices when
selecting foods, household textiles, clothing, house furnishings and equip-
ment; (2) managing to best advantage all resources, especially time,
energy and money; (3) improving the management of family business
affairs; (4) making quality products of palmetto, bamboo, cocoanut fronds,
pine needles, cattail rush, reed and other materials; (5) improving stand-
ards, packaging and labeling of home products; (6) interpreting laws and
regulations concerning the marketing of products; (7) making toys and
games from scrap and gifts from inexpensive materials; (8) making per-
sonal accessories such as bags, hats and jewelry; (9) recognizing and
using art principles; and (10) how to plan, prepare and arrange educa-
tional exhibits for use at fairs, achievement days and other events.
Volunteer leaders assisting with this program included 664 in home
management, 494 in family economics, 178 in marketing of home products








Annual Report, 1956 89

and 789 in home arts and crafts. In 20 training meetings the specialist
assisted with training a total of 676 leaders. Agents conducted 10 training
meetings in marketing and 215 in home arts and crafts for leaders. Agents,
leaders and others held 3,283 meetings attended by approximately 32,000
adults and 4-H Club girls. The specialist trained agents, leaders, club
members and others at three in-service meetings for agents, at state-wide
conferences, short courses and other special events. In six counties 195
leaders were trained to plan, prepare, arrange and judge or evaluate
exhibits. Agents used a total of 6,235 exhibits to inform the public of
home demonstration work.
4-H Club Work.-The 4-H Club program emphasized management of
time and money; using consumer information when selecting foods, cloth-
ing, textiles and equipment; using improved practices and methods when
producing articles for sale or for gifts; and keeping more accurate and
complete records. There were 1,854 club members enrolled in management
projects, with 1,243 completing, and a total of 8,503 members who received
definite training in money management. A total of 2,698 members were
enrolled in home industries, art and crafts, with 2,160 completing.
Special training in better buying practices, management and art and
crafts was given to approximately 375 4-H Club girls, leaders and home
demonstration agents at short courses and 4-H Club camps.








Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK

J. A. Gresham, District Agent

The programs of the Agricultural Extension Service for and with negro
farmers were conducted under the immediate leadership of 10 negro county
agents. Program determinations were finalized and execution made through
the cooperative efforts of community leaders, county advisory councils,
specialists, individual farmers and the supervisor.
The state conference of agricultural and home demonstration agents
was held on the campus of Florida A and M University September 10-14,
with discussion leaders from the State and Federal Extension Service.
One livestock slaughtering, meat cutting and curing workshop was held
at the University of Florida for all negro Extension workers November 6.
A state-wide farmers' conference was held on the campus of Florida
A. and M. University early in December, with more than 200 farmers and
their wives in attendance. This conference was held cooperatively by the
Extension Service, vocational agriculture department and the School of
Agriculture at the University.
Five counties placed exhibits at the State Fair in Tampa January 31
to February 11. Three agents displayed county exhibits at the North
Florida Fair in Tallahassee. Agents also assisted communities and in-
dividual farmers with exhibit plans and preparation for five county fairs.
4-11 Club Work.-Three hundred and seventeen 4-H Club delegates at-
tended the State 4-H Club Short Course held at Florida A. and M. Uni-
versity June 5-9.
The state 4-H Club camp (Doe Lake) was operated with the record
attendance of 315 4-H Club boys during the three-week camping period
for boys.
Four outstanding boys attended the Regional 4-H Camp in Washington,
D. C., along with four girls. All delegates won the right to represent
Florida because they excelled in leadership and project work.
There were seven state winners in the 4-H Club awards program, which
was accepted by Director M. O. Watkins for negro 4-H Club members.
Negro 4-H Club members participated in fairs and shows as follows:
State 4-H Club Corn Show at the North Florida Fair, Tallahassee;
District 4-H Club fat hog shows at Monticello and Webster; 4-H Club
demonstrations at State Fair, Tampa.
Summary of Activities.-Records reveal that the agents made 5,477
farm and home visits, received 6,896 office calls and 3,287 telephone calls,
prepared 201 news articles or stories, and made or prepared 10 broadcasts.
They distributed 14,091 bulletins, conducted 111 adult result demonstra-
tions, held 73 training meetings for leaders; attended by 1,409; and par-
ticipated in 231 meetings attended by 5,631 people.
Local leaders held or conducted 84 meetings attended by 1,482 people.







Annual Report, 1956


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Floy Britt, District Home Demonstration Agent
Home demonstration work for negro women and girls is established
in 12 counties-Alachua, Columbia, Dade, Duval, Gadsden, Hillsborough,
Jackson, Leon, Madison, Marion, Putnam and Volusia.
The state program for negro home demonstration work is directed by
the State Home Demonstration Agent, who is responsible to the State
Extension Director. The Negro District Agent supervises the work and
assists with state-wide programs.
In carrying on the Extension program in 1956, negro home demonstra-
tion agents made 4,310 home visits, received 6,735 office calls, had 6,233
telephone calls, published 246 news articles and distributed 23,695 bulletins.
As a result of Extension influence, 2,793 negro families adopted recom-
mended practices in improving their homes and surroundings; 3,066 families
changed practices in providing family clothing; 3,444 families made im-
provement in food production, nutrition and health; and 2,788 families
adopted recommended practices and methods in safety.
Some assistance from Extension specialists was available during the
year which helped agents to do better Extension teaching.
One home demonstration agent took Extension courses at the Regional
Summer School, Prairie View, Texas; one agent attended summer school
at Tuskegee Institute, Alabama; one agent took evening classes at Bethune
Cookman College, Daytona Beach; the District Agent took evening classes
at Florida A. and M. University and also took a correspondence course in
social work from the General Extension Division of Florida. Efforts for
professional improvement were made by these agents to increase their
efficiency as home demonstration and district agents.
Adult Program.-The negro Extension program was designed to in-
crease and conserve food; to meet the needs of Florida negro families;
provide more convenient and attractive homes and more adequate clothing;
improve health practices and family recreational facilities; and guide
families in wise spending of their incomes.
Agents reported a total of 87 organized adult home demonstration clubs
with an enrollment of 2,029 members. They held 908 method demonstra-
tion meetings with 12,519 attending; conducted 62 adult training meetings
with 763 attending; and held 32 county-wide meetings with an attendance of
699. Eleven adult county councils with 328 members were organized, and
575 volunteer leaders assisted in promoting the home demonstration program.
Under the guidance of the home demonstration agents and the super-
vision of the District Agent, homemakers from 12 counties set up a credit-
able state home demonstration exhibit at the Florida State Fair.
4-H Club Activities.-Negro home demonstration agents reported a total
of 120 organized 4-H clubs in 12 counties, with 4,717 members enrolled.
The 4-H girls enrolled in 12,726 projects and completed 8,847. In addition,
agents held 64 4-H training meetings, with 1,056 attending, and 1,051
method demonstration meetings, with 43,692 in attendance.
Eleven 4-H Club girls won honors in the 1956 awards program and
four outstanding 4-H Club girls won free trips to the 1956 Regional 4-H
Club Camp held at Howard University, Washington, D. C.
The State 4-H Short Course was attended by 180 girls and 17 leaders.
Camp attendance at Doe Lake was 325 girls and 24 leaders. A state-wide
4-H Council for Negro Girls was organized, with 4-H county council officers
from 12 counties participating. Ten 4-H team demonstrations were given
at the State Fair and 12 outstanding 4-H Club g'rls were awarded recog-
nition certificates for meritorious work done in their various counties.







Florida Cooperative Extension


INDEX


Agents, county, 4
home demonstration, 4
negro, 7
Agricultural economics, 15
Agricultural engineering, 21
Agronomy, 25
Allston, Clifford, 17
Apiary, 30
Animal husbandry, 27
meats, 28
sheep, 28
swine, 27

Barrus, Edith Y., 66
Beekeeping, 30
Bevis, Joyce, 66
Britt, Floy, 91
Broilers, 54
Brogdon, J. E., 43
Brothers, S. L., 25
Brown, W. W. 32
Busby, Joe N., 8

Cake, E. W., 17
Camps, 4-H, 32
girls', 79
Cannon, Frances C., 47, 81
Carter, Bonnie J., 84
Christian, Susan R., 45, 77
Citriculture, 35
Citrus grove management, 15
committee, 35
4-H, 36
institutes, 36
production, 35
schools, 36
tours, 36
yields, 15
Clayton, H. G., 8
Clothing and textiles, 71
Clubs, boys', 32
girls', 79, 89
home demonstration, 67
negro, 90, 91
University 4-H, 80
Coe, D. M., 53
Conservation, 10
food, 76
soil and water, 58
Consumer education, 85
Cooper, J. Francis, 40
County agents, 4
Cromartie, Alice L., 75

Dairy herd improvement assn., 37


Dairy husbandry, 37
breeding program, 38
4-H, 39
management, 38
pasture, 38
records, 37
registry, 38
Demonstration, home, 66
negro women, 91
Development, farm and home, 45
Dickenson, Elizabeth, 21
Director's report, 8
District agents, 8
Durrance, K. L., 27

Economics, agricultural, 15
Editorial Department, 40
Editorial and visual aids, 73
Education, consumer, 85
health, 81
youth, 11
Egg-Laying Test, 54
Electric, program, 23
equipment, 22
power suppliers, 24
wiring, 23
Electrification, farm, 21
Elkins, Bronna Mae, 79
Engineering, agricultural, 21
Entomology, 43
Exhibits, forestry, 50
safety, 47

Fairs, 80
Farm electrification, 21
Farm and home development, 45
Farm and home safety, 47
Farm buildings, 21
electrification, 21
equipment, 22
forestry, 48
machinery, 21
management, 16
safety, 47
Farmer cooperatives, 17
Financial statement, 9
Florida Dairy Association, 38
Department of Agriculture, 56
National Egg-laying Test, 56
Floyd, Ben H., 32
Forestry, 10, 48
catalpa, 50
fire prevention, 18
red cedar, 49
slash pines, 49








Annual Report, 1956


Four-H activities, 11, 33
agronomy, 25
apiary, 30
award program, 34
boys' short course, 32
camps, 32, 79, 90, 91
citrus, 36
clothing, 71
conservation, 58
cooperative, 18
dairy, 39
electric program, 23
entomology, 23
food and nutrition, 75
food conservation, 76
food production, 77
forestry, 50
gardening, 60
girls', 79, 91
health education, 81
home industries, 87
livestock judging, 32
negro, 90, 91
ornamental horticulture, 51
poultry, 54
tractor, 22, 33
University club, 80
Food and nutrition, 75
Food conservation, 76
Food production, 77
Foreign students, 70
visitors, 11
Forestry, 48
Fruits, minor, 35

Gardening, 60
Girls' 4-H, 79
Godwin, Grant M., 32
Grady, Eunice, 66
Gresham, J. A., 90

Hamilton, H. G., 15
Haynie, John D., 30
Health, 10
education, 81
4-H, 81
recreation, 82
Henderson, J. R., 25
Herbert, J. H., Jr., 58
Holstein, Helen, 66
Home Demonstration, 66
foreign students, 70
4-H committee, 79
libraries, 74
personnel training, 69
state council, 67
Home development, 45


Home economics, 66
improvement, 84
industries and marketing, 87
family living, 85
Honey production, 0
Horticulture, 51

Institutes, poultry, 57
Irrigation, 21

Jamison, F. S., 59
Jensen, A. S., 48
Joiner, J. N., 51
Judging teams, 29

Kalch, L. W., 54
Kendall, Gladys, 87
King, Emily, 79

Lawrence, Fred P., 35
Libraries, 74
Livestock, 27
judging, 32

Management, broiler, 54
layer, 54
turkey, 54
Marketing, 17, 87
agreements, 18, 20
cooperatives, 17
4-H, 18
poultry, 54
organization, 20
research, 20
timber, 50
vegetables, 19, 59, 61
Meats, 28
Mediterranean fruit fly, 43
McCown, Jack T., 35
McElwee, E. W., 51
McMullen, K. S., 8
Mehrhof, N. R., 54
Milk, 37
Mixon, A. C., 25
Moore, J. S., 54
Moxley, C. C., 16
Murphree, Clyde, 45
Myers, Forrest E., 59

Negro farm demonstration, 7, 90
Negro home demonstration, 7, 91
Newspapers, 40
Nieland, L. T., 48
Norton, J. D., 60
Nutrition and foods, 75

Ornamental horticulture, 51







Florida Cooperative Extension


activities, 52
4-H, 51
special program, 51
O'Steen, A. W., 49

Pace, J. E., 27 -
Parvin, F. W., 8
Personnel training, 10
Perry, F. S., 8
Pettis, A. M., 22, 47
Plant pathology, 53
Platt, W. J., Jr., 8
Poultry husbandry, 57
agencies, 57
Egg-laying Test, 54
4-H, 54
institutes, 57
marketing, 54
junior work, 54
tests, 56
Production, foods, 77
fruits and vegetables, 78
Publications, 41
Program, Extension, 8
Projects, 4-H, 32

Radio, 40
Reaves, C. W., 37
Recreation, 4-H, 82
Reddish, R. L., 27
Rose, S. A., 51
Rosenberger, Stanley, 61

Safety, 47
education, 47
Savage, Zach, 15


Schools, cattlemen's, 27
Sharpe, M. H., 40
Schotten, Glenn F., 40
Sheehan, T. J., 51
Sheep, 28
Short course, boys' 32
girls', 79
honey-electric, 31
swine, 28
Sikes, Anna Mae, 66
Skinner, T. C., 21
Social security, 16
Soil conservation, 58
Sparks, T. W., 37
Staff, state, 2
Statistical report, 12
Summary, 4-H, 14
Swine, 27

Telephones, rural, 24
Television, 40
Textiles, 71
Turkeys, 54

Vegetable activities, 59
commercial production, 59
garden, 60
marketing, 61
Visual aids, 42, 73

Warren, Alma, 73
Water conservation, 58
Watkins, Marshall 0., 8
Wildlife camp, 32


Youth education, 14