<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Credits
 Director's report
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering and farm...
 Agronomy
 Animal husbandry
 Beekeeping
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Citriculture and minor fruits
 Dairy husbandry
 Editorial department
 Entomology
 Farm and home development
 Farm and home safety
 Farm forestry
 Ornamental horticulture
 Poultry husbandry
 Soil and water conservation
 Vegetable production and merch...
 Home demonstration work
 Clothing and textiles
 Editorial and visual aids
 Food and nutrition
 Food conservation
 Food production
 Girls' 4-H club work
 Health education
 Home improvement
 Home industries and marketing
 Pre-service and in-service...
 Negro farm demonstration work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Report Florida agricultural extension service
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00016
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1955
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00016
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Director's report
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Agricultural economics
        Page 14 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Agricultural engineering and farm electrification
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Agronomy
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Animal husbandry
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Beekeeping
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Citriculture and minor fruits
        Page 31
    Dairy husbandry
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Editorial department
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Entomology
        Page 39
    Farm and home development
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Farm and home safety
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Farm forestry
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Ornamental horticulture
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Poultry husbandry
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Soil and water conservation
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Vegetable production and merchandising
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Home demonstration work
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Editorial and visual aids
        Page 69
    Food and nutrition
        Page 70
    Food conservation
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Food production
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Girls' 4-H club work
        Page 75
    Health education
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Home improvement
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Home industries and marketing
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Pre-service and in-service training
        Page 84
    Negro farm demonstration work
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Index
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
Full Text







COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
H. G. CLAYTON, DIRECTOR










1955 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE










REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1955
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1955









BOARD OF CONTROL

J. Lee Ballard, Chairman, St. Petersburg Ralph L. Miller, Plymouth
Mrs. Alfred I. DuPont, Jacksonville W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
Robert H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville J. Broward Culpepper, Tallahassee,
Secretary

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE


Willard M. Fifield, M.S. Provost for
Agriculture 1
H. G. Clayton, M.S.A., Director of
Extension
Marshall O. Watkins, D.P.A., Assistant
Director
F. W. Parvin, M.S.A., Assistant to the
Director 2
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S.. Administrative
Assistant 1

AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION
WORK, GAINESVILLE
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor 1
Frank B. Borries, Jr., B.A.,
Associate Editor
M. H. Sharpe, Ph.D., Assistant Editor1
Harold L. Moreland, Jr., B.S. Assistant
Editor
K. S. McMullen, M.Agr., District Agent
F. S. Perry, M. Agr., District Agent
W. J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A., District Agent
C. W. Reaves, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
T. W. Sparks, B.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Husbandman
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry
Husbandman 1
J. S. Moore, M.S.A., Poultryman
L. W. Kalch, B.S.A. Asst. Poultry
Husbandman
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor Egg-
Laying Test, Chipley
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist 1
J. E. Pace, M.S.A., An. Industrialist
R. L. Reddish, M.S., Asst. An.
Industrialist
K. L. Durrance, B.S.A., Asst. Animal
Industrialist
L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester
A. S. Jensen, B.S., Asst. Forester
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural
Economist 1
E. W. Cake, Ph.D., Marketing Economist
W. E. Black. Ph.D., Vegetable Marketing
Specialist
Clyde E. Murphree, M.S.A., Asst.
Economist -
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental
Horticulturist
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Asst. Ornam.
Horticulturist
Fred P. Lawrence, M.Agr., Citriculturist
J. N. Joiner, M.Agr., Asst. Horticulturist 2
Jack T. McCown, B.S.A., Asst.
Horticulturist
W. W. Brown, M.Agr., Boys 4-H Agent
G. M. Godwin, M.Agr., Asst. Boys 4-H
Club Agent
Ben H. Floyd, B.S.A., Asst. Boys 4-H
Club Agent
1Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4Cooperative, Florida State University


T. C. Skinner, M.Agr., Agricultural
Engineer
C. C. Moxley, Ph.D., Assoc. Economist
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A.E., Farm
Electrification Specialist
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
V. L. Johnson, Rodent Control
Specialist :
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A.,
Agronomist I
A. C. Mixon, M.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable
Crops Spec.1
Stanley E. Rosenberger, M.Agr.,
Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
Forrest E. Myers, M.Agr., Assistant
Vegetable Crops Specialist
J. Montelaro, Ph.D., Asst. Veg. Crops
Specialist
J. D. Norton, M.S., Asst. Veg. Crops
Specialist
James E. Brogdon, M.Agr., Entomologist
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Assistant
Soils Conservationist
Donald M. Coe, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
TALLAHASSEE
Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Agent
Eunice Grady, M.S., Asst. to State HDA
Helen D. Holstein, M.A., District Agent
Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus, B.A., District
Agent
Joyce Bevis, M.A., District Agent
Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, B.S., Home
Improvement Specialist
Elizabeth Dickenson, M.A., Clothing &
Textile Specialist
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, B.A., Home
Industries and Marketing Specialist
Emily King, M.Ed., State Girls 4-H
Club Agent
Bronna Mae Elkins, M.E., Asst. State
Girls 4-H Club Agent
Susan R. Christian, M.S., Assistant
Economist in Food Conservation
Lena E. Sturges, M.S.H.E., Assistant
Economist in Food Conservation4
Alma Warren, M.A. in L.S., Assistant
Editor and Visual Aids Specialist4
Frances C. Cannon, M.S., Health
Education Specialist
Alice L. Cromartie, M.S., Extension
Nutritionist

NEGRO WORK
TALLAHASSEE
Floy Britt, B.S.H.E., District Agent
J. A. Gresham, B.S.A., District Agent
20n leave. 3In cooperation with U.S.










CONTENTS
Page
D director's R report .......................... ............. ................................. 7
Statistical Report ..................................... ....................................... .... 11
Supervision of County Agents .................................... .... ..... ............... 14
Agricultural Economics .................... ................ ...... .. ............... 14
M marketing ..................... .................................. ............................. 14
Citrus Grove M management ................................... ......... ................. 15
Agricultural Engineering and Farm Electrification ................................ 17
Agronomy .................. ...................................................... ... ........ 21
A nim al H usbandry .............................................. .................... ....... .... 23
Beekeeping ..................... ................... .............. ............... .... 26
Boys' 4-H Club Work .................... ... ............... ............... 28
Citriculture and M inor Fruits .................... ......................... ...- ... ....... .... 31
Dairy Husbandry ..................................................... ........ ... 33
Editorial Departm ent .. .............................. .................... 36
Entom ology ....................... ...... .......... .. ............................ 39
Farm and Home Development ......... ....... ... ......................... ...... ............ 40
Farm and Home Safety ................................................ 42
Farm Forestry ................ ...................... ......-....... 44
Ornamental Horticulture ......... ...................... .......................... 47
Poultry Husbandry ................................. .......... ................ 49
Soil and W ater Conservation ................... .... ........................................ 54
Vegetable Production and Merchandising .....-............... .......................... 56
Commercial Vegetables ......... ...... ...... ...................................... 56
Vegetable Gardening ......................... ...... .................... 58
Retail Merchandising of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables ........................ 59
Home Demonstration Work ....... ........................... 61
Clothing and Textiles ......................................... ............ 66
Editorial and Visual Aids ..................* -........... ............ ......... 69
Food and N nutrition ................................. ...... ........... ...... ...................... 70
Food Conservation ....................... .... ... ..... ........................... 71
F ood Production ................. ............................ ............. ..................... 73
Girls' 4-H Club Work ........................ .................... 75
H health Education ................................. .............. .................................... 76
Home Improvement .............. ...................................... 79
Home Industries and Marketing ................. ........................... 81
Pre-Service and In-Service Training ............................................... ........... 84
Negro Farm Demonstration Work ........ .. ..................................... 85
Negro Home Demonstration Work .... .... ... .............................. 87





[3]








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
(As of November 30, 1955)
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Alachua.......... Loonis Blitch............... Gainesville....Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Alachua Gainesville
(Asst.).........A. T. Andrews............... -Mrs. Delores Y. Shamsedin
Baker.............A. L. Harrell................. Macclenny ..................................
Bay.................. H. M. Carr................ Panama City
-Miss Emma L. Stevenson
Bradford.........G. T. Huggins..............Starke..................Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Brevard........... J. T. Oxford....................Cocoa......................Mrs. Sue B. Young
Brevard
(Asst.)......H... W. Cunningham........Cocoa .......................................
Broward..........Robert S. Pryor..............Ft. Lauderdale........Miss Louise Taylor
Broward Ft. Lauderdale
(Asst.)........ Matthew W. Collier...... -Mrs. Laura W. Williams
Broward
(Asst.)........ Lewis E. Watson.: .........t. Lauderdale ..................................
Calhoun............Thomas B. Jones............Blountstown......Mrs. Annie W. Finlay
Calhoun
(Asst.) ......... F. M. Shuler...................Blountstown .......... ......................
Charlotte..........N. H. McQueen..............Punta Gorda ........... .......................
Citrus............. Quentin M edlin.............Inverness ....... .....................................
Citrus
(Asst.)......... C. E. Rowan................... Inverness ......... .......................
Clay...................Emmett D. McCall........Green Cove Springs
-Mrs. Sue P. Glennan
Collier..............D. W. Lander .............Everglades .................................
Columbia......... Neal M. Dukes..............Lake City............Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Columbia
(Asst.).........E. J. Cowen....................Lake City ........... .........................
(Assoc.)*.....W. O. Whittle................Lake City ..................................
Dade...............:.John D. Campbell..........Miami.............. ... Miss Olga Kent
Dade (Asst.)..Roy J. Champagne........Miami............Mrs. Helen B. MacTavish
Dade (Asst.).-Harry F. Roberts..........Miami............Mrs. Camille N. Helgren
Dade (Asst.).. Miami ....................Mrs. Ruth T. Penner
Dade (Asst.)..Nolan L. Durre..............Homestead........Mrs. Erma L. Butcher
Dade (Asst.).-W. R. Llewellyn........ Homestead ........... .......................
DeSoto..............W. L. Woods..................Arcadia..........Miss Virginia J. Holland
Dixie................ D. E. Adam s..................Cross City ........................ ..........
Duval ..............James N. Watson..........Jacksonville..........Mrs. Nellie D. Mills
Duval (Asst.).Wm. E. Kloeppel........... Jacksonville
-Miss Demetra L. Tarrant
Duval (Asst.).J. R. Yelvington............Jacksonville
Mrs. Josephine M. Cameron
Duval (Asst.).Howard Taylor, Jr.........Jacksonville .................................
Escambia.........E. N. Stephens..............Pensacola.......... iss Ethel Atkinson
Escambia Pensacola............Miss Helen A. White
(Asst.).........James H. Walker..........Bunnell ...... ----.......................
Flagler.............F. L. Polhill....................Apalachicola
Franklin...........W. C. Zorn..................... -Miss Barbara J. Daniels
Gadsden..-.... A. G. Driggers................Quincy..........Mrs. Marjorie B. Gregory
Gadsden Quincy........Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson
(Asst.)..........Bernard H. Clark..........Trenton ... ....................... ..
Gilchrist...........L. C. Cobb.......................Moore Haven ...... --......................
Glades............... W ewahitchka ......................
Gulf.................C. R. Laird.....................Jasper..........Mrs. Wylma B. White
Hamilton......... R. A. Andrews................Wauchula.........Mrs. Sallie R. Childers
Hardee............. J. F. Barco......................LaBelle ............ ...................... ...
Hendry.............H. L. Johnson..................Brooksville .......... ................................
Hernando.........Harry J. Brinkley..........
Highlands........B. J. Harris, Jr...............Sebring............Miss Catherine Brabson

* Also Associate Agent in Hamilton County.

[4]








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Highlands
(Asst.).........J. C. Hayman..............Sebring ................................. ....
Hillsborough... Alec White.....................Tampa.........................Miss Lora Kiser
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........C. F. O'quinn.................Tam pa .......... ........................ .....
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........Jean Beem..................Tampa .....................................
Hillsborough
(Asst.).........W. L. Hatcher...............Tampa ............................ .....
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........V. M. Caldwell...............Plant City
-Mrs. Marguriette F. Reese
Hillsborough J. 0. Armor ............... Plant City ....................................--
(Asst.)..........
Hillsborough M. C. Jorgensen...........Ruskin ...............Miss Virginia R. Hill
(Asst.)..........
Holmes............. John C. Russell.............Bonifay ............................. ......
**Holmes
(Assoc.).......C. U. Storey..................Bonifay .................. ............ ...
Indian River... Vero Beach ..................................
Jackson Woodrow W. Glenn..... Marianna............Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
(Asst.)..........L. D. Taylor...................Marianna.......Mrs. Jane R. Burgess
Jefferson..........Albert H. Odom.......... Monticello.............Miss Fern S. Nix
Lafayette.........S. L. Brothers................Mayo..........Mrs. Helen B. Hunerwadel
Lake....--.........R. E. Norris....................Tavares..........Miss Marian Valentine
Lake (Asst.)...J. C. Burkhalter........... Tavares................... Miss Jo Ann Mills
Lee.....................C. P. Heuck................. Fort Myers ----..........................
Leon---... .........James L. Rhoden .......Tallahassee..Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
Leon (Asst.)...J. E. Thomaston............Tallahassee....Mrs. Evelyn C. Presley
Leon (Asst.)...Lenzy M. Scott. Tallahassee.............Tallahassee.....
Levy................Wilburn C. Farrell....... Bronson............Mrs. Linnie R. Coburn
Levy (Asst.)...Oscar L. Joiner, Jr......Bronson ....-.......................- ...
Liberty.............Charles R. Smith.......... Bristol........Mrs. Camilla R. Alexander
Madison---.........Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr...Madison............Mrs. Almon S. Zipperer
Madison
(Asst.).........H. H. Cook....................Madison .......... ...................... ...
Manatee........... Wilson H. Kendrick..... Palmetto............Mrs. Ethel W. Hanson
Manatee
(Asst.)..........E. M. Kelly...................Palmetto.......Miss Wilma A. Reichert
Manatee
(Asst.) ..........Robert G. Curtis...........Palmetto .......................................
Marion..............Edsel W. Rowan-..........Ocala......................Miss Allie Lee Rush
Marion
(Asst.)..........C. A. Tucker, II.......... Ocala............Mrs. Charlotte W. Drane
Martin.............L- M. Johnson...............Stuart..........Mrs. Gertrude P. Harrell
Nassau.............Gordon B. Ellis..............Hilliard.............Mrs. Betty G. Mizell
Okaloosa........... A. McMillan, Jr.........Crestview..............Mrs. Ray C. Baxter
***Okaloosa
(Assoc.).......Jack D. Patten..............Crestview .........................
Okeechobee......C. R. Boyles....................Okeechobee .. .....................
Orange.............F. E. Baetzman..............Orlando .....Miss Marjorie K. Ludeman
Orange
(Asst.).........Henry F. Swanson........Orlando................Mrs. Mary A. Moore
Orange
(Asst.) ........ A. F. Cribbett.............. Orlando ...........................
Osceola.:.:.......J. B. Smith................. Kissimmee ........... .......................
Palm Beach..M. U. Mounts................West Palm Beach..Miss Mary L. Todd
Palm Beach West Palm Beach
(Asst.) .........John H. Causey.............. -Mrs. Elizabeth H. Pierce
Palm Beach

** Also Associate Agent in Washington County.
*** Also Associate Agent in Santa Rosa County.
[5]







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
(Asst.)........ Rayburn K. Price.........West Palm Beach ..............................
Palm Beach
(Asst.)..........Raleigh S. Griffis..........West Palm Beach ....... .......................
Palm Beach
(Asst.)........ H. L. Speer.....................Belle Glade ............. .....................
Pasco...............J. F. Higgins................Dade City............Mrs. Mary R. 'Stearns
Pasco (Asst.).C. A. Byrd................Dade City......Miss Laura E. Christian
Pinellas.............J. H. Logan.............. Largo........Mrs. Charlotte M. Lattimer
Pinellas
(Asst.).........H. A. Williams.............Largo................Miss Jo Ann Tilley
Pinellas
(Asst.)..........L. E. Cunningham........Largo .........................
Polk...................W. P. Hayman............... Bartow...............M-rs. Ruth M. Elkins
Polk (Asst.)...Paul A. Daly.................Bartow............Miss Cora Sue Johnson
Polk (Asst.)... F. N. McCullars.......... Bartow .... .... ............---
Polk (Asst.)...Jackson A. Haddox.......Bartow .................................
Putnam............H. E. Maltby.................Palatka....Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird
Putnam
(Asst.)......... Ralph T. Clay...............Palatka .... ............................ ....
St. Johns......... P. R. McMullen............. St. Augustine......M rs. Anita B. Davis
St. Johns
(Asst.)..........P. C. Shuford..........- St. Augustine ..................................
St. Lucie..........Charles D. Kime...........Fort Pierce......Mrs. Mildred T. Marsh
Santa Rosa......S. C. Kierce................... Milton....................Miss Lora A. Botts
Santa Rosa
(Asst.)..........C. T. Dozier...................M ilton ................... .......................
Sarasota...........Kenneth A. Clark..........Sarasota............Mrs. Laleah B. Brown
Sarasota
(Asst.)......... D. A. George...............Sarasota ......................
Seminole...........C. R. Dawson................. Sanford..............Miss Myrtie C. Wilson
Sumter............... M. Maines, Jr.............Bushnell...............Mrs. May O. Fulton
Sumter
(Asst.)..........J. R. Connell...................Bushnell .............. .................
Suwannee.......J. P. Crews................ Live Oak ................... ...............
Suwannee
(Asst.)..........A. K. Doke.................... Live Oak ................. .................
Taylor...............H. P. Davis....................Perry ................. ................. ....
Union................William J. Cowen..........Lake Butler ............................-
Volusia..............T. R. Townsend..............DeLand ....................................
Volusia
(Asst.)..........J. N. Luttrell................DeLand ............... ........ ...
Wakulla............A. S. Laird.....................Crawfordville .. .................
Walton..............H. O. Harrison...............DeFuniak Springs
-Miss Betty J. Duckett
Washington..... Johnnie E. Davis............Chipley................Mrs. Dorcas L. Payne
NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
Alachua............English M. Greene........Gainesville...............Leontine Williams
Columbia..........McKinley Jeffers........... Lake City...................Gladys Wilkins
Dade.................. Miami...................Victoria M. Simpson
Duval................ Jacksonville--..............Ethel M. Powell
Gadsden............Russell Stephens............Quincy..................Ursula H. Williams
Hamilton..........Isaac Chandler, Jr.........Jasper .................................
Hillsborough... Tampa......................Sudella J. Ford
Jackson............Virgil Elkins..................Marianna................Virginia V. Dickens
Jefferson..........M. E. Groover................Monticello ..........................................
Leon..................Richard A. Hartsfield..Tallahassee .................Irie Mae Clark
Madison............James C. Miller..............Madison.....................Lola E. Preston
Marion..............Eugene P. Smith............Ocala ... ................... .....
Marion.............. Reddick..............Sarah K. Thomas
Putnam............. Palatka.......................Leala M. Reaves
Sumtcr..............Richard L. Bradley......Bushnell ............... ................ ...
Volusia.............. DeLand.................Ida T. Pemberton








Annual Report, 1955


DIRECTOR'S REPORT

H. G. Clayton, Director
Marshall O. Watkins, Assistant Director
F. W. Parvin, Assistant to the Director 1

Substantial progress was made by the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service in 1955 in terms of both volume of work performed and numbers of
people reached.
The total number of farm visits made by agents in 1955 was 91,363, an
increase of 7,834 over 1954. Telephone calls increased from 252,395 in 1954
to 266,241 in 1955. Office calls increased during the year by almost 7,000,
and the agents distributed over 21,000 additional bulletins in 1955.
An increase in activities carried on by local leaders was shown. The
number of training meetings for local leaders in adult work increased from
815 in 1954 to 1,359 in 1955. Correspondingly, attendance at these meet-
ings increased from 14,378 to 40,905. Training meetings for 4-H leaders
increased from 539 to 1,160 and attendance at these meetings increased
from 9,004 to 22,255.
The total 4-H Club membership increased from 33,089 to 35,212. Per-
centage completions increased from 70 to 71 percent. Over 500 additional
club members attended 4-H camps in 1955, bringing the total number of
boys and girls spending a week at camp to almost 5,000. Four-H Club
members carried and completed over 4,000 additional projects in 1955.
The farm and home unit approach was carried out on a pilot basis in
nine counties, with cooperating farm families.
The number of rural non-farm families worked with during the year
increased from 32,645 in 1954 to 40,823 in 1955. The number of urban
families increased from 91,534 to 138,149 and the number of farm families
decreased from 40,948 to 39,316. Whether a particular family is classified
;as a farm family or as as an urban family is sometimes difficult to deter-
:mine. The total number of families worked with during the year increased
from 165,127 in 1954 to 218,288 in 1955, or 32 percent.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1954-55
:Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended ..........................................447,524.32
Clark-McNary ............ .......... ..... ............. 1,620.00
Agricultural Marketing ...................................... 9,250.00

$ 458,394.32

:State Appropriation:
Legislature .......................................... .... ... ....... 742,731.00 742,731.00*
:State Grant-in-aid:...................... .................. .... 3,000.00 3,000.00
State Trust Funds: .................................................. 16,307.00 16,307.00
'County Appropriations: ........................................ 569,084.00 569,084.00

Grand Total ............--.....- -------- ..... .................................. $1,789,516.32

Includes $74,976 in carryover funds from 1953-54
1 Granted leave of absence October 1, 1955, to continue graduate work.








Florida Cooperative Extension


FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1955-56
Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended ..........................................$517,036.50
Agricultural Marketing ........................................ 9,700.00
Bureau of Indian Affairs ---..............-.................. 7,350.00
$ 534,086.50
State Appropriations:
Legislature .............. ............. ... ...... ...... 729,649.00 729,649.00
State Trust Funds:
Estimated ......-................... .. ...------------- 19,600.00 19,600.00
County Appropriations: ....................-----------.................... 593,908.00 593,908.00
Grand Total ..................... --------------------- $1,877,243.50
RENDERING MORE SERVICE
The addition of some assistant agents and a few needed specialists is'
resulting in better rounded county extension programs and improved serv-
ice to the people.
The program in ornamental horticulture is relatively new but is making
fine progress in meeting the needs of commercial growers and in home
beautification plantings by home owners where especially heavy demands
for assistance arise due to the construction of thousands of new homes all
over the state. Holding clinics for home owners has proved, to be a good
way to serve large numbers of people rather than trying to do this on an
individual basis.
Due to the current price squeeze on farmers, much effort has been
devoted to educational work, individual contacts and farm visits on the
business and economic problems of great concern to farm operators. The
recent changes in the Social Security program as this relates to farm peo-
ple have been recognized and the Farm Management Specialist cooperated
with county agents in staging county information and educational meetings
to better inform farm people regarding the provisions and changes in this
program. The attendance, interest and discussion all indicated the need
for and importance of such effort on the part of the Extension Service.
There is good reason to be pleased with the progress being made in 4-H
Club work. This is reflected in larger enrollment and in improved quality
of project work done by these fine boys and girls. The increased number
of youth events and exhibits and the improvements shown serve to reflect
the progress which is taking place.
The brief summaries of various Extension activities contained elsewhere
in this report outline at least in part some of the details in various fields
of work.
ADDITIONS TO STATE STAFF
The addition of a second assistant state 4-H Club agent for boys' work
will make possible more complete assistance to the counties with 4-H
events and programs.
An Extension Plant Pathologist was added. The new position was filled
November 1, 1955. This staff member will develop a much needed program
in the control of plant diseases.
An Extension Meats Specialist was added and a program started in this
field. The Assistant Animal Husbandman was promoted to Animal Hus-
bandman. The position of Assistant Animal Husbandman was filled by
promoting an assistant county agent, who will confine his work largely
to swine production.
A position of Assistant Agronomist for tobacco work was added and
is now in the process of being filled.







Annual Report, 1955


PERSONNEL TRAINING
In January 1955 three two-day area training conferences were held to
present new subject matter to county agents and assistants. Later in the
year a one-day meeting of all county agents in citrus-producing counties
was held to brief the agents on spreading decline problems, a new and
serious threat to citrus in Florida.
The annual conference of all Extension workers was held the last week
in August. This week-long conference combines information on timely
topics of national and international importance with training in subject
matter and methods.
The annual three-week summer school for extension workers was held
at the University of Florida June 21 to July 8, 1955. A total of 43 exten-
sion workers attended the summer school. Four courses were offered,
each carrying 1/2 hours of graduate credit.
During the fall and spring semesters of 1954 and 1955 five graduate and
undergraduate courses were offered at the University of Florida for Exten-
sion workers and those interested in Extension work.
Arrangements were again made for home demonstration agents to enroll
for the first three weeks of the regular six weeks summer school courses
at Florida State University. Four attended this summer school. An
undergraduate course in home demonstration education was offered at
Florida State University in both spring and fall semesters.
Seven Florida Extension workers attended three-week regional Exten-
sion summer schools in other states during the summer of 1955. One at-
tended a six-week course in human relations and human development
education.
One orientation school for new assistant county agents was held in 1955
and plans are to continue this work in 1956. All prospective home demon-
stration workers underwent a period of orientation before appointed.
District agents and specialists carried on a continuous program of in-
service training for all agents. In addition, agents were encouraged to
visit experiment stations and otherwise keep current in subject matter.

EXTENSION PROGRAMS
Program Development.-Program projection work was carried on in
eight counties during September, October and November of 1955. This
work represents some change from the procedures in which the Extension
program was largely developed by commodity committees and the annual
plan of work usually subdivided into commodity fields, such as dairy, poul-
try, beef cattle, etc. In most cases the new program projection work made
use of these commodity committees, but added an over-all county Exten-
sion planning committee composed of representatives from the commodity
groups, home demonstartion councils and others who worked to arrive at
one county program rather than a series of commodity programs.
There was insufficient time to do a fully adequate planning job in the
eight counties. However, most counties made excellent progress toward
developing an Extension program of five years' duration or longer.
Farm and Home Development.-Beginning in the fall of 1954 Farm and
Home Development was begun in nine Florida counties. Two state project
leaders, a man and a woman, guide the work in the counties. Four asso-
ciate county agents were employed to devote all of their time to this work
in eight counties. The home demonstration agents worked with the asso-
ciate agents in the home side of the work. In the ninth county, the work
was carried out by the county agent and home demonstration agent, after
they have given training for this work. In these nine counties the work








Florida Cooperative Extension


was carried out on a pilot basis to provide information on which later to
base a more comprehensive program. A committee of state staff members
served to guide the two project leaders and make policy recommendations
to the Director on this work.
At the 1955 Florida Extension summer school a special course in farm
and home development was given. Some 41 staff members took this
course.
In the fall of 1955 the decision was made to ask all county and home
demonstration agents to select and work with at least five families in farm
and home development in 1956. Two-day area training meetings were held
for those agents who had not served in one of the pilot counties or who
had not had the summer school course in farm and home development.
By November 30, 1955, a total of 190 families in 35 counties had been
worked with in farm and home development. Of this number, 65 were
enrolled in the fall of 1954 and 125 in 1955.
Marketing.-The marketing specialist employed on October 1, 1954,
spent most of his time during the year doing educational work with vege-
table growers on marketing agreements. Grower meetings were held to
consider agreements for celery, tomatoes, limes, watermelons and cucum-
bers. Lime and tomato agreements were placed into operation.
Youth Work.-Youth work is a major activity of all staff members.
Many of the youth events held in Florida are jointly sponsored by the
Agricultural Extension Service and the Vocational Agricultural Education
staffs. Special emphasis is given to livestock and other shows for youth
as a method of developing young people and promoting the adoption of
improved practices. There exists in Florida very harmonious working rela-
tionships between the two youth organizations, so that the youth of the
state may receive maximum benefits from both.
Conservation of Resources.-Conservation of soils is a part of good farm
management. Extension activities have included, where applicable, demon-
strations in the use of green manure crops, winter feed crops, land terrac-
ing, etc.
Planting and protecting farm forests has occupied an important place
in the Extension programs. Activities include 4-H timber-grazing-game

Fig. 1.-Camp Francis, near Lake Placid, the newest 4-H Club camp,
has been constructed through donations by interested groups and individ-
uals. Here is a row of the cabins, with a control cottage shown in rear.




111X\- \








Annual Report, 1955 11

demonstration forests, distribution of slash pine seedlings, together with
demonstration of planting techniques, red cedar demonstrations, and catal-
pa fence post production.
Wildlife Management and Protection.-Extension activities in this field
include: timber-grazing-game demonstrations, 4-H wildlife projects, the
wood duck nesting project, restocking lakes with fish at 4-H camps, and
an annual wildlife 4-H camp.
Food conservation demonstrations, teaching conservation as an aid to
the family budget and demonstrating better storage for foods, are among
the Extension projects in this important field.
Extension Training for Foreign Visitors.-During 1955 the Extension
Service provided training for 85 foreign visitors from nine countries.
Countries represented were the Philippines, Indonesia, Iran, Nepal, Brazil,
Formosa, Thailand, Madagascar and Mexico.
In addition, the Extension Service cooperated in training 20 other visi-
tors who were not primarily interested in Extension Service. Countries
represented in this group included Africa, Peru, Bolivia, India, Argentina,
Colombia, Israel, Belgian Congo and Trinidad.
Both state and county staff members contributed a considerable portion
of their time during the year to work with these visitors in efforts to give
them the information called for in their program.

STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN

Data from White and Negro County and Home Demonstration
Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Farm or hom e visits m ade .................... -............... ............................... 91,363
Calls relating to Extension work: .............. office 234,866; telephone 266,241
News articles or stories prepared .......................... ............ ............ 13,324
Broadcasts made or prepared: ........................... television 245; radio 3,159
Bulletins distributed ....... .... .......................... ............ ...................... 444,774
Adult result demonstrations conducted ..--............ ........................... 4,815
Training meetings held for local leaders:
N um ber .......................... ......................... .............-... 2,565
Total attendance ..... -----..................------ .....-.............- -- ................. 63,706
kll other meetings agents held or participated in:
Num ber .........................-.. ..- .......... ....... .......-.................... 29,526
Total attendance ........----- .............................. ...................... 970,262
Meetings held or conducted by local leaders:
N um ber ...................... ..... ... ..................... ................................. 5,078
Total attendance --. ----............................. ............ 89,253

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Total number of different voluntary leaders assisting Extension agents
with organization, planning and conducting of Extension work in counties:
M en .............. ............- --- ........................................................ 2,420
W om en ............................---- ...........................--............... 5,440
Older club boys .............. -- .. ......... .... .................................... 204
Older club girls .--- ...... ............... .. .... ... ..............-- 1,144
Individuals assisted to adopt recommended production and marketing
practices in subject matter fields:








Florida Cooperative Extension


Crop Production
Individuals assisted with:
Grain crops .....................-- 16,104
Hay and other forage,
pasture, range ............ 20,210
Cotton and other
fibre crops ...............-..- 7,175
Tobacco ................ ........... 7,699
Oil and sugar crops .........-.. 6,048
Fruits and nuts ................... 41,326
Vegetables including
potatoes ........---------...-------. 47,845
Flowers, ornamental
shrubs ................-........ ..... 70,507
Conservation of Natural
Resources
Individuals assisted with:
Soil and water conserva-
tion and management .... 22,943
Forestry ......................... 6,609
W wildlife .................................. 3,017
Livestock
Individuals assisted with:
Dairy animals and
products ..........--...........-. 13,324
Poultry and products ........ 17,462
Beef cattle .......................... 23,202
Sheep and goats ........--.... 359
Swine ......--............................ 15,479
Other livestock ................ 1,513
Planning and Management
of the Farm Business
Individuals assisted with ...... 19,809


Farm Buildings and
Mechanical Equipment
Individuals assisted with:
Farm buildings ............... 3,633
Farm mechanical
equipment ........................ 5,975

The House and surroundings,
Furnishings and Equipment
Individuals or families assisted with:
The house and surround-
ings .................................... 33,908
Furnishings and equipment 22,628

Foods and Nutrition, Health,
Family Life and Safety
Families assisted with:
Foods and nutrition ......... 37,065
Health .........................- 20,780
Family life .......................... 16,960
Safety .................................. 22,144

Home Management, Family
Economics and Clothing
Individuals assisted with:
Home management ............ 17,654
Family economics .............. 11,505
Clothing ............................. 30,218

Marketing and Distribution
Individuals assisted with:
Consumer information on
agricultural products .... 73,397


ASSISTANCE GIVEN TO FORMALLY ORGANIZED COOPERATIVES,
AND TO INFORMALLY ORGANIZED GROUPS


Formally organized groups assisted
with:
Marketing and purchasing:
Number ........................... 110
Members ...................... 14,345
Farm and home service:
Number ............... ............ 78
Members .....................- .... 18,073


Informally organized groups assisted
with:
Marketing and purchasing:
Number .......................... 120
Members .......................... 4,576
Farm and home service:
Number .............................. 63
Members ....................... 4,305


PERSONS PARTICIPATING IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND
PUBLIC AFFAIRS PROJECTS, PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES ON
WHICH AGENTS WORK
Citizenship activities ........ ........-............... ..--------. 17,415
Developing and improving county or community organization ............ 29,537







Annual Report, 1955


Local projects of a general public
nature:
General community
problem s ............................ 9,641
Improving health facilities 12,189
Improving schools ............. 6,128
Improving churches ............ 6,535
Bettering town-country
relations ............................ 20,364


Libraries ................................ 2,492
Roads .................................... 1,728
Telephones ............................ 1,876
Community centers ............ 5,717
Recreation programs and
facilities ............................ 24,066
Community beautification 6,497


Regional or area development programs ................................................ 11,198
National programs -----..-.-..........------........................................ 11,012
W world affairs .................................................................................... 3,374
Emergency activities ----....--------........... ................................ 5,925

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB WORK
N um ber of 4-H Clubs ................................................................................. 1,448
Number of 4-H members enrolled in and completing projects:
Enrolled: Boys-14,411; girls-20,801; total................................... 35,212
Completing: Boys-10,572; girls-14,471; total................................... 25,043
4-H membership:
Boys: Farm-8,100; rural non-farm-3,575; urban.......................... 2,736
Girls: Farm-7,328; rural non-farm-7,102; urban-......................... 6,371


4-H projects completed:
C orn ........................................
Other cereals ---.....................
Peanuts ..................................
Cotton ...................................
Tobacco ..............................
Vegetables ----.......................
Fruits --- -......................
Range and pasture ..............
Other crops ..........................
Soil and water conservation
and management ...........
Forestry ................................
Wildlife and nature study..
Poultry ........ .....................
Dairy cattle ..........................
Beef cattle .......................
Sw ine ......................................
Sheep .................................
R abbits ..................................
Other livestock ....................
B ees .............................--........
Entomology ..-......................
Tractor maintenance ..........


1,302
90
397
313
146
4,965
550
400
128

213
492
474
2,749
1,237
1,183
1,557
12
629
157
183
198
442


Electricity .........................
Soybeans and other legumes
Potatoes, Irish and sweet....
Farm shop ...........................
Other engineering projects
Farm management ..............
Beautification of home
grounds ............................
Meal planning and prepa-
ration ...............................
Canning and preserving ....
Freezing of foods ................
Health, nursing, first aid...
Child care ........................
Clothing ..........................
Home management ............
Home furnishings and room
improvement ....................
Home industries, arts,
crafts .... ......................
Junior leadership ..............
A ll other ................................
Total Projects Completed..


SUMMARY OF EXTENSION
Farm families making changes in agricultural practices------...................... 33,353
Rural non-farm families making changes in agricultural practices.... 25,137
Urban families making changes in agricultural practices....................104,988
Farm families making changes in homemaking practices.................... 15,778
Rural non-farm families making changes in homemaking practices.. 25,358


923
231
379
35
9
151

2,771

8,123
1,519
532
1,964
1,828
8,732
1,124

2,669

1,845
1,124
1,149
52,925







Florida Cooperative Extension


Urban families making changes in homemaking practices.................... 52,549
Total different farm families assisted by Extension programs............ 39,316
Total different rural non-farm families assisted by Extension pro-
gram s ................................................................................................ 40,823
Total different urban families assisted by Extension programs ............138,149


SUPERVISION OF COUNTY AGENTS
H. G. Clayton, Director
K. S. McMullen, District Agent
F. S. Perry, District Agent
W. J. Platt, Jr., District Agent
The number of applicants for assistant county agent positions continued
to be adequate to provide a good selection of promising young men for this
work. A function of the district agents is to interview applicants for coun-
ty positions and clear appointments with the Director of Extension and
with boards of county commissioners. They also work closely with the
boards on budgets for county agricultural agents. A major function of the
district agents is to assist the county agents in developing county Extension
programs.
On September 16, 1955, A. G. Hutchinson, county agent in Glades Coun-
ty, died following a lengthy illness.
Two county agents, B. E. Lawton of Brevard County and C. H. Steffani
of Dade County, retired on September 30. Mr. Lawton had completed 34
years of service as county agent and Mr. Steffani 29 years.
Two county agents and one assistant county agent resigned during the
year to do other work.
Four counties appropriated funds for four additional assistant county
agents and one county added funds so an existing half-time position as
assistant county agent could be made a full-time position.
Two county agents were transferred to other counties to fill vacancies,
and one was promoted to a specialist position on the state staff.
Eight assistant county agents and one associate were promoted to coun-
ty agent positions. One assistant agent was transferred to another county
and two assistants were promoted to positions on the state staff. Twelve
new assistants were employed for the first time during the year to fill new
positions and vacancies.
All new appointees, as well as old, receive in-service training from the
district agents on policies, and procedures and on program development
and execution.
District Agents assisted in carrying out county, district, and statewide
events and served on a number of important Extension committees.


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Agricultural Economist

MARKETING
E. W. Cake, Economist in Marketing
County agents estimated they had assisted farmers in more than 55,000
instances during the year with marketing problems by furnishing either
publications, information or advice. They also estimated they had given
assistance to 110 marketing and purchasing cooperatives.







Annual Report, 1955 15

Youth Education on Farmer Cooperatives.-A 4-H Cooperative Awards
Program and an FFA Cooperative Activity Contest were held. More clubs
and chapters took part than in any previous year and the reports indicated
a large amount of work and learning by members. There were 10 district
winning 4-H Clubs and six district winning FFA chapters. Each of these
16 groups received a free trip for five members and one or two leaders to
the State Cooperative Council meeting at Tampa.
From the district winning groups a state winning club and chapter were
selected. Each received $500 from the Council to finance a week's free trip
for six members and two leaders to the annual summer meeting of the
American Institute of Cooperation. The state winning FFA Chapter from
Homestead placed first in the Southern Region in this contest.
At 22 district meetings for all county agents and vo-ag teachers during
the fall, the Economist conducted training sessions on these contests avail-
able to 4-H Clubs and FFA Chapters which provide a good incentive for
learning more about farmer cooperatives.
Citrus Marketing.-The Marketing Specialist worked with most of the
state's citrus marketing cooperatives through their participation in the
Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives. A three-day citrus marketing pro-
gram at the annual state Citrus Institute, Camp McQuarrie, was attended
by about 400 citrus industry leaders and growers. Citrus marketing was
discussed at various other grower meetings.
Vegetable Marketing.-The Extension Vegetable Marketing Specialist,
who resigned December 15, worked with vegetable growers in many sec-
tions of the state on the consideration of federal marketing agreements
for five different crops. As a result, agreements are now in effect for
tomatoes and limes. Citrus and avocado agreements were already in oper-
ation. A celery agreement failed to receive sufficient grower support.
Watermelon and cucumber agreements are still under consideration.
Dairy Marketing.-Milk producer groups in the three most important
market areas of the state received assistance in their consideration of fed-
eral milk market agreements. A majority of producers have now been in-
formed on agreements by Extension personnel and are proceeding with
plans to hold hearings and referendums on agreements in important market
areas of the state.
Marketing of Other Commodities.-The Marketing Specialist presented
discussions at various grower meetings on the marketing of cattle, hogs,
poultry, eggs, honey and other crops. Grower groups were aided in trying
to solve marketing problems related to these commodities.
Assistance to New and Existing Cooperatives.-Ten different producer
groups were given assistance in trying to form new cooperatives. They
received help with charters, by-laws, operating plans, financing plans, mem-
bership agreements and other details. A few of these are now operating
and saving growers sizable sums of money. Another 14 existing coopera-
tives requested and received help on marketing, organizational, operating
or financial problems of one kind or another. Most of these were able to
improve their service and savings to growers as a result of the changes
made.
CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT
Zach Savage, Agricultural Economist, Experiment Stations
Begun in 1931, the citrus grove management project will have been in
operation continuously for 23 years with the completion of the 1954-55
records.
Operating costs per acre at $170 in 1952-53 were the second highest of
the 22 years of of these records for bearing groves. Labor, power and







Florida Cooperative Extension


equipment costs were the highest of these records and state and county
taxes the highest since 1931-32. The price of fruit at 95 cents per box was
higher than for 1951-52, but 10 cents less than the 22-year average. Re-
turns above operating costs per acre and per box were the highest since the
1950-51 season. Yield per acre in 1952-53 at 344 boxes was the third highest
of these records and was 11 boxes less than the 1951-52 yield.
Money spent for spray and dust materials was the highest of these rec-
ords on a per-acre basis at $20.63 for the 1953-54 season. State and county
taxes at $11.25 per acre were second only to the highest season of 1931-32
and 20 cents higher than in 1952-53. Operating costs per acre at $180.50
were the highest of these seasons, 6 percent higher than 1952-53 and 2 per-
cent higher than the previous high season of 1951-52.
Plantings.-In 1954-55 there were 571,000 acres of oranges, grapefruit
and tangerines in Florida, which included 497,400 acres of bearing and
73,600 acres of nonbearing groves. The net increase in bearing groves was
23,400 acres, the second highest increase in Florida history. The increase
in 1924-25 was highest at 24,700 acres. In 1953-54 there were 544,000 acres
of these three kinds of citrus of all ages in Florida. During that season
there were 7,678 acres of citrus included in these accounts, which was 1.4
percent of the state acreage.
Polk, Orange and Lake counties have been producing slightly more than
half the state total of oranges, grapefruit and tangerines. Some other
counties in order of their 1953-54 production are Highlands, Hillsborough,
Pasco, Pinellas, Volusia, Saint Lucie and Indian River.
Production.-The 1954 production of oranges and tangerines in Florida
was 40 percent by weight of the entire Northern Hemisphere crop. Florida
grapefruit production was 75 percent of this area that season. Florida pro-
duction of oranges and tangerines in 1954-55 was 27 percent of world pro-
duction, grapefruit 72 percent, and all three kinds 32 percent of world pro-
duction.
Tree Movement.-The movement of citrus trees in 1953-54 from Florida
to destinations within the state was second highest of the seasons of 1928-
54 at 1,565,816 trees. The movement in 1949-50 was slightly higher. Orange
trees made up 74 percent of this movement in 1953-54 and 59 percent of the
orange trees were late varieties. Seventy-six percent of the grapfruit trees
moved were red and pink varieties. Counties in the order of orange nursery
stock shipped into them are Orange, Polk, Lake, Hillsborough, Pasco, Har-
dee, Marion, Highlands, Volusia and Seminole. The order in receipts of
grapefruit trees was Saint Lucie, Indian River, Polk, Orange, Lake and
Hillsborough.
Rootstocks.-Lemon was the stock used most, with 58 percent of the
trees moved being on this stock in 1953-54. Sour orange stock was second
with 25 percent of the movement, cleopatra mandarin third with 8 percent,
and sweet seedling fourth with 5 percent. The remaining 4 percent of the
trees were on trifoliata, grapefruit, own root and unknown.
Fertilization.-Less than 200 pounds of nitrogen per acre was added on
82 percent of groves on which records were kept during the 13 seasons of
1940-53. The group with the highest yield and highest net returns per acre
was where 250 to 299 pounds of nitrogen was added annually per acre. This
was 0.59 pound per box.
Spacing.-Close spacings of trees have resulted in many groves being
hedged to alleviate some of the disadvantages in fruit production caused
by interlocking tree limbs and to provide space where grove operations by
machinery may be performed more efficiently without tree injury. Less
than 80 trees should be set per acre in most cases, and generally it is bet-
ter for the number not to exceed 70.








Annual Report, 1955


Irrigation.-Irrigation is a costly operation and should be done studious-
ly and with caution. Each grove should be handled separately in deter-
mining the profitableness of irrigating it. The needs of a particular grove
and its response to practices do not necessarily conform to that of any
other grove. The individuality of groves necessitates individual treatment.
Adequate grove records facilitate the individual treatment and management
of each grove.
Radio and Publications.-Tape recordings were made for radio stations
in the citrus area. Newspaper articles were prepared at intervals during
the year.
Four publications, 13 different sheets of data, 12 magazine articles, two
form letters and two forms used in compilations were issued, representing
9,475 copies, or a total of 82,975 pages of material.



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

AND FARM ELECTRIFICATION

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Thomas C. Skinner, Agricultural Engineer

The Extension agricultural engineering program emphasizes farm build-
ings, farm housing, farm machinery, supplemental irrigation and farm
drainage. County and home demonstration agents reported assisting 109,070
individual farm persons in various phases of the engineering program dur-
ing the year. Of this number 66,144 farmers and farm families were
assisted to adopt recommended practices.
Farm Structures.-The Engineering Specialist, assisted by three part-
time student draftsmen, conducted a three-phase farm structure program
which included farm service buildings, farm housing and the Florida Farm
Buildings Plan Service. According to agents' annual reports, this program
reached 56,400 farmers and farm families in 1955.
During the year 3,710 plans were distributed through the Florida Farm
Building Plan Service. One radio-talk and three news articles were pre-
pared dealing with farm structures. The specialist met with eight groups
who were interested in various phases of farm structures program.
Seventeen plans, with an estimated value of $150,000, were prepared by
the specialist's staff in 1955. Supervision was given to the construction of
four cabins, two camp director's cottages, two staff cottages and one honey
house at the various 4-H club camps. In addition, work was begun on a
honey house and a dining room and kitchen at the New State 4-H Club
Camp, an outdoor lighting system was installed at 4-H Camp Cherry Lake,
a concrete ramp and bulkhead was constructed on the waterfront at 4-H
Camp Timpoochee, and various outdoor recreational facilities were provided
at the several 4-H camps.
Three farm structure displays were prepared for county fairs and other
events in the state.
Farm Machinery.-Each year farmers add more and more mechanical
equipment to reduce labor cost, to increase production and to reduce the
drudgery often associated with farm work. In connection with this, agents
assisted 5,975 farmers during 1955 with farm machinery and equipment
problems.
Farm machinery and equipment dealers and distributors were encour-









Florida Cooperative Extension


aged and assisted to display and demonstrate their equipment at farmer
meetings and fairs.


Fig. 2.-The state 4-H tractor operator's contest winner is given a check
for $300 by a representative of the Florida Ford Tractor Company to help
defray expenses to the Atlantic States Tractor Operators' Contest in Rich-
mond. Left to right: T. C. Skinner; Charles Magill, Duval County; Gene
LaRoe, Lake; Jimmy Cunningham, Escambia; and Irby Exley.

During the year the specialist aided in the promotion of two farm ma-
chinery shows. One was the second annual Central Florida Farm Machin-
ery and Equipment Show at Eustis January 13-15, 1955, and the other was
the second annual Farm and Home Equipment Roundup at 4-H Camp
Cherry Lake August 2-4, 1955.
There were 500 4-H boys in 40 counties enrolled in tractor care proj-
ects. These 4-H boys conducted numerous demonstrations at fairs and
farmer meetings.
Irrigation.-During 1955 interest in irrigation reached an all-time high,
particularly in the drouth areas of the northern and western parts of the
state. The Agricultural Engineer and the Farm Electrification Specialist
gave individual assistance to farmers and agents in 20 counties. They dis-
cussed irrigation with farmers at seven county farm area meetings and
conducted three area training meetings for county agents.
Farm Drainage.-Assistance in farm drainage was limited primarily to
personal service work.

FARM ELECTRIFICATION

A. M. Pettis, Assistant Agricultural Engineer
and Electrification Specialist

The farm electrification program of work was planned to meet the needs
of all Florida farmers and other rural people concerning the economical
use of electricity. Irrigation work was carried on in cooperation with the
Extension Agricultural Engineer.








Annual Report, 1955


Farm Equipment.-Electric brooding of chicks and pigs was extensively
promoted. Other electric uses on the farm promoted included water sys-
tems, irrigation pumps, hotbeds and various applications of motors. Ex-
hibits, demonstrations and skits concerning electricity have been effectively
used at county fairs, the Farm and Home Equipment Roundup, livestock
shows, electric co-op annual meetings and other farm gatherings.
Wiring.-A new wiring panel was constructed this year to show the
effects of voltage drop. Fans, space heaters, toasters and lights are used
with the panel. Besides voltage drop, the panel is used to show overloading
fuses and circuit-breakers.
Lighting.-Proper lighting received major attention. Circular 135, A
Good Reading Lamp, was printed in four colors. The Farm Electrification
Specialist helped plan and conduct good reading lamp contests at the 4-H
boys' and girls' short courses. Contestants from 42 counties entered lamps
in these contests. Winners received electrical appliances.
The outstanding lamps from both contests were placed on exhibit at the
Farm and Home Equipment Roundup, to show people what constitutes a
good lamp for reading.
Colored slides showing outdoor and garden lighting were loaned to
county Extension workers for use in county programs.
Home Equipment.-At the State Home Demonstration Council meeting
60 women were taught the selection, care and operation of electrical equip-
ment for the home. Publications were distributed and county meetings held
to further the home equipment phase of the farm electrification program.

Fig. 3.-Four-H Club boys and girls from 42 counties entered the good
reading lamp contest. Top three boys and their lamps are shown here with
Farm Electrification Specialist A. M. Pettis. Left to right (first to third):
Howard Waters, Highlands County; Bobby Lafroos, Lake; and David Man-
ley, Polk.








Florida Cooperative Extension


4-H Electric Program.-Considerable emphasis has been given to the
4-H electric program during 1955. The Florida REA Cooperatives Associ-
ation was the state sponsor of this program for the fourth year. This or-
ganization provided a trip to National Club Congress and four other state
awards, consisting of appliances.
More than 10,000 copies of publications in this program were distributed
by county Extension workers. Some 485 4-H members received instruction
in the use of electricity at three 4-H camps, 4-H Boys' Short Course and
the Negro 4-H Short Course. Volunteer local leaders assisted in the 4-H
electric program in at least five counties. Six major awards were presented
to state winners. Gene LaRoe and Elva Sears of Lake County won a trip
to Chicago; David Manley of Polk County won a radio-record player; Clar-
ence Edens of Nassau County won a radio; Millard Guild of Suwannee
County won a motor; and Nancy Jean McCarthy of Clay County won a
lamp.
The 1955 winner of the county plaque was Suwannee County. The negro
state winner of a $50 savings bond was Alphonza Sparks, Jr., of Gadsden
County.
Some 1,253 members were enrolled in 4-H Club electric projects in 1955;
923 members completed their projects, having made 1,686 electric articles.
Power Suppliers' Cooperation.-On July 1, 1955, 50,643 Florida farms,
or 88 percent of the farms, were receiving electric service from 15 rural
electric (REA) cooperatives, five power companies and several municipali-
ties with rural lines. In several counties 4-H electric clubs were organized
and the leaders are personnel from various power suppliers. Electric co-
ops arranged for 4-H members to give electric demonstrations at their
annual meetings. County agents and home demonstration agents in many
counties work closely with personnel from the electric suppliers.
Rural Telephones.-Advice, assistance and cooperation were given farm
leaders interested in helping rural people obtain telephone service. The
government has made loans to one telephone cooperative and five telephone
companies to increase the number of rural phones in Florida. The census
shows that as of 1954, 20,690 Florida farms, or 36 percent of the farms,
have telephones.
Additional Help.-Approximately 27 articles of exhibit and demonstra-
tion materials were loaned county Extension workers. County Extension
workers' reports show that they have assisted farm people with problems
in 1955 as follows: Electricity for income purposes, 1,259 in 51 counties;
planning electrical systems, 1,403 in 45 counties; irrigation, 2,827 in 62
counties; and house furnishings (days devoted to), 3,331 in 56 counties.
Electric Brooding.-An example of outstanding Extension work in the
electrification field was the promotion of electric brooding. Twelve power
suppliers donated infra-red brooders for 40 counties, or 60 percent of the
Florida counties. The county agents and home demonstration agents loaned
the brooders to 4-H members on a rotational basis. More than 17,000 chicks
and seven litters of pigs were brooded by 184 4-H boys and girls using
this equipment.
To stimulate interest in this program, poultry-electric contests with
cash awards were held at the 4-H short courses. Four-H boys winning, in
order, were: Zane Wood, Gadsden County; John Buffington, Marion; and
Cordell Harrison, Walton. Four-H girls winning, in order, were Mary
Ethel Henderson, Marion; Tula Ann Giles, Escambia; Diana Kathryn Wil-
son, Gadsden; and Mary Kate King, Citrus County.








Annual Report, 1955


AGRONOMY

J. R. Henderson, Agronomist
Aubrey C. Mixon, Assistant Agronomist

As in the past, Extension agronomy work during the year consisted
primarily of assembling, summarizing, interpreting and bringing to the
attention of county agents, industry groups and others information on soil
and crop management practices.
Major activities included assembling for various uses available research
data and related information on field crops and pastures; revising three
field crop production guides and the field crops and pastures section of the
Florida County Agent Handbook; meetings with industry groups to better
acquaint them with research results and Extension recommendations on
the production and management of field crops and pastures; conferences
with county agents to present subject matter information and discuss Ex-
tension methods; distributing foundation seed of superior varieties of field
crops; preparing and presenting radio and television programs; furnishing
information for news articles; handling office and letter requests for in-
formation; promoting method demonstrations, crop production contests and
crop judging contests among 4-H Club members; aiding with the overall
4-H field crops program; and assisting county agents in developing and
carrying out county programs of work.
Field Crop Production Guides.-The production guides for corn, cotton
and peanuts were revised and submitted for publication as Extension cir-
culars. A 4-H Corn Project Guide for use by 4-H members in carrying out
4-H corn projects was prepared and published.
County Agent Conferences.-Two-day training conferences were held
in Sebring in December and Gainesville and Quincy in January, at which
the latest research results were presented and discussed and county Ex-
tension activities planned.
The latest developments in field crop and pasture research were dis-
cussed and current recommendations given at the negro agents' conference.
Work with Industry Groups.-Assistance was given other specialists and
officers of the Florida Seedsmen's Association in planning and conducting
the annual state-wide short course for seedsmen.
Fertilizer recommendations previously adopted through cooperation with
Experiment Station personnel and representatives of the Florida fertilizer
industry were repeatedly brought to the attention of those interested in
the fertilization of field crops and pastures.
In cooperation with officers of the Florida Agricultural Research Insti-
tute and the Experiment Station department heads, a program on manage-
ment of pasture and livestock, for fertilizer mixers and dealers, was held
in September.
The project leader helped plan the program and gave three lectures at
each of three county cattlemen's schools. A talk on silage crops and their
production was given at the second annual Cattlemen's Institute.
The project leader continued to act as a member of the Florida Dairy-
Pasture Committee and assisted with the judging of records submitted by
contestants at the annual meeting of the Florida Dairy Association at
Clearwater in June.
Meetings for dealers in seed, fertilizer and pesticides were held in De-
cember for the purpose of better acquainting them with research results
and Extension recommendations for production of field crops and pastures.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Distribution of Foundation Seed.-The project leaders solicited applica-
tions and distributed through the county agents' offices Experiment Sta-
tion-produced foundation seed of Florispan and Dixie Runner peanuts and
Jackson soybeans. They also assisted new growers in obtaining foundation
single-cross seed of Dixie 18 corn.
Radio, Television and News Articles.-Nine radio talks were made on
the Florida Farm Hour over WRUF and several tape recordings were made
for use by county agents on their local radio programs. A television pro-
gram on winter forage crops was presented on WFLA-TV, Tampa.
Demonstrations.-Several demonstrations on chemical control of weeds
in peanuts were conducted and material was distributed to county agents
for use in demonstrations on chemical control of suckers in flue-cured to-
bacco. Outlines for method demonstrations to be conducted by 4-H Club
members were revised and furnished to agents in the field crops area.
4-H Field Crop Judging Contest.-Score cards, with information on
points to be considered in scoring, and judging cards, with reasons for
placement, were developed for ear corn, seed oats, corn silage and grass
hay and distributed to county agents and teachers of vocational agriculture
for training judging teams.
A judging contest, in which 4-H teams from 17 counties judged field
crops, beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine and poultry, was staged as part of
the youth day program at the 1955 North Florida Fair.
Displays and Exhibits.-Forty major forage crops grown in flats were
exhibited with charts and other supplemental information at the State Fair
in Tampa and at the Pinellas County Fair in Largo.
Charts and supplemental information were prepared on fumigation of
tobacco plantbeds, fumigation of tobacco fields and application of chemi-
cals for control of weeds in peanut fields. These were exhibited, along
with needed equipment, at the Farm and Home Equipment Roundup at
Camp Cherry Lake. Charts were prepared for an exhibit on poisonous
plants at the Equipment Roundup.
Cooperation with Others.-The leaders of the agronomy project worked
closely with the district agents in planning meetings, conferences and
tours, and in many other ways.
Working relationships with research personnel were excellent. Experi-
ment Station workers gave freely of their time, appearing as speakers on
subject matter programs and going over their work with the project lead-
ers. Production problems for which solutions are needed were brought to
the attention of Station workers and assistance was given in planning new
research projects in both soils and field crops.
The project leaders, in cooperation with the soil testing' division of
the Florida Experiment Station and county agents, helped to plan and
supervise 19 fertilizer test demonstrations on corn, 6 on cotton, 7 on tobac-
co, 4 on peanuts and 4 on soybeans in 13 counties for the purpose of de-
veloping a sounder basis for the interpretation of soil-test results.
Assistance was given the State Department of Agriculture in carrying
out its program of seed certification.
Most of the state-level activities, already described, were designed to
assist the county agents, either directly or indirectly, in carrying out their
programs of work.
Many county problems were handled by correspondence, but on-the-spot
assistance was given with certain activities, such as local meetings, tours
and demonstrations. Assistance was given with 39 county events, at which
subject matter information was presented and discussed.
Activities and Results.-Reports from county workers show that they
spent a total of 8,676 days on crop production. A breakdown of this activ-









Annual Report, 1955


ity, showing the numbers of farmers assisted with various phases of field
crop production, is given below:


Problem
Grain
Crops

Use of improved
varieties and strains............7,549
Use of fertilizers......................7,707
Control of injurious
insects............................... .. 4,727
Control of diseases....--............1,701
Harvesting, storing,
and curing.............................4,667


Hay
and
Forage
Crops


Cotton and Oil
Other and
Fiber Sugar
Crops Tobacco Crops


9,170 2,970 2,134 3,657
11,217 3,099 4,477 3,315

5,164 3,337 4,260 2,551
1,794 1,079 3,839 737

4,993 1,278 3,681 1,728


Yields per acre are considered to be good indicators of the effectiveness
of Extension programs in crop production. However, yields for a single
year are less reliable indicators than those for longer periods. Compara-
tive yields of the major field crops for the last two five-year periods were
as follows:


Crop
Corn, bushels....................... .
Cotton, pounds.......................
Peanuts, pounds.....................
Flue-cured tobacco, pounds....
Oats, bushels.........................


Yield per Acre
1946-1950 1951-1955
11.7 16.6
198 273
696 923
1,017 1,230
18.2 27.8


% Increase During
Last 5-Year Period
42
38
33
21
53


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

J. E. Pace, Extension Animal Husbandman
R. L. Reddish, Assistant Animal Industrialist
K. L. Durrance, Assistant Animal Industrialist 2

Florida ranks 13th among the states in total numbers of beef cattle.
As of January 1, 1955, there were 1,376,000 head of beef cattle on Florida
farms and ranches. This represents a decrease of 10,000 head from the
preceding year.
The number of swine on Florida farms, as of January 1, 1955, totaled
519,000 head. This represents a 3 percent increase over the previous year.
Florida ranks 43rd in number of pigs saved per litter and 22nd in total
number of pigs saved.
Farmers in some areas of the state are displaying considerable interest
in sheep production. A large number of small farms, particularly in north-
ern and western Florida, are well adapted to this enterprise. The total
number of sheep on Florida farms and ranches, as of January 1, 1955, was
3,000 head.
Two assistant animal industrialists were appointed during the year-
R. L. Reddish on September 1 and K. L. Durrance on November 15, 1955.
Beef Cattle.-During 1955 interest among Florida cattlemen in the
improvement of production efficiency in their breeding herds continued at
a high level. This was due to a great extent to the continued strong de-
1 Appointed September 1, 1955
2 Transferred from Polk County November 16, 1955.









Florida Cooperative Extension


mand for high quality yearling steers for feeder purposes. This demand
greatly exceeded the supply during 1955. Also, most cattlemen are begin-
ning to realize that the future of the cattle industry in Florida will be based
to a large extent on the sale of quality feeder cattle to other areas of the
country. Improved feeding conditions, especially the use of silage as a
winter feed, coupled with adequate protein supplementation, have convinced
a large number of cattlemen that the marketing of their cattle as yearlings
is considerably more profitable than marketing them as slaughter calves.
The production of slaughter calves is perhaps the least profitable phase
of the cattle business in Florida at present.
During 1955 considerable interest developed in cattle feeding. This was
due to a bumper corn crop, relatively cheap prices prevailing for protein
meals and the widespread use of stilbestrol in cattle fattening rations.
Throughout the year the Extension Animal Husbandmen emphasized to
new and prospective cattle feeders the importance of a thorough knowledge
of buying, feeding and selling.
The use of harvested roughages such as silage and hay in the winter
feeding program was emphasized. The value of reserve permanent pasture
for wintering the breeding herd also was stressed. In addition to stressing
the use of roughages as the basis of a successful beef cattle enterprise, the
importance of the use of adequate protein supplementation during the win-
ter months was emphasized at every opportunity.
Three cattlemen's schools were conducted during 1955. These were held
in Flagler, Holmes and Washington counties and a cooperative school was
held among five west Florida counties. Experiment Station personnel co-
operated in making these schools a success.
On August 9 and 10, 1955, the second Cattlemen's Institute was held at
the 4-H Camp at Lake Placid, Florida. Approximately 250 cattlemen were
in attendance each day.

Fig. 4.-Florida cattlemen are storing more feed every year, and hori-
zontal silos of trench and other construction are popular for preserving
forage.








Annual Report, 1955


Twelve talks were given before county cattlemen's associations, and in
cooperation with home demonstration workers, four demonstrations were
given to farmers and their wives on how to select, wrap, freeze and cook
beef.
Swine.-Small litters and poor survival ability of new-born pigs con-
tinue to be two of the major problems confronting the Florida swine indus-
try. During 1955 the importance of pasture, proper nutrition during gesta-
tion and lactation, proper feeding of herd replacements, and the use of
adequate equipment at farrowing time were stressed.
By using early-maturing varieties of corn some farmers practically
eliminated the starvation period which their spring-farrowed pigs had
undergone heretofore. The Extension Animal Husbandmen, working
through county agents, repeatedly made suggestions as to how best to uti-
lize home-produced feeds in swine rations.
There were no outbreaks of vesicular exanthema in Florida during 1955.
Atrophic rhinitis, however, is a swine disease that is causing much con-
cern in the swine-producing areas of the state.
During 1955 the Extension Service, in cooperation with Experiment
Station personnel, assisted the Florida Swine Producers Association in
sponsoring two purebred all-breed swine sales.
Fairs and Shows.-The Extension Animal Husbandman judged 28 shows.
Three of these shows were in other states, one in South America and one
in Cuba. Very close cooperation was maintained with county agents dur-
ing 1955 in improving the quality of livestock shows held throughout the
state.
4-H Club Activities.-The sixth annual 4-H Barrow Show was held in
Tallahassee and was the largest ever held. Approximately 180 barrows
and breeding swine were exhibited by 4-H members.
The state champion 4-H livestock judging team participated in the na-
tional 4-H livestock judging contest in Chicago. The Tampa Morning
Tribune sponsored the judging team's trip to Chicago.
Five area judging schools were conducted for 4-H boys during 1955 to
train them for judging contests held throughout the state.
The following table summarizes 4-H livestock activities for the year.
Members Members Units Involved in
Project Enrolled Completing Completed Projects
Beef Cattle...............-----....... 1,588 1,183 2,745
Sheep.............................-------... 12 12 54
Swine --- --..............................---.. 2,134 1,557 4,493
Other Livestock.............. 246 157 315
Here is a summary of results of adult livestock work for 1955.
Beef Sheep and Other
Cattle Swine Goats Livestock
Farmers assisted in employing proper
selection and breeding practices............10,486 6,949 112 544
Farmers assisted in employing proper
feeding practices ............................... 12,910 8,756 119 671
Farmers assisted in initiating practices
for controlling external parasites .........10,031 7,162 106 557
Farmers assisted in initiating proper
disease and internal parasite control.... 9,774 8,108 107 509
Farmers assisted in employing more ef-
ficient work methods................................ 4,898 4,218 46 334


w__








Florida Cooperative Extension


BEEKEEPING

John D. Haynie, Extension Apiculturist

The crop of honey produced in 1955 was estimated by the Agricultural
Marketing Service of the United States Department of Agriculture at
14,756,000 pounds. This was considerably lower than the 1954 crop of
17,612,000 pounds. The colony yield was expected to average 62 pounds,
as against 74 pounds in 1954.
Late spring freezes affected honey crops in north and west Florida,
with drouths coming later. In central and south Florida, citrus yielded
nectar for about 10 days. Colonies began to consume honey left after the
flow. The honey produced from citrus this year was light in color and
heavy in body. The nectar flow from saw palmetto and mangrove was a
failure except in a few places where some surplus honey was produced.
Most colonies in the farming section of northern Florida managed to
get a good late flow that put them in excellent shape for the winter, while
in central and southern Florida many colonies were fed all during the sum-
mer and were still light in stores when fall came. Some apiaries located
near those in starving condition produced a surplus and plenty of stores
for winter.
Beekeepers placed 151,250 pounds of honey under loan with Commodity
Credit Corporation. To date, 130,075 pounds remain to be redeemed. It is
expected that all of this honey will be redeemed before the closing date in
April. No applications for honey under the purchase agreement were re-
ceived this year.
Most Florida packers ran short of citrus honey last year and this year
borrowed more money and were able to tie up a larger stock of citrus
honey, even though the over-all crop was smaller than in 1954. In most
cases, honey packers have enough citrus honey on hand to last until the
new crop comes in sometime in April. This is not so with tupelo, due to
the unusually short crop this past spring.
The Extension program in beekeeping is directed along two main lines:
the production and marketing of honey and in teaching beekeeping to 4-H
Club members.
Production.-A monthly newsletter is sent agents and beekeepers on the
latest research and improved methods in beekeeping. Nectar-producing
plants are recommended and plant specimens indicating nectar potentiali-
ties are collected in the field for identification and for further testing by
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Tree seedlings of black tu-
pelo, white tupelo, black gum and tulip poplar are collected and planted
in cooperation with the Extension Forester. Scale hive records are kept
on honey production at the Camp McQuarrie apiary for the Experiment
Station apiculturist in connection with other scale hive stations in the state.
Field demonstrations are carried on in colony management and wood pre-
servative materials for hives set up and studied under field conditions.
Marketing.-There are six district beekeepers' associations in the state
that meet monthly or semi-monthly. The Extension Apiculturist attends
these meetings to discuss and demonstrate methods in beekeeping and to
promote advertising of honey through National Honey Week and state,
district and county fairs. Two meetings of the Florida Honey Packers' As-
sociation were held, at which assistance was given. The association pro-
motes a better understanding between producers and packers and promotes
research on grading citrus honey and honey products such as honey spread,
honey butter and ice cream made with honey.








Annual Report, 1955


4-H Apiary Program.-The 4-H Club camps provide excellent labora-
tories where beekeeping may be taught to 4-H Club members. About 5,000
members enjoy the surplus honey produced at the camp apiaries and have
the opportunity to learn first hand how to work and handle bees. The
camp apiaries serve as the first lesson in beekeeping for many youngsters,
which enables them to start their beekeeping project.
The 4-H Club apiary program at 4-H camps has progressed in 1955 to
the point where an apiary building has been erected and an apiary of 10
colonies established at Camp Timpoochee in Okaloosa County. An apiary
of 12 colonies has been established at the new 4-H camp in Highlands
County and the apiary building is expected to be completed before camp-
ing season in 1956. The two additional camp apiaries will supply honey for
these camps as well as furnish a complete laboratory for teaching bee-
keeping to 4-H Club members and agents.
The five 4-H Club camps consumed over 1,500 pounds of honey during
the 1955 camping season, all produced by the apiary of 14 colonies located
at Camp McQuarrie. The Camp McQuarrie apiary, located in the Ocala
National Forest, is moved 20 miles to orange groves at Seville each year to
produce the first crop of honey and later moved back to Camp McQuarrie
where a crop of honey is produced from natural wild plants. It is not
anticipated that the 4-H Camp apiaries at Timpoochee and New Camp will
be moved any during the year for an extra honey crop.
During the 1955 camping season colonies of bees were moved to 4-H
Club camps at Cherry Lake, New Camp and Timpoochee for demonstration
purposes. Only -a limited number of the week-long camps have had bee-
keeping instruction because of limited trained personnel. Beekeeping was
taught to all but a few counties camping this past summer by the Exten-
sion Apiculturist and agents previously trained. Demonstrations with live
colonies of bees, films and classroom lectures were used to acquaint 4-H
Club members with the nature and habits of bees.
A two-day short course on bees and electricity was held at Camp Mc-
Quarrie for agents and 4-H Club members the last of May. Seventy 4-H
Club members and agents attended.
Two meetings at Timpoochee were held for agents on bees and equip-
ment. At the first meeting in February, materials were delivered by the
agents to build the apiary building, which is 16' x 24' and of block con-
struction with metal roof. Part of the meeting was devoted to construc-
tion and assembling beekeeping equipment. The second training meeting
for agents at Timpoochee was held in November to study fall management
of colonies and to carry out a plan of shop work on bee equipment during
the winter period.
Field Activities.-The Extension Apiculturist made 208 personal service
visits in 1955 to beekeepers, agents and assistants. He attended 25 schools
and beekeepers' and marketing meetings, where he spoke and showed films.
Twenty-nine apiary demonstrations were promoted at schools, 4-H Club
camps and beekeepers' meetings. One program on bees and honey was tele-
vised over station WFLA-TV, Tampa, and six radio talks were made.
Eighteen counties exhibited bees and honey at state, district and county
fairs.
Two hundred sixty-two 4-H Club members from 48 counties enrolled in
beekeeping. One hundred eighty-three members completed their apiary
projects with 900 colonies.
Twenty-five hundred twenty-four beekeepers and individuals were as-
sisted during the past year with their beekeeping problems.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK

SW. W. Brown, State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Grant M. Godwin, Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Ben H. Floyd, Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent 1

This has been another banner year for 4-H Club work in Florida. This
has been demonstrated through increased 4-H participation in club meet-
ings, more community activities, more productive projects, and more meth-
od and result demonstrations. There has been increased participation in
special 4-H Club events, such as the State Boys' 4-H Short Course, sum-
mer camps, special state-wide encampments, and 4-H shows and fairs.
The 4-H district setup has continued to improve 4-H Club work. The 10
district meetings, attended by a very large percentage of the county agents,
provided a way to develop 4-H programs based on the joint planning of the
administrative, specialist and county staffs. In this way, programs more
nearly met varying agricultural needs and interests.
County participation in state and national 4-H awards programs has
been gratifying this year. Membership in 4-H also increased, with 14,411
white and negro 4-H Club boys enrolled during 1955, as compared with
14,140 in 1954. Four-H Club members satisfactorily completed 2.1 projects
per member.
4-H Camps.-There were 4,036 4-H Club boys and girls who attended
the five state 4-H Club camps in the summer of 1955. Members arrived in
camp on Monday and left on Saturday of each week. These state camps
are located at permanent sites in Okaloosa, Madison, Marion, Lake, and
Highland counties. Legislative appropriations made possible needed im-
provements in camp buildings and recreational facilities at four of the
camps. The new State 4-H Camp in Highlands County which has been
under construction since 1949 will be completed by June 1956.
In addition to 4-H use, 3,125 adults attended institutes in farm machin-
ery, citrus, poultry and cattle at four of these State 4-H camps. This gives
a grand total of 7,161 different 4-H members and adults who enjoyed the
educational and recreational facilities of 4-H camps during the 1955 camp-
ing season.
Short Courses.-The 36th annual Boys' 4-H Short Course was held on
the campus of the University of Florida in June. Its purpose is to provide
outstanding 4-H Club boys from counties throughout the state with a
week of training and inspiration at their land grant college.
The 1955 Short Course was attended by 385 4-H boys from 58 counties.
The boys were selected on the basis of their 4-H Club work. Two delegates
from each county attended the State 4-H Council Meeting which convenes
each year during the short course. In addition to courses, four state-wide
special 4-H events were held. They were contests in dairy judging, tractor
operation, public speaking, and reading lamp building.
The annual Negro 4-H Short Course was held at Florida A. & M. Uni-
versity, Tallahassee, the first week in June with 324 members in attendance.
Livestock Judging.-The state 4-H Club staff arranged a series of five
area livestock judging schools throughout the state for the purpose of
providing timely instruction on basic and current livestock judging tech-
niques. Over 400 Extension workers and 4-H members participated in
these training schools. As a result, 36 trained county teams participated
1 Transferred from Escambia County to this position on November 1, 1955.








Annual Report, 1955


in the state 4-H livestock judging contest at the Florida State Fair in
Tampa.
Wildlife Camp.-The annual 4-H Wildlife Camp was held at Camp Mc-
Quarrie July 4-9. There were 17 counties represented; a total of 85 4-H
Club members, adult leaders and Extension agents attended. The purpose
of this camp was to create an appreciation on the part of our youth for
wildlife and its importance and to instill in them a strong desire for its
conservation and preservation. Those in attendance received organized in-
struction in game, forest and fresh water fish management. A special
course in "gun safety" was featured which provided the campers an oppor-
tunity to handle military rifles and fire "live" ammunition.
Tractor Program.-For the past 10 years special state clinics on tractor
care have been held to provide training for older 4-H Club members, inter-
ested adult leaders and county agents. These clinics include training in
tractor care and instruction on how to conduct 4-H tractor programs in
local 4-H Clubs. This year two State 4-H Tractor Clinics were held, one
at Camp McQuarrie on August 10-13 and one at Camp Timpoochee on Au-
gust 15-18. There were 103 4-H Club junior leaders, adult 4-H Club lead-
ers and Extension agents representing 25 counties who shared in this
instruction.
4-H Newsletter.-Each month the State 4-H staff prepares a 4-H news-
letter which goes to all county agents. Its purpose is to keep agents in-
formed of current 4-H Club activities throughout the state, provide timely
tips on 4-H programs and project work, and recognize agents and boys
for outstanding 4-H Club work.
4-H Activities and Projects.-The major activities and agricultural proj-
ects in which 4-H Club members-both white and negro-receive training

Fig. 5.-Three 4-H boys and the Boys' Club Agent (second from right)
get a chuckle out of talking agriculture with the provost for agriculture
during short course.








30 Florida Cooperative Extension

and experience under the direction of county Extension workers through-
out the state are summarized below:

4-H Activities (Boys and Girls) Members Participating
1. Judging................................. ............... ........ ................ 10,225
2. Giving demonstrations.......--....--..... ...........---.... 14,573
3. Group recreation leadership..................---- ........... 6,096
4. Music appreciation---.........-------................ 3,769
5. Money management (thrift) ....................................... 8,570
6. Farm and Home safety..................................... 14,468
7. Citizenship.............- .........-..............-.. 14,843
8. Personality improvement.................... ................... 13,393
9. Wildlife and nature study........ -----................. ------ 579
10. Forestry......................................................................... 5,196
11. Entom ology................................... .... .. ............ 276
12. Beautification of home grounds----.......--.... .................... 4,245
13. Health, nursing and first aid ---.................................... 7,810
14. Junior leadership........------------------..................... 1,254
15. Cam ping .......................--- ..... ............ ......... 4,859
16. Community activities (improved school grounds,
conducting achievement programs and fairs)-............ 1,218

4-H Projects (Boys and Girls) Scope
1. Corn .......................................... 3,163 acres
2. Peanuts.................................---------------.-------- 962 acres
3. Soybeans, field peas, alfalfa, and other legumes.......... 834 acres
4. Potatoes, Irish and sweet......................-----......... -----. 357 acres
5. Cotton--------------................................ 755 acres
6. Tobacco-- ......... ............----------- -----. 153 acres
7. Vegetable growing........................... .............-------------- 2,755 acres
8. Fruits.......................-------------------. 653 acres
9. Range and pasture........... ......... .................. 3,678 acres
10. Other crops.......... .............. --- ...................--------. 427 acres
11. Soil and water conservation and management..-.......... 3,598 acres
12. Forestry -...........-.................... ......... ... .............. --- 1,558 acres
13. Poultry (including turkeys)............................................174,643 birds
14. Dairy cattle..............................------------------ 2,745 animals
15. Beef cattle..............-----------------.................... 4,493 animals
16. Swine-------........................--------------- 2,027 animals
17. Other livestock ----................-...... -.------. 315 animals
18. Bees.......................---------------.--. 900 colonies
19. Tractor program..........--------............. ------... 467 tractors
20. Electricity........................----------- ---------- 1,686 articles

State, District and County Events.-The state 4-H staff has been active-
ly involved in numerous county, district and state 4-H activities. During
1955 assistance was given to county Extension workers in carrying out
over 90 different shows, fairs, contests,- exhibits, achievement and rally
days, and officers' and leaders' training meetings. Continued emphasis will
be placed on this cooperative service work as a means of implementing and
accomplishing better 4-H Club work in Florida.
4-H Awards Programs and Other Recognition.-During 1955 all rec-
ords submitted to the State 4-H Club Office in state-wide competition were
summarized, and a complete report was given to each county agent. The
reports were evaluated and returned to the agents as a stimulus to the
awards programs and to create more enthusiasm among 4-H Club members.
There were 26 state and national awards programs available for Flori-







Annual Report, 1955


da 4-H members in 1955. These included free trips to the National 4-H
Club Camp and Congress, gold watches, cash awards, trophies, county med-
als and scholarships. This year 16 champion 4-H boys attended the Nation-
al 4-H Club Congress in Chicago.
The trip to the National 4-H Camp in Washington, D. C., is considered
the highest award for outstanding leadership and achievement in 4-H Club
work. Annually, two 4-H boys are awarded this trip, while the Citizenship
Winner receives a trip to the Danforth Leadership Camp in Shelby, Mich.
State and local donors make possible many additional awards to stimu-
late interest in 4-H projects and Club work, such as corn production, swine
and fat steer production, beef breeding, dairy efficiency, poultry, apiary,
forestry, health, farm and home electric, and cooperative activity. More-
over, numerous scholarships to summer camps, short courses, and institu-
tions of higher learning have been made available to 4-H members for
outstanding performance in 4-H Club and project work.


CITRICULTURE AND MINOR FRUITS

Fred P. Lawrence, Citriculturist
Jasper N. Joiner, Assistant Horticulturist 1
Jack T. McCown, Acting Assistant Horticulturist

Florida citrus showed a gross value of $245,805,000 in 1954-55, compared
to $254,965,000 in 1953-54. The crop was the second largest on record-
second only to the peak season of the previous year, which saw 138,200,000
boxes of Florida fruit marketed. Processors' prices to producers for all
citrus were higher and averaged $1.41 per box, or 11 more than the pre-
vious year.
Processors utilized 61 percent of the crop, with the remaining 39 per-
cent moving through fresh fruit channels. The total utilization of raw
fruit by processors was down materially. However the increase in yield
of raw juice per box of fruit resulted in nearly the same volume of finished
products as a year ago. There was an excellent consumer demand for
frozen orange concentrate and a record high consumption. Fresh whole
juice and the new orange crystals are two new products which were ship-
ped experimentally this year. Consumer acceptance was much better than
anticipated.
The over-all per-box price in 1954-55 was $1.93, which was 6 cents more
than the previous season. On a per-box basis a few cents seems trivial but
after considering the size of the 1954-'55 crop these accumulated cents
accounted for more than $7,500,000 increase in the gross value on a box-
for-box comparison with the previous season.
The Citriculturist is the only full-time citrus specialist on the Extension
staff. However, the Assistant Horticultrist devotes 50 percent of his time
to citrus production. In addition, the Extension marketing specialist and
the Experiment Station economist do Extension work in the field of citrus.
Training Programs.-Continued emphasis is being placed on program
planning and training agents in citrus production. Four citrus training
meetings for county agents were held and two others were held at which
citrus was discussed in combination with other fruits. The specialist con-
ducted training courses for county agents at area training conferences and
during the annual county agents' conference. Concise reports on the pro-
gram of current citrus research were given, in addition to basic information
1 Granted leave of absence to do graduate work September 19, 1955.
STransferred from Indian River County November 1, 1955.







Florida Cooperative Extension


on citrus culture. The Assistant Horticulturist conducted four training
courses for home demonstration agents in the fields of home orchard and
dooryard planting. Information was made available to the agents on
methods of propagation and cultural practices.
Clinics.-Over 1,500 people attended 11 horticultural clinics and two
citrus clinics throughout the state during the year. Home owners were
able to solve many problems relating to plant deficiencies and insect and
disease damage, as well as receiving other helpful information on produc-
tion techniques.
Institutes.-Institutes were again an outstanding means of providing
the latest information to growers. Four citrus institutes, one citrus and
sub-tropical institute and one lime and avocado institute were held. These
provided growers with information on marketing and cultural practices.
More than 1,800 growers attended the institutes, which varied in length
from one day to a week.
Schools.-Two citrus schools were held to supplement the clinics and
institutes. Each school met one night each week for eight weeks. Aver-
age attendance per meeting was more than 125 persons. An on the spot
school was conducted for the purpose of giving growers practical field in-
struction. This school met once each week for 12 weeks. Practical infor-
mation such as insect identification, selecting soil samples and the proper
procedure for carrying on many cultural practices, was provided for grow-
ers attending.
Demonstrations and Tours.-Twenty-two demonstrations and tours were
conducted in citrus-producing counties. The Citriculturist and Assistant
Horticulturist helped in planning and conducting these activities. The
tours have been of two types; (1) grower tours to federal and state experi-
ment stations or their sub-labs to view actual experimental plots and (2)
a county tour (usually within the home county) to observe result demon-
strations that growers are conducting. These demonstrations are actually
based upon research results and occasionally some demonstrations showing
good grower practices are visited.
Citrus 4-H Club Work.-The Specialist, assisted by the Citrus Advisory
Committee, completed and made available to county agents a 4-H Club
citrus record book. The record book is to provide the club member with
a program in citrus covering a five year period.
'Citrus Advisory Committee.-The Citrus Advisory Committee held two
meetings during the year. The objectives of this Committee are to assist
agents in becoming more thoroughly trained in citrus production and to aid
in directing an effective Extension program in the citrus industry. This
Committee is now nine years old. Much of the success of the citrus Exten-
sion program can be directly relayed to the work of this committee.



DAIRY HUSBANDRY

C. W. Reaves, Extension Dairy Husbandman
T. W. Sparks, Assistant Extension Dairy Husbandman

The Extension dairy husbandry program for 1955 included supervision
of dairy herd improvement association work and official testing, assistance
in breeding programs for higher producing dairy cows, direction of a
Florida dairy pasture and forage contest, a pasture costs and returns anal-
ysis on selected farms, educational work on feeding and management and








Annual Report, 1955


home milk supply, 4-H CluD dairy activities, and cooperation with dairy
groups and other organizations.
Dairy Herd Improvement Association Work.-The DHIA program is
showing results in increased efficiency of milk production as a result of
dairymen's use of the records for culling, feeding according to the cows'
needs, selection of better breeding stock, and use of improved dairy prac-
tices. The state DHIA summary below shows the per-cow averages for
each of the past three years.
1952-53 1953-54 1954-55
Number cows finished test ............................... 7,143 6,905 8,274
Milk, lbs. .. ..... .................. ....... ........ 6,415 6,624 6,611
Test, per cent ......................4... .... ......-...- 4.5 4.5 4.5
Butterfat, lbs ................. ....... ................ 288 301 299
Total feed cost ......................... .. ............... $210 $199 $182
Value of product above feed cost .................. $251 $283 $288
Returns per $1.00 for feed ................................ $2.20 $2.42 $2.59
Feed cost per 100 Ibs. milk ............................. $3.27 $3.00 $2.75
The 1954-55 year shows an increase in production, a decrease in feed
cost, an increase in value of product above feed cost, an increase in returns
per $1.00 for feed, and a decrease in the feed cost of producing 100 pounds
of milk. The 27 cents and 25 cents decreases in cost of production the
last two years mean a total of 52 cents decrease. This is a reduction of
41/ cents in the cost of producing a gallon of milk in the DHIA herds,
largely a result of better feeding, breeding and management carried out by
the DHIA members of the state.
The number of cows on DHIA test reached the high mark of 11,483 in
8 associations in 24 counties in November 1955. This was an increase of
1,460 cows during the year.

Fig. 6.-Winners of the Florida dairy pasture contest were presented
cups and certificates at the dairy field day. Twenty-one qualified for pas-
ture certificates by scoring 75 percent or more in this contest sponsored by
the Florida Dairy Association.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Improved practices and results secured by DHIA members were brought
to the attention of other dairymen by reports of herd records, farm tours,
meetings and radio talks. The DHIA herds not only serve as result demon-
strations, but the better ones provide breeding stock for other herds, thus
cooperating in a long-time dairy improvement program for all dairies.
Official Cow Testing.-The Extension Dairyman is state superintendent
of official cow testing, the production testing carried out through the pure-
bred dairy cattle associations. Fifteen herds are on Advanced Registry
or Register of Merit tests and 16 are on Herd Improvement Registry tests.
Many dairymen combine the DHIA with the breed association test.
Breeding Program for Higher Producing Dairy Cows. Thirty-eight
bulls were proved on production records of daughters made entirely or
partly in Florida DHIA herds. Reports of proved-sire lists, newsletters,
news stories, personal contacts, breed association programs and artificial
breeding associations were utilized in teaching better breeding and princi-
ples of inheritance as applied to high milk production. Assistance was
given by county Extension agents to 5,382 persons in the selection or breed-
ing of dairy cattle. This included 4-H members and family cow owners,
as well as commercial dairymen.
The 13 artificial breeding associations and four very large private herds
which purchased semen from the American Breeders' Service bred 27,493
cows with semen from proved bulls during the year. Other breeding give
a total of approximately 30,493 dairy cows bred artificially in the state dur-
ing 1955.
Production records of artificially sired cows on DHIA test have shown
increases above their dams. A study was made of herd averages to show
the trend in the production of herds using artificial breeding the last five
years compared to herds not using artificial breeding. Those herds using
artificial breeding from 1949 to 1953, inclusive, showed an increase in aver-
age production per cow of 303 pounds milk and 18 pounds butterfat, com-
pared to an increase of 232 pound milk and 18 pounds butterfat for the
group that had not used artificial breeding. This was a larger increase by
72 pounds of milk per cow for the group of herds that used artificial breed-
ing during the five years.
Feeding and Herd Management.-Feeding methods are being improved
in Florida dairy herds both from the standpoint of production of more
feeds and in methods of feeding. County agents' reports showed a total
of 6,914 persons assisted in feeding problems of dairy herds and family
milk cows. Also, 4,873 were assisted in methods of controlling parasites
on cattle.
Culling was emphasized through the DHIAs and by news articles on
levels of production for culling in Florida herds.
Assistance was given in holding a Dairy Herdsmen's Short Course and
a Dairy Field Day at the University in the summer. A dairy cattle judg-
ing school was held in cooperation with the Florida Guernsey Cattle Club
for county agents and breeders.
An Efficient Dairy Production Contest was sponsored by the National
Dairy Products Corporation and directed by the Agricultural Extension
Service.
Pasture and Forage Production.-A Dairy Pasture and Forage Contest
was carried out with the sponsorship of the Florida Dairy Association.
All dairymen submitting reports scoring 75 percent or above on the score
card received Certificates of Recognition. County and state winners were
selected in (1) best dairy pasture and forage program and (2) most im-








Annual Report, 1955


provement over the previous year in providing the pasture and forage
needs of the herd.
The reports submitted showed excellent advances in pasture and forage
production. The number of dairymen storing silage continued to increase.
A number fed fresh cut green forage with zero grazing. Better pasture
management in regular fertilization, rotation grazing, clipping and more
efficient utilization of the pastures were shown.
Pasture Costs and Returns Study.-A study made by the Extension
Dairyman of all Florida DHIA herds for the three-year period, 1951-54,
indicated that DHIA herds were securing 34 percent of their total feed
supply from pasture and forage, compared to 27 percent for all Florida
dairy herds. The pasture costs and returns study of 19 yearly farm and
herd records showed a total annual pasture cost of $39.66 per acre of im-
proved pasture and a feed replacement value of $83.22. The cost of pro-
ducing 100 pounds of milk decreased at the rate of 2.5 cents for each addi-
tional percent of its feed supply that the DHIA herds secured from pasture.
Home Milk Supply.-Assistance was given in the purchase of cows or
heifers for home milk supply. The 4-H girls had a dairy foods demon-
stration project, in which they demonstrated the use, preparation and value
of milk and dairy products before 4-H and adult audiences.
The 4-H Club Work.-Dairy projects were carried by 1,650 members
(1,588 white and 62 negro), involving a total of 2,082 animals in completed
projects. The dairy achievement program, efficient 4-H dairy production
contest, the butterfat production contest, a dairy pasture essay contest,
and nine district 4-H dairy shows climaxed by the State 4-H Dairy Show
with judging, fitting and showmanship competitions combined to offer a
varied educational and action program for the 4-H dairy club members.
Orange County again won the award for the Best County 4-H Dairy Pro-
gram. It had 79 members with 138 dairy animals. Seventy-four were
shown in the county show and a good educational program was carried out.
Eight North Central Florida counties placed 120 baby calves from com-
mercial dairies in South Florida. Less than 20 percent were lost and many
nice heifers are being raised.
The State 4-H Dairy Show brought together 126 top animals from all
over the state with keen interest exhibited in all the events. Seventeen
Jerseys were taken to the Mid-South National Junior Dairy Show in Mem-
phis, Tennessee. Two Florida counties entered the judging contest, held in
connection with this show, and placed second and third. The Florida group
was also awarded the Herdsman Award.
Florida 4-H Dairy Judging Team wins Caribbean International Contest.
-As a result of winning the International Dairy Show 4-H Judging Con-
test in Chicago in October 1954, the Florida team was invited to represent
the United States in the Caribbean International Judging Contest in Jamai-
ca in February 1955. Erny Sellers and Howard Renner were selected to go
with C. W. Reaves, team coach. The Florida team won the contest, with
Sellers winning high individual honors and Renner winning second high
individual honors.
Cooperation.-Cooperative work was done with the four dairy cattle
breed organizations, the Florida Dairy Association, the State Department
of Agriculture, Florida Livestock Board, Florida State Fair, and civic
organizations, chambers of commerce, and other groups.
The following tabulation gives results in some of the dairy Extension
activities for the past two years.









Florida Cooperative Extension


1954 1955
Number of dairy herd improvement associations ......... 8 8
Cows on DHIA test ........................... .................. 10,023 11,483
Cows on Official test ........................ ........... .............. 1,645 1,858
Number bulls proved by DHIA records ............................ 58 38
Cows bred in artificial breeding units ............................. 29,000 30,493
Pasture analyses made .................. ............... .................... 28 19
* Number persons receiving aid on feeding problems ...... 5,900 6,914
* Number persons receiving aid on controlling external
parasites .......................................................... 4,032 4,722
* Number persons receiving aid on controlling internal
parasites ................ --........------ ... ---.........--............ -------- 4,524 4,873
Number dairymen scoring over 75% in pasture
contest ........-........................... ...... ................. 33 21
Number 4-H members with dairy projects ...................... 1,533 1,650



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

J. Francis Cooper, Editor and Head
Frank B. Borries, Jr., Associate Editor
H. L. Moreland, Jr., Assistant Editor
M. H. Sharpe, Assistant Editor

The Editorial Department suffered a severe loss on February 1, 1955,
when Editor Clyde Beale dropped dead. He had been a highly capable and
hard working member of the department for nearly 20 years. Mr. Borries
was appointed in his place, beginning May 16.
All four editors are cooperatively employed by the Agricultural Experi-
ment Station and devote about half time to work for that division.

PUBLICATIONS

Emphasis continued on circulars, which are concise and relatively in-
expensive. More color was used this year than ever before, one circular
and one bulletin being printed in four colors. Because of their subject
matter and color, they have proven to be in heavy demand.
We printed two new bulletins which contained 56 pages for a total
quantity of 32,000 copies; one revised bulletin contained 68 pages and the
quantity printed was 15,000 copies. The 13 new circulars contained 88
pages and were issued in a total quantity of 180,000 copies; 20,000 copies
of one 8-page revised circular were printed.
Following is a list of bulletins and circulars printed during the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1955:
Pages Edition
Bul. 160 Growing Strawberries in Florida ......................... 16 12,000
Bul. 161 Growing Camellias in Florida ............................... 40 20,000
Bul. 152 Native and Exotic Palms of Florida (revised) .... 68 15,000
Circ. 125 Flatlands Farm Woodland Management Pays .... 12 12,500
Circ. 126 500-Chick Infrared Brooder .................................. 8 15,000
Circ. 127 Mist Propagation ...................... ....... ...... 4 15,000
Circ. 128 Caladium Production in Florida ........................... 8 20,000
Circ. 129 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco .. 4 12,500
Circ. 130 Cotton Insect Control ................. .................. ... 6 10,000
* Includes family cow owners and 4-H club members as well as dairymen.








Annual Report, 1955


CLYDE KENYON BEALE-Aug. 25, 1905-Feb. 1, 1955.
Assistant, Associate and Editor, Florida Agricultural
Extension Service, Apr. 1, 1935-Feb. 1, 1955.
A worker, ready, willing and able.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Circ. 131 Lychee Insect Control.......................... .... .............. 4 6,000
Circ. 132 Citrus Rootstocks ........................ .................... 4 12,000
Circ. 133 Papaya Growing in Florida .................................. 8 20,000
Circ. 134 Farm and Home Development in Florida .......... 6 15,000
Circ. 135 A Good Reading Lamp ........................................ 4 12,000
Circ. 136 Papaya Insect Control ........................................ 8 15,000
Circ. 137 Insects and Mites of Florida Citrus ................... 12 25,000
Circ. 104 Vegetable Garden Production Guide (revised) .... 8 20,000

We printed 170,000 copies of 10 record books and other thousands of
numerous other materials for 4-H Club members and other miscellaneous
materials. The record books included a general one and others devoted to
gardening, food and nutrition, cooking, leadership, corn, apiary, nursery
and electric programs.
Bulletins, circulars, record books and other materials are distributed
from the mailing room. New bulletins and circulars are sent immediately
to libraries, county and home demonstration agents and the specialist staff
as soon as issued. Thereafter they are sent only on request.
County and home demonstration agents in 66 counties report distribut-
ing 444,774 state and federal bulletins.
The Editorial Department continued to handle distribution of U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture publications to Florida county and home demon-
stration agents.

SERVICE TO NEWSPAPERS AND FARM JOURNALS
Both newspapers and farm journals continued to give excellent cooper-
ation in the publication of news of interest to Florida farm families. The
weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, has been and is a principal
medium of release for materials going to weekly papers and farm journals,
and is sent also to county and home demonstration agents, vocational agri-
culture teachers and some others who work with groups of farm people.
Two or three "skeleton" stories are supplied to county agents each week,
to be filled in with their own names and released to their local papers.
Also, stories are released to daily papers frequently through the Asso-
ciated Press wire service and occasionally through direct mailing. Farm
page editors are given cooperation from time to time in preparing stories
on which they are working.
County and home demonstration agents in 65 counties report preparing
13,324 news articles for their local papers.

RADIO AND TV BROADCASTS
The Agricultural Extension Service and Experiment Station inaugurated
a weekly television show over WFLA-TV, Tampa, on April 8, 1955, shortly
after the station had completed its test pattern. We participated in a 30-
minute show every Friday, taking about 131/2 minutes each week. Mostly
the Station and Extension alternated, Extension editors and specialists pre-
senting 16 shows from April 15 to November 30. The series is continuing.
County and home demonstration agents in 29 counties reported doing
245 TV shows and agents in 46 counties reported preparing and delivering
3,159 radio talks.
Copy for approximately seven minutes of farm flashes daily for five
days a week was sent to 52 radio stations. This consisted mostly of
material from Experiment Station and Extension Service staff members,
but also included some material from the U. S. Department of Agriculture.









Annual Report, 1955


A fortnightly review of Florida agriculture was sent every two weeks
to 36 radio stations. One-minute farm news announcements for five days
a week were sent to one radio and television station.
The Florida Farm Review each week was continued. This office sup-
plied the copy to the Associated Press, which released it over its teletype
system to Florida stations.
We continued to send recorded talks and interviews to stations request-
ing them. During 1955 we sent 42 tapes to six stations and these tapes
contained 50 talks by Extension Service staff members.
The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, 30 minutes five days a week and
15 minutes on Saturday, continued to be a principal radio outlet. Exten-
sion Editors prepared and presented daily farm news highlights 248 times,
and weekly farm question box, farm news and views and farm editorial
each 49 times. The office secretary presented weekly home economics
notes 49 times also.
Other Extension staff members presented 118 talks, Experiment Sta-
tion workers 182, and College of Agriculture staff members 23. Home
demonstration workers appeared 13 times, Agricultural Conservation and
Stabilization representatives nine, a representative of an electric cooper-
ative three, and representatives of the State Plant Board and U. S. Fish
and Wildlife Service once each. Farm flashes, mostly from USDA, were
presented 64 times.
Special features included a talk by the provost for agriculture, an inter-
view with an editor of a national poultry magazine, three recordings from
the National Guernsey Show, one recording from the American Petroleum
Institute, two talks by a bird specialist, a recorded talk describing a farm
tour to Russia, a recorded talk on old-age and survivors insurance, one pro-
gram each devoted to Future Homemakers of America and New Farmers
of America, three features recorded at the Florida State Fair in Tampa,
and remote broadcasts from the College of Agriculture Fair and the Lake
County Fair.
The Extension Editor appeared one time on the National Farm and
Home Hour. We made two motion pictures for television use and also
made some motion picture shots for a national soybean association.

VISUAL AIDS AND MISCELLANEOUS
The department is slowly building towards the visual aids equipment
needed, and now has a motion picture camera, two motion picture projec-
tors, three still cameras, four slide throwers, six public address systems,
and other equipment. We maintain a filmstrip library and a small slide
library, to which we are adding.



ENTOMOLOGY

James E. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist

Principal features of the Extension program in entomology included:
(1) publications (2) 4-H entomology program, (3) training meetings, (4)
radio talks, TV programs and newspaper stories, and (5) work with other
specialists.
Publications.-The Extension Entomologist cooperated in the prepara-
tion of the following circulars: 129, Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured
Tobacco; 130, Cotton Insect Control; 131, Lychee Insect Control; 136, Pa-
paya Insect Control; 137, Insects and Mites of Florida Citrus; 138, Good-








Florida Cooperative Extension


Bye Mr. Roach; 139, Control of Insects and Diseases of Dooryard Citrus
Trees; 140, Some Questions and Answers of Vegetable Pesticide Tolerances;
and 104R, Vegetable Garden Production Guide (Revised).
Mimeographs were prepared on pests of stored grain, lawns, ornamen-
tals, pastures and livestock.
4-H Entomology.-Work and participation in the 4-H Entomology Pro-
ject is progressing. Ninety-one members in 17 counties completed the
project in 1954. In 1955 the number of completions increased to 198 in 28
counties. In the National 4-H Entomology Awards Program, Hugo Desch,
Orange County, was awarded a 19-jewel wrist watch for winning first
place in Florida.
The Extension Entomologist taught entomology at the State Boys' 4-H
Short Course at the University and at the Honey-Electric-Entomology
Short Course at Camp McQuarrie. Collecting, mounting, labeling, pre-
servation and identification of insects was taught at three 4-H summer
camps.
Training Meetings.-Insect identification and control was taught at
three district county agents' training meetings and at the Annual Negro
County Agents' Conference. Vegetable insects were discussed at four
meetings of county and home agents in farm and home development coun-
ties.
Insect control recommendations were discussed at two citrus schools,
four institutes and three short courses.
The Editorial Department, in cooperation with the Extension Entomo-
logist, prepared eight timely newspaper stores on insects and their control.
Five radio talks were made and two TV programs presented. Three radio
tapes were made by the Editorial Department for use in various counties.
Work with Other Specialists.-The Extension Entomologist cooperated
with the vegetable crop specialists and Experiment Station workers in
preparing a Guide for Control of Diseases and Insects of Commercial Vege-
tables in Florida, 1955-56. This was made available to county agents and
many growers and pesticide dealers and salesmen. Some grower meetings
held and farm visitations were made with vegetable crop specialists.
Some 20 dooryard clinics were attended, in cooperation with other spe-
cialists, including workers in citrus, ornamentals and vegetable gardens.
Insect identification and controls were discussed and printed recommenda-
tions were made available to those attending.
Three seed dealers' meetings were attended with Extension agronomists,
and insect control recommendations were discussed and distributed.



FARM AND HOME DEVELOPMENT
Clyde E. Murphree, Farm and Home Development Specialist
Helen D. Holstein, District Home Demonstration Agent'
Susan R. Christian, Economist in Food Production, Farm & Home
Development2

Farm and home development work in Florida is an outgrowth of the
enactment of legislation by Congress which provided additional Federal
funds. These funds initially became available on July 1, 1954. Since
this time there has been a gradual evolution of the meaning of farm and
home development, as well as an evolution of policies for adapting the
method to Florida.
1 Promoted to District Home Demonstration Agent April 1, 1955.
2 Appointed May 23, 1955.








Annual Report, 1955 41

An Extension Advisory Committee composed of administrative and
supervisory personnel and subject-matter specialists for both men and
women agents was created in 1954. Both project leaders were made ex-
officio members of this committee. Since its creation this committee has
made policy recommendations for the Director's consideration, has assisted
in interpreting policy decisions and has advised the project leaders on all
problem situations.
Policies for adapting the farm and home development method to Florida
were defined by the Director in conferences with the Assistant Director
and district agents and through conferences with the State Home Demon-
stration Agent and the project leaders in farm and home development.
It was decided that farm and home development would embrace only a
relatively small number of pilot counties in 1955. An attempt was made
to initiate the method in 10 counties. However, because of difficulties in
securing personnel, only nine counties became involved. Eight of these
counties were divided into four units with two counties in each unit. Asso-
ciate agricultural agents were employed for each unit to work with existing
county home demonstration agents. The counties included in this unit-
basis organization were: Columbia-Hamilton, Leon-Jefferson, Washing-
ton-Holmes, and Santa Rosa-Okaloosa. The odd county was Franklin. In
this county the farm and home development method was initiated by the
county and home agents. Each team working in a county was to make the
farm and home development method available to 15 families. With minor
exceptions, this has been accomplished.
In the selection of families consideration was given to families which
were full-time farmers, having control of the land and having lived on the
farm for at least two years; families grouped in the county to some degree

Fig. 7.-The farm family-all eight of them-go over their farm and
home plans with the home demonstration agent and associate and county
agent (right).








Florida Cooperative Extension


to facilitate travel; families not under the supervision of another agency;
and families representing various income levels.
The concept of farm and home development as developed in Florida
is briefly that this is a method of doing Extension work. This method
views the farm, home and family as a unit and requires that Extension
personnel work as a team. The goals of farm and home development are
to help farm families recognize and think through their problems and op-
portunities, plan a sound system of farming and homemaking, put their
plans into action, and adjust these plans wisely as the situation demands.
Since several aspects of these concepts were new to many of the per-
sonnel and in order to effect the use of the method throughout the state,
a training program was initiated involving a three-week Summer School
Workshop, the Annual Agents' Conferences and area workshops. In fact,
the major work of project leaders during the past year has been the pre-
paration of teaching materials and the training of Extension personnel in
the farm and home development method.
Personnel not including the three associate agents who have undergone
some type of formal in-service training are: 55 county agents, 8 assistant
county agents, 39 home demonstration agents, and 4 assistant home demon-
stration agents, or a total of 106 agents.
Printed or mimeographed materials prepared for use in training in-
cluded background information on farm and home development, planning
information, forms or devices for assisting agents and families to examine
the problems of the farm and home which are related to the achievement
of their goals and to explore alternative courses of action calculated to
lead to the achievement of these goals; and problem case studies designed
to acquaint the trainee with the use of the above devices.
Statistical reports show that there were 190 families enrolled in 1955--
129 families in the pilot counties and 61 families in 26 other counties.
These families represented all age groups and income levels. Of these fami-
lies, substantial progress was made by 155 in setting goals; by 146 in inven-
torying resources; by 155 in analyzing present farming operations; by 147
in analyzing present family living operations; by 86 in improving farm
buildings; by 90 in improving farm machinery and equipment; by improving
farm operations with (1) crops 131, (2) livestock 116; by improving family
living through (1) farmstead arrangement 76, (2) house 85, (3) equipment
and furnishings 93, and (4) food supply 124. In 117 families, the children
took part in the development of the farm and home plan. In 95 families
there were 4-H Club members whose project activities directly supported
the family's farm and home plan.


FARM AND HOME SAFETY

A. M. Pettis and Frances C. Cannon

The Extension Farm Electrification Specialist and the Health Educa-
tion Specialist acted as state safety co-chairmen in 1955. In this capacity
they assisted county agents, home demonstration agents and 4-H Clubs in
conducting farm safety campaigns and programs throughout the year, and
especially during National Safety Week, Spring Clean Up Week and Fire
Prevention Week. With the cooperation of the National Safety Council,
all county Extension workers were supplied with safety posters, literature
and other helpful materials to unify efforts in promoting safety.
Florida county agents and home demonstration agents devoted 88 work
days to safety during National Safety Week and the other weeks of July.








Annual Report, 1955


During this month 4-H members and agents gave 23 demonstrations and
talks on safety, including several radio talks, and also placed many window
displays and posters effectively.
Each week during the summer about 500 4-H boys and girls were taught
water safety at the five 4-H camps. The safety education trooper of the
Florida Highway Patrol worked in all the 4-H camps during the summer
with the boys and girls on safety on the streets, walking, riding bicycles,
and driving. This work is helping to spread interest in safety. At the
annual Wildlife Camp, 85 agents and 4-H boys from 17 counties received
training concerning safety in the woods, in the water and with firearms.
At two tractor maintenance clinics 90 agents and 4-H boys received train-
ing in farm machinery safety, farm and home safety, highway safety and
water safety. In addition to water safety and highway safety, negro 4-H
campers received training on safety with guns and safety with shop tools.
Classes in home safety and highway safety were taught at 4-H Girl's
Short Course.
Four plays concerning safety were supplied to county agents and home
demonstration agents and also personal assistance was given them in
their safety programs. A new safety record book was prepared to help
4-H members enrolled in safety projects. This year there were 3,433 4-H
Club members enrolled in safety projects.
The national sponsor of the 4-H safety program is General Motors and
the state winner this year was Jim Aitken of Orange County, who received
a free trip to National 4-H Club Congress in Chicago.
The negro state winner of the $50 savings bond was Harold Wright of
Madison County.
During 1955 14,468 4-H members in 59 counties received training in
safety and county Extension workers assisted farm people with problems
concerning safety as follows:


Fig. 8.-A state


highway trooper gives safety instruction to 4-H Club
girls at short course.








44 Florida Cooperative Extension


County Extension Workers Counties
Days devoted to safety ................................. 791 51
People Assisted on fire prevention .............. 3,564 55
Leaders assisting -....---...........- --- ................ 725 40
Personal contacts ........................................ 35,010 57
Families adopting
Safe practices ..... ........................... 22,144 57
Fire prevention ............................................. 13,859 55
Accident prevention (at home) ............... 14,823 57
Accident prevention (other) .................... 8,411 45



FARM FORESTRY

L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester
A. S. Jensen, Assistant Extension Forester

The long-time objectives of the Extension educational program for farm
forestry were consistently promoted during the year. Principal features
of the program were: (1) forest fire prevention, (2) forest planting, (3)
timber marketing, (4) forest management, (5) insect and disease preven-
tion and control, (6) game and wildlife restoration, and (7) developing
interest in forestry among rural young people through 4-H Clubs and other
youth groups.
As opportunity afforded, the work was coordinated with programs of
other agencies, both public and private, that are in a position to advance
the objectives of the Extension program. Among these were the Florida
Forest Service, U. S. Forest Service, Soil Conservation Service, boards of
county commissioners, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Fish and Wild-
life Service, lumber companies, American Turpentine Farmers' Association,
Florida Bankers' Association, and Florida Cattlemen's Association and the
various pulp and paper mills.

FOREST FIRE PREVENTION
Fire, the scourge of Florida's forests, again received much attention.
The year 1955 saw some of the largest and most devastating forest fires
of all time, exceeding even the severe losses sustained during 1954. A
long-continued drouth contributed to the fire loss, but most of the fires
resulted from carelessness and inadequate preventive measures.
Therefore the Extension Forester continued to promote 100-foot wide
fire lanes, sodded to improved pasture grasses and grazed by cattle, as the
solution to Florida's forest fire problem. Such a fire prevention program
fits both large and small woodlands, is effective in fire prevention and
control, is practical and economical and conserves all natural resources
such as timber, soil, water, game and other beneficial wildlife. Extension
Bulletin 127, Timber-Grazing-Game, was again distributed to interested
landowners. Little by little, this program is becoming more widely adopted
on both large and small forest holdings. It is a principal educational fea-
ture of three 4-H Club owned and managed forests in three counties, in-
volving a total of 1,220 acres.
During the year 3,564 farmers were encouraged and assisted, chiefly
through efforts of the county agents, in safeguarding their timber from
fire. Four-H Club members in summer camps, short courses and at meet-
ings were given instruction in forest fire prevention and control.








Annual Report, 1955


FOREST PLANTINGS
Demonstration plantings of forest trees were as usual a big feature of
the 1955 Extension forestry program. This is because our experience has
shown that farmers who make a forest planting develop an abiding interest
in timber as a farm crop. A young planted forest not only "sells" the
farmer and his family on this relatively new idea but also influences his
neighbors to plant trees.
Slash Pine Plantings.-Slash pine is, and will probably always be,
Florida's most important forest tree. County agents in 45 of Florida's 67
counties distributed 11,655,650 slash pine seedlings to farmers and other
small woodland owners during the year. A total of 17,141 acres on 1,881
farms were planted to pines. More trees would have been distributed by
county agents if seedlings had been available. In so far as we have been
able to learn, Florida county agents have again led the nation in number
of forest seedlings distributed to farmers. This was accomplished largely
through close cooperation with Florida wood-using industries, which pur-
chased 6,187,000 seedlings from Forest Service nurseries and made them
available directly to county agents for free distribution to farmers. Six
Florida pulpmills provided 6,058,000 free pine seedlings. There were 369,000
free seedlings furnished to 4-H and Future Farmer chapters for plantings
on youth projects.
Red Cedar Plantings.-Hundreds of Florida farmers wish to plant red
cedar for Christmas trees, fence posts, lumber and high-priced pencil wood.
Because cedar seedlings were again not available, the Extension Forester
provided mimeographed instructions explaining how farmers and 4-H Club
members could collect seeds and grow their own cedar seedlings. Copies
of these were furnished all county agents.
In order to establish additional needed demonstration plantings of red
cedar and because planting stock was not available, the Extension Forest-
ers collected 270,000 cedar seeds for free distribution to 27 farmers and
4-H Club members. This long-continued pioneering effort to introduce a
new and valuable tree species for farm plantings is beginning to bear fruit
and popular demand, it is hoped, may soon encourage nurseries to produce
cedar seedlings in adequate supply.
Catalpa Plantings.-In a persistent effort to meet the acute shortage of
durable fence post material on farms, the Extension Foresters continued
the collection and free distribution of catalpa seeds for fence post demon-
stration plantings by farmers and 4-H club members. A total of 23,300
catalpa seeds were collected and distributed to 16 people.
In addition, 10 previous fence post demonstration plantings (4,100 trees)
were pruned to determine the best time and method of pruning for stem
development. In three of the older plantings different fertilization applica-
tions were made to determine effect on growth and whether fertilization
would be practical. Careful records were kept for future reference. Grow-
ing catalpas for fence posts is a new venture in Florida, and no previous
research has been carried on in this field. Interested farmers are asking
for information on culture.
Tulip Poplar Plantings.-In cooperation with the Extension Apiculturist,
390 tulip poplar seedlings were distributed to eight farmers for small trial
plantings on different soil types outside its natural range. A number of
different soils on which plantings might be made by beekeepers and others
were suggested. Recommendations were based, as far as possible, on re-
sults obtained from five tulip poplar plantings made by the Extension
Forester during 1943. These, in so far as is known, were the first such
plantings made in Florida.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Sand Pine Plantings.-Two additional small plantings of sand pines,
consisting of 50 trees each, were made in Lake County during the year on
land too poor for the more valuable species of pine. Earlier plantings on
these dry, poor, sandy soils made in 1950 appear so promising that new
plantings seemed justified. There are several million acres of similar dry
sands in Florida now occupied chiefly by scrub oak. These sand pine
demonstration plantings appear to point the way to a profitable use for
such soils.
Other Plantings of Forest Trees.-County Agents and farmers were
assisted, also, in establishing windbreak plantings around crop fields.
Three rows of slash pines, interplanted with two rows of red cedar, were
suggested. Other plantings recommended were shade and shelter plantings
for livestock confined in open pastures, and plantings of live oaks in com-
mercial fern beds to replace the expensive slatted shades, many of which
are now deteriorating and would otherwise need to be replaced in the near
future with new shades.

FOREST INSECTS AND DISEASES
County agents, farmers and other forest landowners were assisted in
identification and in prevention and control of destructive forest insects and
diseases. Principal insect damage to pine stands was due to bark beetle
outbreaks. Sawfly, tip moth and Pales weevils caused some injury, prin-
cipally in young planted pine stands. Yellow blister rust, brown spot
needle rust and cedar blight caused some losses. Blister rust attacks
pines, chiefly loblolly and slash pines, at all stages of growth, while cedar
blight is most damaging in nursery beds and in very young planted stands.
Brown spot needle rust is destructive to longleaf pine seedlings only.
Mimeographed instructions on control of insects and diseases were pre-
pared, and copies furnished to county agents, farmers and others.

FOREST MARKETING

County agents, farmers and landowners were assisted with many phases
of marketing forest products. In certain cases actual on-the-ground assist-
ance was given individual landowners. Usually, however, groups of several
or more persons were given pointers on some phase of good marketing.
Visits were made to wood-using industries in various parts of the state.
Where possible, current price lists of forest products were kept. This and
other marketing information was made available to county agents and
landowners on request.
NAVAL STORES

This last season showed a production of the smallest crop of naval
stores on record. Large operations showed further decline, while the num-
bers of small gum farmers increased slightly in some counties.
The Extension Foresters attended naval stores meetings and worked
with American Turpentine Farmers' Association officials and others in an
effort to show farmers and landowners the opportunities of starting a
profitable gum farming operation. Radio programs and county agent
stories were written on naval stores. Several demonstrations were given
to youth groups and adults on starting a gum farming operation.

4-H FORESTRY

Much of the Assistant Extension Forester's time was spent working
with agents and assistants on 4-H forestry. Visits to individual projects








Annual Report, 1955


were made as often as time and travel permitted. Last year 492 boys
completed forestry projects totaling 1,558 acres. The winner of the state
forestry award was Ernest Settle, Jr., of Escambia County. Work was
done on several 4-H county forests. Instruction in various phases of for-
estry was given at the annual 4-H short course and at 4-H summer camps.
Various 4-H Club forestry material was prepared for use by 4-H Club
members.
FORESTRY EXHIBITS

Exhibits on forestry were set up at four county fairs, at the Farm and
Home Roundup at Cherry Lake and at several farm tours. These exhibits
were seen by many thousand people in all. During the year a 15-minute
television program on treating fence posts was presented over station
WFLA.


ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE

E. W. McElwee, Ornamental Horticulturist
T. J. Sheehan, Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
J. N. Joiner, Assistant Horticulturist

Principal accomplishments in the field of ornamentals this year in-
cluded: assisting 176 commercial nurserymen, florists and growers; 23
meetings with industry groups, attended by 1,810; 24 horticultural clinics
and associated meetings, attended by 1,251; 30 county offices visited,

1 Spends 50 percent of time on ornamentals and 50 percent on citrus culture.
Granted leave of absence September 19, .1955, to do graduate work.

Fig. 9.-Ornamental horticulturists instruct home demonstration leaders in
methods of plant propagation.








Florida Cooperative Extension


assisted or supplied with information; 51 home owners visited or assisted;
37 meetings with garden clubs, home demonstration clubs and interest
groups, attended by 2,080; seven training meetings for county workers,
attended by 218; six 4-H meetings, camps and short courses, where 185
members were assisted; seven news articles to county agents, 27 to other
outlets; and 15 radio talks and television programs.
4-H Club Activities.-Assistance was given to 4-H Club district and
state leaders in judging horticultural work books and fairs and conducting
classes at boys' and girls' 4-H Club short courses. The specialists encour-
aged local chapters of the Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association
and other commercial groups to sponsor 4-H Club projects.
Special County Program.-An eight-week garden school for home own-
ers was held on a pilot basis in Duval County. The specialists, with assist-
ance from Experiment Station workers and local nurserymen, held two-hour
classes every Monday night for eight weeks. Instruction was given in all
phases of landscaping, propagation, fertilizing and growing ornamentals.
Attendance ranged from around 75 to 150 at the various classes. This
program will be expanded to take in additional counties where 8-, 12- and
16-week schools will be held.
Regional and National Cooperation.-The specialists assisted the region-
al marketing research project group at their annual meeting in Bradenton
by supplying them with information on the ornamental industry and ar-
ranging tours to some of the major growing areas.
The staff organized and helped conduct the first Chrysanthemum Grow-
ers Short Course and first Nurserymen and Growers Short Course held in
Florida. Both of these meetings attracted growers from Florida and other
states. It is anticipated that both will become annual affairs. The Chry-
santhemum Short Course will be rotated among the major chrysanthemum-
growing regions, whereas the Nurserymen and Growers Short Course will
be held at the University.
The specialists contributed articles to national trade journals and pro-
fessional magazines. The history of the development and future of the
chrysanthemum industry in Florida was presented to the Southern Flower
Growers Association's annual meeting. They also presented part of the
program of the annual Georgia Nurserymen's Association meeting.
Public Affairs.-Members of the staff participated in public affairs by
advising on planning of grounds and landscaping of courthouses, schools
and agricultural buildings, churches, youth camps and other public build-
ings, advising and reorganizing the flower show catalog of the State Fair,
judging fairs, trade and plant shows, advising and assisting with programs
for conventions and meetings of industry associations, and working with
state-wide organizations on programs of city and highway beautification.
The Ornamental Horticulturist has been appointed to the Governor's
committee to keep Florida beautiful. This committee is charged principally
with anti-litter programs and coordination of the various highway and
civic beautification committees.
Other Activities.-Staff members worked closely with members of the
State Plant Board on problems of mutual interest, particularly in matters
pertaining to the burrowing nematode and advising on the new plant grad-
ing law. Specialists advised with and assisted Experiment Station workers
in setting up research projects and securing plants for experimental use.
They also aided the teaching division in securing specimens of plant ma-
terials for classroom demonstrations and student use.








Annual Report, 1955


POULTRY HUSBANDRY

N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman
J. S. Moore, Extension Poultryman
L. W. Kalch, Assistant Poultry Husbandman
A. W. O'Steen, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley

Poultry production in Florida for the last few years has been on the
increase. However, very unfavorable prices during the last half of 1954
and into 1955 tended to slow down this continued increase.
Broilers.-Due to the low prices that prevailed for broilers during the
latter part of 1954, chicks placed for broilers in the two major broiler-pro-
ducing areas during the first part of 1955 were considerably below the
number placed in 1954. As of December 1, 1955, broiler placement in Flor-
ida were only 9,382,000, as compared to 10,884,000 for the corresponding
period in 1954.
Baby Chicks.-The number of hatcheries in the state producing baby
chicks and poults decreased from 80 in 1954 to 59 in 1955. However, hatch-
ery capacity in 1954 was 5,040,425, while in 1955 it was 5,040,320.
Growing Healthy Pullets.-Records kept and results obtained from the
Random Sample Tests at the Florida National Egg-Laying Test have been
all-important in promoting the grow healthy pullet project. This phase of
the work was stressed throughout the year.
Layer Management.-Efficiency in production has been stressed through-
out the year. Records from the Florida National Egg-Laying Test and the
Random Sample Poultry Test have been used as a basis for discussing this
phase of poultry work. Better breeding, better feeds and feeding practices
and a lower culling rate have all been given consideration.
Broiler Management.-The Extension poultry workers have continued
to use the following as a guide for efficient broiler production: 40,000
broilers per man per year; 4 lots per year (10,000 each lot); 34 pounds
meat per 100 pounds feed; less than 5 percent mortality; and market before
11 weeks of age. This guide is considered a minimum.
More Efficient Small Flocks.-A flock of from 25 to 30 laying birds
will supply the necessary eggs for a family of five.
The poultry projects carried on by 4-H poultry Club members, and the
records kept in connection with these projects, have served as excellent
demonstrations on the value of the small flock in supplying the necessary
eggs and poultry meat for the family.
Marketing Poultry and Poultry Products.-Commercial egg producers
have been encouraged throughout 1955 to construct and use egg cooling
rooms on their farms (Figs. 10 and 11.). In cooperation with the Agri-
cultural Engineering Department, plans and specifications for the construc-
tion of cool rooms were made available to all interested poultrymen. A sur-
vey made this summer through county agents indicated that more than
350 cool rooms have been constructed on farms throughout the state.
There are now four egg buying cooperatives in the state.
Grow More and Make Better Use of Home-Grown Feeds and Green Feed.
-Feed cost makes up around 50 to 60 percent of the cost of producing
poultry. Since a large percentage of the feed used in poultry feeding in
Florida has to be shipped in, the Extension workers have urged that wher-
ever possible home-grown feeds be utilized, especially green feed.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Junior Poultry Work.-Four-H poultry Club members were assisted in
their program to supply eggs and poultry meat for sale and for home con-
sumption. They were enrolled in production demonstrations with both
broiler and layer projects. They exhibited their eggs and birds and par-
ticipated in judging poultry at county, district and state contests.


Fig. 10.-Eggs are kept in a cooling room on this commercial poultry farm.

The annual 4-H District V Livestock and Poultry Show and Judging
Contest was held at the 4-H Club Park in Jacksonville on January 14 and
15. There were 675 birds, which included 75 pens of broilers, and 33 dozen
eggs on exhibit. The Duval County girls' team was winner in the poultry
judging contest.







Annual Report, 1955


The 2nd Annual Youth Poultry Show was held in connection with the
State Fair in Tampa. This show is open to all 4-H and FFA members in
counties of the Tampa area. Approximately 500 birds were entered in the
show, which ran for two weeks. A poultry judging contest was held, with
Marion County taking top honors.
The 5th Annual Ocala Area Junior Livestock and Poultry Show was
held at the Southeastern Livestock Pavilion in Ocala October 17 and 18.
This show was open to all counties in the area and included 4-H and FFA
entries. There were 334 birds and 54 dozen eggs exhibited. The Marion
County boys' "B" team was winner in the 4-H poultry judging contest.
The 4-H Club boys and girls poultry demonstration project sponsored
by the Sears, Roebuck Foundation received considerable attention again
this year. Twenty-two counties carried the project during 1955. This proj-
ect gives the boy or girl experience in brooding, feeding and managing
baby chicks, in marketing broilers, in raising pullets and in managing the
laying flock. A pullet show is held in each county during the fall and in
some counties an egg show is staged during the spring. Through this
project 24,000 quality day-old baby chicks were placed with 240 4-H Club
members. This program has been an excellent demonstration in the various
counties and communities in helping to promote recommended practices
and to improve the quality of backyard and farm flocks.
The 23rd annual State Boys' and Girls' 4-H Poultry and Egg Show and
Judging Contest was held during the week of February 21-26, in connec-
tion with the Central Florida Fair at Orlando. Florida 4-H Club boys and
girls exhibited a total of 1,267 birds, which included 35 pens of broilers,
and 183 dozen eggs.

Fig. 11.-Egg grading (left) and cooling rooms on a commercial poultry
farm.







52 Florida Cooperative Extension

Fifteen teams competed in the poultry judging contest. The three high
teams in order were: Orange County mixed team, Duval County girls'
team and Marion County mixed team.
Sandra Dennison of Orange County was awarded the $100.00 State De-
partment of Agriculture scholarship to the University of Florida or Florida
State University as the outstanding 4-H poultry club member. The winner
was determined by ability to judge poultry, the exhibit of poultry and eggs
and the record of poultry project carried on at home.
The Orange County poultry judging team, composed of Sandra Denni-
son, Betty Buck, Craig Jackson and Lee Hurst, participated in the Invita-
tional Interstate 4-H Poultry Judging Contest in Chicago in November
1955. The Florida team placed second out of 15 states competing. Betty
Buck was high individual judge in the contest and received a wrist watch
as an award.
Classes in poultry were held during the entire week of Girls' 4-H Short
Course in Tallahassee. Tours to the University of Florida Poultry Unit, a
local hatchery and a local processing plant were conducted during the
annual Boys' 4-H Short Course in Gainesville.
A total of 3,741 boys and girls were enrolled in 4-H poultry projects
from 64 counties.
Turkey Management.-In 1955 only 164,000 turkeys were produced in
Florida. These were produced mainly by those commercial farms that
have now been in operation over a number of years and have developed
their own markets for a quality product.
Two educational meetings were held for turkey growers in the state.
Florida National Egg-Laying Test.-The 29th Florida National Egg-
Laying Test came to a very successful conclusion on September 15, 1955.
There were 65 pens of pullets, totalling 845 birds, entered in this test
from 31 breeders. There were five breeds of chickens from 19 states and
Canada as follows: Thirty-three pens of Single Comb White Leghorns, 10
of In-Crossbreds, 12 of Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, 2 of New Hamp-
shires and 8 of Crossbreds.
During the 350-day egg-laying period, the average egg production per
pullet housed was 239.3 eggs for a value of 245.2 points. This year's pro-
duction was 4 eggs higher than obtained in the 28th Test.
A pen of Crossbred pullets entered by Harvey E. Taylor, Cedar Lake,
Indiana, was the high pen. These pullets produced 3,720 eggs for a value
of 3,859.40 points, or at a rate of 81.75 percent.
A Crossbred pullet entered by Parmenter Reds, Inc., laid 326 eggs for
a value of 350.25 points during this 350-day period.
Feed consumption for the 350 days totaled 100.1 pounds per bird. It
varied from 89.6 pounds for the In-Crossbreds to 110.6 pounds for the Single
Comb Rhode Island Reds. Of the total amount of feed consumed, 1 part
was grain and 1.63 parts were mash.
Feed required to produce one dozen eggs was 4.9 pounds, slightly better
than the record from the previous test. From each 100-pound bag of feed
239 eggs were obtained.
Mortality during the 29th Test was one of the lowest ever experienced,
averaging 8 percent for the entire test. About one-third of the mortality
occurred during the first 182 days of the test and two-thirds during the last
168 days of the test.
Random Sample Tests.-Florida's Random Sample Egg-Laying Test re-
ported herein covers the entire Third Test, a period of 530 days; and the
growing period of 180 days for the Fourth Test.
Third Random Test (March 26, 1954-September 6, 1955). Fifty day-old
pullet chicks each from 20 cooperators were sent to Chipley, where they








Annual Report, 1955


were wing-banded, brooded and reared under uniform conditions for 180
days. Then all live pullets were transferred to the laying house, where
they were fed and managed alike for the next 350 days.
Results during the growing period show considerable variation in num-
ber of pullets housed per entry (range 29 to 50 pullets).
The average net out-of-pocket cost per pullet housed averaged $1.63,
ranging from $1.41 to $2.07. Out-of-pocket cost items include feed, check
and vaccination.
These pullets averaged 196.7 eggs per pullet housed, with a range of
from 160.0 to 232.6 eggs per pullet. The value of eggs over feed cost per
pullet was $3.41, ranging from $2.01 to $4.48. Feed consumption per pullet
averaged 94.1 pounds, with a range of from 84.3 to 116.0 pounds.
Laying house efficiency was 95.59 percent for the year, ranging from
89.29 to 99.76 percent.
Final results for the entire 530-day period show that receipts above
costs of chicks, all feed and medication averaged $2.68 per pullet housed,
with a range of from $1.45 to $3.74 per pullet housed.
Fourth Random Test (March 26, 1955-September 22, 1955-180-day
growing period).-There is capacity at the Egg-Laying Test to accommo-
date 20 entries of chicks in addition to the entries of pullets in the National
Egg-Laying Test.
This report from the 4th Random Test covers a 180-day growing period.
Some results obtained in this test are as follows:
There were 919 pullets housed out of the original 1,000 chicks started.
The number of pullets housed per entry varied from 39 to 49. This varia-
tion in number of pullets housed per entry was influenced by number of
cockerels, accidental deaths and mortality.
Pounds of feed per pullet housed varied from 21.9 pounds to 31.5 pounds.
Cash cost per pullet housed varied from $1.28 to $1.65.
Annual Poultry Institute.-"Efficient Management and Orderly Market-
ing" was the theme of the 14th Annual Poultry Institute sponsored by the
Department of Poultry Husbandry, Agricultural Extension Service, Univer-
sity of Florida, and cooperating state agencies and associations. It was
held at Camp McQuarrie, Astor Park, the week of August 22-27, 1955.
Poultrymen registered and attended the Institute from all sections of
Florida, as well as from five other states.
Associations.-The Florida Poultry and Egg Council, the Florida State
Poultry Producers' Association, the Florida Hatchery and Breeder's Asso-
ciation, the Florida Turkey Association and the Florida Feed Dealer's As-
sociation have worked very closely during the year with Extension person-
nel in fostering the poultry program in the state. Poultry and egg proces-
sors have assisted materially in the development of a program to process
and distribute poultry products.
Educational programs were presented at county poultry associations.
Cooperating Agencies.-The State Livestock Board has supervised the
National Poultry Improvement Plan in the State for the past 20 years. The
1955 report shows that there were 153 flocks, representing 260,592 birds,
in the program. Fifty-nine chick and turkey hatcheries with a total of
5,040,320 egg capacity are listed as cooperators. For the past six years
all hatcheries and flocks in the plan have been listed as "Pullorum Clean."
The State Department of Agriculture, under the leadership of Commis-
sioner Nathan Mayo, has been most cooperative in furthering 4-H poultry
club work in Florida and in promoting a sound poultry industry.
Officials in the State Marketing Bureau and the Poultry and Egg In-
spection Division hav assisted Extension personnel in developing the Exten-
sion poultry program.








Florida Cooperative Extension


SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION

J. H. Herbert, Jr., Assistant Soil Conservationist

Formerly the Extension Soil Conservationist was jointly employed by
the Florida Agricultural Extension Service and the Soil Conservation Serv-
ice. He was administratively responsible to the Director of the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service and, through the Director, was charged with
responsibilities in the formation and maintenance of soil conservation dis-
tricts, petitions, elections, secretarial duties for the State Soil Conservation
Board and Extension soil conservation work. The duties were time-con-
suming to the extent that Extension work in soil and water conservation
was rather limited.
In the fall of 1953 the State Soil Conservation Board appropriated
funds to obtain an executive secretary who would assume responsibility for
the formation and maintenance of soil conservation districts, petitions,
elections, and secretarial duties for the State Soil Conservation Board.
In the fall of 1954 the Florida Agricultural Extension Service obtained
a full-time Assistant Soil Conservationist to do Extension soil conserva-
tion work.
This report is therefore confined to Extension soil conservation work.
Details of accomplishments of soil conservation districts are available in
the Biennial Report of the State Soil Conservation Board.
Work With Soil Conservation Districts.-The Director of Extension
serves as Administrator to the State Soil Conservation Board and is respon-
sible for administering the State Soil Conservation Districts Act. The Ex-
tension Soil Conservationist assists with the educational work with dis-
tricts at the state levels. The county Extension agent assumes a similar
responsibility at the county level.
County agricultural agents serve as secretaries to 46 of the 59 soil con-
servation districts now organized in Florida. Educational work in the
districts is carried on through the county Extension agent concerned,
whether or not he serves as secretary to the district. This educational
work is carried on in close cooperation with many county, state and federal
agencies, but especially the State Soil Conservation Board and the USDA
Soil Conservation Service.
During the period covered by this report the specialist met with 12
soil conservation district boards of supervisors and became familiar with
their programs; six field tours were conducted in order that people, rural
and urban alike, could see results of conservation practices applied to the
land; three field demonstrations in irrigation and subsoiling were held; and
four workshops were held for soil conservation district supervisors.
County Extension workers spent 1,100 days and attended 1,402 meetings
in cooperative work with Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation pro-
gram committees, Soil Conservation Service and soil conservation districts.
Organization of New Soil Conservation Districts.-During the year
county Extension agents in St. Johns and Taylor counties, assisted by the
Extension Soil Conservationist and the Executive Secretary to the State
Soil Conservation Board, held four county educational meetings which led
to the organization of two new soil conservation districts. Presently only
five counties in Florida-Monroe, Dade, Collier, Broward and Palm Beach
-are not included in districts.
Work with 4-H Clubs.-The Extension Soil Conservationist prepared a
mimeographed soil and water conservation record to be kept in carrying







Annual Report, 1955


out Florida 4-H Club soil and water conservation projects. It was mimeo-
graphed so that it might be distributed more quickly and so that weak-
nesses might be discovered before a final printing was made. It is felt
that this record has strengthened the program considerably.
There were 5,559 4-H Club members who received, from county Exten-
sion personnel, definite training in soil and water conservation. Of this
number, 213 members in 27 counties completed projects in soil and water
conservation involving 3,598 acres.
The teaching of soil and water conservation to rural and urban youth
is of inestimable value. The lack of tangible ownership and specific cash
returns appears to be the chief deterrent to the 4-H soil and water con-
servation program. It is hoped that this may be overcome by more co-
operation between subject matter specialists in stressing the complement-
ary nature of several of the 4-H Club areas of work.
The Extension Soil Conservationist attended four 4-H Club camps where
he presented conservation programs to 283 boys, using discussions, demon-
strations and moving pictures.
At the annual 4-H Club Short Course for Boys the Extension Soil Con-
servationist presented conservation programs through discussion and mo-
tion pictures to 159 of those attending.
Planning New Subject Matter.-It seemed desirable that most rural
adults and youths, and as many of the urban population as possible, receive
information and training in soil and water conservation. It was thought
that the land appreciation school and associated judging contest (as origi-
nated in Oklahoma) provided the best approach for reaching the largest
number of people.
The Extension Conservationist attended the 4th National Land Judging
Contest held in Oklahoma City in April of 1955. Subsequently, the material
as used in Oklahoma was adapted to cover the extremely variable condi-
tions in Florida. Presently this approach is being used to further the soil
and water conservation program in three of the soil conservation districts.
Additional districts plan similar events for 1956.
Organizational Work With State Home Demonstration Staff.-Organi-
zational work is in progress with the state home demonstration staff, plan-
ning ways and means for the county home demonstration councils to avail
themselves of opportunities to become better informed in soil and water
conservation matters. This phase of the soil and water conservation pro-
gram in Florida is in the formative stage. It is anticipated that an active
program will be developed during the coming year.
Soil and Water Conservation Work in the Counties.-County agents in
66 Florida counties have assisted 26,219 individuals in adopting recom-
mended conservation practices. Practices recommended include proper land
use, contour and strip cropping, terracing, grassed waterways, water sup-
ply, drainage, irrigation, use of soil amendments, use of fertilizer, soil im-
* provement crops, crop rotations, land clearing and conservation forestry
plantings.







Florida Cooperative Extension


VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
AND MERCHANDISING

F. S. Jamison, Vegetable Crop Specialist

COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
James Montelaro', Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
F. E. Myers, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
In general, program progress was satisfactory. Most planned activities
were accomplished. However, some plans did not fully materialize and
others exceeded expectations. Additional vegetable counties organized pro-
grams in which assistant agents handled the majority of the vegetable
work. The Extension Vegetable Advisory Committee was re-organized to
place emphasis on county agent membership and direction, with the state
staff acting in advisory capacity only.!
Cooperation.-Other staff members of the University of Florida College
of Agriculture supplied invaluable support and cooperation. These included
county agricultural agents, research workers of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations and Extension specialists in entomology, agronomy,
citrus, ornamentals and economics.
Several other organization representatives were associated with spe-
cific activities. For example, agencies such as the State Department of
Agriculture, State Plant Board, Farmers Home Administration, State
Bankers Association, State Marketing Bureau, and U. S. Department of
Agriculture-ARS and AMS, state and area representatives of commercial
allied industries, and sales or technical workers of private companies, were
especially cooperative in carrying out many activities.
Formal Agent Training.-Most of the vegetable program, through direct
and indirect methods, contributed toward agent training. Some more for-
mal training efforts included presentation of subject matter at two general
area training meetings, two farm and home development training meet-
ings, Annual Agents' Conference, and one new-agents orientation program.
In addition to phases not mentioned elsewhere, uniform information on
pertient recommendations were again made available through review and
revision of the vegetable section of the County Agent's Handbook.
Grower Meetings and Field Days.-At a total of 20 grower meetings,
specialists assisted in presenting latest timely results in most major vege-
table-producing areas of the state. These meetings were held at Ft. Myers
(2), Wauchula (2), Webster, West Palm Beach, Canal Point, Plant City,
Palmetto, Quincy, Trenton, Lawtey, Balm, Punta Gorda, Homestead, Hast-
ings, Bunnell, Perry, Chipley and DeFuniak Springs.
Eight Experiment Station field days were held throughout the state
with varying degrees of Extension assistance. Areas included were Home-
stead (2), Ft. Lauderdale, Ft. Pierce, Belle Glade, Bradenton, Leesburg
and Sanford. Organized publicity through specialists was considered suc-
cessful in most attempts, while in others, active assistance in organizing
and presenting the field days was carried out by Extension.
Publications.-A new strawberry production guide and revised guides
on eggplant and watermelons were published. Draft manuscripts were
prepared for new production guides on onions and okra.
Six "Vegetarian" newsletters were released by the specialists to county
1Resigned December 1, 1955, to enter commercial work.








Annual Report, 1955 57

agents. They included summaries of subject matter presented at agent
training sessions and field days, needed supplementary information on
pesticide tolerances, a resume of the virus situation, and a summary of
key references.
Spring 1955 attempts with the "Vegegram" newsletter to growers in-
cluded a continuation of fall 1954 trial letters. In summary, as a result of
this trial project, county agents made some 12,000 contacts through four
letters each on four crops (8,000 fall, 4,000 spring).
In the fall of 1955 the trial project was modified to include 8 crops or
groups of crops with two letters each. Over 4,700 Vegegrams went to
growers and others in 36 counties during the fall-winter season.
Activities With Other Organized Groups.-Frequent contacts with or-
ganization representatives served to foster the interests of the vegetable
industry as a whole. Some of these activities, showing assistance given,
are included below:
Arrangements were made and information presented at annual Short
Course for Seedsmen. A tour of Main Station research was conducted in
conjunction with the annual convention of the Florida Seedsmen's Asso-
ciation.
A work conference was conducted on vegetable research and Extension,
in cooperation with the Florida Agricultural Research Institute and Florida
Fruit and Vegetable Association. This conference also included committees
selected from the Florida Farm Bureau, Florida Farm Machinery Associa-
tion and Florida Seedsmen's Association.
The Southeastern Short Course on Prevention of Losses of Fruits and
Vegetables in Transit was presented in cooperation with Southeastern Rail-
way Development Association, Southeastern Claims Conference, Florida
Fruit and Vegetable Association and Florida Citrus Packinghouse Man-
agers Association.
An area tour was conducted in connection with the meeting of the In-
ternational Crop Improvement Association held in Florida. Florida indus-
try was discussed in connection with the U. S. Department of Agriculture's
Potato Advisory Committee meeting and tour of the state.
Assistance was given in planning and presenting the vegetable section
program at the Florida State Horticultural Society annual meeting. Sub-
ject matter information was presented at the annual conference of veterans
and vocational agriculture teachers. A paper was delivered at the annual
meeting of Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida.
Organizational assistance was given and state summary of results pre-
sented to charter meeting of Weed Control Workers of the University
system. The staff participated in conferences and prepared annual and
seasonal reports on Florida Agricultural Outlook Committee work.
Emergency Work.-With the establishment of pesticide tolerances, this
situation developed to a point where special attention was necessary. Spe-
cialists first responded by preparing and publishing an Extension circular
on the topic. Further action included reviewing past recommendations at
a series of area meetings with industry and research, then a mimeographed
booklet including revised pesticide suggestions on all crops was prepared
and distributed.
Other Necessary Activities.-Many other special calls for assistance
were met, involving such activities as diagnosing specific crop problems,
surveying area potentials, neutral representation in seed cases and other
crop disputes, evaluating research and answering many letter inquiries
and personal calls for information on the University Campus. Numerous
press releases, four radio talks and one TV show were used where the
situation indicated these media would adequately supplement other efforts.








Florida Cooperative Extension


VEGETABLE GARDENING

J. D. Norton, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist

Every effort was made to plan and carry out the program on home
vegetable gardening in such a way as to appeal to and inspire all groups
of people to appreciate what gardening can mean to the entire family. In
working with this important phase of the Agricultural Extension Service
program, individuals were reminded of the financial, physical and social
values of home gardening.
The following activities were carried out as planned: Vegetable Garden
Production Guide, 4-H Vegetable Garden Handbook, 4-H Vegetable Garden
Records and garden guides prepared, contributed to Agents' Handbook,
presented radio, press, television materials and helped with leader train-
ing meetings. A timely garden letter for distribution by county agricul-
tural and home demonstration agents was introduced. Every effort was
made to strengthen the 4-H program by developing publications and ob-
taining additional awards.
Publications.-The Vegetable Garden Production Guide was revised. As-
sistance was given by the Extension Entomologist and Experiment Station
personnel in making the revision. Recognizing the importance of the 4-H
garden program, the 4-H Vegetable Garden Handbook, 4-H Vegetable Gar-
den Record (for Beginners), and 4-H Vegetable Garden Record (for Ad-
vanced and Commercial) were prepared.
Garden Letters.-Three timely garden letters were sent to county agri-
cultural and home demonstration agents during the year. An individual
letter was prepared for the three areas of the state-North, Central and
South Florida.
Garden Guides.-To satisfy agent requests, a "year-round" home garden
plan was developed for North, South and Central Florida; 4-H garden
plans were also prepared for the three areas. A vegetable garden section
was added to the vegetable section of the county agricultural agents' hand-
book.
Agent Training Meetings.-Due to the request for additional vegetable
training by agents, 11 meetings were held with county agricultural agents
and seven were conducted for home demonstration agents.
Leader Training Meetings.-Leader training work was initiated to train
the leaders in teaching garden practices. Six home demonstration and five
4-H leader training sessions were held.
Garden Clinics.-Garden clinics were held in Live Oak, Largo, Perry,
Panama City, Jacksonville, Miami, Homestead and Penney Farms. These
clinics were held to take the latest information to the home gardener and
to answer any immediate problems he might have. Diseased plant speci-
mens were brought to the meetings by the gardeners.
Exhibiting, Demonstrating and Judging.-Two agents were assisted in
organizing a vegetable exhibit for their county fairs. Other agents have
shown an interest in demonstration and judging contests.
Industry Organizations.-Assistance was given in organizing and con-
ducting of the Florida Seedsmen's Short Course. The Florida Fruit and
Vegetable Association showed extreme interest in youth work in providing
additional awards for the 4-H gardening program. Also, the Atlantic and
Pacific Tea Company was very cooperative in providing individual crop
awards for the sweet potato and strawberry projects.







Annual Report, 1955


Garden Survey.-A survey was initiated to determine the value of the
vegetable garden. By determining its value, there would be a better oppor-
tunity for getting home owners and 4-H club members to plant vegetable
gardens.
Other Specialist and Research Personnel.-The boys' and girls' state
4-H Club leaders were helpful in editing 4-H publications and cooperating
in securing additional awards for the 4-H vegetable gardening program.
The Extension Entomologist gave assistance in revising the Vegetable
Garden Production Guide, holding garden clinics and conducting training
meetings.
Extension ornamental horticulturists gave assistance in planning and
conducting horticultural clinics. The Assistant Economist in Food Con-
servation and Farm and Home Development helped prepare home demon-
stration leaders' guides and develop material for farm and home develop-
ment and with 4-H and home demonstration short courses. Experiment
Station personnel were very cooperative in helping with revision of the
Vegetable Garden Production Guide and providing the latest informa-
tion on varieties and production practices.
Subject Matter and Teaching Materials Prepared for Agent Use.-At
district 4-H planning meetings, county agricultural agents expressed the
need for additional publications for 4-H gardening work. When the Exten-
sion Vegetable Advisory Committee met, they endorsed this need and also
asked for additional material for adult work. The 4-H Vegetable Garden
Handbook, 4-H Vegetable Garden Records (one for beginners and one for
advanced and commercial) were prepared and the Vegetable Garden Pro-
duction Guide was revised. Additional materials, such as demonstrations
and garden plans, were prepared as requested by agents. Two sets of the
Extension Specialist's 35-mm. color slide collection are being duplicated
for loan to agents.
Farm Unit Approach.-Every effort was made to cooperate with Ex-
tension workers in the pilot counties where farm and home development
work was being initiated. Four training meetings were held for the agents
in these counties. In addition, "year-round" garden plans or guides were
prepared for their use. The Vegetable Specialist participated in farm and
home development planning meetings in Gainesville and Winter Haven.

RETAIL MERCHANDISING OF FRESH FRUIT AND
VEGETABLES
Stanley E. Rosenberger, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist

ACTIVITIES
Retail.-The purpose of this project is to keep retail merchandising of
fresh fruits and vegetables in Florida at as high a level as possible and in
the most efficient and effective manner known.
By far the largest proportion of fresh produce that consumers buy is
handled through food stores, but there are also specialized retail produce
markets, as well as a few retail farmers' curb markets or roadside stands.
All in this group are worked with as time permits, but retail food stores
and especially the super markets receive major attention. Chain stores as
well as independents are worked with regularly, including cooperatives and
voluntary chains.
Wholesale or Warehouse Level.-With the current emphasis placed upon
more services and closer ties with retail store suppliers, there is a growing
need for more work at warehouse or wholesale level. Central warehouse








Florida Cooperative Extension


or wholesade operations are taking over more of the advertising and supply
decisions, more price setting and even retail price marking. Central pre-
packaging operations are becoming widespread in the face of ever-increas-
ing store level pre-packaging of fresh produce for retail sales. Every effort
is made to keep each of these operations up to date on the latest methods
and techniques.
County Staff.-Since quality control data and merchandising informa-
tion have been placed in each county agent's office, the county personnel
are reaching retail outlets with more confidence. County personnel in 38
counties reached 256 retailers through their programs.
Experiment Station personnel, as well as United States Department of
Agriculture research people, are brought in to observe new operations and
to recommend or advise on technical problems when it is convenient for
them to be available.
Special Merchandising Program.-A relatively new phase of the project
is to increase the effectiveness of commodity merchandising efforts through
special features when one of the state-produced commodities is facing a
glutted market and severely low farm prices. Generally, during a period
of glutted markets for a particular commodity, farm prices go to a level
so low as to prevent further shipment, while the price to the consumers
remains almost unchanged so that increased consumption is not encouraged
by lower retail prices. Retail food stores do, however, follow a practice
of advertising a special feature each week-end when lower prices are
offered for the special items. To have all regional food stores select and
advertise as a special feature an item facing a glutted market seems most
helpful in moving larger volumes and creating more market demand than
would otherwise be possible.
To have one item advertised as a special feature simultaneously by most
regional food stores is not easy. There is a necessary 10-day lag to get the
advertising machinery into operation by the food store operators. The most
difficult part is being reasonably sure that supplies will be available 10
days or more in the future. For this information, the Agricultural Market-
ing Service Crop and Livestock Estimating Department is leaned upon
heavily.
During the past year only two such special features were necessary, one
for cabbage on March 24, 25 and 26 and the other for sweet corn on May
26, 27 and 28. In each case it appears that the additional interest placed
upon the commodity may have helped to increase the market demand
sufficiently to produce a noticeable price change to producers. In the case
of cabbage, the price change was from 900 per 50 pound bag to $1.42. Each
price being an average weekly top F.O.B. price. For sweet corn, the price
changed from $1.55 per five-dozen crate to $2.15. Again the price was an
average for the week of top F.O.B. prices. Average cost of production for
these two crops will exceed $1.00 for cabbage and $2.00 for sweet corn.
Shipments of cabbage increased 14 percent during the period in question,
while sweet corn shipments were curtailed slightly but remained very
heavy.
If a merchandising program to advertise special featured items can be
given any credit for influencing the market, then there is probably a great-
er need for it. In this case, the volume movement of cabbage from produc-
tion areas was increased 133 cars, or approximately 66,500 bags of 50
pounds each. During the same period the price increased 520 per 50 pound
bag for the total supply for the week of 1,062 cars or 531,000 bags. The
price increase to farmers alone on this volume amounted to $265,000, not
to mention the fact that markets for the additional movements may not
have been available without the special merchandising plan. Total sweet







Annual Report, 1955


corn F.O.B. sales increased $64,000 per week during the special promotion
period, in spite of the fact that actual crates shipped were a bit lower.
Sweet corn supplies available in 16 U. S. cities remained fairly constant
however.
Consumer Information.-Each time the regional food stores are request-
ed to advertise a special feature to help move surplus vegetables, the home
demonstration staff of the Florida Extension Service, along with county
home demonstration agents, inform the consuming public that the supplies
are heavy and now is a good time to buy. They also supply information on
suggested uses, preparation, etc.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Appraisal of Progress.-During the seven years that retail merchan-
dising work has been conducted in Florida, every distribution center of the
state has been reached. Wholesale and retail organizations, as well as chain
and independent establishments, are included in the merchandising program.
During the past year renewed emphasis was placed upon fresh fruit and
vegetable merchandising through follow-up contacts in each of these dis-
tribution centers.
County Extension Service personnel were kept abreast of the merchan-
dising trends through area meetings and individual conferences.
Production and service groups are kept informed of activities and
trends on both area and state-wide bases. The State Vegetable Outlook
Committee stepped up its activity this past year to include seasonal pro-
duction guides periodically in addition to the regular annual production
guide.
Production area meetings were conducted for growers and shippers to
explain to them the retail merchandising program and what it means to
them.
The Retail Grocers Association of Florida held their annual convention
at Clearwater and the specialist made available to them an exhibit of bul-
letins on retailing, pre-packaging, margin studies and other merchandising
information.



HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Anna Mae Sikes, State Home Demonstration Agent
Eunice Grady, Assistant to State Home Demonstration Agent
Training Program
Edith Y. Barrus, District Home Demonstration Agent
Joyce Bevis, District Home Demonstration Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Home Demonstration Agent
Helen Holstein, District Home Demonstration Agent 2

Offices are located in 52 of Florida's 67 counties. Home demonstration
workers are responsible for the development and supervision of programs
for both white and negro women and 4-H girls and to the public generally.
They are assisted in developing programs by junior and senior councils and
by volunteer leaders. Insofar as personnel and facilities permitted, assist-
ance was given to all families who wished such help in 1955. This included
farm, part-time farm, rural non-farm and urban families.
1 Resigned March 31, 1955, to enter foreign work.
Transferred to this position April 1, 1955.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The home demonstration program gave increasing recognition to the
importance of thinking and planning as family and community groups. The
problems of home, family and community life continued to be the basic
concern.
The state is divided into three districts for home demonstration work,
with district agents giving supervision to the work and helping with the
development of state-wide programs. A negro district home demonstration
agent, with headquarters at Florida A. & M. University, supervises the
work of 12 negro home demonstration agents.
Major Emphasis.-Counties throughout the state are working toward a
"major emphasis" plan in which attention is centered on one phase of sub-
ject matter and its related areas for a period of time. The major emphasis
is decided by the people themselves. At the regular organized clubs, one
subject-matter area is taught at as many consecutive meetings as needed
to provide a continuity of learning.
Requests for other assistance in subject matter are met through special
interest groups, workshops and open meetings conducted by leaders, agents,
specialists, and other qualified people. All phases of mass media are used.
During the past year, "continuity instruction" at club meetings has
grown. Workshops of two or more consecutive days duration were held in

Fig. 12.-Members attending the annual meeting of the State Home
Demonstration Council were entertained by the wife of the president of the
University of Florida.


-' -.
tO I..~
S.e








Annual Report, 1955 63

several counties. A series of leader training workshops, giving continuity
instruction on one subject, were held in several counties.
Local Leadership.-To meet the constantly changing needs of the grow-
ing population in Florida, home demonstration personnel turned more and
more to leaders.
Much of the population increase in Florida is made up of retired people
from all over the United States-people who suddenly find themselves
transplanted into a sub-tropical climate with need for technical assistance.
As requests for the expansion of 4-H and home demonstration work
are made of the home demonstration agents, they become more and more
conscious of the need for additional project leaders as well as other types
of leaders.
With these situations facing them home demonstration agents are work-
ing more and more with leaders-adult leaders for junior and senior home
demonstration work and Junior 4-H leaders who are older 4-H Club mem-
bers.
To develop leaders and to train home demonstration agents in recogniz-
ing opportunities for leaders, leadership training meetings involving sub-
ject-matter instruction and organizational procedures were held. A short
course on "Leadership Opportunities" was held at the annual meeting of
the senior council this year. Approximately 80 council women and 75 home
demonstration agents attended. Junior and senior home demonstration sub-
ject-matter short courses offered excellent training for adult and junior
leaders.
In summarizing leadership development, 88 county agents report 7,523
different leaders in their counties. The agents held 1,971 leader training
meetings and 4,120 meetings were conducted by leaders.
Survey of Composition of Home Demonstration Clubs.-During the pe-
riod August to December, 1954, surveys of the composition of home dem-
onstration clubs were made in 45 of the 50 Florida counties in which there
was an active home demonstration program at that time. Some of the facts
revealed by the survey are that: 23.3 percent of the club members lived
on farms, as compared with 6 percent of all Florida women in general;
ages of home demonstration club members were somewhat higher than
average for the while female population of the state; 75 percent of the
club members are not employed outside of the home; 26.9 percent of club
members and/or their husbands are retired; 3.5 percent of the white home-
makers in the 45 survey counties were club members.
Financing Home Demonstration Work.-Funds for home demonstration
work continued to come from the regular Agricultural Extension Service
budget and a budget at Florida State University. All items in both budgets
were coordinated and operated under the same general policies. Local
boards of County Commissioners provided part of the salaries and all of the
travel funds for county home demonstration agents.
Florida State University provided housing, part of the salaries of the
Extension Nutritionist, Food Conservationist and Health Education and
Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialists, expense funds for travel, of-
fice equipment, demonstration equipment and supplies for the state office
of home demonstration work and a financial budget which permitted addi-
tional personnel and a pre-service training program for prospective home
demonstration agents.
During 1953 and early 1954, preliminary planning was completed for
space in the new home economics building at Florida State University for
the state home demonstration office.
Construction on the building actually began in March 1955. It is ex-
pected that the building will be completed in the summer of 1956. The







64 Florida Cooperative Extension

additional space and better facilities in the new building will make the
work of the staff both easier, and more effective.
The main concern financially was to develop a rate of compensation and
total budget which would secure and maintain the type of personnel needed
in county positions.
Personnel.-In 1955, county home demonstration agents were appointed
for Hamilton and Lafayette counties for the first time. Work was re-estab-
lished in Okaloosa, and a home demonstration worker for the Seminole
Indians was appointed. Assistant agents were added in Broward, Dade,
Hillsborough, Manatee and Pasco counties.
There were 105 home demonstration workers, exclusive of clerical as-
sistants, employed in state and county offices; 52 county home demonstra-
tion agents; 24 assistant county home demonstration agents; 12 negro
home demonstration agents; 1 home demonstration worker for Indians; 10
specialists and 4 district home demonstration agents; and 1 assistant to the
state home demonstration agent in training program.
There are home demonstration positions vacant in Gulf, Holmes, Har-
dee and Citrus Counties and an assistant home demonstration position in
Santa Rosa County. There continued to be a decided shortage of suitably
trained home economists qualified to fill state and county home demonstra-
tion positions.
The state home demonstration office continued the pre-service training
of prospective workers through a budget for home demonstration work
established at Florida State University. These trainees worked under the
direction of the Assistant to the State Home Demonstration Agent in co-
operation with district agents and specialists. In the field they received
training with experienced home demonstration agents.
State Office Personnel Changes.-The East Florida District Home Dem-
onstration Agent, who served as District Agent for 18 years, resigned in
March 1955 to accept an appointment with the Foreign Operations Admin-
istration. The Food Production Economist, with assigned responsibility for
farm and home development work, was appointed east Florida district home
demonstration agent.
The Extension nutritionist resigned January 1, 1955, to return to nutri-
tion research. The former Food Conservation Specialist was appointed to
the Extension Nutritionist position April 1, 1955.
An Extension Nutritionist from the Ohio Extension Service was ap-
pointed on May 23, 1955, as Florida Economist in Food Production, with
responsibilities assigned for farm and home demonstration work.
Effective September 1, the Assistant State Girls 4-H Club Agent re-
turned to the state staff after a year of study as a national 4-H Fellow
in the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. While
away she received her master's degree from the University of Maryland.
The Acting Assistant State Girls 4-H Club Agent returned to Florida
State University to complete her master of science degree with a major
in home economics education and home demonstration education. At pres-
ent the position of Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent is vacant.
Personnel Training and Recruitment.-The State Home Demonstration
Agent and the District Agents have recruited home demonstration person-
nel during 1955. The new workers have come from home demonstration
positions in other states, teaching, school lunch programs, business, foreign
programs, and direct from college.
Recruitment of workers was furthered by giving information on home
demonstration work as a career to older 4-H Club girls and to home eco-
nomics students at Florida State University.
In March 1955 the state home demonstration office issued its first print-







Annual Report, 1955


ed leaflet on recruitment. This leaflet contains information on the training
and skills needed by a county home demonstration agent and gives a brief
explanation of home demonstration work.
Pre-Service Training.-Junior and senior courses in home demonstration
education at both graduate and undergraduate levels were taught at Florida
State University. In the state home demonstration office there were two
types of pre-service training: (a) the long-time study plan of six to eight
months' duration for graduate home economists with no job experience,
and (b) the short-time study plan lasting three to eight weeks for graduate
home economists with experience in teaching or some other area of home
economics.
Seventeen home economists studied at the state home demonstration
office in pre-service or orientation programs. Fifteen of these are now on
regular appointment as county home demonstration agents. Two graduate
students and 10 undergraduate students took the courses in home demon-
stration education.
Induction Training.-The induction training given by the District Agents
was adapted to individual needs but in general included policies, regula-
tions, records, reports, Extension philosophy, education and organization,
job analysis, program planning, leadership and office and field manage-
ment. This was carried out on initial and follow-up conferences, through
printed material, contacts, and by letter.
In-Service Training of State and County Staffs.-An extensive program
of in-service training has been in action during 1955. In March 1955 the
coordinator of counseling at Florida State University assisted staff mem-
bers in a workshop on "Counseling and Advising Young People." In addi-
tion to group discussions on the workshop topic, the group also explored
such areas as signs of maturity, how maturity may be achieved, and how
adults should attempt to influence young people.
Six county home demonstration agents and three trainees attended the
Extension Service Summer School at Florida State University. Eight
agents and two district agents attended the Extension Summer School at
the University of Florida.
Three agents took a general extension course on textiles and one took
an extension course on psychology.
There were 240 county in-service training activities held during the year
which county home demonstration agents and, in some instances, leaders
attended.
Activities and Accomplishments.-Farm families, rural non-farm fami-
lies, and urban families all requested assistance during the year. In 1955
33,986 people were assisted in organized groups.
A junior and senior home demonstration club program functioned in 52
counties. A total of 7,523 adult leaders gave demonstrations in home indus-
tries and marketing, clothing, family life education, food and nutrition,
food production and conservation, health education, home improvement,
and 4-H girls' club work.
Progress in Program Development.-Families were assisted with imme-
diate income and technical and human relationship problems of the home.
In family living 37,065 families planned an adequate and nutritious food
supply, 30.218 were assisted with clothing needs, 33,908 built or remodeled
homes, 16,960 were helped to develop a satisfying family life, 20,780 im-
proved their health, 73,397 benefited from consumer education, 7,547 fami-
lies were assisted with making management decisions, 5,490 were assisted
with financial planning and 3,320 with keeping and analyzing records.
Families were also assisted with problems which have to be approached
through group action in the community. In community cooperation, 387







Florida Cooperative Extension


communities improved conditions affecting health, 198 improved their edu-
cational facilities, 496 improved their recreational resources, and 9,265
families were assisted with home and family recreation..
Families were assisted with human relationships and adjustment in hu-
man relationships; 5,993 were assisted with child development and guidance
and 6,996 were assisted in developing a harmonious family life.
Home demonstration work in urban areas has come in response to a
growing demand from Florida's rapidly increasing urban population. Some
104,988 urban families were assisted with agricultural information, 52,549
urban families were assisted with homemaking information and 6,371 4-H
Club girls were enrolled from urban homes.
In citizenship and public problems, 463 communities or groups were as-
sisted with citizenship activities.
Leadership Development.-In 1955, 1,290 voluntary leaders assisted with
girls' 4-H Club work and 1,862 meetings were held or conducted by leaders
in girls' 4-H Club work, with an attendance of 32,954. Also, 1,009 training
meetings were held by voluntary leaders in adult work with an attendance
of 33,863.
Foreign Student Activities.-During 1955 arrangements were made by
the State home demonstration office to help three groups of foreign visi-
tors. In March, two men from Iran came for three days. Since their par-
ticular interest was modern methods of food processing and community
canneries, work with them consisted of a conference with the state staff
and a day at the canning center in Gadsden County where they saw com-
mercial-sized equipment in use.



CLOTHING AND TEXTILES

Elizabeth Dickenson, Clothing and Textiles Specialist

During 1955 the clothing and textile program continued to hold major
emphasis throughout Florida as one phase of the Agricultural Extension
Service Program.
The main objectives of this program have been to develop standards in
clothing and textiles that would improve the comfort, health and appear-
ance of each family member, as well as give satisfaction and poise for a
better and happier living within a family budget. To meet this goal special
emphasis was given to assisting families in learning how to plan their
clothing wardrobe, learning how to make better fitting garments, learning
to know characteristics and best uses of new fibers and finishes, learning
to know points to consider in selecting ready-made garments, and learning
to make slip covers.
Progress has been made but there is still much work to be done before
the main objective has been reached.
In 1955 more than 1,067 homemakers made garments for the first time,
according to the 47 home demonstration agents reporting. This compared
with 49 counties that reported more than 1,100 homemakers who made
garments for the first time in 1954.
County clothing leaders, as a result of 200 leader training meetings,
have held 534 meetings in their local communities. There were 2,382 dem-
onstrations given by these leaders to 4-H girls and women.
During the year 1,061 white women and 2,421 4-H girls and 190 negro
women and 189 negro 4-H girls modeled their garments. This is an increase
of 66 white women and 28 negro women participating in dress revues. This






















Fig. 13.-The State Dress Revue is always a popular feature at the State
Home Demonstration Council annual session.
Fig. 14.-County workshops, such as this one dealing with slip covers, train
club leaders to help their clubs with demonstrations later.






'1 "J ".







68 Florida Cooperative Extension

gave publicity to this phase of the Agricultural Extension program and
helped to develop grace and poise among the participants.
Clothing was of main interest to Florida 4-H girls. The following sta-
tistical report shows results of this program in 1955.
White Negro
Girls enrolled........................................... 11,651 1,800
Girls completing projects................................ 7,340 1,392
Number of garments made...............................17,087 3,398
A report from 47 white home demonstration agents and 12 negro home
demonstration agents gives the results of some of the clothing work car-
ried on by the counties.
White Negro
New garments made.......................................... 96,260 12,006
Garments remodeled...... -----------........................ 36,974 4,616
Making first time.......----------..... --...................... 862 305
Household articles made----......................- ....... 51,275 4,893
Receiving help in family laundry problems... 7,710 708
Clothing leaders in County:
w om en........................................................... 561 152
girls..................................................... 656 152
Training meetings held for clothing leaders:
women.......--- .................. .......---- 99 21
girls............................. ... ................. 69 21
Training held for others by leaders:
w om en........................................................... 243 25
girls................-----.................. .................... 253 13
Exhibits, talks, radio programs by:
agent. .........- .......... ................. 628 123
wom en --..........---.... ............ ................... 438 74
Demonstrations given by agents on
Clothing and Textiles for:
women--......--.......-- .............--- .. 745 166
girls ............................ ....... .............. 1,848 230
Demonstrations given by:
women..........---.............--- --- ............ ..... 676 59
girls......... .......... ................................... 1,479 168
Since farm income will probably be lower in 1956 and more new fabrics
and blends will be available to the consumer who will need knowledge of
each, it seems wise to continue leader training meetings in counties not
having had them to stress the importance of planning wisely; care of new
fabrics and finishes; importance of developing skill in construction tech-
niques and fitting figures correctly; aids in decision making-ready-made
versus home sewing; better storage for clothing; teaching skill of making
slip covers and curtains and draperies; and help to develop poise and
grace along with better posture Other objectives will be to give more
assistance to leaders in "how to teach" as well as in "skills" and, if possi-
ble, return to counties that have conducted their own leader training meet-
ings to observe what the women and girls are doing.
With the entire staff working together, a clothing and textiles pro-
gram may be planned and achieved when interests, problems and oppor-
tunities are known.








Annual Report, 1955


With this emphasis considered, the clothing and textile program for
Florida should continue as follows:
1. To teach others home to plan a clothing wardrobe.
2. To teach others information about new fabrics, finishes and blends
and the use and care of each. Everyone must realize that she must study
constantly to keep up with all the new things on the markets.
3. To teach importance of acquiring skills and knowledge related to
clothing construction, slip covers and curtains and draperies.
4. To teach others how to dress appropriately, becomingly, economic-
ally, and beautifully on a planned budget for all occasion.



EDITORIAL AND VISUAL AIDS

Alma Warren, Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist

During 1955 the Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist has con-
centrated her efforts on Extension's major objective of reaching as many
people as possible by making full use of all mass media-newspapers, radio,
television, exhibits, films, filmstrips.
With 192 weekly and daily newspapers, 82 radio stations, and 12 televi-
sion stations operating in Florida, there is ample opportunity to publicize
the home demonstration program to Florida's 4,000,000 people and the 500
new residents who move to the state each day to make their homes.
To reach this vast and ever-growing public and to strengthen home
demonstration work in the area of in-the-home service, home demonstration
agents prepared 5,751 articles about various phases of the program. The
Assistant Editor prepared 306 news and feature articles for newspaper pub-
lication. She released 250 pictures of home demonstration and 4-H events
to the state's press. The growth in pictorials about home demonstration
work reached a new high of 36, featuring full and double-page features in-
terpreting the scope and mission of home demonstration work.
In 1955 seven agents began home demonstration news columns, bringing
the state total to 22. Four agents have had articles with pictures in color
featured in metropolitan newspapers. Two agents wrote one such article a
month for their local newspapers.
In three counties special editions of newspapers were devoted to home
demonstration and 4-H accomplishments. Agents and club members con-
tributed many of the articles in both instances.
A total of 1,093 radio programs were broadcast. Television programs
doubled, with a total of 112.
There were 240,896 Department of Agriculture and Florida Agricul-
tural Extension Service bulletins distributed by county home demonstration
agents.
Families totaling 2,446 patronize the 129 libraries that home demon-
stration clubs maintained and assisted with. Home demonstration clubs
subscribed to 431 magazines and papers for these libraries and stocked
their shelves with 500 new books. One club provided plants for landscap-
ing the city library. One county council helped bring the county its first
free public library. Five 4-H camp libraries served 18,701 readers during
the summer camping program.
Home demonstration agents booked 318 educational motion pictures and
filmstrips for use at club meetings. Most popular bookings were films on
social problems and filmstrips on home improvement.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Fifteen county workshops in news writing trained 675 home demonstra-
tion and 4-H club reporters. The first state in-service training workshop
in audio-visual materials and techniques was held for home demonstration
agents at Florida State University during the 40th Annual 4-H Club Girls'
Short Course in June 1955. The facilities, equipment and audio-visual lab-
oratory of Florida State University audio-visual center was used. The cur-
riculum for the workshop was planned by the director of the audio-visual
center and the Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist. It included in-
dividual instruction in threading and operating six different models of
motion picture and filmstrip projectors, in opaque projection, in making
Still and motion pictures, in dry mounting, in making a tape recording, in
planning and designing exhibits, and in evaluating films and filmstrips.
Individual instruction in audio-visual techniques and in news writing has
been given to 19 home demonstration trainees. An integral part of their
training has been the writing of a column on subject of interest to home-
makers. Each trainee's column has then been printed in the Agricultural
Extension Service clipsheet and in many instances picked up by news-
papers over the state.
During 1955 the Assistant Editor prepared for publication and edited
two printed programs-one for the 40th annual 4-H Club girls' short course
and another for the 31st annual home demonstration council meeting. She
edited a two-color recruitment folder for home demonstration agents and
prepared a 4-H informational leaflet for printing. She edited a home dem-
onstration section of a forthcoming State Department of Agriculture bulle-
tin.


FOOD AND NUTRITION

Alice L. Cromartie, Extension Nutritionist1

During 1955 home demonstration agents continued to carry out a sound
food and nutrition program. There is a definite increase of interest in food
and its relation to health following a number of years of apathy immediate-
ly after World War II. County extension agents have seized upon this in-
creasing interest to promote the foods program. This has played a vital
role in family health and happiness.
The integration of all phases of family food has strengthened the foods
program at state and county levels. Integration enables the subject spe-
cialist concerned to do more joint planning and as a result the program is
closely tied to all phases affecting the family food supply.
During 1955 the program has promoted consumption of more milk, bet-
ter planned family meals and better use of the family food dollar.
There has been increased emphasis on weight control as this is one of
Florida's health problems. It is estimated that about one-fourth of the
populace is at least 20 pounds overweight. The Health Specialist also has
worked on weight control.
Geriatics is a field which is receiving more attention both state and
nation-wide. Florida has a generous portion of citizens who are retired
and are in this older segment of the population. More emphasis was given
this year to assisting this group with their food management problems.
Many are on limited incomes and sound food habits are of paramount im-
portance if they are to remain active and in good general health.
During the year 1,334 women and 4-H Club girls served as local leaders.
These leaders were trained in 114 leader training meetings throughout the
1 Appointed April 1, 1955.








Annual Report, 1955


state by county home demonstration agents and the extension foods staff.
A total of 1,871 days were spent by all home demonstration agents in de-
veloping and carrying out county food programs.
The following figures indicate the expansion of the program in 1955:

Activity 1954 1955
Families helped improve meals.......................20,232 23,129
Assisted in producing home food supply........ 17,261 16,977
W ise food buying.................................. ........... 17,363 19,887
Food for children............................................. 11,569 10,679
Food for older folks......................................... 4,696 6,845
W eight control........................ ....................... 5,670 8,280

These increases are attributed to the expanded leadership training pro-
gram in adult and junior work and the increased use of mass media.
The Farm and Home Development Program is one method by which we
are able to assist families with planning and securing a more adequate food
supply. The foods committee is represented on the Farm and Home Devel-
opment Committee and this affects better use of information on the Family
Food Supply.
The entire food staff has worked during 1955 with various agencies in
reciprocal activities. This has made for a broader program involving more
cooperation at state and local levels.
4-H Club Work.-The 4-H Club program emphasized milk and dairy
products, better breakfasts and the planning, preparation and serving of
simple, well-balanced meals. The dairy foods demonstration has strength-
ened the food program and has created more interest in the use of dairy
products. This is a much-needed emphasis, as many people do not use the
amount of milk and milk products needed for good nutrition. During 1955
12,807 girls were enrolled in food and nutrition projects and 8,123 reported
that they completed their projects.


FOOD CONSERVATION

Lena E. Sturges, Assistant Economist in Food Conservation

The food conservation program has continued to emphasize sound meth-
ods of food conservation. In training meetings, workshops and through
newspaper releases and circular letters, the basic principles of food conser-
vation have been stressed.
Food to be canned or frozen needs to be of high quality. Food should
not be canned or frozen just to "keep" it, but should be prepared in such
a way that full nutritive value will be retained.
During 1955 there were 10,550 home freezers in use by home demonstra-
tion club women. This shows an increase of 1,292 owners over 1954. This
use of home freezers, plus the 6,139 users of commercial lockers (an in-
crease of 414 over 1954), accounts for the increase of foods frozen during
the year. The largest increase is in the storage of frozen meats. Reports
show there were 1,292,920 pounds of meat frozen during the year and
758,157 pounds cured. This shows for 1955 an increase of 1,110,047 pounds
frozen and a decrease of 90,021 pounds cured. This indicates that more
families are providing meat for the families by one method or another.
The fruit crop in one section of the state was killed by late frosts and
garden crops were damaged to some extent. However, a total of 1,083,051
pints of food were canned in 1955. This shows a decrease of 139,885 pints







Florida Cooperative Extension


canned over 1954 figures. This indicates that as home owners plan for
better use of their freezers, realizing that some foods are better canned,
more freezer space is given to meats and other foods less desirable in
canning.
Reports show 649,541 pounds of fruits and vegetables were frozen in
1955, an increase of 27,737 pounds over 1954.
These reports indicate that much food conservation work is done by
Florida families. As the family becomes accustomed to the advantages and
proper use of the home freezer, it is expected that more food will be con-
served. Proper freezer management has been stressed during the year by
the specialist and agents.
Three in-service training meetings for agents were held during the year
to give them the newer findings in the food conservation field and to re-
view the basic methods of water bath and pressure cooker canning.
Local leaders were trained in 10 counties this year by the specialist,
assisted by agents. Leaders numbered 145 in these meetings.
Eighteen records and stories of 4-H Club girls were entered in the state
canning and frozen foods projects. Of the 2,141 girls enrolling in canning
projects in the state, 1,519 completed. Of 743 enrolled in frozen foods
projects, 532 completed. This shows 70.9 per cent completing in canning
and 71 per cent completing in frozen foods projects.

Fig. 16.-The assistant food conservation economist shows 4-H Club girls
the correct way to can foods.

















*4 j








Annual Report, 1955


FOOD PRODUCTION

Susan R. Christian, Economist in Food Production and
Farm and Home Development work 1

Families were continually reminded of the relationship between home
food production and all phases of family living. In planning the food pro-
duction program, emphasis was placed upon the family's food needs, facili-
ties for producing foods, climatic and soil conditions, economic factors in-
volved and suitability of various sections of the state for certain food crops.
The entire family was encouraged to plan the production of its own food,
taking these factors into consideration.
The importance of home food production as a means of supplementing
family income, of providing a more nutritious diet and of developing op-
portunities for family recreation was stressed.
Program emphasis was placed on producing a variety of foods to meet
nutritional needs. Where practical, families were encouraged to grow gar-
dens to furnish vegetables for home use the year around; produce fruits
adapted to the region as a part of the yard beautification plan or to grow
a small family orchard; to keep at least one or two dairy cows to provide
milk, butter and other dairy products if desired; to keep a poultry flock
for meat and eggs for family meals and to raise meat animals for a home
supply of meat.
This program was integrated with other subject-matter programs to fit
the interests and needs of Florida families. It was planned and executed
through the cooperative efforts of state staffs, county home demonstration
and agricultural agents, volunteer leaders, home demonstration and 4-H
Clubs, junior and senior home demonstration councils, and individuals.
Sixty-six statistical reports-including white and negro-showed that 16,-
977 families were assisted by Extension Agents in planning or producing
the home food supply.
Production of Fruits and Vegetables.-This phase of the program was
approached from the standpoint of home grounds beautification as well as
nutrition, health and economy. Increasing the varieties planted was
stressed, in addition to using recommended varieties, improved practices
and better management. Many families participated in this program, as
shown below by statistical reports of home demonstration agents:
Work Done Women Girls
Home gardens planted-................................ 9,354 2,905
Fruit trees planted....................................10,541 1,089
Garden demonstrators ....................... 1,576 1,075
Orchard demonstrators--------........................ 540 117
Berries planted this year.......--.....................72,603 3,196
Garden chairmen and leaders..................... 374 370
Orchard chairmen.............---- .... .............. 232 129
Production of Livestock and Livestock Products.-Since prices paid the
producer for beef animals have been low compared with previous years, and
with an increase in the purchase of home freezers, families have butchered
an increasing number of animals for home use.
The production of livestock was faced from a realistic standpoint and
emphasis placed where production was practical. This program includes
poultry, dairy and meat animals. Statistical reports of home demonstration
SAppointed May 23, 1955.








Florida Cooperative Extension


agents show that 717 4-H Club girls were poultry demonstrators, owning
25,995 chickens, and 647 girls kept poultry records. Three hundred and
twenty-one girls had method demonstrations in home dairying. Home dem-
onstration club members, according to 46 county reports, bought 973 milk
cows, bringing the total up to 9,706 milk cows owned by home demonstra-
tion and 4-H Club members. It was reported that 9,705 families used a
quart of milk daily for each child and a pint for each adult. This indi-
cated that these families appreciated the value of milk and milk products
in the diet, which is one of the most important steps in the promotion of
home production of milk and milk products. Families were urged to use the
offspring from the family milk cow to supply additional meat for the
family diet. During 1955, 15,973 hogs, 4,531 beeves and 2,554 other meat
animals were grown and used at home.


Fig. 17.-The home gardening specialist gets an attentive ear from girls
attending 4-H short course.
The specialist spent 90 days in the field working primarily with county
home demonstration agents and assistant home demonstration agents in
farm and home development. She has devoted approximately 80 percent of
her time to this phase of the Extension program. Her contribution in the
area of food production has largely been that of coordinating the food pro-
duction phase of the home demonstration program with that of the agri-
cultural program through conferences with agricultural specialists in pro-
gram planning and in preparation of subject-matter materials for use with
home demonstration clubs and councils and 4-H Clubs and councils.








Annual Report, 1955


GIRLS' 4-H CLUB WORK

Emily King, State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Bronna Mae Elkins,1 Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Martha Burdine,2 Acting Assistant State Girls 4-H Club Agent

There were 20,801 girls enrolled in 792 4-H Clubs. The girls assumed
responsibilities and passed 4-H information to others not in clubs. The
program has helped 4-H Club members to be better citizens in their homes,
clubs, communities and counties.


Fig. 18.-Governor Collins presents the National 4-H Club Week procla-
mation to Girls' Council President Mary Ann Godbold as Boys' Council
President Jimmy Cummings approves.

The 35 county girls' 4-H Club councils served as advisory committees
to the county home demonstration agents. Each council, composed of two
girls from each 4-H Club, met regularly and helped to plan and direct
county 4-H Club events. The councils also interpreted to the agent and
leaders the needs of the girls in the local clubs and helped local groups to
get into the over-all county and State 4-H Club program. Two representa-
tives from each county 4-H Club council made up the State Girls' 4-H
Club Council. These representatives worked together on committees dur-
ing the state Girls' 4-H Club Short Course and members presided at all
general sessions.
1 Returned from one year's leave of absence August 27, 1955.
2 Resigned August 26, 1955.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The officers of the State Girls' 4-H Club Council held three meetings
during the year, at which time they helped plan the annual meeting and
the 4-H Club exhibit at the State Fair.
Thirty-five thousand five hundred thirty-nine projects were completed
by Florida 4-H Club girls. To complete a specific project in the subject-
matter phases of the program each girl made an exhibit and submitted a
project record and story of achievement. County home demonstration
agents, adult 4-H Club leaders and others provided information and encour-
agement to 4-H Club girls in completing their projects. The adults helped
with training meetings, exhibits, news stories, bulletins, achievement days,
tours, camps and rallies, and gave individual assistance.
The 1,144 4-H Club girls who gave leadership assistance in their local
and county 4-H Club groups worked closely with adult 4-H Club leaders
and county home demonstration agents in the development of 4-H Club
work. Some 1,290 adults served as volunteer leaders under the direction
of home demonstration agents. A total of 19,758 attended the 958 training
meetings.
Group activities helped provide 4-H Club girls with needed information
and aided others in having a better understanding of the place of 4-H in
the Agricultural Extension program. Twenty-six weeks of camps were
attended by 2,473 girls. One hundred seventy clubs and 4,238 4-H Club
girls engaged in community activities, such as improving school grounds,
conducting local achievement day programs and rallies.
The observance of National 4-H Club Achievement Day, National 4-H
Club Week and Rural Life Sunday, and participation in local, district and
state fairs, short courses, camps, and rallies helped keep others informed
about 4-H Club programs. These events also provided opportunities for the
girls to develop their individual abilities by assuming responsibilities in
the planning and directing of activities.
Girls' 4-H Club work showed growth, strength, and expansion during
the year. The number of 4-H Club girls enrolled increased by 1,852. At-
tendance at 4-H Club meetings was 38,103 more than in 1954.



HEALTH EDUCATION

Frances C. Cannon, Assistant Health Education Specialist

County home demonstration agents' reports for 1955 show that much
progress was made in attaining the health education goals set up at the
beginning of the year. Major points of emphasis in the health program
were overcoming the lack of information and complacency of people in
general concerning health, overweight and the health problems of older
people.
Health Education.-Continued emphasis was placed on including health
education in all Extension activities. This shows the growing concept of
the value of health education.
In addition to including and emphasizing health in all phases of their
county work, agents reported that 655 club health programs were held in
the state this year.
Agents furthered the knowledge of health through the club programs,
news articles, radio talks, home visits and counseling. Some of the subjects
covered in these ways were: self-understanding, rodent control, overweight,
disposal of waste, home care of the sick and the polio vaccine.
Senior council meetings in the counties also were a means of getting








Annual Report, 1955


health knowledge across. Medical doctors spoke to these groups on mental
health, heart disease and cancer. Also, speakers were scheduled to discuss
topics such as: Knowing and using county health departments, services of
various health organizations, safety and fire prevention.
4-H Health.-Four-H Health education work also is on the increase.
There were 7,810 club members who received definite training in health,
nursing, first aid and good grooming. This training was given mostly in
4-H Club meetings and at 4-H camps. For the past two years the impor-
tance of having 4-H girls receive physical examinations before attending
4-H camp has been stressed. Definite progress is being made. Eleven
county home demonstration agents reported that their girls received physi-
cal examinations from either family doctors or the county health officer.
This year 4,940 4-H Club members received physical examinations, 3,490
were enrolled in health improvement projects and 1,964 completed their
work.
Cooperation with Health Agencies.-Cooperation with health agencies is
an important part of the health education program of the Agricultural
Extension Service. One of our responsibilities is to bring to the attention
of people the services and facilities of health organizations and agencies.

Fig. 19.-A group attending the 40th annual 4-H Club Girls' Short
Course look on as Ann Hodges, former 4-H Club member now a student
nurse, shows how to make an examination for hearing.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The table below shows how the Extension Service aided in acquainting
people with other agencies concerned with health and their activities.

Activity Cooperating Adult Clubs 4-H Clubs
March of Dimes-Infantile Paralysis...... 314 214
Cancer Crusade................ ............... 343 149
Christmas TB Seal Sales....................... 188 141
Easter Stamp Sales............................... 101 118
Tuberculosis and X-Ray Clinics................ 283 160

Additional close cooperation was given by county health departments,
the State Board of Health, local physicians, the Florida Medical Associa-
tion, Red Cross chapters, veterans' hospitals and blood banks.
A total of 364 adult Home Demonstration Clubs and 262 girls' 4-H
Clubs have health chairmen. There were 35 training meetings held, with
606 women attending. In addition, health education classes were held as
parts of the State Home Demonstration Council Short Course and the
Girls' State 4-H Short Course and 4-H camps.
Mental Health.-As a means of overcoming some of the frustrations of
everyday life, five counties-Bay, Clay, Seminole, South Hillsborough and
West Hillsborough-did extensive work on mental health. In these coun-
ties the approach was to help the women understand themselves as indi-
viduals in order that they might better understand why they feel and act
the way they do at times.
Clay County home demonstration agent reported they had mental hy-
giene programs in six adult groups where 115 homemakers worked on self-
understanding. The home demonstration agent did a similar program at
Federation of Women's Clubs with 40 participants and with the members
of the Officer's Wives Club at Green Cove Springs Naval 'Station. The in-
terest in Clay County is so great on this subject that a circulating library
of textbooks and scientific pamphlets on mental health has been started
among the homemakers.
Recreation.-Many of the activities of home demonstration and 4-H
Clubs are looked upon by the women and girls as recreation. In several
county reports mention is made of women getting away from their home
and mixing with others only at home demonstration club meetings. Levy
County home demonstration women looked upon the State Senior Council
meeting as educational and also as a vacation and recreation.
Almost all home demonstration councils and 4-H Clubs hold Christmas
parties in December and picnics in the summer. In addition, more recrea-
tion is being included in every meeting and function, as a Martin County
Agent put it: "To help both adults and 4-H groups relax and take things
less strenuously." In many clubs planned recreation sessions were held at
each meeting by recreation chairmen drawing on their knowledge of games
learned at leader training meetings. Games and other activities chosen
were not only enjoyable but also useful at home and with other groups.
In some instances recreation is being presented as subject matter. The
Palm Beach council women discussed recreation and play in relation to
child care. The Bay County home demonstration agent had as one of her
television programs, "Halloween Parties," at which time she used materials
sent out by the Nutritionist and Health Education Specialist. Bradford
County 4-H Club members had a halloween party at which they exhibited
their summer projects.
Recreation also plays a big part in 4-H rally days, 4-H achievement
days and 4-H camps. In many camps recreation was taught as one of the
group instruction periods.








Annual Report, 1955


HOME IMPROVEMENT

Bonnie J. Carter, Home Improvement Specialist

The home improvement program in Florida is designed to meet the
needs of the people for comfortable, convenient, attractive and well-man-
aged homes to enable them to live more satisfying lives and become better
citizens. The program was planned and carried out in 52 counties by white
and negro home demonstration agents. Information was presented through
4-H club, women's club and special interest meetings, tours, achievement
days and home visits.
Extension agents spent 5,840 days working on all phases of home im-
provement. Voluntary local leaders numbering 3,680 assisted with the home
demonstration program. Two hundred and eighteen training meetings were
held for 3,916 voluntary local leaders.
The House and Surroundings, Furnishings and Equipment.-This phase
of the program is designed to improve housing conditions, create a desire
for a high standard of living, promote good health, and help bring about
satisfying home and family life. Activities include: (1) building, remodel-
ing, repairing homes and adding conveniences to meet family needs; (2)
beautifying the home and surroundings; (3) furnishing the home for com-
fort, convenience and beauty.


Fig. 20.-Home demonstration club women learn about housing con-
struction from the Extension Service agricultural engineer and home im-
provement specialist.


5 ....% ; .' .... .*,'r ,,


AL #I tI f. A
i' 'a iji* >~f
L,* t*itt"eIjp9







80 Florida Cooperative Extension

Family Living.-Activities to help people improve family living include:
(1) assistance in making satisfactory adjustments to living conditions; (2)
adopting good practices in rearing children; (3) improving family relation-
ship; (4) managing the income to meet needs of the family; (5) making
wise use of credit; (6) using human and material resources for bettering
family living; (7) adding to the family income in kind or cash; (8) prac-
ticing orderly, systematic and efficient work habits; (9) practicing every-
day good housekeeping; (10) providing security for old age and medical
and dental care; and (11) providing and using opportunities for religious,
civic, educational, and recreational activities for all family members.
Consumer Education.-This phase of the program is designed to help
people make better use of their resources. They are assisted in (1) learn-
ing to make wise decisions when buying household supplies, equipment,
furnishings, and building material; (2) developing skills in building and in
repairing and refinishing floors, walls, work surfaces, furniture, and wood-
work; and (3) reading, understanding, and following labels, specifications,
guarantees and directions for care and use of equipment and materials used
at home.
Home improvement activities promoted through the extension program
and some of the results are listed below. These figures represent work of
men, women, girls, boys, white and negro for 1954 and 1955:

1954 1955
Total number of persons contacted individually or through
meetings-.... ............ ...... ---.................. ....................140,960 156,091
Estimated total number of different families,
homemakers or other individuals assisted directly
or indirectly to adopt recommended practices................... 85,333 102,655

Families, Homemakers and Other Individuals Assisted With

Building a new house..................................... 743 788
Remodeling or repairing the house..............- ............... 3,571 3,618
Improving kitchen and laundry..................................... 2,977 3,692
Improving storage space.......................... ..................... 3,435 4,518
Selection, installation with care of:
(a) Water and/or sewage system................................. 1,415 1,509
(b) cooling systems.....-.................. .............. 944 1,184
Planning electrical systems. ..................... ................ 1,334 1,403
Landscaping home grounds................................ ....... 14,812 19,195
Selection, use and care of home equipment
(other than sewing)............................ .......... ... ...... 8,185 8,033
Selection, use and construction of home furnishings........ 6,775 8,460
Repair, reconditioning and care of home furnishings-.... 6,996 6,300
Furniture arrangement and use of accessories.................. 7,517 8,915
Color scheme and wall finishes..................................... 6,349 9,963
Floor finishes................... ............. ... .................... 2,620 2,203
In arriving at management decisions................................. 6,859 7,547
In improving housekeeping methods.............................. 10,714 12,868
With family laundering...................................-...... 7,006 7,324
In the use of rural family outlook information.................. 3,601 5,427
With family financial planning...........- .................-- 3,214 5,490
With keeping and analyzing home records..................... 2,450 3,320
With family legal matters................-....................- 1,566 2,445
With legal aspects of farm business......................... 42 1 2501
With obtaining and using farm credit................................ 32 1 42








Annual Report, 1955


Families Assisted With
Child development and guidance........................................... 5,742 5,993
Providing recommended play, clothing and
equipment suited to age of children............................... 5,820 6,691
Understanding roles of family members and
strengthening family relationships...............-............. 5,319 6,996
Individual adjustments and personality development...... 4,803 5,861
Home and family recreation---------.........................-----. 7,802 9,265
4-H Club Work is designed to stimulate the interest of girls in learning
to do simple home tasks well, in making their homes more beautiful, com-
fortable and convenient, both inside and out, and in becoming well adjusted
members of their families and communities. Listed below are activities
and results for 1954 and 1955 in the field of home improvement:
4-H Club Members- 1954 1955
Receiving definite training in: Money management........ 7,403 8,570
Beautification of home grounds ..................enrolled........ 4,671 4,245
Child Care .......................... ---............. ........... enrolled 2,776 3,056
Home Management (Good Housekeeping)..enrolled........ 1,666 1,527
Home furnishings and room improvement..enrolled........ 3,926 4,300
Electricity2 .................. ..........................enrolled....... 1,087 1,253
Meetings held to train 4-H leaders .................................. 64 93
Attendance of these training meetings ........................... 622 1,900
Special training in several phases of 4-H home improvement was given
to 4-H girls, voluntary local leaders, and home demonstration agents num-
bering 500 at the annual 4-H short courses. Others in the counties were
assisted through leader training meetings, 4-H Club and junior council
meetings and home visits.
Requests for help with the several phases of home improvement have
increased during the past few years. Apparently the home demonstration
agents, assisted by the home improvement and other Extension specialists,
will need to train more voluntary local leaders and help provide oppor-
tunities for them to assist people in their communities.


HOME INDUSTRIES AND MARKETING
Gladys Kendall, Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
To assist families with ways and means of increasing and/or extending
the family income is the objective of the home industries and marketing
project. Consumer information, management of resources and production
and marketing quality home-produced products were emphasized in both
adult and youth work during 1955.
Consumer Information and Management of Resources.-In the consum-
er information phase of the program, major emphasis was on buying foods,
equipment, ready-made clothing and household textiles. In management of
resources emphasis was on managing time, energy and money. Families
were assisted with problems concerning selection, purchasing and "making
versus buying" decisions. All county Extension agents spent 1,406 days
working on home management and family economics.
Home Industries, Arts, and Crafts.-Home industries were developed to
supplement family income. Use was made of native materials, food prod-
ucts and other resources of the farm and home. Thirty-nine counties re-
1 Home demonstration agents only.
2 Boys and girls, in cooperation with Extension Horticulturists and Farm Electrifica-
tion Specialist.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ported that 2,819 4-H and home demonstration club members produced
agricultural and handicraft products for market. One thousand forty-five
of them marketed standardized products and 1,662 improved the quality
of the products sold. Approximately 97 percent of cash received was from
the sale of food products and the other 3 percent from the sale of flowers,
plants, handicraft articles and services, such as nursing, baby sitting, cater-
ing and sewing. More than 66 percent of the total cash received was from
the sale of eggs. In addition to the cash received for their products, many
families contributed home-made products to charity and community drives
in place of cash.


Fig. 21.-These Jackson County boys at Timpoochee learn how to weave
reed baskets and trays.

Home demonstration and 4-H Club members reported marketing the
following food products with values indicated: Eggs, $473,954.68; poultry,
$47,955.82; fresh vegetables, $24,523.22; dairy products, $80,990.73; fresh
fruit, $34,881.80; baked foods, $8,704.88; canned foods, $4,177.60; miscel-
laneous food products, $18,648.46; total food products, $693,837.12; other
products, including crafts and services, $20,253.66; and total of all products,
$714,090.78.
The demand for learning craft skills was met by helping people know
and apply art principles to homemaking and create and produce inexpensive
gifts and articles for family use and for sale. All craft activities were a
definite part of a basic family living program. Seven hundred and seventy-
nine volunteer leaders actively assisted with this part of the program.
Agents, leaders and specialists assisted 8,295 families with practices inci-
dent to the production of arts and crafts.
There was a ready market for quality handicraft articles that were
suitable for gifts and souvenirs and that sold at a reasonable price. The
development of profitable hobbies and leisure time activities therefore was
encouraged.








Annual Report, 1955


Marketing Activities.-The program in marketing and distribution of
agricultural products was conducted by Extension specialists in agricul-
tural economics, marketing and other agricultural subject-matter fields.
However, people who worked closely with the home demonstration agents
looked to them for guidance and assistance in marketing farm products.
Home demonstration agents devoted 74 days to assisting with market-
ing agricultural products. They assisted 9 organized cooperatives which
have 512 members. In addition, 6 groups with 315 members were organ-
ized informally to market cooperatively. A total of 4,057 persons were
assisted by home demonstration agents with some phase of farm marketing,
including preparation for market, outlook and market information, arrang-
ing to sell and selling.
Program Development.-The home industries and marketing program
was integrated with related subject matter. It was planned and developed
in 52 counties by the specialist, working cooperatively with other members
of the Agricultural Extension Service, volunteer leaders, home demonstra-
tion and 4-H Club members, junior and senior councils, and others. Instruc-
tion was given in (1) improving consumer buying practices when selecting
foods, household textiles, clothing, house furnishings and equipment; (2)
managing to best advantage all resources, especially time, energy and

Fig. 22.-The home industries and marketing specialist gives a flannel
board demonstration to a Florida State University class in home demon-
stration education on how to make food dollars go further.







Florida Cooperative Extension


money; (3) making quality products of palmetto, bamboo, cocoanut fronds,
pine needles, cattail rush, reed and other materials; (4) improving stand-
ards, packaging and labeling of home products; (5) interpreting laws and
regulations concerning the marketing of products; (6) making accessories
for the home, such as rugs, stools, lamps and lamp shades; (7) making
toys and games from scrap and gifts from inexpensive materials; (8) mak-
ing personal accessories such as bags, hats and jewelry; (9) recognizing
and using art principles; and (10) how to plan, prepare and arrange edu-
cational exhibits for use at fairs, achievement days and other events.
Volunteer leaders assisting with this program included 711 in home
management, 481 in family economics, 161 in marketing of home products,
and 799 in home arts and crafts. In 22 training meetings the specialist
assisted with training a total of 673 leaders. Agents conducted 7 training
meetings in marketing and 136 in home arts and crafts for leaders. Agents,
leaders and others held 2,667 meetings attended by approximately 30,000
adults and 4-H Club girls. The specialist trained agents, leaders, club mem-
bers and others at 8 in-service meetings for agents, at state-wide confer-
ences, short courses, institutes, and other special events. In 2 counties 92
leaders were trained to plan, prepare, arrange and judge or evaluate ex-
hibits. Agents used a total of 3,669 exhibits to inform the public of Home
Demonstration Work.
4-H Club Work.-The 4-H Club program emphasized management of
resources; using consumer information when selecting foods, clothing, tex-
tiles and equipment; using improved practices and methods when produc-
ing articles for sale or for gifts; and keeping more accurate and complete
records. There were 1,527 club members enrolled in management projects,
with 1,024 completing, and a total of 3,570 members who received definite
training in money management. A total of 2,217 members were enrolled
in home industries, art and crafts, with 1,845 completing.
Special training in better buying practices, management and art and
crafts was given to approximately 550 4-H Club girls, leaders and home
demonstration agents at short courses and 4-H Club camps.



PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING

Eunice Grady, Assistant to State Home Demonstration Agent
in Training Program

Chief responsibility of the Assistant to the State Home Demonstration
Agent in the Training Program has been to help plan, supervise and con-
duct pre-service and in-service training for county home demonstration
agents.
Pre-Service Training.-In the School of Home Economics at Florida
State University the Trainer Agent taught the junior and senior courses in
home demonstration education in the fall semester of 1954-55. She taught
the modified junior course in home demonstration education for graduate
credit in a three weeks' summer session, June 20-July 8, 1955, and the
junior course again in the fall semester of 1955-56. Ten undergraduate and
six graduate students have taken these courses. The Trainer Agent gave
information about home demonstration work to 85 other home economics
students.
At the State Home Demonstration Office the Trainer Agent planned
and supervised pre-service study and field experience for 17 home econo-
mists prior to their appointment as Florida home demonstration agents








Annual Report, 1955


or assistants. Three of these trainees took the summer school graduate
course in home demonstration education. Two of the trainees worked on
the long-time pre-service training program; 11 worked on the short-time
program; four were experienced home demonstration agents from other
states for whom the Trainer Agent planned a short orientation period.
Fifteen of these trainees are now on regular appointment 'as county home
demonstration agents or assistant agents.
In-Service Training.-The Trainer Agent assisted in planning a work-
shop on understanding and working with young people, as in-service train-
ing for state staff members.
She served as chairman of the state office committee on in-service
training and helped to formulate a three-year schedule for area and state-
wide in-service training based on requests of county home demonstration
agents and recommendations of the state staff. In carrying out this plan
for 1955 the Trainer Agent assisted with area in-service training meetings
on food conservation and management-textiles. She helped with the state-
wide in-service training which was provided at State Girls' 4-H Club Short
Course, Senior Council and Home Demonstration Short Course and annual
Agents' Conference.
The Trainer Agent served on the Joint Committee for Professional Im-
provement and helped to plan for the courses to be offered in the three
weeks' summer schools at the University of Florida and Florida State Uni-
versity. Eight home demonstration agents studied at the University of
Florida; six studied at Florida State University.



NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK

J. A. Gresham, Negro District Agent

Ten negro county agents carried the Agricultural Extension Service pro-
gram to colored farmers in as many counties. Agents received assistance
in program planning and execution from community leaders, county advi-
sory councils, individual farmers, specialists and supervisors.
Counties providing increased financial support for agents' salaries were:
Jackson, Leon, Gadsden, Columbia and Marion. All counties helped with
financing trips to the State 4-H Club Short Course and the State 4-H Camp.
Adult Activities.-The annual State Conference of agricultural and home
demonstration agents was conducted at A. & M. University September 12-
16, 1955. This group heard the State Director set the stage for the 1956
Extension Service program. Discussions were led by other state officials
representing men's and women's work. Specialists from extension and other
other agencies led discussions on planning and conducting programs with
farm people. Workshop groups, including all agricultural and home dem-
onstration agents and consultants, met daily. These groups discussed dif-
ferent phases of planning and conducting programs with rural people and
made written reports of their findings. These reports were made available
to all members at the end of the conference.
During the year negro extension agents visited the main Agricultural
Experiment Station at the University of Florida and the North Florida
Station near Quincy. Personnel at the two stations carried agents on tours
to various experiments that were being conducted and brought them up-
to-date regarding field crops, pastures and livestock. Trench silo construc-
tion and care was also discussed.








86 Florida Cooperative Extension

The annual state-wide farmers conference was held at A. & M. Univer-
sity on December 9, with 210 farm people attending. The local extension
office in each county sponsored the event jointly with the University. W.
C. Rhoades of the North Florida Experiment Station was the main speaker,
discussing the functions of the station and its service to the farmers of
Florida.
Exhibits were placed at the State Fair in Tampa in February 1955 by
extension agents of Gadsden, Jefferson, Madison, Columbia and Marion
counties. Four of these counties placed home cured meat on exhibition.
Agents also assisted communities and individual farmers with exhibit plans
and exhibits at one district and three county fairs.
Four-H Work.-The annual State 4-H Club Short Course was held at
A. & M. University May 31 to June 4, with 324 delegates in attendance.
All had been selected because of their outstanding 4-H Club work.
Two hundred sixty four 4-H Club boys attended the State 4-H Camp in
Marion County in June, July, and August, where they enjoyed swimming,
fishing and hiking. Discussion leaders led group discussions on agricultural
and other subjects.
The Florida 4-H delegation attending the Regional 4-H Club Camp at
Howard University August 15-22 was composed of eight delegates, four
boys and four girls. All were selected on the basis of their superior project
work and leadership qualities.
The number of projects accepted for the State 4-H Club award program
was increased from nine to 11 by the State Director's office. Winners in
this program received watches, fountain pen and pencil sets, savings bonds
'and medals.


Fig. 23.-The Extension Service meats specialist and negro county agent
stage a slaughtering and butchering demonstration.
mu" -
P41 '1l


~~1u








Annual Report, 1'55 87

A state 4-H corn improvement show was held at the North Florida Fair,
Tallahassee, October 25-29, with prize money of $300.00 being donated by
the State Department of Agriculture and the North Florida Fair Associa-
tion. Because of the sharp interest in this event, considerably increased
corn yields have been obtained by negro 4-H Club members of Florida.
District fat hog shows were participated in by 4-H Club boys from nine
counties. One show was at Monticello, where 61 fat hogs were shown, and
another at Webster, with 43 hogs shown. Premiums paid at these shows
were made possible by the State Department of Agriculture and local
boards of county commissioners.
Four-H Club demonstration teams from six counties conducted 12 dem-
onstrations at the State Fair in Tampa. Counties having teams were Jack-
son, Gadsden, Sumter, Madison, Columbia and Alachua.
Listed below are some of the teaching activities conducted by negro
extension agents in 1955. These figures and others are included in the
statistical data section at the front of the report.
Extension Teaching and Other Activities
Number of farm and home visits............................................. 5,398
Number of office calls ..................................................... 5,989
Number of telephone calls....................................... 2,565
Number of news articles-...................... .......... ........ .......... 182
Number of broadcasts ............................................................... 3
Number of bulletins distributed ........ ................ ....................10,337
Number of adult result demonstrations................ ......................... 140
Training meetings held for local leaders: Number.............................. 133
A attendance ................. ................................ ..... .... .. ........ 2,115
All other meetings agents held or participated in: Number.................. 756
Attendance ......................... ....... ............... .... .............13,314
Meetings held or attended by local leaders: Number......................... 245
Attendance ............. .......... ..................... 4,785


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Floy Britt, Negro District Home Demonstration Agent

Home demonstration work for negro women and girls is conducted in
12 counties. These are Alachua, Columbia, Dade, Duval, Gadsden, Hills-
borough, Jackson, Leon, Madison, Marion, Putnam and Volusia. With the
exception of Dade, these counties are located in the general farming area
of the northern and central sections of the state.
The state program for negro home demonstration work is directed by
the State Home Demonstration Agent, who is responsible to the State Ex-
tension Director. The Negro District Agent supervises the work and
assists with state-wide programs.
In carrying on the Extension program in 1955, negro home demonstra-
tion agents made 3,711 home visits, received 5,360 office calls, had 3,952
telephone calls, published 221 news articles and distributed 17,578 bulletins.
As a result of Extension influence, 1,255 negro families adopted recom-
mended practices in improving their homes and surroundings, 2,839 families
changed practices in providing family clothing and 2,718 families made im-
provement in food production and nutrition and 2,726 families made im-
provements in health.
Some assistance from Extension specialists was available during the
year, which helped agents to do better jobs. Three home demonstration








Florida Cooperative Extension


agents took Extension courses at the Regional Summer School, Prairie
View, Texas, and the district agent completed requirements for the master's
degree in education at Florida A. & M. University during the summer. This
graduate training served to increase the efficiency of those who partici-
pated.
Adult Program.-The negro Extension program was designed to in-
crease and conserve food, to meet needs of Florida negro families, provide
more convenient and attractive homes and more adequate clothing, improve
health practices and family recreational facilities, and guide families in
the wise spending of their incomes.
Agents reported a total of 93 adult home demonstration clubs organ-
ized, with an enrollment of 1,935 members. They held 785 method demon-
stration meetings, with 9,973 attending. They conducted 45 adult train-
ing meetings, with 680 attending. Ten adult county councils with 257
members were organized, and 261 volunteer leaders assisted in promoting
the home demonstration program.
Under the guidance of the home demonstration agents and the supervi-
sion of the District Agent, home-makers from 12 counties set up a credit-
able state home demonstration exhibit at the Florida State Fair. Some 308
families participated in the 16 county-wide home improvement and pantry
tours which were held.
4-H Club Activities.-Negro home demonstration agents reported a total
of 122 organized 4-H Clubs in 12 counties, with 4,814 members enrolled.
The 4-H girls enrolled in 11,613 projects and completed 9,026. In addition,
agents held 60 4-H training meetings, with 1,015 attending, and 1,019 meth-
od demonstration meetings, with 33,624 in attendance. Also five garden
and poultry tours were held, with an attendance of 196.
Thirteen 4-H Club girls won honors in the 1955 awards program. Four
outstanding 4-H Club girls won free trips to the 1955 Regional 4-H Club
Camp held at Howard University, Washington, D. C.
The Annual State 4-H Short Course was held at Florida A. & M. Uni-
versity and was attended by more than 200 girls. Four district 4-H Club
girls' camps were held, with an attendance of 3,540. A State 4-H Council
for Negro Girls was organized, with 4-H county council officers from 11
counties participating. Eleven team demonstrations were given at the State
Fair and 12 outstanding 4-H Club girls were awarded recognition certifi-
cates for meritorious work done in their various counties. Two recreational
institutes were held with an attendance of 131.







Annual Report, 1955


Agent conference, 42
county, 4, 5, 6
home demonstration 4, 5, 6
Agricultural economics, 14
Agricultural engineering, 17
Agronomy, 21
Apiary, 4-H, 27
Animal husbandry, 23
Arts, home industries, 81
Associations, citrus, 57
dairy, 35
feed dealers, 53
nurserymen and growers, 48
poultry, 53
state banker's, 56

Barrus, Edith Y., 61
Beale, Clyde, 36, 37
Beef cattle, 23
Beekeeping, 26
Bevis, Joyce, 61
Borries, Frank B., Jr., 36
Britt, Floy, 87
Brogdon, James E., 39
Broilers, 49
Brooding, 20
Brown, W. W., 28
Burdine, Martha, 75

Cake, E. W., 14
Camps, 4-H, 10
wildlife, 29
Cannon, Frances C., 76
Carter, Bonnie J., 79
Cattle, beef, 23
institutes, 24
Christian, Susan R., 73
Citriculture, 31
Citrus fertilization, 16
grove management, 15
institutes, 32
irrigation, 16
marketing, 15
production, 16
schools, 32
tours, 32
training program, 31
tree movement, 16
Clayton, H. G., 7, 14
Clothing, 12, 66
Clubs, home demonstration, 63
boys, 28, 86
girls, 75, 88
negro, 86, 88
Conservation, 10, 12


INDEX

food, 71
4-H,'54
soil and water, 54
subject matter, 55
Consumer information, 81
Contests, crop judging, 22
vegetables, 58
Cooper, J. Francis, 36
Cooperatives, 15
Cotton, 22
County agents, 4
conferences, 21
Cromartie, Alice L., 70
Crop production, 12
judging, 22
Crafts, 81

Dairy herd improvement associa-
tions, 33
Dairy husbandry, 33
breeding program, 34
feeding, 34
marketing, 15
Demonstration, home, 61
negro women, 87
Development, farm and home, 9, 40
Dickenson, Elizabeth, 66
Director's report, 7
District agents, 14
Drainage, farm, 18
Durrance, K. L., 23

Economics, agricultural, 14
Editorial Department, 36
Editorial and visual aids, 69
Education, consumer, 80
health, 76
youth, 15
Electric equipment, 19
4-H program, 20
power suppliers, 20
wiring, 19
Electrification, farm, 17, 18
Elkins, Bronna Mae, 75
Engineering, agricultural, 17
Entomology, 39
Exhibits, agronomy, 22
forestry, 47

Fair, Central Florida, 51
Fairs and shows, 25
Family living, 80
Farm buildings, 12, 17
business, 12
electrification, 17







Florida Cooperative Extension


equipment, 12
forestry, 44
journals, 38
machinery, 17
safety, 42
structures, 17
Farm and home development, 9, 40,
71, 73
Farmer cooperatives, 15
Fertilizer, citrus, 16
Field days, 56
Financial statement, 7
Fire prevention, 44
Florida Dairy Association, 21
Department of Agriculture, 56
National Egg-laying Test, 52
Seedsmen's Association, 21
Floyd, Ben H., 28
Four-H activities, 29, 30
agronomy, 22
animal husbandry, 25
apiary, 27
arts and crafts, 82
beekeeping, 27
boys' short course, 28
camps, 27
citrus, 32
conservation, 54
dairy, 35
electric program, 20
entomology, 40
food and nutrition, 71
food conservation, 72
food production, 74
forestry, 46
girls', 66, 75
home industries, 84
honey, 27
health education, 76
horticulture, 48
livestock judging, 28
negro, 85, 88
poultry, 50
state events, 30
summary of work, 13
safety, 43
tractor program, 29
wildlife camp, 29
Food, 12
Food and nutrition, 70
Food conservation, 71
Food production, 73
Foreign students, 66
visitors, 11
Forestry, 44
Foundation seed, 22
Fruits, minor, 31


Gardening, 58
Girls' 4-H, 66, 75, 88
Goats, 25
Godwin, Grant M., 28
Grady, Eunice, 61, 84
Gresham, J. A., 85

Hamilton, H. G., 14
Haynie, John D., 26
Health, 12
education, 76
4-H, 77
mental, 78
recreation, 78
Henderson, J. R., 21
Herbert, J. H., Jr., 54
Holstein, Helen, 40, 61
Honey marketing, 26
production, 26
Home demonstration, 65
activities, 62
clubs, 63
financing, 63
leadership, 63
negro, 87
Home development, 40
Home economics, 12
equipment, 12
improvement, 80
industries and marketing, 81
family living, 80
furnishing, 12, 79
milk supply, 35
Horticulture, 47

Institutes, cattlemen's, 24
citrus, 32
poultry, 53
Irrigation, 18

Jamison, F. S., 56
Jensen, A. S., 44
Joiner, Jasper N., 31, 47
Judging crops, 22
Judging teams, 25
Kalch, L. W., 49
Kendall, Gladys, 81
King, Emily, 75

Lawrence, Fred P., 31
Livestock, 12
judging, 28

Management, broiler, 49
dairy herd, 34
layer, 49







Annual Report, 1955


turkey, 52
Marketing, 10, 12, 14
citrus, 15
dairy, 15
forestry, 46
honey, 26
poultry, 49
vegetables, 15, 56
McCown, Jack T., 31
McElwee, E. W., 47
McMullen, K. S., 14
Mechanical equipment, 12
Mehrhof, N. R., 49
Mental health, 78
Merchandising vegetables, 60
Milk, 35
Mixon, Aubrey C., 21
Moore, J. S., 49
Montelaro, James, 56
Moreland, H. L., 36
Murphree, Clyde E., 40
Myers, F. E., 56

Negro farm demonstration, 85
Negro home demonstration, 87
Newspapers, 38
Nieland, L. T., 44
Norton, J. D., 58
Nutrition and foods, 12, 70

O'Steen, A. W., 49
Ornamental horticulture, 47

Pace, J. E., 23
Pastures, 34
Peanuts, 22
Personnel training, 9
Pettis, A. M., 18
Planning, cooperative, 11
Platt, W. J., Jr., 14
Poultry husbandry, 49
institutes, 53
junior work, 50
egg-laying test, 52
Publications, 36
Production, crops, 12
fruits and vegetables, 73
Program, Extension, 9
Projects, 4-H, 30

Radio, 22, 38
Reaves, C. W., 32
Reddish, R. L., 23


Rosenberger, Stanley E., 59

Safety, 12, 42, 43
Schools, citrus, 32
Seed, 22
Sharpe, Hervey, 36
Sheehan, T. J., 47
Sheep, 25
Short course, 4-H, 28
Show, poultry, 51
Sikes, Anna Mae, 61
Skinner, Thomas C., 17
Social security, 8
Soil conservation, 54
Soybeans, 22
Sparks, T. W., 32
Statistical report, 11
Structures, farm, 17
Sturges, Lena E., 71
Summary of Extension, 13
Supervision, county agents, 14
Swine, 25

Telephones, rural, 20
Textiles and clothing, 66
Tobacco, 22
Tours, 32
Tractor program, 4-H, 29
Training program, citrus, 32
foreign visitors, 11
home demonstration personnel, 64
Extension personnel, 9
Turkeys, 52
TV, 22, 38

Vegetable activities, 56
consumer information, 61
exhibits, 58
gardening, 58
marketing, 15, 56, 60
meetings, 56
production, 56, 73
Visual aids, 39, 69

Warren, Alma, 69
Water conservation, 54
Watkins, Marshall 0., 7
Wildlife management, 11
Wiring, electric, 19

Youth education, 15
work, 10