<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Credits
 Director's report
 Supervision of county agents
 Agricultural economics
 Farm and home development
 Agricultural engineering and farm...
 Agronomy
 Animal husbandry
 Apiculture
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Citrus and other fruits
 Grove management project
 Dairy husbandry
 Editorial department
 Entomology
 Forestry
 Ornamental horticulture
 Poultry husbandry
 Safety and fire prevention
 Vegetable production and merch...
 Home demonstration work
 Clothing and textiles
 Editorial and visual aids
 Food and nutrition
 Food conservation
 Food production
 Girls' 4-H club work
 Health education
 Home improvement
 Home industries and marketing
 Pre-service and in-service...
 Negro farm demonstration work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Report Florida agricultural extension service
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00015
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1954
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00015
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Director's report
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Supervision of county agents
        Page 14
    Agricultural economics
        Page 15
    Farm and home development
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Agricultural engineering and farm electrification
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Agronomy
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Animal husbandry
        Page 25
    Apiculture
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Citrus and other fruits
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Grove management project
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Dairy husbandry
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Editorial department
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Entomology
        Page 42
    Forestry
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Ornamental horticulture
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Poultry husbandry
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Safety and fire prevention
        Page 52
    Vegetable production and merchandising
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Home demonstration work
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Editorial and visual aids
        Page 64
    Food and nutrition
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Food conservation
        Page 67
    Food production
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Girls' 4-H club work
        Page 70
    Health education
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Home improvement
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Home industries and marketing
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Pre-service and in-service training
        Page 79
    Negro farm demonstration work
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Index
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
Full Text







COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
H. G. CLAYTON, DIRECTOR









1954 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE










REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1954
with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1954











BOARD OF CONTROL


J. Lee Ballard, Chairman, St. Petersburg
Dr. Ralph L. Miller, Plymouth
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville


W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
R. H. Gore, Sr., Ft. Lauderdale
Mrs. Jessie B. DuPont, Jacksonville
J. Broward Culpepper, Secretary, Tallahassee


STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE


J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for
Agriculture 1
H. G. Clayton, M.S.A., Director of Extension
Marshall O. Watkins, M.Agr., Assistant
Director
F. W. Parvin, M.S.A., Assistant to the
Director
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Administrative
Assistant

AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION
WORK, GAINESVILLE

J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor 1
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor '
Harold L. Moreland, Jr., B.S., Asst. Editor
K. S. McMullen, M.Agr., District Agent
F. S. Perry, M.Agr., District Agent
W. J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A., District Agent
C. W. Reaves, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
T. W. Sparks, B.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry
Husbandman l
J. S. Moore, M.S.A., Poultryman
L. W. Kalch, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Husb.
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor Egg-
Laying Test, Chipley
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist
J. E. Pace, M.S.A., Asst. An. Industrialist
L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester
A. S. Jensen, B.S.A., Asst. Forester
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural
Economist 1
Charles M. Hampson, M.S., Agricultural
Economist, Farm Management 1
E. W. Cake. Ph.D., Marketing Economist
W. E. Black, Ph.D., Vegetable Marketing
Specialist
Clyde E. Murphree, M.S., Asst. Economist
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental
Horticulturist
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Asst. Ornamental
Horticulturist
Fred P. Lawrence, M.Agr., Citriculturist
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
W. W. Brown, M.Agr., Boys' 4-H Club Agent
G. M. Godwin, M.Agr., Asst. Boys' 4-H Club
Agent
T. C. Skinner, M.Agr., Agricultural
Engineer

1 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.


A. M. Pettis, B.S.A., Farm Electrification
Specialist
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
V. L. Johnson, Rodent Control Specialist 3
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist 1
A. C. Mixon, M.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops
Specialist 1
Stanley E. Rosenberger, M.Agr., Assistant
Vegetable Crops Specialist
Forrest E. Myers, M.Agr., Assistant
Vegetable Crops Specialist
J. Montelaro, Ph.D., Asst. Veg. Crops Splst.
J. D. Norton, B.S.A., Asst. Veg. Crops Splst.
James E. Brogdon, M.S.A., Entomologist
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Assistant
Soils Conservationist

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
TALLAHASSEE

Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Agent
Eunice Grady, M.S., Asst. to State HDA
Ethyl Holloway, B.S., District Agent
Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus, B.S.H.E., Dist. Agt.
Joyce Bevis, A.M., District Agent
Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, B.S., Home
Improvement Specialist
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, A.B., Home Industries
and Marketing Specialist
Emily King, M.Ed., State Girls' 4-H Club
Agent
Bronna Mae Elkins, B.S.H.E., Asst. State
Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Martha C. Burdine, B.S.H.E., Acting Asst.
State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Cleo M. Arnett, M.S., Extension Nutritionist
Helen D. Holstein, M. S., Food Conservation
Specialist
Lena E. Sturges, M.S.H.E., Asst. Economist
in Food Conservation
Alma Warren, M.S., Asst. Editor and Visual
Aids Specialist
Frances C. Cannon, M.S., Health Education
Specialist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
TALLAHASSEE
Floy Britt, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent
J. A. Gresham, B.S.A., Negro District Agent

2 On leave. 3 In cooperation with U. S.











CONTENTS
Page
D director's R report .................S..................... ......................... ........ .... ...... 8
Statistical Report ................................ .........- ... .... 11
Supervision of County Agents ................... .................. 14
Agricultural Econom ics ............... ..................- -------... ... ---... .............. 15
Farm M anagem ent ................................... ..................................... 15
Farm-Hom e Development ......................... ............................. 16
Marketing ----................................. ........... ....................... 17
Agricultural Engineering, Electrification ................................................ 18
A agricultural Engineering .................................................... .................. 18
Farm Electrification ...........................-........ ....... ................. 20
Agronom y .... .................................... ........ .. ................ ........ 22
Animal Husbandry ----.. ...-- ........................ .......-............... 25
Apiculture .... ....... ............... -------------...................... ............ ..... 26
Boys' 4-H Club W ork ........-....-- ---- ---.................... ............ .... 29
Citrus and Other Fruits ............................. ----... ................... 32
Grove Management ........... ......---------------.... ................. 34
D airy H usbandry ................. ............................... ..... ......................... 36
Editorial Department .... ..... ............ .............. ...... ............. 40
Entom ology .................---- ............ .................. .... ........ ............... 42
F orestry ...................................... .................. .......................... ... ................... 43
Ornamental Horticulture ---..... .... ..... .......... ................ ............... 47
Poultry Husbandry ............---- -- --........ ......-.........---.... 49
Safety and Fire Prevention .............................. ........ .................... 52
Vegetable Production and Merchandising ..-................................ ....... 53
Vegetable Production .....-..................... -----...... --------...-- ....... ......... 53
Merchandising Fresh Fruits and Vegetables ----................................... 55
Home Demonstration W ork ......................... ....... ............. .....-- ...... 57
Clothing and Textiles ........................... -................................. 62
Editorial and Visual Aids ............ ......... .. .... ...... ........... ........... 64
Food and Nutrition ..................... ...-..........-- .... --.................. 65
Food Conservation ................... ....... ... ........ ................................. 67
Food Production ..................... ........ ....... -.................. ......................... 68
Girls' 4-H Club W ork .................... ............ -- -- ........... .... 70
H health Education ....................... ............................ 71
Home Improvement ..--.... --........---...-- .......-- ...--......--... 73
Home Industries and Marketing .............. --........... -- .......................... 76
Training ..---......... --................. ---------....--.....- .- -....---- .--- 79
Negro Farm Demonstration Work .---................ ...-.... .................... 80
Negro Home Demonstration Work ...................................................--. 82





[3]







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
(As of November 30, 1954)
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Alachua...........-Loonis Blitch-..................Gainesville....Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Alachua
(Asst.)..........A. T. Andrews.................Gainesville
-Mrs. Delores Y. Shamsedin
Baker................ A. L. Harrell................Macclenny .. ...............................
Bay....................H. M Carr........................Panama City
-Miss Emma L. Stevenson
Bradford...........G. T. Huggins.................Starke................Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Brevard............J. T. Oxford-----..................Cocoa..-..........----Mrs. Sue B. Young
Brevard
(Asst.)..........H. W Cunningham.......Cocoa ........................................
Broward............B. E. Lawton-----..................Ft. Lauderdale......-.Miss Louise Taylor
Broward
(Asst.)..........Robert S. Pryor.............Ft. Lauderdale..............................
Calhoun............Thomas B. Jones............Blountstown........Mrs. Annie W. Finlay
Calhoun
(Asst.)..........F. M. Shuler...................Blountstown .................................-------
Charlotte..........N. H. McQueen...............Punta Gorda ..... ............. ....-- ...
Citrus................Quentin Medlin...............Inverness-.......... Miss Sallie S. Koon
Citrus (Asst.).C. R. Smith.....................Inverness .. .............................
Clay...................Charles C. Below...........Green Cove Springs
-Mrs. Sue P. Murphy
Collier...............D. W Lander...................Everglades .....................................---
Columbia..........Neal M. Dukes ...............Lake City............Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Columbia
(Asst.)..........R. A. Andrews................Lake City ........................................
(Assoc.)*.....W. 0. Whittle..................Lake City ........... .---------.--......
Dade..................C. H. Steffani.................Miami-----.... .... Miss Olga Kent
Dade (Asst.)....Roy J. Champagne........Miami...........Miss Helen B. MacTavish
Dade (Asst.)...John D. Campbell-..........Homestead .............................-----
Dade (Asst.)...Rayburn K. Price...........Miami.... ----.... Mrs. Ruth T. Penner
Miami-....-....Mrs. Camille N. Helgren
Dade (Asst.)...Nolan L. Durre ..............Homestead ........................................
Dade (Asst.)...W. R. Llewellyn.............Homestead ................------- -----................
DeSoto..............W. L. Woods.................... Arcadia-.............Mrs. Mary H. Bennett
Dixie.................D. E. Adam s...................Cross City ...................................----
Duval.................James N. Watson-..........Jacksonville..........Mrs. Nellie D. Mills
Duval (Asst.)..Wm. E. Kloeppel........... Jacksonville......Miss Betty Lou Nuttle
Duval (Asst.)..J. R. Yelvington.............Jacksonville--....--Mrs. Jane S. Sox
Escambia..........E. N. Stephens............... Pensacola..............Miss Ethel Atkinson
Escambia
(Asst.)..........B. H. Floyd .....................Pensacola.........Miss Helen C. Arnold
Flagler..............F. L. Polhill-....................Bunnell .......................................
Franklin...........W. C. Zorn.......................Apalachicola
-Miss Barbara J. Daniels
Gadsden........... A. G. Driggers................Quincy........Mrs. Marjorie B. Gregory
Gadsden
(Asst.) ......-..Bernard H. Clark............Quincy........Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson
Gilchrist...........L. C. Cobb-------........................Trenton ...............---------------.
Glades----.............A. G. Hutchinson...........Moore Haven ..........--------....---
Also Associate Agent in Hamilton County.






COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)

Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Gulf...................C. R. Laird......................W ewahitchka .... ......................
Ham ilton-...............................-.....-...... Jasper .......... ................ .........
Hardee..............J. F. Barco........................Wauchula-....Mrs. Sallie R. Childers
Hendry..............H. L. Johnson.................LaBelle .............. .............. ........
Hernando..........Harry J. Brinkley..........Brooksville .....................................
Highlands........B. J. Harris, Jr...............Sebring............Miss Catherine Brabson
Highlands
(Asst.)..........J. C. Hayman..................Sebring .............................
Hillsborough...Alec White.......................Tampa..-----.. ............ Miss Lora Kiser
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........C. F. O'Quinn..................Tampa ................. ............... .. .
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........Jean Beem.......................Tampa .......... ...-................
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........W. L. Hatcher................Tampa .................. ................
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........J. O. Armor.....................Plant City
-Mrs. Marguriette F. Reese
Hillsborough
(Asst.).........M. C. Jorgensen.............Ruskin-----............ Miss Virginia R. Hill
Holmes.............John C. Russell..............Bonifay.....-......- Mrs. Anita B. Davis
Holmes **
(Assoc.)........C. U. Storey....................Bonifay ............................. ..
Indian River...J. T. McCown..................Vero Beach ..............................
Jackson.............Woodrow W. Glenn.......Marianna..............Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jackson
(Asst.)..........L. D. Taylor....................Marianna-......Mrs. Jane R. Burgess
Jefferson...........Albert H. Odom.............. Monticello..........------Miss Fern S. Nix
Lafayette......... S. L. Brothers..................Mayo --
Lake.................R. E. Norris.....................Tavares................Miss Marian Bullard
Lake (Asst.)...J. C. Burkhalter............Tavares....................Miss Jo Ann Mills
Lee.....................C. P. Heuck......................Fort Myers ...... ---.....................
Leon..................James L. Rhoden............Tallahassee..Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
Leon (Asst.)...J. D. Thomaston.............Tallahassee......Mrs. Evelyn C. Presley
Leon t
(Assoc.)........S. C. Kierce......................Tallahassee ............. ..-...........
Levy.............................................................Bronson............Mrs. Linnie R. Coburn
Liberty......................................................Bristol Mrs. Camilla R. Alexander
Madison............Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr....Madison................Mrs. Shirley C. Clark
Madison
(Asst.)..........H. H. Cook......................Madison ....-................ .......
Manatee............Wilson H. Kendrick......Palmetto.................Miss Ethel Weeks
Manatee
(Asst.)..........E. M. Kelly------......................Palmetto .............. ...............
Manatee
(Asst.) ..........Robert G. Curtis.............Palmetto ............................
Marion..............A. David Baillie, Jr.......Ocala......................---- Miss Allie Lee Rush
Marion.............
(Asst.)..........C. A. Tucker, II.............Ocala---................Miss Barbara A. Kelly
Martin-.............L. M. Johnson..................Stuart..-..-.....-- Mrs. Lucile I. Clagett

** Also Associate Agent in Washington County.
t Also Associate Agent in Jefferson County.

[5]







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Nassau..............Gordon B. Ellis-.............- Hilliard ...-..... ........... ........ ..
Okaloosa...........E. W. Rowan...................Crestview ..............................
Okeechobee......C. R. Boyles............-...... Okeechobee ................... ........
Orange..............F. E. Baetzman..............Orlando....Miss Marjorie K. Ludeman
Orange
(Asst.)..........Henry F. Swanson.........Orlando................Mrs. Mary A. Moore
Orange
(Asst.)..........A. F. Cribbett.................Orlando ...................... ...... ..
Osceola............J. B. Smith......................------Kissimmee............Miss Muriel A. Beck
Palm Beach....M. U. Mounts-----.................West Palm Beach...Miss Sara Horton
Palm Beach
(Asst.)..........John H. Causey............West Palm Beach
-Miss Elizabeth Hudson
Palm Beach
(Act. Asst.)..Raleigh S. Griffis--........West Palm Beach ...... ......................
Palm Beach
(Asst.)..........H. L. Speer------...................Belle Glade ...........................
Pasco...............----.J. F. Higgins-.....--....--...- Dade City............Mrs. Mary R. Stearns
Pasco (Asst.)..C. A. Byrd .............-........Dade City ...............--------.---..-
Pinellas.............J. H. Logan.. ---................. Clearwater
-Mrs. Charlotte M. Lattimer
Pinellas
(Asst.)..........L. E. Cunningham-.........Clearwater......Mrs. Sandra S. Casteel
Polk...----................W. P. Hayman............-...Bartow---...........--Mrs. Ruth M. Elkins
Polk (Asst.)....K. L. Durrance-----...............Bartow..........Mrs. Margaret S. Smith
Polk (Asst.)....F. N. M cCullars..............Bartow ........................................
Polk (Asst.)....Jackson A. Haddox-.....-Bartow ...................................
Putnam-............H. E. Maltby....................Palatka....Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird
Putnam
(Asst.).........Ralph T. Clay-...............Palatka .......-.......................
St. Johns..........P. R. McMullen...............St. Augustine...Mrs. Esther F. Harper
St. Lucie...........Charles D. Kime.............Fort Pierce............Mrs. Ray C. Baxter
Santa Rosa .....Emmett D. McCall.........Milton......................Miss Lora A. Botts
Santa Rosa
(Asst.)..........C. T. Dozier.................----- Milton..............Miss Dorcas A. Lambe
Sarasota...........Kenneth A. Clark..........Sarasota..............Mrs. Laleah B. Brown
Sarasota
(Asst.)..........D. A. George...................Sarasota ............................... ..
Seminole-.........C. R. Dawson.................Sanford.........Miss Myrtie C. Wilson
Sumter-............... M. Maines, Jr...........Bushnell--................. May 0. Fulton
Sumter
(Asst.)..........W ilburn C. Farrell-...... Bushnell ........................................
Suwannee.......-J. P. Crews ------...................Live Oak..-.......Mrs. Martha W. Carter
Suwannee
(Asst.)..........F. A. McMillan, Jr.........Live Oak .......- ......................
Taylor---..............H. P. Davis.....................----Perry.........-----Miss Ruth L. Milton
Union-...............William J. Cowen-..........Lake Butler .......... ...................
Volusia.............T. R. Townsend...............DeLand.....................Mrs. Edna L. Eby
Volusia
(Asst.) ........... N. Luttrell...................DeLand ..................................
W akulla............A. S. Laird.......................Crawfordville ....... ........................
Walton.............H. 0. Harrison-.................DeFuniak Springs
-Mrs. Florence G. Owens






COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)

Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Washington.....Johnnie E. Davis............Chipley................Mrs. Mary L. Minchin

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
Alachua............English M. Greene......... Gainesville-...............Leontine Williams
Columbia..........McKinley Jeffers............Lake City................------........Gladys Wilkins
Dade......................------- .-- ....... ..-- .. Miami.... ........ .Victoria M. Simpson
Duval......................................................... Jacksonville..................Ethel M Powell
Gadsden............Russell Stephens............Quincy....................Ursula H. Williams
Hamilton..........Isaac Chandler, Jr........Jasper ........................ ......
Hillsborough........................------.... --- Tampa --........----- Sudella J. Ford
Jackson.............Virgil Elkins...................Marianna-----......Virginia V. Dickens
Jefferson...........M. E. Groover.................M onticello ............ ...................
Leon..................Richard A. Hartsfield...Tallahassee......................rie Mae Clark
Madison............James C. Miller..............Madison.............-----Lola E. Preston
Marion..............Eugene P. Smith...........Ocala ........................................
Marion-..........................------ ....... --- Reddick .......--. ----- Sarah I. Kyler
Putnam.................................--------------Palatka -----.................Leala M. Reaves
Sumter..............Richard L. Bradley........Bushnell ...........................- ..
Volusia....................... ........................ DeLand ........................ Ida T. Pem berton







Florida Cooperative Extension


DIRECTOR'S REPORT

H. G. Clayton, Director
Marshall O. Watkins, Assistant Director
F. R. Edwards, Interim Assistant to the Director 1
F. W. Parvin, Assistant to the Director

The Florida Agricultural Extension Service made steady progress
throughout the year in improving its educational program as well as in
the numbers of individuals reached.
For example, the agents made 83,529 farm visits in 1954, or an increase
of 2,237 over 1953. Their telephone calls increased from 245,795 last year
to 252,395 this year, an additional 6,600 calls. They made 307 more radio
talks and 102 more television appearances and distributed 23,362 more bul-
letins in 1954 than in 1953.
Four-H Club enrollment increased from 30,203 in 1953 to 33,089 in 1954-
an increase of 9 percent. Percent completion of 4-H projects was relatively
as high this year as in previous years.
A part of the increase in scope of activities was brought about by some
increases in personnel. One additional county agent was placed in a new
county, bringing the total number of counties served to 66. Other new per-
sonnel include: three associate agents to do farm and home development
work, six new assistant county agents, two home demonstration agents in
new counties and two new assistant home demonstration agents.
Boards of county commissioners increased their support of Extension
work in the counties during the year by $49,620.00.
An increase in federal funds received made it possible to initiate work
in farm and home development. In addition, it helped meet the requests
from a number of counties for additional county personnel. In these counties
the boards of county commissioners had already made arrangements to
finance their part of the salaries and expenses for the proposed new workers
and had requested the Extension Service to make the new personnel avail-
able as soon as State or federal funds could be provided.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1953-54
Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended ..........................................$362,753.70
Clark-McNary ..................----.................... --1,620.00
Agricultural Marketing ........................................ 1,500.00
Farm Housing ......................------- ......--- 640.00
$ 366,513.70
State Appropriations:
Legislature ........................ ...........----- $667,755.00 $ 667,755.00
State Trust Funds ...................... ........-...........-- 17,524.66 17,524.66
County Appropriations ..................................-- ...... 519,464.00 519,464.00

Grand Total ....-.... ..---------.....--...--..........--......$1,571,257.36

1 Employment terminated May 15, 1954.
2 Returned from leave of absence May 17, 1954.







Annual Report, 1954


FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1954-55
Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended ---......................................$447,524.32
Clark-McNary ...........................- ... .... --- ... 1,620.00
Agricultural Marketing ...................................... 9,250.00

$ 458,394.32
State Appropriations:
Legislature ....................-- ...........----- .....$742,731.00 $ 742,731.00*
State Grant-in-aid ..-......................--- ...-..... -.. 3,000.00 3,000.00
State Trust Funds:
(Est) ................................. .................... 19,256.00 19,256.00
County Appropriations ..................--------.................--... 569,084.00 569,084.00

Grand Total ..------- -----................... --- $1,792,465.32

CHANGES IN STATE STAFF
There were relatively few changes in state staff personnel during the
year. An Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist was added, as was an As-
sistant Soil Conservationist and a Vegetable Marketing Specialist.
One Assistant Agricultural Editor resigned. Another Assistant Agricul-
tural Editor was secured to fill an existing vacant position.
The position of Extension Animal Husbandman has been vacant since the
resignation of the former Extension Animal Husbandman on October 31,
1954.
PERSONNEL TRAINING
Three two-day area training conferences were held for all county agents
and assistants in January to present new subject matter. Somewhat similar
conferences were held for home demonstration agents. Subject matter
covered at the conferences was varied to cover only those crops and live-
stock produced in the counties concerned.
A series of one-day training schools on ornamental horticulture was held
on a trial basis for the county agents in one of the Extension supervisory
districts.
The annual three-week summer school for Extension workers was held
at the University of Florida June 14 to July 2, 1954. Twenty-four Florida
Extension workers attended. Four courses, each carrying 11/2 hours credit,
were offered as follows: Principles in the Development of Youth Programs,
Vegetable Gardening, Special Soil Management and Advanced Rural Lead-
ership.
In addition, the usual problems course, "Special Problems in Agricul-
tural Extension Methods," was available for those who wished to register
for some particular problem in Extension work. This course is open through-
out the year to state and county Extension workers.
This year for the first time, special arrangements were made for home
demonstration agents to enroll for three weeks of summer school work in
home economics at Florida State University. With one exception, the courses
offered were the regular six-week summer school courses, redesigned to
provide two three-week sections. Agents could enroll for two courses of
three weeks duration and receive 11/2 hours of credit for each. The excep-
tion was a course in home demonstration education offered by the Assistant
Includes $74,976.00 in carryover funds from 1953-54.







Florida Cooperative Extension


State Home Demonstration Agent in charge of training. Eleven Extension
workers attended this summer school.
Six Florida Extension workers attended three-week regional Extension
schools in other states. Two attended the six-week summer school at the
University of Maryland and one attended nine weeks of summer school
at the University of Florida, thus completing her work toward the master's
degree.
The Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent received one of six national
4-H fellowships and has been granted a leave of absence. She expects to
complete work toward a master's degree while away.
The annual conference for all Extension workers was held October 3-8,
1954. This conference served as a medium for training agents in subject
matter, as well as bringing them information on national and international
problems by nationally known speakers.

BROAD EXTENSION PROGRAMS THAT HELP TO SOLVE
MAJOR PROBLEMS
Farm and Home Development.-Following the appropriation by Con-
gress of additional federal funds in July 1954 two State staff members, a
man and a woman, were assigned as state leaders to begin farm and home
development work.
Associate county agents were employed to do much of the actual contact
work with farm families. These associate agents worked closely with county
and home demonstration agents in the eight counties that were selected.
Each associate agent worked in two counties. Each board of county com-
missioners in the selected counties provided part of the travel expenses for
the associate agent.
The associate agents began work with 15 families in each county se-
lected, or a workload of 30 families for each associate agent. This number
is scheduled to be increased in 1955 as time permits. A farm and home de-
velopment committee was appointed in each county. This committee nomi-
nated farm families representing a cross-section of farms in the counties
that would be afforded an opportunity to voluntarily participate as pilot
farm families in this program.
A state committee of Extension workers was appointed to give admin-
istrative guidance and develop policies relating to the program. On the
committee are two persons each from administration, supervision and spe-
cialist work.
The county agents, home demonstration agents and associate agents in
the selected counties are working with approximately 90 farm families.
These agents are all working as a team with the families.
4-H Club Work.-With the wide diversity of agricultural enterprises in
Florida and with the equally wide range in the social and economic struc-
ture of Florida farm families, 4-H Club work offers one of the few areas
of Extension work in which every staff member takes part. Working with
the 33,000 4-H Club boys and girls in Florida is an important part of the
program of every staff member from the Director to the newest assistant
agent.
The result has been-in addition to a strong 4-H Club program-the in-
troduction of new ideas, improved varieties and more proven practices into
the agricultural economy of the State.
Conservation of Resources.---The conservation of resources continues to
occupy an important place in the Extension program. Major fields of ac-
tivity include:







Annual Report, 1954


1. Conservation of soils as a part of good farm management has been
stressed. Extension activities have included, where applicable, demonstra-
tions in the use of green manure crops, winter feed crops and land ter-
racing.
2. Planting and protecting farm forests has occupied an important place
in Extension programs. Activities include 4-H timber-grazing-game dem-
onstration forests, distribution of slash pine seedlings, together with demon-
stration of planting techniques, red cedar demonstrations, and catalpa fence
post production.
3. Wildlife management and protection as an Extension activity includes:
timber-grazing-game demonstrations, 4-H wildlife projects, the wood duck
nesting project, restocking lakes with fish at 4-H camps, and the annual 4-H
wildlife camp.
4. Food conservation demonstrations-teaching conservation as an aid to
the family budget and teaching better storage for foods-are among the
Extension projects in this important field.
Health and Housing Education.-Extension workers in Florida, in both
4-H and adult work, call frequently upon specialists for assistance in rural
health and housing education. Among those workers who devote an im-
portant portion of their time to this phase of Extension work are: Home
Improvement Specialist, Assistant Health Education Specialist, Agricultural
Engineer, Rural Electrification Specialist and Assistant Vegetable Crop Spe-
cialist.
Marketing.-The staff of Extension specialists working on marketing edu-
cation was strengthened by adding a Vegetable Marketing Specialist. In-
creased interest in vegetable marketing agreements has called for added
emphasis in this field. Extension has led the way in this area. Extension
marketing specialists continue their work in various phases of marketing.
This includes merchandising vegetables, work with farmer cooperatives and
others engaged in marketing activities, and with farm families in the mar-
keting of home produce and handicraft articles.
Extension Training for Foreign Visitors.-The College of Agriculture
has continued its active foreign visitor training program. The Agricultural
Extension Service has provided training and opportunities for observation
and study of Extension methods for all who are interested. During the year
the Extension Service assumed direct responsibilities for 49 visitors from
16 different foreign countries. Most of these visits were of short duration-
less than one month. Only four of the 49 visited Florida for one month or
longer; eight were in Florida less than one week.
Sponsoring agencies include Foreign Operations Administration, United
Nations and International Farm Youth Exchange.
Some of the details of work carried out during the year are summarized
in the statistical and subject matter sections of this report.

STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN

Data from White and Negro County and Home Demonstration
Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Farm or home visits made ..--........----.... ........ .............--.................... 83,529
Calls relating to Extension work: ................ office 227,923; telephone 252,395
News articles or stories prepared ...................-... ......................... 12,491








Florida Cooperative Extension


Broadcasts made or prepared: ............................ television 195; radio 3,448
Bulletins distributed ...............................----..........-....... ............... 423,440
Adult result demonstrations conducted ----..............-........- ................ 3,252
Training meetings held for local leaders:
Number .................-------......--- -.........--...... 1,379
Total attendance ........................................ ...................... 23,648

All other meetings agents held or participated in:
N um ber ..................... -- ----..................... ........ ......... 25,849
Total attendance ........................................................... 829,621

Meetings held or conducted by local leaders:
Number ..... -----............................ -............... ............... 4,479
Total attendance .............. ---... -- -- ----------..................... 78,242

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Total number of different voluntary leaders assisting Extension agents
with organization, planning and conducting of Extension work in counties:
M en ....... ---...............--................... .. ................ ........ 2,533
W omen ..................... ----------------..... .......... 4,720
Older club boys ..................-- -- -----............--..........--.. 112
Older club girls .....- -----................---. ---.-....--.......-- .... 494
Individuals assisted to adopt recommended production and marketing
practices in subject matter fields:


Crop Production
Individuals assisted with:
Grain crops .......................... 16,318
Hay and other forage,
pasture, range .................. 18,211
Cotton and other fibre
crops .................................. 5,918
Tobacco ................................ 7,795
Oil and sugar crops ............ 6,034
Fruits and nuts .................. 30,786
Vegetables including
potatoes .......................... 43,456
Flowers, ornamental
shrubs ................................ 55,807
Conservation of Natural
Resources
Individuals assisted with:
Soil and water conserva-
tion and management.... 17,009
Forestry ................................ 6,191
W wildlife .................................. 2,501
Livestock
Individuals assisted with:
Dairy animals and
products ........................ 11,344


Poultry and products ........
Beef cattle ............................
Sheep and goats ...............
Swine ........... .........
Other livestock ....................


17,008
18,708
296
14,942
1,749


Planning and Management
of the Farm Business
Individuals assisted with ...... 17,793
Farm Buildings and
Mechanical Equipment
Individuals assisted with:
Farm buildings ..........--... 3,332
Farm mechanical equip-
m ent .................................... 5,360
The House and Surroundings,
Furnishings and Equipment
Individuals or families assisted with:
The house and surround-
ings .................................... 27,534
Furnishings and equipment 19,954
Foods and Nutrition, Health,
Family Life and Safety
Families assisted with:
Foods and nutrition ............ 33,144







Annual Report, 1954


Health .................................... 19,391
Family life ............................ 13,833
Safety ...................................- 17,938
Home Management, Family
Economics and Clothing


Individuals assisted with:
Home management ............


15,869


Family economics ................ 8,143
Clothing .....................-.......... 25,955
Marketing and Distribution
Individuals assisted with:
Consumer information on
agricultural products .... 27,658


ASSISTANCE GIVEN TO FORMALLY ORGANIZED COOPERATIVES
AND TO INFORMALLY ORGANIZED GROUPS


Formally organized groups assisted
with:
Marketing and purchasing:
Number ........-....-................ 107
Members ............................ 12,281
Farm and home service:
Number ............................ 70
M embers ....................-....... 17,482


Informally organized groups assisted
with:
Marketing and purchasing:
Number ..-....................... 79
M embers .......................... 4,398
Farm and home service:
N um ber .............................. 67
M embers ............................ 5,330


PERSONS PARTICIPATING IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND
PUBLIC AFFAIRS PROJECTS, PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES ON
WHICH AGENTS WORK
Citizenship activities .....................---------........................----- ..........-..... .... ---15,548
Developing and improving county or community organization ............ 26,720


Local projects of a general public nature
General community prob-
lem s .................................... 9,211
Improving health facilities 8,379
Improving schools ............ -- 3,816
Improving churches ............ 4,867
Bettering town-country
relations ............................ 18,646


Libraries ................................ 2,363
Roads ......................----........ -1,458
Telephones .................-.......... 2,778
Community centers ........... 4,521
Recreation programs and
facilities ............................ 20,076
Community beautification .. 10,735


Regional or area development programs ......... ....... ---..... ............... 6,863
National programs ..-........-.....-.........-- ......--- ---... ...-- ....- ..-- 9,257
W world affairs ............... .................................. ................ 3,118
Emergency activities ..............~.................--....... ----4,323

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB WORK
Number of 4-H Clubs ----.--............................................ 1,406
Number of 4-H members enrolled in and completing projects:
Enrolled: Boys- 14,140; girls- 18,949; total ............................. 33,089
Completing: Boys-10,481; girls-12,712; total ............................. 23,193
4-H membership:
Boys: Farm-8,602; rural non-farm-3,282; urban ..................... 2,256
Girls: Farm-7,685; rural non-farm-6,109; urban .......-.............. 5,155


4-H projects completed:
Corn ....................................- .. 1,220
Other cereals .........----.............. 53
Peanuts ................................-. 377


Soybeans and other
legumes ..... ........
Potatoes, Irish and sweet..








14 Florida (

Cotton ................. ...............
Tobacco ..................................
Vegetables ........................
Fruits ...........................-----
Range and pasture ............
Other crops ........................
Soil and water conservation
and management ............
Forestry ...............................
Wildlife and nature study
Poultry ..................................
Dairy cattle .........................
Beef cattle ...........................
Swine ....---........... --...........---
Sheep ......................................
Rabbits ................................
Other livestock ....................
Bees .........................--.........-
Entomology ..........................
Tractor maintenance ..........
Electricity ...........................


Cooperative Extension


220
89
5,080
589
379
131

160
430
158
2,804
1,191
1,177
1,336
27
639
126
203
96
357
715


Farm shop ............................
Other engineering
projects ..............................
Farm management ..............
Beautification of home
grounds ...........................
Meal planning and prepa-
ration ..........................
Canning and preserving ..
Freezing of foods ................
Health, nursing, first aid ..
Child care ...........................
Clothing .....................-..........
Home management ............
Home furnishings and
room improvement ..........
Home industries, arts,
crafts ..........................
Junior leadership ................
All other ...............................
Total Projects Completed


SUMMARY OF EXTENSION

Farm families making changes in agricultural practices ....................
Rural non-farm families making changes in agricultural practices ..
Urban families making changes in agricultural practices ....................
Farm families making changes in homemaking practices ..................
Rural non-farm families making changes in homemaking practices ..
Urban families making changes in homemaking practices .................
Total different farm families assisted by Extension programs ............
Total different rural non-farm families assisted by Extension pro-
gram s ....................................................................... ....... ........................
Total different urban families assisted by Extension programs ............


40

10
59

2,711

6,237
1,442
435
2,438
1,529
7,336
1,174

2,499

1,248
896
1,507
47,733



36,274
20,747
68,121
18,895
19,653
52,262
40,948

32,645
91,534


SUPERVISION OF COUNTY AGENTS

H. G. Clayton, Director
W. J. Platt, Jr., District Agent
K. S. McMullen, District Agent
F. S. Perry, District Agent

A major responsibility of the district agents is the recruiting of new
agents. They clear the new appointments with the Director of Extension
and with local boards of county commissioners. They also work with the
boards on budgets and county programs.
Two county agent positions became vacant because of deaths. J. A.
Sorenson, county agent of Bay County, died on July 19, 1954. On November
1, 1954, Ambrose E. Nesmith, county agent of Hamilton County, was killed
in an automobile accident.
June R. Gunn, county agent in Osceola County for over 30 years, retired
on April 30, 1954. Three county agents and two assistant county agents
resigned to do other work.







Annual Report, 1954


During the year one new county, Flagler, asked for a county agent,
bringing the total number of counties with an agent to 66.
Four associate county agent positions were created so that personnel
could be added to devote full time to Farm and Home Development work.
Six new assistant county agent positions were added, with funds being
provided by local boards of county commissioners and from additional
federal appropriations.
The positions were filled insofar as possible by promotions within the
service. In some instances a single vacancy might result in several transfers
as agents were promoted to more responsible positions.
One county agent was transferred from one county to another as a
promotion. Another county agent transferred to an associate agent posi-
tion. Seven assistant county agents were promoted to county agents and
one assistant was promoted to associate county agent. An assistant county
agent in Alabama came to Florida to accept an associate county agent
position.
One assistant county agent was promoted to a position on the state staff
as Assistant in Poultry Husbandry. During the year 19 new assistant county
agents were added to fill new positions and vacancies.
District agents worked closely with all new appointees, as well as old,
in a program of in-service training. They helped the agents with program
planning and in carrying out county and community programs. They also
helped with such county and district events as tours, field days, fairs, 4-H
Club achievement days, institutes, and seminars. Specialist activities of
a county or district nature were coordinated by the district agents.
The district agents also were assigned other responsibilities at the state
level, such as serving on committees for planning short courses, summer
schools, the preparation of the county agent handbooks, and the annual
conference programs.



AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

H. G. Hamilton, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

C. M. Hampson, Economist in Farm Management
Clyde E. Murphree, Assistant Economist

Farm and Home Planning.-The farm and home planning project that
had been conducted in six counties for 13 consecutive years with 65 families
the first year, increasing to about 270 families, was discontinued. It was
replaced by the new Farm and Home Development program under different
leadership.
The leader of the farm and home planning project was chairman of a
committee of agricultural economists composed of representatives of the
Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural Extension Service and Col-
lege of Agriculture. The objectives of this committee were: to secure
and contribute much-needed data in easily available form; to assist in de-
veloping the Farm and Home Development program; and to develop both
undergraduate and graduate courses designed to give special training to
those who might aspire to employment or should be employed to assist
with the new program. The former leader also, on request, gave much







Florida Cooperative Extension


time advising with the two new leaders and assisting with training meet-
ings.
Two meetings with one group of low-income farmers were held in an
attempt to further develop methods of conducting farm and home planning
in small groups. The meetings proved that such planning is feasible and
much good was accomplished, as was evidenced in a late summer visit to
those who participated in the meetings. These meetings indicated clearly
that forms supplied to the farmers designed to assist them with making
decisions must vary with type and size of farm and with scholastic training
of the farmer. Homogeneity of each participating group in these three
areas is necessary for effective planning by the group method.
Teaching Extension Methods.-The Economist devoted one-half time to
teaching methods and techniques in extension. Two scheduled courses were
offered during one semester, a problems course was offered during every
term, and four scheduled courses were offered during the summer in a
special three-week summer school. Two of the summer courses were in
Extension methods and two were in production. One was designed especially
for home demonstration agents and the other for agricultural agents.
During the year, 35 students were enrolled in regular undergraduate
courses, 6 in problems courses, and 25 summer school. Of this number, 6
were members of the State Extension staff. The enrollment of women
in the summer school was reduced by about 60 percent because courses of
a competitive nature were initiated at Florida State University.
Economic Outlook.-The Assistant Economist, Marketing and Farm Man-
agement, did outlook work from December 1, 1953, until April 15, 1954.
After the latter date he began devoting almost full time to farm and home
development work. A part of this time was spent in evaluating the existing
outlook program and attempting to improve its usefulness to Florida agri-
culture.
Outlook information was distributed through county agents as printed
matter, to groups at the request of county personnel, and at three area
training meetings. In addition, releases of outlook information were made
through the editorial department which utilized the press and radio. Ma-
terial dealing with parity was prepared by the Assistant Economist and
presented to the county agents at the area training meetings and to several
county groups at the request of county personnel. In view of the impor-
tance of supports on the price of several Florida commodities, this was con-
sidered a part of the outlook for agriculture.

FARM AND HOME DEVELOPMENT

Clyde E. Murphree, Assistant Economist

The Assistant Economist in Marketing and Farm Management was des-
ignated project leader for Farm and Home Development on April 15, 1954.
During the period June 10, 1954, through July 3, 1954, he attended a three-
week summer school course in Farm and Home Development at the Uni-
versity of Arkansas.
The objectives of Farm and Home Development are to help farm fami-
lies recognize and think through their problems and opportunities; plan
a sound system of farming and homemaking; put their plans into action;
and adjust these plans wisely as the situation demands. Each member of
the family plays a part in this approach. Four-H Club members receive
valuable experience in learning how the family develop its plan, and both







Annual Report, 1954


4-H and older youth can carry projects that fit into and assist in carry-
ing out family plans.
This method also involves each Extension worker. Extension personnel
in the county make up the team that works directly with the family. The
subject-matter specialists and administrative personnel remain in the back-
ground and direct their efforts toward supplying the team with the neces-
sary information and supervision to work with farm families.
Early in July the basic policies for Farm and Home Development were
enunciated. Some of these policies are:
1. Farm and Home Development will be carried on in only a few selected
pilot counties the first year.
2. The counties to be selected at the outset would be in the general
farming area of northern Florida.
3. Two counties would constitute a unit for a Farm and Home Develop-
ment program. Five units of two counties each were planned.
4. Counties would be selected on the basis of their willingness to provide
funds for travel expenses of associate county agents. The associate agents
would devote full time to Farm and Home Development work.
5. The Farm and Home Development program would include both the
farm and the home.
6. The families to be selected were to be:
Full-time farmers, having control of the land and having lived on the
farm for at least two years.
Grouped in a county to some extent to facilitate travel.
Not under a similar type program with other agencies.
Representative of all income levels.
A county advisory committee for Farm and Home Development was
created in each county starting the new work. From a list of families pro-
vided by the county Extension personnel, the Director of Extension appointed
a committee of five to make the final decision on the families to participate.
An Extension advisory committee was created, composed of personnel
representing administrative, supervisory and subject-matter specialist posi-
tions in both men's and women's work. The Assistant Director was desig-
nated chairman and provisions were made for an executive sub-committee.
Training for the associate agents and the regular Extension personnel
was organized.
As of November 30, 1954, a Farm and Home Development program is
operating in Hamilton, Columbia, Leon, Jefferson, Holmes and Washington
counties. Also, we have personnel with training believed to be adequate
to do Farm and Home Development work in Franklin County.
In Hamilton, Columbia, Leon and Jefferson counties the county person-
nel and an associate agent have been actively engaged in Farm and Home
Development since October 11. Approximately 15 white families and two
negro families have been selected for intensive farm and home planning
in each of the six counties.

MARKETING
E. W. Cake, Extension Economist in Marketing

Assistance to New Cooperatives.-During the year producer groups were
assisted to organize and begin operations in four new egg marketing co-
operatives, a grass sod organization and a honey packers' association. Work
was done also with other groups who may eventually organize, and one
cooperative was assisted to reorganize.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Work with Other Commodity Marketing Groups.-Honey producers were
assisted with marketing problems at Wewahitchka and Umatilla. Most of
the honey in the Wewahitchka area was marketed under a new state honey
certification law operating in 1954 for the first time. The Specialist assisted
in preparing this law. Directors of three other recently organized egg
marketing cooperatives were assisted in the solution of marketing problems.
Two meetings each were held with market advisory committees at five
different farmers' markets and suggestions were given which were used to
improve conditions at those markets. Another group was assisted in ob-
taining a federal marketing agreement on avocados.
4-H Cooperative Activity Contest.-This was the second year of the con-
test. Participation by clubs was better than the previous year and the
reports submitted indicated better projects and more work by clubs. The
contest is designed to give 4-H Club members some elementary farm busi-
ness training, including marketing, with emphasis on cooperative market-
ing. The Specialist prepares all necessary material for the contest and
assists county agents in carrying on the activities of the contest.
Work with Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives.-As Executive Sec-
retary of the Council, the Specialist arranged for a Future Farmers of
America Cooperative Activity Contest, in addition to the 4-H cooperative
contest. Materials issued and methods of carrying on the two contests were
similar. Participation by FFA chapters was better than in the previous two
years.
Other work with the Council included major responsibility for holding
five district meetings during September for county agents, vocational agri-
culture teachers and farm organization leaders to discuss problems of farmer
cooperatives. The Specialist attended two national meetings, lasting about
a week each, as a representative of the Florida Council and the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service. At one of these he accompanied the win-
ning FFA chapter and 4-H Club representatives, chosen in the two contests
mentioned above.
Assistance to Other Extension Personnel.-Other Extension personnel
were assisted in putting on various institutes, schools, a 4-H short course
and summer 4-H camps held throughout the state. Talks on marketing and
outlook were given at these events. The Specialist prepared a newsletter
to go to county agents at irregular intervals.



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND FARM
ELECTRIFICATION

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Thomas C. Skinner, Agricultural Engineer
The Extension agricultural engineering program emphasizes farm build-
ings, farm housing, farm machinery, supplemental irrigation and farm
drainage. County and home demonstration agents reported assisting
101,542 individual farm persons in various phases of the engineering pro-
gram during the year. Of this number, 56,170 farmers and farm families
were assisted to adopt recommended practices.
Farm Structures.-The Engineering Specialist, assisted by three part-
time student draftsmen, conducted a three-phase farm structures program






Annual Report, 1954


which included farm service buildings, farm housing and the Florida Farm
Buildings Plan Service. According to the agents' annual reports, this pro-
gram reached 50,920 farmers and farm families.
During the year, 3,600 plans were distributed through the Florida Farm
Building Plan Service. Two radio-talks and six new articles were prepared
dealing with farm structures. The specialist met with nine groups who
were interested in various phases of farm structures.
A total of 28 plans, with an estimated value of $277,650, were prepared
by the engineering staff in 1954. The Agricultural Engineer assisted with
the supervision of repairs totaling approximately $30,000.00. These repairs
were to the various 4-H Club camps. Supervision was given also to the
construction of three cabins, one latrine, a machinery storage building and
a cook's quarters at the new 4-H Club camp in Highlands County.
Six farm structure displays were prepared for county fairs and other
events in the state.
Farm Machinery.-Each year farmers add more and more mechanical
equipment to reduce labor cost, to increase production and to reduce drudg-
ery. This is often associated with farm work. In connection with this,
agents assisted 5,360 farms during 1954 with farm machinery and equip-
ment problems.
There were 381 4-H boys in 37 counties enrolled in tractor maintenance
projects. These 4-H boys conducted numerous demonstrations at fairs and
farmer meetings.
Farm machinery and equipment dealers and distributors were encouraged
and assisted to display and demonstrate their equipment at farmer meetings
and fairs.
During the year the specialist aided in the promotion of two farm ma-
chinery shows-one was the first annual Central Florida Farm Machinery
and Equipment Show held at Eustis on January 22 and 23, 1954, and the
other was the first annual Farm and Home Equipment Roundup held at
4-H Camp Cherry Lake, August 24-26, 1954.
Irrigation.-During 1954 interest in irrigation reached an all-time high,
particularly in the drouth areas of the northern and western parts of the
state. The Agricultural Engineer and the Farm Electrification Specialist
gave individual assistance to farmers and agents in 16 counties. They
discussed irrigation with farmers at three county farm bureau meetings
and conducted two irrigation clinics for farmers. Information on irriga-
tion was presented at three area training meetings for county agents. The
Farm Electrification Specialist conducted a county tobacco survey to de-

Fig. 1.-The first annual farm machinery and equipment show at Eustis
attracted large crowds.






Florida Cooperative Extension


termine the increase in value due to quality and quantity of tobacco through
the use of irrigation.
In addition, three area training clinics were held for county agents.
Farm Drainage.-Assistance in farm drainage was limited primarily to
personal service work.

FARM ELECTRIFICATION
A. M. Pettis, Assistant Agricultural Engineer and
Farm Electrification Specialist
The farm electrification program was designed to promote the economi-
cal use of electricity on the farm and to assist Florida's rural people with
the safe, proper use of electricity. Work in the field of irrigation was in
cooperation with the Extension Agricultural Engineer.
Farm Equipment.-An electric chick brooding program was promoted in
cooperation with the Poultry Department. The Specialist also promoted
electric pumps for irrigation, electric water systems, electric pig brooders,
electric fences, electric hotbeds and various applications of electric motors.
Exhibits and demonstrations at county fairs, electric co-op meetings,
livestock shows and the Farm and Home Equipment Roundup helped to
stimulate interest in farm uses of electricity.
Proper Wiring.-It has been estimated that only one house in 50 is
properly wired for the many electrical aids used. Overloaded wiring causes
voltage drop and this results in poor performance from appliances. To dem-


Fig. 2.-Winners in the 4-H girls' lamp contest. Inez Hare (left) was first
in the 4-H electric program and won a trip to the National Club Congress.







Annual Report, 1954


onstrate the effects of voltage drop, and the use of fuses and circuit-
breakers, a wiring panel was constructed and used at various educational
meetings.
Lighting.-A model table lamp was used to give demonstrations and talks
concerning proper lighting to rural people throughout Florida. The Spe-
cialist planned and conducted good reading lamp contests at the 4-H boys'
short course and at the 4-H girls' short course. Contestants from 35 counties
entered lamps in these contests. Electrical appliances were awarded to the
winners.
At the State Home Demonstration Council meeting, the Specialist taught
home demonstration agents and rural women the principles of outdoor and
garden lighting.
Home Equipment.-Instruction concerning home electrical equipment,
including its selection, care and operation, was in cooperation with the
Extension Home Improvement Specialist. Training meetings were held
for rural women leaders on home electrical equipment. Publications pre-
pared by the Specialist and USDA publications were used to further the
home equipment phase of the electrification program.
4-H Electric Program.-The Specialist spent a good part of his time this
year on the 4-H electric program. Circular 126, "Electric Demonstrations
Made Easy," was prepared to help 4-H members taking electric projects.
The leaflet, "4-H Farm and Home Electric Program in Florida," prepared
by the Specialist, helped county Extension workers and 4-H leaders by
providing a handy reference guide.
The Specialist taught more than 700 4-H members at two 4-H camps,
4-H girls' short course, honey-electric-insect training school, negro wildlife
camp and the negro 4-H short course. Gold medals for outstanding work
were awarded to 56 4-H members. Five major awards were presented to
state winners:

Winner County Award
Inez Hare ........--........-......... Alachua Free trip to Chicago
Gene LaRoe ........................ Lake Radio-record player
David Manley .................... Polk Radio
Gertrude Neuhoffer ............ Pasco Iron
Broward Brogdon .............. Gulf Lamp

The 1954 winner of the county plaque was Gadsden County.
Summary of 4-H Club Farm and Home Electric Projects, 1954.

Members Enrolled Members Completing
W hite ......................... ................... 881 558
N egro ................. ..... ...... --......... 206 157

Total ........................... ..--..-- ..-- 1,087 715

Power Supplier Cooperation.-On July 1, 1954, 48,555 Florida farms, or
85.3 percent of the farms in the state, were receiving service from 15 rural
electric cooperatives (REA), five power companies, and several municipali-
ties with rural lines. The Specialist cooperated with power suppliers to
increase the effectiveness of the electrification program. Members of 4-H
Clubs gave demonstrations at electric co-op annual meetings. At the annual
meeting of the largest electric co-op in Florida the Extension Director pre-
sented the county plaque in the 4-H Electric Program for 1953 to Clay
County Extension workers.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Rural Telephones.-Advice, assistance and cooperation were given farm
leaders representing rural people who wanted telephone service. Close co-
operation was maintained with the Rural Electrification Administration,
which lends money to increase and improve rural telephone service.
Additional Help.-The Specialist gave a total of 96 talks and demon-
strations to more than 6,500 persons, including white and negro adult rural
people, Extension agents, other farm leaders and 4-H boys and girls. More
than 30 items for exhibits and demonstrations were loaned to 26 county Ex-
tension workers in 23 counties.
County Extension workers' records show that they have assisted farm
people with electrification and irrigation problems in 1954 as follows:
Problem White Negro Total
Elect. for income purposes ....... ............................ 965 103 1,068
Planning electrical systems .................................... 1,224 110 1,334
Irrigation ......... ............. .. ......... .. ......... 1,621 70 1,691
House furnishings (days devoted to) .................... 2,599 557 3,156
Electric Chick Brooders.-An example of Extension work in the electri-
fication field was the promotion of electric chick brooding. Through coopera-
ation with electric power suppliers, 120 infra-red chick brooders were given
to county Extension workers in 24 counties. The county agents and home
demonstration agents loaned the brooders to 4-H members on a rotational
basis. More than 11,000 chicks were brooded by more than 100 4-H mem-
bers using this equipment.
To stimulate interest in this program a poultry-electric contest with cash
awards was held at 4-H Boys' Short Course. Winners, in order, were David
Manley, Polk County; Gerald Norman, Bradford; Kenneth Stafford, Union;
Jim Aitken, Orange; and Edward Wooten, Walton County.


AGRONOMY

J. R. Henderson, Agronomist
A. C. Mixon, Assistant Agronomist

The Extension agronomy work during the year included assembling,
summarizing, interpreting and bringing to the attention of county agents,
industry groups and others information on soil and crop management prac-
tices. This information was designed to help farmers in maintaining or im-
proving soil fertility and increasing yields and improving the quality of
their field crops and pastures.
Major specific activities included: (1) assembling data and other infor-
mation for the revision of published field crop production guides and the
preparation of other guides, (2) preparation of the soils and field crops
section of a handbook for county agents, (3) meetings with industry groups
to discuss mutual problems and to better acquaint them with research
results and extension recommendations on the production and management
of field crops and pastures, (4) conferences with county agents in state-
wide and area groups to give them subject-matter information and discuss
extension methods, (5) handling the distribution of foundation seed of
superior varieties of field crops, and (6) assisting county agents in the de-
velopment and execution of county programs of work.
Field Crop Production Guides.-Research data were assembled and sum-
marized for future use in the revision of the production guides for corn,








Annual Report, 1954


cotton, peanuts and flue-cured tobacco and in the preparation of guides for
soybeans, small grains, cover crops and pastures.
Work with Industry Groups.-The Agronomists assisted other specialists
and officers of the Florida Seedsmen's Association in planning and conduct-
ing the annual statewide short course for seedsmen. In addition, the
Agronomist discussed field crop fertilizer recommendations and gave a
report on field crop variety research at the annual meeting of the Florida
Seedsmen's Association.
Four area conferences and a statewide meeting were held for the pur-
pose of reaching agreement on the ratios, grades and amounts of fertilizer
to be recommended for use on the various field crops and pastures on the
several general kinds of soil found in Florida. Following these meetings
the recommendations agreed upon were mimeographed and copies were sent
to participants and released to county agents, fertilizer dealers and other in-
terested persons.
Through the cooperation of officers of the Polk County Cattlemen's Asso-
ciation and the Extension Service, a 14-lecture cattlemen's school, for which
approximately 175 cattlemen registered, was held at Bartow. The Agronom-
ist assisted in planning the program and gave a lecture on soil characteristics
in relation to pasture development.
The Agronomist served as a member of the Florida Dairy Pasture Con-
test Committee and gave talks on pasture management at each of three
annual events: the meeting of the Forida Dairy Association, the Dairy
Field Day, and the Herdsmen's Short Course.
At the end of year plans had been completed for holding three meetings
for dealers in seed, fertilizer and pesticides for the purpose of better ac-
quainting them with research results and Extension recommendations for
production of field crops and pastures.
Distribution of Foundation Seed of Field Crops.-The project leaders so-
licited applications and distributed, through the county agents' offices, Sta-
tion-produced foundation seed of Florispan and Dixie Runner peanuts;
Floriland, Sunland and Seminole oats; and Jackson soybeans. Two new
growers were assisted in obtaining foundation seed of Dixie 18 corn.
Demonstrations.-The Assistant Agronomist carried out eight demonstra-
tions on chemical control of weeds in peanuts and 11 demonstrations on
chemical control of suckers in flue-cured tobacco, scattered throughout the
areas in which these crops are most important. He also obtained and fur-
nished county agents chemicals for additional demonstrations with each
crop.
Outlines for method demonstrations, to be conducted by 4-H Club mem-
bers, were prepared on the following topics: (1) taking a soil sample, (2)
paper towel method of testing seed, (3) chemical treatment of seed, (4) in-
oculation of legumes, (5) fumigation of tobacco plantbeds for control of
weeds and nematodes, and (6) estimating corn yields.
Cooperation with Others.-The leaders of the Agronomy project worked
closely with the district agents in planning meetings, conferences and tours
and in other ways. Mutual exchange of information on progress of county
programs in agronomy was carried on throughout the year.
Working relationships with research personnel were excellent. Experi-
ment Station workers gave freely of their time, appearing as speakers on
subject matter programs and going over their work with the project leaders.
Each branch station at which agronomy research projects are carried was
visited at least once during the year for observation of the work in progress.
Three branch stations held field days for farmers. Production problems for
which solutions are needed were brought to the attention of station workers







Florida Cooperative Extension


and assistance was given in planning new research projects in both soils and
field crops.
The Agronomists, in cooperation with the soil testing division of the
Department of Soils and the county agents, helped to plan and supervise
60 test-demonstrations on fertilization of corn, peanuts and flue-cured to-
bacco in 18 counties, for the purpose of developing a sounder basis for the
interpretation of soil-test results.
Assistance was given the State Department of Agriculture in carrying
out its program of seed certification and the correlators of the Soil Con-
servation Service in setting up legends for the mapping of Florida soils.
Most of the state-wide activities which have been described were designed
to assist county agents, either directly or indirectly, in carrying out their
programs of work. Many county problems were handled by correspondence,
but on-the-spot assistance was given with certain activities, such as local
meetings, tours and demonstrations. The project leaders assisted with 35
county events, at which subject-matter information was presented and dis-
cussed.
Activities and Results.-Reports from county workers show that they
spent a total of 7,825 days on crop production. A breakdown of this activity,
showing the numbers of farmers assisted with various phases of field crop
production, is given below:

Number of Farmers Assisted by County Workers with Various Field Crop
Production Problems:
Cotton
Hay and
and Other Oil and
Grain Forage Fiber To- Sugar
Problem Crops Crops Crops bacco Crops
Use of improved
varieties and strains 7,175 8,617 2,607 1,786 2,808
Use of fertilizer ............ 9,642 10,459 3,308 4,746 3,195
Control of injurious
insects .......................... 4,989 4,448 3,380 5,075 3,124
Control of diseases ........ 2,276 1,496 689 3,125 627
Harvesting, storing
and curing .................. 4,711 4,429 1,056 3,868 2,608

Yields per acre are considered to be good indicators of the effectiveness
of Extension programs in crop production. However, yields for a single
year are less reliable indicators than those for longer periods. Comparative
yields of the major field crops for the last two five-year periods were as
follows:

Average Yields of Principal Field Crops Grown in Florida for the Last
Two Five-Year Periods:
Yield per Acre % Increase During
Crops 1945-1949 1950-1954 Last 5-Year Period
Corn, bushels ................ 11.1 15.7 41
Cotton, pounds ............ 179.0 242.0 35
Peanuts, pounds ............ 665.0 850.0 28
Flue-cured tobacco
pounds ...................... 990.0 1,150.0 16
Oats, bushels ....--............ 18.6 26.2 41








Annual Report, 1954


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

J. E. Pace, Assistant Animal Industrialist

Florida continues to rank thirteenth in total numbers of beef cattle.
On January 1, 1954, Florida had 1,386,000 head of beef cattle. This repre-
sented an increase of 10,000 over the preceding year.
Swine on Florida farms as of January 1, 1954, totaled 504,000 head.
This represents a decrease of 5 percent from the preceding year. Florida
ranks twentieth among the states in both total number of pigs saved and
live weight production of hogs.
Beef Cattle.-Large numbers of Florida cattlemen abandoned the prac-
tice of marketing their cattle as slaughter calves during the year and are
now selling their cattle, especially steers, as yearlings. The increased
interest in using silage as a feed for beef cattle and the availability of
cheap citrus by-product feeds, such as citrus molasses, citrus pulp and
citrus meal, account to a great extent for this change in production.
Florida cattlemen still have one of the lowest calf crop percentages
in the United States. During this year the Assistant Animal Industrialist
stressed at every opportunity the importance of a well-planned winter
feeding program to cope with the problem. He also emphasized importance
of a well-planned breeding program. Increasing interest is shown by Flor-
ida cattlemen in providing adequate winter feed for their beef cattle herds,
as demonstrated by the fact that silo numbers jumped from 297 in 1953
to 443 in 1954.
As part of the year's program the Specialist worked very closely with
the various beef cattle breed associations throughout the state. The Here-
ford and Aberdeen Angus associations were assisted in promoting feeder
sales. Also, one county cattlemen's association was assisted in promoting
a feeder sale.
A 13-week cattlemen's school was held in Polk County and a successful
two-day cattlemen's Institute was held at the 4-H Camp at Lake Placid.
Various organizations contributed materially in making these schools a
success.
During the past year the Specialist talked to 14 county cattlemen's asso-
ciations and attended eight county tours which were devoted primarily to
beef cattle production.
Swine.-Special emphasis was placed on the use of pasture for swine
breeding herds. The importance of providing adequate energy and protein
feeds for swine breeding herds having access to pasture also was stressed.
Small litters and poor survival ability of new-born pigs continue to be a
major problem confronting the Florida swine industry.
There was considerable interest during 1954 in the production of feeder
pigs as the main swine enterprise on some farms. Farmers were encouraged
in this phase of swine production by county agents.
Two swine producer's field days were held during the year, one at
Quincy and the other at Fannin Springs. An all-breed purebred swine
sale was held in conjunction with the field day at Quincy.
The Specialist attended three farm tours in the general farming area.
Also, he made three talks before general farm groups.
Fairs and Shows.-The Specialist worked very closely with county agents,
breed associations and other agencies in the promotion of fairs and shows
throughout the state. He judged 15 livestock shows and assisted with the








Florida Cooperative Extension


management of many others. Two of these shows judged were out-of-state
and one was in South America.
4-H Club Activities.-The following table summarizes 4-H project ac-
tivities in animal husbandry for 1954.


Members
Project Enrolled
Beef cattle ........................ 1,607
Sheep ................................ 40
Swine ................................ 1,799
Other livestock ................ 217


Members
Completing
1,177
27
1,336
126


Units Involved in
Completed Projects
2,466
109
3,440
249


The Fifth Annual 4-H Barrow Show was held in Tallahassee during
the last week of October. This year's show was the best ever held from
the standpoints of both total number of entries and quality of swine shown.
Negro county agents were assisted in holding two successful 4-H swine
shows.
There was no central sale held in 1954 for 4-H steers entered in the
commercial steer project. However, this project is continuing to expand
and it is planned to have eventually every county in the state participate
in this project.
Five area livestock judging schools were conducted for 4-H boys.
The state champion 4-H livestock judging team participated in the na-
tional 4-H livestock judging contest held in Chicago on November 26, 1954.
The Florida team tied for twentieth place. The judging team's trip to
Chicago was sponsored by the Tampa Morning Tribune.
SUMMARY OF COUNTY AGENT ACTIVITIES IN ANIMAL
HUSBANDRY, 1954


Farmers assisted with employing proper
selection and breeding practices .......... 7,382
Farmers assisted with employing proper
feeding practices ...................................... 9,716
Farmers assisted with initiating correct
practices for controlling external
parasites .........................................---.. 8,646
Farmers assisted with initiating proper
disease and internal parasite control .. 7,462
Farmers assisted with employing more
efficient work methods ............................ 3,623


5,699

7,731


6,667

8,372

3,205


148


ecl


8Ol

583


155 589


155 542

161 492

77 237


APICULTURE

John D. Haynie, Extension Apiculturist
Indications are that Florida's 1954 honey crop will be slightly under
the previous year's crop of 18,088,000 pounds. Unusually dry weather
caused the decline. The drouth condition was spotty over the state, result-
ing in both low and high yields within a limited area. Colonies moved to
summer locations produced very little honey and in many instances had
to be fed.








Annual Report, 1954


Honey moved from the producers' hands to market sooner in 1954 than
in any other year. Producer-packers were looking for honey by midsum-
mer. The export subsidy program was terminated in August with over 30
million pounds of honey accepted for foreign markets. Beekeepers put
139,150 pounds of honey under loan agreement with the Stabilization and
Conservation Committee and most of this has been redeemed.
Beekeeping.-A beekeeping program in Florida involves more people
indirectly than directly. For an apiary to be productive, it must be in a
locality of good nectar-producing plants and within a mile and a half radius
of these plants. Most of the honey produced in Florida comes from natural,
wild plants-citrus being practically the only cultivated crop. Beekeepers
are, therefore, interested in conservation and the protection of vast areas
devoted to reserves and national forests. They realize that no crop is
planted solely for or by beekeepers for honey production.
The Apiculturist has promoted good relations with those in the many
fields of agriculture which beekeeping seems to cross. He assisted in
working out problems in both marketing and production of honey.
Florida Honey Week.-Florida beekeepers produce much more honey than
is being consumed in the state. To promote local retail sales, Acting Gover-
nor Johns proclaimed April 1-7, 1954, as "Florida Honey Week". The main


Fig. 3.-The Extension Apiculturist shows a group of agricultural workers
a frame of honey made from Floranna annual sweet clover.








Florida Cooperative Extension


purpose of this week was to help beekeepers increase their returns by pack-
ing out more of their crop, rather than shipping it out of the state in bulk
at wholesale prices. Florida beekeepers also cooperated with the National
Honey Institute held at Madison, Wisconsin, in October to advertise honey.
However, in 1954 the beekeepers felt they should use some of the facilities
close at hand for marketing their unique crops of honey.
During "Florida Honey Week" a chain store furnished exhibit space in
its windows and the Florida Honey Co-operative, Umatilla, set up the honey
exhibits. Other chain stores in Central Florida made special displays of
honey, using colored honey streamers.
Fairs and Exhibits.-The Apiculturist assisted with beekeeping exhibits
at six county, one district and one state fairs. The counties promoting
fairs were Putnam, Union, Nassau, Polk, Manatee and Lake. Beekeeping
exhibits were entered at the Central Florida Fair, Orlando, by Brevard,
Lake, Osceola and Seminole Counties.
Counties exhibiting apiary products at the State Fair, Tampa, were
Alachua, Hillsborough, Glades and Lake. In the small-lot class there were
nine exhibitors and in the one-dozen-jar class there were 13 entries. The
county beekeeping exhibits were operated by individual beekeepers.
Florida Honey Packers Association.-Florida producer-packers realized
the need for an organization to serve their specialized requirements in ad-
vertising and promoting better relationships between the producer and the
packer. A meeting was called in May at the Florida Honey Co-operative,
Umatilla, to organize a Honey Packers Association. Twenty-four beekeepers
and packers attended and 17 beekeepers in the honey packing business
signed up as members. The Extension Marketing Specialist assisted the
officers of the association in preparing their constitution and by-laws.
The Florida Honey Packers Association met for the first time in Decem-
ber and began work on marketing problems.
State Beekeepers Association.-The Florida State Beekeepers Associa-
tion held its annual meeting in Blountstown in 1953. The papers given at
this meeting and the 1952 meeting were published by the State Plant Board
of Florida.
4-H Apiary Awards.-Annually, the Kilgore Seed Company, Plant
City, awards $50.00 to the three 4-H Club apiary project winners. The
awards are made on the basis of the amount of work done with bees and the
amount of honey produced and marketed. In 1954 the winners were: David
Finley, Dinsmore, $25.00; Michael Williamson, Largo, $15.00; and Fred
Kost, Orlando, $10.00.
The cost per pound of honey was high in all three top projects but plans
for converting a Western apple box into a beehive are expected to lower
costs of 4-H projects in 1955. The converted Western apple box beehive
was demonstrated at eight 4-H meetings.
4-H Club Camp and District Apiaries.-The 4-H Club apiary at Camp
McQuarrie supplies all the honey used at all 4-H Club camps. This year
production was lower than in 1953 and only 1,700 pounds of honey were
produced from 13 colonies.
The Extension Apiculturist instructed 164 4-H Club boys at two different
camps. Instruction included assembling bee equipment, opening the colony,
examining the brood nest of bees, removing honey from the colony and
extracting honey from the comb.
The Extension Farm Electrification Specialist and some 4-H Club mem-
bers from Marion, Lake and Volusia counties assisted the Extension Api-
culturist in building an electric fence to keep bears out of the colonies at
Camp McQuarrie.







Annual Report, 1954


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK

W. W. Brown, State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Grant M. Godwin, Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Progress has been the "key word" with boys' 4-H Club work in Florida
during 1954. This has been demonstrated through increased 4-H participa-
tion in club meetings, more community activities, more productive projects
and more method and result demonstrations. Also, there has been more
participation in special 4-H Club events, such as the State Boys' 4-H Short
Course, summer camps, special statewide encampments and 4-H shows and
fairs.
The state being divided into 10 club districts has helped to improve 4-H
work. Meetings in these districts were attended by a very large percentage
of the county agents, which provided a way to develop 4-H programs based
on the joint planning of the administrative, specialist and county staffs.
Through this approach, programs more nearly met varying agricultural
needs and interests.
The quality of county participation in the state and national 4-H awards
programs increased over the preceding year. Numbers also were larger,
with 11,309 white 4-H Club boys enrolled during 1954, as compared with
9,876 in 1953. Four-H Club members satisfactorily completed 1.2 projects
per member.
4-H Camps.-There were 3,856 4-H Club boys and girls who attended
the five state 4-H Club camps in the summer of 1954. Members arrived
in camp on Monday and left on Saturday of each week. These state camps
are located at permanent sites in Okaloosa, Madison, Lake, Marion and High-
lands counties. This year, through a legislative appropriation, four of the
camps underwent partial to complete renovation. Construction on the newest
camp in Highlands County moved toward completion.
In addition to 4-H use, 3,350 adults attended institutes in farm machinery,
citrus, poultry and cattle at four of these state 4-H Camps.
Short Courses.-The 35th annual Boys' 4-H Short Course was held on
the campus of the University of Florida in June. This short course provided
outstanding 4-H Club boys from counties throughout the state with a
week of training and inspiration at their land-grant college.
The 1954 short course was attended by 355 4-H boys from 53 counties.
The boys were selected on the basis of their 4-H Club work. Two dele-
gates from each county attended the State 4-H Council meeting, which
convenes each year during short course. In addition to courses, four state-
wide special 4-H events were held in conjunction with this short course.
They were (1) the State Dairy Judging Contest, (2) State Tractor Oper-
ators' Contest, (3) State Public Speaking Contest and (4) State Reading
Lamp Building Contest. There were 125 Negro 4-H boys who attended
the annual Negro 4-H Short Course at Florida A & M University, Talla-
hassee, the first week in June.

SPECIAL STATEWIDE SCHOOLS
Livestock Judging.-The 4-H Club staff arranged a series of five area
livestock judging schools throughout the state for the purpose of provid-
ing timely instruction on basic and current livestock judging techniques.
Wildlife Camp.-The annual 4-H wildlife camp was held at Camp Mc-
Quarrie during the week of August 9-14. From 21 counties, 98 4-H Club







Florida Cooperative Extension


members, adult leaders and Extension agents attended. The purpose of
this camp was to create an appreciation on the part of our rural youth for
wildlife and its importance and to instill in them a strong desire for its
conservation and preservation. Those in attendance received organized
instruction in game, forest and fresh water fish management.
Tractor Maintenance.-For the past nine years special state clinics on
tractor maintenance have been held to provide training for older 4-H Club
members, interested adult leaders and county agents. These clinics provide
training in tractor maintenance and instruction in how to conduct 4-H
tractor maintenance programs in local 4-H clubs. This year two state 4-H
tractor maintenance clinics were held, one at Camp Timpoochee August
2-5 and one at the New Camp August 10-13. There were 55 junior and adult
4-H club leaders and Extension agents representing 22 counties who shared
in this instruction.
PROMOTIONAL TECHNIQUES
4-H Newsletter.-Each month the State 4-H staff prepares a 4-H news-
letter which goes to all county agents. This newsletter keeps agents abreast
of current 4-H Club activities throughout the state, provides timely tips on
4-H programs and project work, and recognizes agents and boys for out-
standing 4-H Club work.
4-H Activities and Projects.-The major 4-H Club activities and agricul-
tural projects in which 4-H members-both white and negro-received train-

Fig. 4.-Woodrow Tilton (second from left), Putnam County, was one of
six national winners in the 4-H meat animal program for 1954.



S ,

-z.'
!~~iKL


lfaI ,,
ftnl Ment An:. II







Annual Report, 1954


ing and experience under the direction of county Extention workers through-
out the state are summarized below:

4-H Activities Members Participating
Judging .......................... ................................................. 8,472
Giving demonstrations .........................----......... ......-........ 11,479
Group recreation leadership ........................... ................... 6,860
M usic appreciation ........................................ .................. 5,634
Money management (thrift) ................................................ 7,403
Farm and home safety ........................---...........-................ 13,301
Citizenship ............................................. ................... 13,752
Personality improvement -----------.....-............................. 11,760
W wildlife and nature study .................................. ................... 202
Forestry ......................--- ....................... .................. 4,402
Entom ology ............................................... .................... 198
Beautification of home grounds .................................. ..... 4,671
Health, nursing and first aid ..........................-.................. 7,415
Junior leadership ............. ........ .. ................. ... 1,060
Cam ping .........---........................ ............-----......-- 4,345

Members Participating
Community activities (improved school grounds, conducting
achievement programs and fairs) .................................... 1,188


4-H Projects
Corn .....................- ....... -- -.... ...............
P eanuts ....................... ... .. .......... ........................
Soybeans, field peas, alfalfa, and other legumes ........
Potatoes, Irish and sweet ...................................... ......
C otton ............................................ ..............
Tobacco .............. ...........--.........-
Vegetable growing ..................... ................
Fruits .............................. .......- ....................
Range and pasture ...................... ....................... ......
Other crops ........................... ................ .............. .......
Soil and water conservation and management ..............
F forestry ........................................ ........ ...................
Poultry (including turkeys) .... ......................... ...
Dairy cattle ............................ .................
B eef cattle ................................................................. ....
Sw ine .................................... ........... ..... ... .
Other livestock ......................... ............... ..............
B ees ............................ ...... ... ... .............
Tractor m maintenance .................................. ...................
Electricity ...... .................. ..................... ......................


Scope
2,263 acres
701 acres
268 acres
369 acres
305 acres
54 acres
2,442 acres
1,176 acres
1,890 acres
234 acres
2,968 acres
3,364 acres
164,344 birds
1,846 animals
2,466 animals
3,440 animals
5,447 animals
883 colonies
381 tractors
1,715 articles


4-H Awards Programs and Other Recognition.-During 1954 all records
submitted to the state 4-H Club office in statewide competition were sum-
marized, and a complete report was given to each county agent. The re-
ports were evaluated and returned to the agents as a stimulus to the awards
programs and to create more enthusiasm among 4-H Club members.
There were 30 state and national awards programs available for Florida
4-H members in 1954. These included free trips to the National 4-H Club
Camp and Congress, gold watches, cash awards, trophies, county medals
and scholarships. This year 10 champion 4-H boys, one of whom was a







Florida Cooperative Extension


national winner in the meat animal award program, attended the National
4-H Club Congress in Chicago.
The trip to the National 4-H Camp in Washington, D. C., is considered
the highest award for outstanding leadership and achievement in 4-H Club
work. Annually, two 4-H boys are given this trip, while the runner-up re-
ceives a trip to the Danforth Leadership Camp in Shelby, Michigan.
Our outstanding Negro 4-H boys are selected annually to represent
Florida at the Regional 4-H Camp for Negroes held at a different University
each year.
An outstanding 4-H Club boy from each county has been selected an-
nually to receive a certificate at the Florida State Fair on 4-H Club Day.
A dairy efficiency contest has been held to select the best dairy club boy
in each of the 10 4-H Club districts. District winners received cash awards,
and the top dairy project winner in the state received a large plaque. In
addition, the outstanding county in 4-H dairy project work was presented
a large plaque. Similar programs have been arranged in farm and home
electricity, farm and home safety, cooperative activity, and recreation and
rural arts.


CITRUS AND OTHER FRUITS
Fred P. Lawrence, Citriculturist
Jasper N. Joiner, Assistant Horticulturist

Florida now has 574,600 acres of citrus groves, including 70,900 acres of
young, non-bearing trees which are coming into production at the rate of
12,000 to 15,000 acres per year. Production soared to a new high of
138,300,000 boxes.
The Citriculturist is the only full-time citrus specialist on the Extension
staff. At the beginning of the year an assistant horticulturist was employed
to devote half of his time to citrus production. In addition, the Extension
Marketing Specialist and an Experiment Station economist do Extension
work in the field of citrus.
Training Program.-The Extension Citrus Advisory Committee, formed
in 1947, continued to operate, lending strength to the Extension citrus pro-
gram. Emphasis is placed on program planning and agent training in citrus
production methods. Eight subject matter training meetings for Extension
workers were held-two on citrus and six on citrus and other fruits.
The specialists conducted training courses for county agents at area
training conferences and during the annual County Agents' Conference.
Reports on the progress of current citrus research, in addition to basic
information on citrus culture, were given at these conferences.
The Assistant Horticulturist conducted five training schools for home
demonstration agents in the fields of home orchards and dooryard plantings.
He gave the agents technical training in methods of propagation and culture
and recommendations on the best varieties for home use.
Clinics.-Some 2,500 to 3,000 growers and home owners were advised on
individual problems at 12 citrus and ornamental horticulture clinics. At
these clinics exhibits of live plants, showing such problems as mineral de-
ficiencies, insect damage and diseases, were displayed.
Institutes.-One new institute was added to the four already being held
each year. This new Citrus and Subtropical Institute was held in the south-
central part of the state, which placed an institute within a 100-mile radius








Annual Report, 1954


of every grower in Florida. More than 1,800 growers attended these five
institutes, which varied in length from one day to a week.
Schools.-Two citrus schools were held to supplement the clinics and in-
stitutes. A short school-two hours on two consecutive nights-was tried
on an experimental basis. This was in contrast to the longer 16-week school
held in Tampa. One hundred growers attended the short school and 381
growers attended the 16-week school.
Demonstrations and Tours.-The Citriculturist and Assistant Horticul-
turist, through county agents, sponsored and conducted seven tours and
seven result demonstrations. The tours were conducted at research plots
at the USDA and state experiment stations. The demonstrations were de-
signed to show practical applications of research results.
Citrus 4-H Work.-The Specialists, assisted by the Citrus Advisory Com-
mittee, prepared and placed in the hands of county agents in citrus areas
an outline for a five-year citrus 4-H club project. This project is expected
to stimulate and strengthen 4-H work in the fields of citrus production and
management. To further strengthen the program, plans have been com-
pleted to plant a five-acre citrus grove at the new state 4-H Club Camp.
Four-H club boys, specializing in citrus, will attend a junior citrus institute
each summer at the new camp. Classes will be conducted in the grove with
4-H boys actually doing the work-learning scientific reasons for each recom-
mended operation.
AIBS Tour.-This year the American Institute of Biological Sciences
held its annual meeting on the University of Florida Campus. The Spe-
cialists assisted in organizing and conducting a three-day tour of the state's
horticultural areas for 70 members of the American Horticultural Society-a
member organization of AIBS.
Citrus Graduate Courses.-The Citriculturist, working with the Exten-
sion Services Professional Improvement Committee, the citrus professor,
the head of the horticulture department, and the dean of the College of
Agriculture, established four new courses in citrus production in the Grad-
uate School. These new courses will be open to county agents and voca-
tional agriculture teachers in the spring of 1956.
Other Activities.-The following tabulation shows the major activities
and accomplishments of the state Extension citrus program for 1954.

Activities Planned Accomplished
Meetings of citrus advisory committee ........................ 4 4
Meetings to train agents in subject matter ..........-- 2 3
Citrus institutes .................------............................... 4 4
Citrus and ornamental clinics ... --------.....................------.. 10 12
Newsletters to county agents ....................................... 10 3
Mimeographed releases .......................... ............... 5 5
Citrus schools ... ...................................... ................ 1 2
Formal lectures to growers ......................................... 5 8
Sub-tropical fruits institute ...........-.....--- ...-.............. 1 2
Farm machinery show ---....................- -.. .............. 0 1
Grape growers institute ........................-- ............. .... 0 1
Citrus production managers meetings ...--.................. 0 3
Visits to state experiment station ................................ 0 5
Visits to USDA Experiment Station .......................... 0 6
Visits to Sub-tropical Experiment Station .........-- .... 0 2
Industry meetings .....--.. ----.............. --- ................. .. 0 8







Florida Cooperative Extension


Preparing and conducting demonstrations ................ 15 7
Preparing and conducting tours ..............-............... 20 7
Servicing county offices with special data .................. 31 31
News articles ..............--......-.... --------------- 12 21
Radio talks and tape .. ..................... .. ........ ........... 25 23
Preparing, "Better Fruits Spray and Dust Program" 1 1


GROVE MANAGEMENT PROJECT

Zach Savage, Agricultural Economist, Experiment Station

The grove management project was started in 1931. The 1953-54 sea-
son was the 22nd year of continuous operation of this project. This year,
records were kept on 218 groves. Citrus production cost per acre on bear-
ing groves in 1952-53 was $170, which was slightly less than the $177
cost in 1951-52. Cost of production per box in 1951-52 was 50 cents on
mixed groves, when computed on yields of 355 boxes per acre-second
highest yield of these records. The 1950-51 yield was highest with 360
boxes recorded per acre.
In general, too many grove records contain only financial data, kept
chiefly for making income tax reports. These and other financial reports
are highly important. However, quantitative data are more important in
grove management than financial data only. The financial part of the record
should be incidental to the more important part.
Returns from Grove.-There are 544,000 acres of citrus in Florida-
474,200 acres of bearing and 69,800 acres of nonbearing groves. At $1,510
per acre for bearing and $500 for nonbearing, this represents an investment
of $750,942,000. This is a considerable investment on which very inadequate
accounts are kept for the most part. At the rate of income of the 195 groves
on which cost accounts were kept in 1951-52, 60 acres would be necessary
to net $3,600 above cash expenses. The average age of these groves was
29 years. A comparable value at this age might be $1,670 per acre, or
$100,200 for the 60 acres. Most other types of businesses with compar-
able investments maintain rather elaborate records that are very advan-
tageous in managing and operating such businesses.
More Efficient Production.-With the uncertainty of fruit prices and
the prospects of continued high costs for labor, power, equipment, fer-
tilizer, spray and dust, growers should study production practices care-
fully in order to increase grove efficiency and to hold down production costs
consistent with high yields, good fruit quality, maintaining the trees in good
condition, and prospective income from fruit.
Every grower should concern himself with the marketing of his fruit
to see that he obtains a better-than-average price. A better-than-average
on-tree price and a better-than-average yield are necessary for the most
profitable citrus production. For high yields each tree must be a producer.
Poor producers should be removed from the grove and replaced with the
best nursery stock available, the scions of which should be from a good
strain of proven productiveness and quality. Vacancies should never be
found in a grove.
Use of Nitrogen.-The records reveal considerable variation in the
pounds of nitrogen added per acre on groves during the five seasons,
1948-53. From 100 to 249 pounds were added on 76 percent of these groves.
The average for all groves was 147 pounds of nitrogen per acre, or 0.45








Annual Report, 1954


pound per box. Although these data to not indicate the pounds of nitrogen
added per acre at which a specific grove will reach its highest efficiency in
fruit production nor return maximum net returns per acre, they do show that
yields increased in these groups from the use of up to 350 pounds of nitrogen
per acre. The increase between groups decreased in the 300-349 pound
group to what it was between prior groups. Yields decreased progressively
with higher rates of nitrogen added above the 300-349 pound group.
Setting New Groves.-In setting new groves to citrus the best land avail-
able should be used. Good citrus land is worth several times as much as
poor or unsuitable land. Good land is a necessity in order to compete in
efficient citrus production. Some other important considerations are location,
kind and variety of citrus. Under present demand and production conditions
it appears that late oranges would be the best to set.
Irrigation.-Irrigation has not paid on the average grove of these records.
There were, however, individual groves that responded sufficiently to irriga-
tion for it to pay. At the same time, there were groves of this group that
would have made more money and the trees remained in good condition had
irrigation as practiced been ommited. Each grower who irrigates should
make a check in one or more groves to determine whether or not irrigation
pays on his grove.
Nursery Stock.-Fifty-four percent of the 1952-53 movement of orange
trees from nurseries to Florida destinations was late varieties. This was the
highest proportion of late varieties for the past 25 seasons. Late orange
varieties led in each of the past 15 seasons. Hillsborough County ranked
fourth in Florida in citrus nursery stock moved into the county in 1952-53.
Pasco ranked fifth, Pinellas 11th, Hernando 23rd, Lee 24th, Manatee 25th,
Sarasota 28th, and Citrus 34th. Manatee County was 13th in 1937-38 and
Sarasota 18th. Nursery stock into Citrus, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Sara-
sota counties decreased 32 percent from 1937-38 to 1952-53. Movement into
Hernando, Pasco, Pinellas and Lee increased 24 percent.
Production.-With average weather over the next few seasons, production
of oranges in Florida is expected to trend upward, largely because of new
plantings and increased bearing surface of older trees. Further increases
also can be expected in Texas as replanted groves come into bearing and
others continue to recover from freezes of 1949 and 1951. Production of
grapefruit is likewise expected to trend upward in Florida and Texas for
the same reasons. This means that Florida will continue as the leading pro-
ducer of both grapefruit and oranges and almost the only domestic producer
of tangerines and limes.
In 1953-54 Florida produced 79 percent of the world supply of grape-
fruit and 26 percent of the oranges and tangerines. In that season Florida
produced 33 percent of the world supply of these three kinds of citrus. Cash
receipts from oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines in Florida were 36 percent
of all cash receipts from farm marketing for the period of 1924-52. Oranges
and tangerines made up 26 percent of the receipts and grapefruit 10 per-
cent. Cash receipts in Florida from these three kinds of citrus in 1952-53
amounted to 33 percent of all cash receipts from farm marketing.
Orange and tangerine production in Florida doubled on an average with
the passing of each 10 seasons during this century. In 1909-10 Florida
produced 30 percent of the United States production; in 1945-46 for the first
time this state was producing as much as half of the country's oranges.
The highest proportion was produced in the current season of 1953-54 at
74 percent of the total oranges produced in the United States. The produc-
tion of Florida grapefruit doubled with the passing of each period of 10








Florida Cooperative Extension


years from 1904 to 1944. Production for the 10 years of 1944-54 was 50
percent higher than the previous 10 seasons.
Polk County produced 28 percent of the Florida crops of oranges, grape-
fruit and tangerines in 1951-52 and a slightly smaller proportion in 1948-49.
The top three producing counties were Polk, Orange and Lake. They pro-
duced 54 percent of the state production in 1951-52 and 50 percent in
1948-49. These same counties were also the top three counties in fresh
shipments in each of these seasons. They shipped 62 percent of the fresh
shipments in 1951-52 and 61 percent in 1948-49. The top seven counties
in production in 1951-52 were, also, the same top seven counties in 1948-49,
although not in the same order in each season. These counties were Polk,
Orange, Lake, Highlands, Hillsborough, Volusia and Pinellas. These seven
counties produced 70 percent of the state production in 1951-52 and 69 per-
cent in 1948-49.
Prices.-Prices have a job to do. When supplies are large prices go
down, consumption is increased, and the market supply is exhausted or
lessened. Likewise, when supplies are small, prices go up, the product is
used more sparingly, and the supply on hand is stretched until more is
available.
With the price held low, a low price quotation is meaningless when the
product is not available at the price quoted. Likewise, low prices do not
always assure adequate supplies, even if the need is extremely urgent.
The Associate Economist prepared publications, 20 different sheets of
data, 14 magazine articles and three form letters, and issued four forms
used in compilations representing 7,790 copies, or a total of 73,290 pages
of material based on these grove records.



DAIRY HUSBANDRY

C. W. Reaves, Dairy Husbandman
T. W. Sparks, Assistant Dairy Husbandman s

The Extension dairy husbandry program for 1954 included six phases:
(1) supervision of the dairy herd improvement association work and official
testing, (2) assistance in breeding programs for higher producing dairy
cows, (3) direction of a Florida dairy pasture and forage contest, (4) edu-
cational work on feeding and management and home milk supply, (5)
4-H Club dairy activities, and (6) cooperation with dairy groups and other
organizations.
Dairy Herd Improvement Association Work.-The DHIA program was
carried out through eight dairy herd improvement associations with nine test
supervisors testing herds in 25 counties. The number of cows on test reached
the high mark of 10,023 at the end of the year.
The DHIA records provide the members a guide for culling, feeding ac-
cording to the cows' needs, and for breeding up more profitable herds. These
results are demonstrated by an average increase of 453 pounds milk and
27 pounds butterfat per cow and a decrease of 45 cents in the feed cost
of producing 100 pounds milk for the 1953-54 year compared to the first
year's operations of the West Coast, Orange County, South Florida, and
Manasota Association herds.

3 Beginning January 1, 1954.







Annual Report, 1954


The DHIA herds serve as result demonstrations for other dairymen in
their areas. The improved practices in culling, improved feeding methods,
feed and pasture production and breeding carried out by the DHIA herds
were brought to the attention of other dairymen through reports of herd
records, farm tours and meetings. These herds also serve as sources of
breeding stock for other herds and help improve the general average of
Florida's dairy cow population.
Official Cow Testing.-The Extension Dairyman is state superintendent
of official cow testing. This production testing is carried out through the
purebred dairy cattle associations. Sixteen herds are on Advanced Registry
or Register of Merit test and 19 are on Herd Improvement Registry test.
Some high production records were made with herd averages up to 500
pounds butterfat per cow.
Breeding Program for Higher Producing Dairy Cows.-Fifty-eight bulls
were proved on production records of daughters made entirely or partly
in Florida DHIA herds. Reports of proved-sire lists, newsletters, news
stories, personal contacts and breed association programs and artificial

Fig. 5.-The 1954 Florida 4-H dairy judging team won top honors at the
International dairy judging contest in Chicago. Left to right, standing:
Perry Smith, St. Johns; Ernie Sellers, Leon; Beverly Simmons, St. Johns;
front: C. W. Reaves, Extension dairyman and coach; Howard Renner,
Pinellas.







Florida Cooperative Extension


breeding associations were utilized in teaching better breeding and prin-
ciples of inheritance as applied to high milk production. Assistance was
given by county Extension agents to 4,068 white persons and 429 negroes
in the selection or breeding of dairy cattle. This included 4-H members
and family cow owners as well as commercial dairymen.
The 14 artificial breeding associations and owners of three very large
private herds which purchased semen from the American Breeders' Service
bred 27,197 cows with semen from proved bulls during the year. These
and other breeding gave a total of approximately 29,000 dairy cows bred
artificially in the state during 1954.
Data on the production of the cows secured by artificial breeding in Flor-
ida is shown below:
Lbs. Lbs.
Milk Butterfat
Average of Florida artificially-sired cows with
records reported in DHIA ........................ ..................... 7,282 348
Average of all Florida DHIA cows ...................................... 6,415 288
Average of all Florida cows kept for milk .........-.............. 4,370 184

Feeding and Herd Management.-Feeding methods are being improved in
Florida dairy herds both from the standpoint of production of more feeds
and in feeding according to the individual cow's needs. Feeding analysis
charts were made on a number of DHIA demonstration herds to show the
level of feeding, costs and feed nutrients received from pasture. This study
has shown the variations of from 4 to 55 percent in total feed of dairy herds
supplied by pasture. The relationship of cost of production of milk to the
amount of feed supplied by pasture was demonstrated.
Efficient dairy production contest was carried out with county, district
and state winners being selected. This directed attention to improved feed-
ing and management methods. County agents' reports showed a total of
5,242 white persons and 658 negroes assisted with feeding problems of dairy
herds and family milk cows.
Culling was emphasized through DHIAs and by news articles on levels
of production for culling in Florida herds.
A Dairy Herdmen's Short Course and a Dairy Field Day were held at
the Experiment Station in the summer.
Pasture and Forage Production.-A Dairy Pasture and Forage Contest
was carried out with the sponsorship of the Florida Dairy Association.
Dairymen submitting reports that scored 75 percent or above on the score
card received Certificate of Recognition. County and state winners were
selected in (1) best dairy pasture and forage program, and (2) most im-
provement over the previous year in providing the pasture and forage needs
of the herd.
The reports submitted showed excellent advances in pasture and forage
production. The number of dairymen storing silage has doubled in two
years. They mostly use the horizontal type silos. Better pasture manage-
ment in regular fertilization, rotation grazing, clipping and more efficient
utilization of the pastures were shown. One dairyman reduced his cow herd
by one-half and by better feeding, pastures and silage, increased his net
income. Those receiving certificates in the contest produced milk 385 cheaper
per 100 pounds than the average for DHIA members.
Home Milk Supply.-Work was done by home demonstration agents on
the production and use of an adequate milk supply. Assistance was given








Annual Report, 1954


in the purchase of cows or heifers for the home milk supply. The 4-H
girls had a dairy foods demonstration project, in which they demonstrated
the use, preparation and value of milk and dairy products before 4-H and
adult audiences.
4-H Club Work.-Dairy projects were carried by 1,533 members (1,417
white and 116 negro) and 1,846 animals were involved in completed projects.
The dairy achievement program, efficient 4-H dairy production contest, but-
terfat production contest, dairy pasture essay contest, and nine district 4-H
dairy shows climaxed by the State 4-H Dairy Show with judging, fitting
and showmanship competitions combined to offer a varied educational and
action program for the 4-H dairy club members. Orange County won the
award for the best county 4-H dairy program. This county had 62 mem-
bers with 102 dairy animals. Sixty-nine were shown in the county show
and a good educational program was carried out.
The 4-H baby calf project was started in an attempt to place some of
the good heifers from South Florida dairies with 4-H members. Four
North Central Florida counties placed 113 of these. Less than 20 percent
were lost aid many nice heifers are being raised.
The State 4-H Dairy Show brought together 132 choice animals from all
over the state. Two truck loads of Jerseys and Ayrshires were taken to
the Mid-south National Junior Dairy Show at Memphis. Fourteen of the
16 animals were placed in the blue group.
Florida 4-H Dairy Judging Team Wins Honors.-Following a series of
district and state contests, four members were selected for the state 4-H
team. It won the International Dairy Show 4-H Judging Contest in Chicago
in October.
Cooperation.-Cooperative work was done with the four dairy cattle
breed organizations, Florida Dairy Association, State Department of Agri-
culture, Florida Livestock Board, Florida State Fair, and civic organizations,
chambers of commerce and other groups.
The following tabulation gives recent results in some of the dairy Ex-
tension activities:


Number of dairy herd improvement associations ...............
Cows on DHIA test .....- .................. ...... ...............
Cows on Official Test ...............--- ................ .....................
Number bulls proved by DHIA records ................................
Cows bred in artificial breeding units .......................
Pasture Analyses m ade ...........................................................
*Number persons receiving aid on feeding problems ..........
*Number persons receiving aid on controlling external
parasites ............ .......... .......... ................................
*Number persons receiving aid on controlling internal
parasites ...................... ....... .... ...... ...................
Number dairymen enrolled in pasture project ....................
Number 4-H members with dairy projects ..........................


1953 1954
8 8
8,834 10,023
1,559 1,645
27 58
24,691 29,000
15 28
5,377 5,900

3,781 4,032

4,479 4,524
70 65
1,501 1,533


* Includes family cow owners and 4-H Club members as well as dairymen.








40 Florida Cooperative Extension


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

J. Francis Cooper, Editor and Head
Clyde Beale, Editor
S. L. Burgess, Assistant Editor 4
H. L. Moreland, Jr., Assistant Editor 6

All of the editors devote about half time to work for the Agricultural
Experiment Station, by whom they are cooperatively employed.

PUBLISHED MATERIALS
The concise circular series of publications continued to grow in popularity
and usefulness. Eight new circulars and three new bulletins were printed,
five circulars and one bulletin were reprinted. The new circulars ranged
in size from 4 to 20 pages, totaling 68, and in edition from 7,500 to 20,000
copies, totaling 80,500. The new bulletins were 24, 28 and 44 pages in size
and editions ran 25, 15 and 10 thousand copies. The five reprinted circulars
totaled 46 pages in size, 73,000 copies in edition. The one reprinted bulletin
was 48 pages in size, 15,000 in edition.
Record books and other materials for 4-H Club members, the final report
of the National Egg-Laying Test, report forms and other miscellaneous
materials were printed as usual.
The following bulletins and circulars were printed:
Pages Edition
Bul. 157 Termites and Other Wood-Infesting Insects,
by L. A. Hetrick ............................................. 24 25,000
Bul. 158 The Goodly Guava, by Isabelle S. Thursby ........ 28 15,000
Bul. 159 Honey in the Home, by Cleo M. Arnett ................ 44 10,000
Bul. 144 Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits (reprint) ....... 48 15,000
Circ. 117 Cabbage Production Guide .................................... 6 10,000
Circ. 118 Potato Production Guide .......................................... 6 10,000
Circ. 119 Should I Buy a Citrus Grove?, by Zach Savage .. 12 10,000
Circ. 120 Electric Hotbeds for Sweet Potatoes, by A. M.
Pettis and V. F. Nettles ........ .................... 8 8,000
Circ. 121 Celery Production Guide ........................................ 6 7,500
Circ. 122 Cantaloupe Production Guide .............................. 4 7,500
Circ. 123 Lettuce Production Guide ........................................ 6 7,500
Circ. 124 Electric Demonstrations Made Easy, by A. M.
Pettis ................. ..... ........-- ............. ........... 20 20,000
Circ. 62R Making and Using Sauerkraut (reprint) ............ 8 8,000
Circ. 98R Tomato Production Guide (reprint) ...................... 6 10,000
Circ. 99R Sweet Corn Production Guide (reprint) ................ 4 10,000
Circ. 104 Vegetable Garden Production Guide (reprint) .... 12 20,000
Circ. 112 Electricity Made Easy (reprint) ........................ 16 25,000
New bulletins and circulars are distributed to libraries, county agents
and other workers in various subject matter fields as soon as available. Fol-
lowing that they are distributed only on request. The mailing room also
handles supplies for county and home demonstration agents. Men and wo-
men agents in 66 counties reported distributing 423,440 bulletins. The Edi-
torial Department continued to distribute U. S. Department of Agriculture
publications to county and home agents.
4 Resigned September 1, 1954.
6 Appointed February 1, 1954.







Annual Report, 1954


NEWS STORIES AND FARM JOURNAL ARTICLES
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, continued to be a prin-
cipal means of distributing news and information stories to weekly news-
papers and farm journals. It was sent also to county and home demonstra-
tion agents, vocational agriculture teachers and others working with groups
of farm people. The "skeleton" stories for county agents to fill in and
release to their papers were continued also.
Releases to daily papers were principally over the wires of press asso-
ciations, but occasionally were made direct to one or more papers. One of
the most popular regular releases is the flower garden copy released monthly
over AP wires.
County and home demonstration agents in 64 counties report preparing
and releasing 12,491 news stories.
Widespread use of material from Extension Editors and other Extension
workers was continued by farm papers in Florida and elsewhere. Of ma-
terials prepared by the Extension Editors, six Florida papers carried 14
articles for 310 column inches of space; two Southern journals carried four
articles occupying 50 column inches; and five national publications carried
nine articles occupying 143 column inches.. The totals are 13 publications,
27 articles and 503 column inches.

RADIO AND TELEVISION
Extension's tape recording service reached a new high this year. Six
Florida stations were furnished 89 tapes containing 256 separate talks or
interviews. Of these, 114 were by Experiment Station workers, 104 by
Extension personnel, 29 by College of Agriculture faculty members, 7 by
State Plant Board staff members, and 2 by representatives of the Farmers'
Home Administration.
Nine talks by Station, Extension and College staff members were re-
corded on three tapes for a retired Pennsylvania county agent visiting in
Florida. He used them over a Pennsylvania station.
Seven-minute Farm Flashes copy was sent five days each week to 45
Florida radio stations, in cooperation with the USDA Radio Service. Of
the 266 flashes, 58 were from USDA, 133 by Experiment Station workers, 55
by Extension staff members, 12 by Agricultural College faculty and 8 by
others.
A fortnightly review of Florida agriculture was sent to 35 Florida radio
stations every two weeks.
The Associated Press distributed Florida farm review copy weekly and
home demonstration review and flower garden copy monthly on its tele-
types. All three features were prepared by the Extension Editor.
The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF continued to be a principal radio
outlet. It occupied 30 minutes five days a week and 15 minutes on Satur-
day. It presented 86 talks or interviews by Extension workers other than
Editors, 136 by Experiment Station staff members and 19 by College of
Agriculture faculty. Editorial staff members presented a farm question box
and also farm news and views weekly 50 times, home economics notes weekly
51 times and the editorial of the week 49 times. Agricultural conserva-
tion and stabilization program workers made 11 talks, State Plant Board
workers 4, and an electric cooperative specialist 12. Farm Flashes from the
USDA were presented 114 times.
Other features used included two tape recordings from the Florida State
Fair, four other tape and disc recordings, live broadcasts from the Lake
County Fair and the College of Agriculture Fair, and interviews with five








Florida Cooperative Extension


national leaders of cattle associtaions, 14 Indonesians, national livestock
nutrition specialists, farm market workers, regional farm magazine editors,
home demonstration and 4-H Club members, poultry specialists, a negro
vocational agriculture teacher and students, and others.
While the State Office did not stage any regular television broadcasts,
the Editors did send four still and two motion picture newscasts to one
station. Television training schools for county and home demonstration
agents were conducted at Jacksonville, Gainesville, Tampa, Miami and Or-
lando, with a specialist from the USDA Extension Service as instructor.
County and home demonstration agents in 44 counties reported making
3,448 radio broadcasts and those in 11 counties made 195 telecasts.

VISUAL AIDS AND MISCELLANEOUS
While visual aids equipment and work both remain far from adequate,
they are being gradually improved. One exhibit was prepared, representing
the College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension
Service. It had one three-day and another five-day showing in October and
will be shown at several winter and spring fairs.
The Editors were guest instructors at two classes in Extension methods,
two in forestry and two in agricultural journalism. They taught news writ-
ing to a group of five 4-H Club members.


ENTOMOLOGY

James E. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist

In 1952 it was estimated that the actual destruction or damage caused
by insect pests plus the cost of control measures used in combating them
amounted to millions of dollars. As examples, $13,200,000 were estimated
as damage and spent for control of scales, whiteflies and mites on citrus;
$12,000,000 for subterranean termites; $8,600,000 for aphids on various
crops; $6,000,000 for chinch bugs in lawns and turf; $4,500,000 for corn
earworms and $4,250,000 for the rice weevil in stored corn.
The Extension Entomologist completed his first full year of work and
spent approximately half of his time in the field. Most of this time was
spent with agents and other workers in the field in an effort to get the
best insect control recommendations to people and reduce the tremendous
damage caused by insects.
4-H Club Entomology Program,-A 4-H entomology project outline and
record book was completed and sent to all counties. In 1953 43 club mem-
bers from 14 counties completed entomology project. In 1954 91 members
from 17 counties completed their projects. In the National 4-H Entomology
Awards Program Monty Haight, Volusia County, was awarded a wrist
watch for winning first place in Florida. The Extension Entomologist
taught entomology at the State 4-H Club Short Course at the University
of Florida and instructed in two programs for 4-H Club members at Camp
McQuarrie. Suggestions were offered at several 4-H district planning meet-
ings in an effort to strengthen and enlarge the 4-H entomology program.
Work with Other Specialists.-Much of the Extension Entomologist's
work was in cooperation with other subject matter specialists.
Clinics.-A number of meetings and grove visitations were made with
the Citriculturist. Clinics were held in several counties. Live and preserved







Annual Report, 1954


citrus insects and their damage were displayed and discussed. Control
recommendations for the various insects were given at the clinics. People
were encouraged to bring in their insect problems and discuss them with the
specialists conducting the meetings.
Clinics in ornamental horticulture similar to these for citrus were con-
ducted in several counties by county agents and Extension ornamental
specialists. The Extension Entomologist gave information on insect pests
of shrubs, trees, flowers and lawns.
Training Agents.-Four area training meetings for county agents and
assistant agents were held to teach ornamentals.
The Extension Entomologist is a member of the Vegetable Advisory
Committee. He cooperated with the Editorial Department in furnishing
county agents nine timely articles on insect control. These articles were
sent to the agents for use in local newspapers.
Industry Groups.-Vegetable insect control information was obtained
and discussed at the seedsmen's short course, seedsmen's convention, and at
a meeting of the Florida Agriculture Research Institute. Vegetable grow-
ers' meetings and Experiment Station vegetable fields days were attended.
Visual Aids.-About 175 2x2 color slides were obtained. These slides
were used by the Extension Entomologist in teaching insect identification,
insect damage and control measures. The slides were available to county
agents for use at meetings in their counties. They are the next best thing
to actual insects.
The Extension Entomologist edits and sends the Entomologists' News-
letter to entomologists of the Experiment Station, College and State Plant
Board. Most of the information in this newsletter is received from the Ex-
periment Stations and thus helps keep the Extension Entomologist better
posted on current research and insect conditions within the state. Informa-
tion ready for release is taken from the newsletter and sent to county agents.
This keeps them better informed on insect conditions in their areas.


FORESTRY

L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester
A. S. Jensen, Assistant Extension Forester

Principal features of the Extension program for promoting better man-
agement of Florida farm woodlands included: (1) forest fire protection,
(2) forest planting, (3) timber harvesting, (4) insect and disease control,
(5) forest grazing, (6) game and wildlife restoration and management,
and (7) developing interest and action among rural young people in forestry
and natural resource conservation. The youth work was largely through the
4-H forestry clubs, with some assistance given to vocational agriculture
groups.
To increase both scope and effectiveness of the Extension Service pro-
gram for farm forestry, the work was coordinated with the activities of
other agencies, such as the State Forest Service, Soil Conservation Service,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and U. S. Forest Service. Close coopera-
tion was extended also to such private agencies as the Florida pulpmills,
lumber companies, Florida Bankers Association and naval stores industry,
each of which is, today, eager to contribute towards the advancement of
forestry.







44 Florida Cooperative Extension

Forest Fire Protection.-Educational work towards protecting the farm
woodlands from fire was given much emphasis. The old destructive custom
of intentionally burning the pine lands over in early spring is gradually
fading out. However, many farm woodlands still burn each year due to
carelessness, or because of a lack of adequate fire protective measures. The
great drouth in north Florida during the spring and summer.of 1954, when
hundreds of thousands of acres of forest burned, amply demonstrated the
need for added fire protection on farm forest land. This caused a greatly
increased interest in safeguarding farm woodlands by surrounding them
with 100 foot wide improved pasture grass grazing strips. When grazed
by the farmer's cattle, these wide, closely cropped, improved pasture grass
fire lanes provide effective barriers to fires, which burn fiercely in the
long, matted, dry native wiregrass that covers the ground everywhere
in the vast pine lands of Florida.
Each year more farmers are taking steps to safeguard their woods
from fire. During 1954 3,096 farmers in 57 counties were assisted in pro-
tecting their woods, compared with 2,968 farmers in 53 counties who were
assisted in protecting their woods during the previous year. There were
4,402 4-H Club members who received training in forest fire prevention.

Fig. 6.-A Madison County farmer (left) and the Extension Forester
look over a 13-year-old cedar planting. The spacing is 6 x 6 feet and the
trees are beginning to clear themselves of their lower branches.







Annual Report, 1954


FOREST PLANTING
Slash Pine-Forest planting of pines on farms increased more than
four-fold over the previous year. County agents in 39 counties distributed
12,537,500 slash pine seedlings to 2,058 farmers and other owners of small
woodlands. This was the largest planting of forest trees by farmers ever
made during a single year. It was due largely to the generosity of seven
Florida pulpmills, two lumber companies and one banker. These concerns
purchased seedlings from the Florida Forest Service and made them avail-
able directly to county agents for free distribution to farmers. Of the
total slash pine seedlings distributed by county agents, 559,400 were dis-
tributed by agents to 4-H and vocational agriculture students for youth
project plantings. In addition to the 7,037,600 free seedlings, 5,499,900
seedlings were paid for by farmers and distributed by county agents.
Red Cedar Plantings.-To meet the growing farmer interest in planting
red cedar for Christmas trees, fence posts and high value lumber, the
Extension Foresters collected 73,000 cedar seeds and distributed them free
to farmers and 4-H Club members for demonstration plantings. Cedar
seedlings were not available from forest nurseries and farmers wishing to
plant cedar had to grow their own. Instructions on how to produce cedar
seedlings on the farm were prepared and furnished to 226 farmers who
requested these. Many hundreds of additional instruction sheets were
furnished farmers by county agents.
In addition, the Extension Foresters took up 2,000 willing cedar seed-
lings in the woods for establishing six cedar demonstration plantings on
farms and 4-H projects in three different counties.
In Orange County the Christmas Community 4-H Club members, working
together as a group under the direction of the assistant county agent,
raised 550 cedar seedlings in their cedar nursery and planted these as a
Christmas tree project on their own 20-acre 4-H club forest at Christmas,
Florida.
Catalpa Plantings.-In an effort to assist Florida farmers with their
acute and growing fence post problems, the Extension Foresters collected
and distributed 75,000 catalpa seeds for free distribution in one to two
thousand seed lots. Many of the farmers planting these were successful
in producing their own catalpa seedlings from the seeds furnished, and are
now ready to set them out in fence post plantings. Catalpa fence posts
have proven to have the longest service life, under Florida conditions, of
any naturally durable post material. Catalpa seedlings are not available
from forest nurseries.
Tupelo Gum Plantings.-Three small demonstration plantings of tupelo
gum were added hi 1954 to the plantings established in 1953. These were
in Lake, Nassau and Washington counties. Beekeepers are interested in
planting tupelo because this tree is a good honey producer and also because
tupelo honey does not granulate in time as other honeys do. Since tupelo
has not been planted previously on many Florida swamp soils, the plantings
made by the Extension Foresters may develop some needed information
on the range of this important honey tree.
"Juniper" or White Cedar Plantings.-Previous plantings of white cedar
made by the Extension Forester in soil areas where it does not grow natur-
ally indicate that this native tree might be useful in farm plantings, on
certain wet soils, as a valuable Christmas tree, as well as for fence posts and
lumber. Two additional demonstration plantings were made during the
year, one in Volusia and one in Lake County.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Sand Pine Plantings.-A sand pine planting, made by the Extension
Forester in 1950 on dry, sandy land where a planting of slash pine failed,
appeared so promising that two additional plantings were made during 1954
on similar deep, dry, poor sands. Farmers who own lands too dry and
poor for slash pine are asking what trees may be planted there. In the
absence of previous research, the sand pine plantings may determine what
forest crops may be profitably grown on these dry soils.
Shade and Shelter Plantings for Livestock.-On hundreds of thousands
of acres of improved pastures on cattle ranches, not enough trees are left
to afford cattle shade from the summer sun or protection from winter winds.
Also, in most of these pastures there are hold up cattle pens, in the open
without shade trees, where cattle suffer during the hot months when closely
penned.
The Extension Forester was called upon by cattle ranchers to suggest
native tree species which would produce proper shade, and at the same time
might be adapted to the soil conditions prevailing in each area.
Four demonstration plantings for shade around cattle pens were estab-
lished during 1954, using 12 different native hardwoods and two conifers.
The trees had to be dug and planted in the soil areas where each is naturally
adapted.
In Hendry County, on the prairie soils where trees are not well adapted,
the county agent and a cattleman cooperated in making a U-shaped shade
and shelter planting of tall bamboo, as suggested by the Extension Forester.
The closed end of the U was pointed to the northwest, from which direction
the cold winds usually blow. One hundred twenty-five rootstocks of Bain-
busa multiplex were located for this planting. It is expected that when this
tall-growing bamboo forms large clumps after a few years adequate shade
and shelter from cold winds will be afforded the cattle. The U-shaped plant-
ing should also provide ample protection to cattle from occasional hurri-
canes.
Tree Shades for Fern Growers.-Commercial fern growers asked for sug-
gestions on native tree species and methods for converting the costly slatted
fern shades to living tree shade. With the assistance of other Extension
specialists, district agents and county agents, a set of instructions was
prepared on how such a conversion might be made. These instructions have
been distributed to seven counties where the production of ferns is an im-
portant business.
4-H Forestry Club Work.-An important feature of the Extension Service
farm forestry program was work with rural young people through 4-H
Clubs. A total of 4,402 4-H Club members in 50 counties received train-
ing in farm forestry by carrying out forestry projects on the farm and
during 4-H summer camps and short courses. The state winner in the 4-H
forestry awards program received a gold medal and a free trip to the
National 4-H Congress in Chicago. In addition there were 20 county win-
ners who received silver medals. These medals were donated by one of
the large pulpmills interested in promoting farm forestry.
Other subjects taught and projects carried as a part of the 4-H forestry
program included game and wildlife management and soil and water con-
servation.








Annual Report, 1954


ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE

E. W. McElwee, Ornamental Horticulturist
T. J. Sheehan, Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist"
J. N. Joiner, Assistant HorticulturistT
One part-time and one full-time specialist were added during the year
to complete a two-and-one-half-man staff in ornamental horticulture. The
full-time Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist devotes his time to floriculture,
which includes cut flowers, pot plants, bulbs, greenhouse crops and other
plants grown for their flowers. The half-time assistant horticulturist is re-
sponsible for the home grounds improvement, landscaping or home-user
phase of the program. He guided the county programs in ornamental horti-
culture with the help of the other two specialists.
4-H Club Activities.-The specialists assisted 4-H club district and state
leaders in judging horticultural work books. They participated in camp
programs and fairs and conducted classes at boys' and girls' 4-H club short
courses. The specialists encouraged local chapters of the Florida Nursery-
men and Growers Association and other commercial groups to sponsor 4-H
club projects.
Special County Program.-A three-year home grounds improvement pro-
gram was established in Columbia County as a pilot project. The specialists
met with the home demonstration agent and representatives of local home
6 Appointed March 1, 1954.
7 Spends half-time in ornamentals and half-time in citrus culture.
Fig. 7.-A sample of Florida's expanding cut flower industry. Chrysan-
themums alone brought approximately two million dollars into the state
this year.




















..







Florida Cooperative Extension


demonstration clubs for training and instruction in all phases of home
grounds improvement. The leaders were given information and material to
take back to their clubs for use in instructing fellow members. Training
meetings were held quarterly. This program will be expanded to take in
additional counties.
Regional and National Cooperation.-The specialists supplied the agri-
cultural economist of the Federal Reserve Bank in Atlanta with informa-
tion used in a survey of Florida's nursery industry and methods of financing.
The staff assisted in drawing up specifications for regional project SM-12
in which Florida will seek new methods of 'marketing and new outlets for
Florida-grown cut flowers.
Articles were written for the Southern Flower Growers' Association's
publication and three other national professional magazines. The organiza-
tion and function of Florida's ornamental Extension program was presented
to members of the Southern Nurserymen's Association and grower organiza-
tions of Alabama and Louisiana.
The specialists assisted in organizing and leading a statewide horticul-
tural tour for members of the American Society of Horticultural Sciences.
They also aided in organizing for the meetings of the American Institute of
Biological Sciences held on the University of Florida campus.
Group Activities.-Members of the staff gave assistance to public activi-
ties by giving advice on the planning of grounds and landscaping of court-
houses, schools and agricultural buildings, community centers, churches,
youth camps and other public buildings. They worked with and judged fairs
and trade and plant shows. They advised and assisted with programs for
conventions and meetings of industry associations. They worked with state-
wide organizations on programs of city and highway beautification and
therapeutic programs for the blind.
Other Activities.-Staff members worked closely with members of the
State Plant Board on problems of mutual interest, particularly in matters
pertaining to the burrowing nematode. Specialists advised with and assisted
Experiment Station workers in setting up research projects and securing
plants for experimental use. The specialists also aided the teaching di-
vision in securing specimens of plant materials for classroom demonstrations
and student use.
The activities of the Extension specialists in ornamental horticulture
for 1954 included:
Activities Number
Commercial nurserymen, florists or growers visited or assisted ........ 166
Meetings with industry groups (conventions, grower chapters, etc.) .. 26
Number attending such industry group meetings .................................... 1,389
Horticulture clinics and associated meetings (lectures, demonstra-
tions, discussions, etc.) ..............--.......--...------ ..----- ---...---- 13
Number attending clinics and meetings ..................------ ..........-- ......-- ..... -1,820
Meetings with garden clubs, HD clubs and interest groups (city coun-
cils, school boards, seed and supply dealers, fairs, etc.) ................... 42
Number attending club and interest group meetings ............................... 1,724
Training meetings for county workers (county and home demonstra-
tion agents) .........................---------..........------------------ 9
Number attending training meetings .........:-.........-................---................ 478
Regional or out-of-state groups assisted (florists, nurserymen, profes-
sional groups, etc.) .................... ..---...--- ------- .....-- ...- 5
News articles .....-.....-...---.. --......-------------------. 26
Radio talks and tapes ......................................--- ---.. --- --- ----------- 9
Bulletins, circulars, mimeograph releases and professional papers ....... 18







Annual Report, 1954


POULTRY HUSBANDRY

N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman
J. S. Moore, Extension Poultryman
L. W. Kalch, Assistant Poultry Husbandman
A. W. O'Steen, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley

Poultry production in Florida in 1953 had a total value of $35,739,000,
the largest gross farm poultry income on record. The 3,305,000 hens and
pullets on farms January 1, 1954, produced a total of 478,000,000 eggs during
the year. Commercial broiler production expanded slightly, with a produc-
tion of approximately 11,500,000 broilers. The number of hatcheries de-
creased from 94 to 80, but the incubator capacity increased to 5,050,426
eggs, or 10 percent. Over 30,000,000 chicks were hatched in 1954. Com-
mercial turkey producers raised 195,000 turkeys.
The trend was toward larger units per man in all enterprises (chicks,
broilers, layers and turkeys).
The major poultry Extension activities were included under eight main
topics: (1) growing healthy pullets, (2) layer management, (3) broiler
management, (4) turkey management, (5) marketing, (6) 4-H poultry, (7)
production of poultry products for home use and (8) production of feed.
Growing Healthy Pullets.-The Florida National Egg-Laying Test and
Random Sample Test furnished valuable data on sources of high-producing
stock.
With the development of the "cage" program of handling layers, replace-
ments are started throughout the year so as to have all cages filled to
capacity.
Layer Management.-Management practices stressed included full feed-
ing of a balanced ration, preventing feed wastage, using lights, sanitation
and improved methods of handling eggs.
Broiler Management.-Better chicks, improved feed formulas, improved
management practices and adoption of a sound sanitation program have re-
sulted in improved feed efficiency. This efficiency program which has been
developed for the broiler industry includes: producing at least 40,000 broil-
ers per man per year, producing at least 34 pounds of meat per 100 pounds
of feed, keeping mortality below 5 percent, and marketing broilers before
11 weeks of age.
Turkey Management.-Commercial production of 195,000 turkeys in 1954
was the largest on record, resulting in a lower price to the producer. The
Florida Turkey Association held two educational meetings during the year.
Displays of the Florida dressed and drawn turkeys were held in Jackson-
ville, Orlando, St. Petersburg and Sarasota. Ten hatcheries with a capacity
of 131,130 eggs produced the poults raised in the state.
Junior Poultry Work.-Poultry club members were encouraged and as-
sisted in their program to supply eggs and poultry meat for sale and for
home consumption, and were enrolled in production demonstrations with both
broiler and layer projects. They exhibited their eggs and birds and par-
ticipated in judging poultry at county, district and state contests. The high
4-H Poultry judging team from the state contest represented Florida in
the Invitational Interstate Poultry Judging Contest in Chicago.
The annual 4-H District V Livestock and Poultry Show and Judging Con-
test was held in Jacksonville on January 15 and 16. There were 693 birds








Florida Cooperative Extension


and 50 dozen eggs on exhibit from Baker, Duval, Clay, Putnam and St.
Johns counties.
The annual Ocala Area Junior Livestock and Poultry Show was held
at the Southeastern Livestock Pavilion in Ocala October 18 and 19. Counties
participating were Alachua, Marion and Lake. The club members exhibited
228 birds and 39 dozen eggs.




EGGS PRODUCED ON FARMS


MILLIONS


S -EAR
YEARS


Fig. 8.-Egg production on Florida farms has increased tremendously
during recent years.

The special 4-H Club girls and boys poultry demonstration project spon-
sored by the Sears, Roebuck Foundation, which was started in Florida in
1945 with 10 counties, is now active in 24 counties. This project gives the
boy or girl experience in brooding, feeding and managing baby chicks, in
marketing broilers, in raising pullets and in managing the laying flock.
Records are kept of all activities, a pullet show is held in each county during
the fall and an egg show during the spring. This program has been an ex-
cellent demonstration, not only to the boys and girls but also in the various
counties and communities in helping to improve the backyard flocks of poul-
try.
The annual State Boys and Girls 4-H Poultry and Egg Show and Judging
Contest was held during the week of February 22-27, in connection with the
Central Florida Exposition at Orlando. Club boys and girls from 12 counties
exhibited a total of more than 1,200 birds and 125 dozen eggs.


--------------







Annual Report, 1954


Twelve teams competed in the poultry judging contest, which was won
by Orange County boys. Jack Sellards of Orange County was awarded the
$100.00 State Department of Agriculture scholarship to the University of
Florida or Florida State University as the outstanding 4-H poultry club
member, as determined by his ability to judge poultry, his exhibit of poultry
and eggs and the record of his poultry project.
The Orange County poultry judging team, composed of Jack Sellards,
Hugo Desch, Jim Aitken and Jim Rich, participated in the Invitational
Interstate 4-H Poultry Judging Contest in Chicago November 27, 1954.
Classes in poultry project work were presented during the Boys' 4-H
Club Short Course in Gainesville and the Girls' 4-H Club Short Course in
Tallahassee.
Florida National Egg-Laying Test.-Seventy-two pens, or 936 pullets,
were entered in the 28th Egg-Laying Test which started October 1, 1953,
and concluded September 15, 1954, a period of 350 days.
There were 35 pens of Single Comb White Leghorns; 10 of In-Cross-
breds; 15 of S. C. Rhode Island Reds; 4 of New Hampshires; 6 of Cross-
breds; and 2 of White Plymouth Rocks. These entries were by 37 different
breeders from 21 states and Canada.
The average egg production per pullet housed was 235.28 eggs with a
value of 243.33 points for the 350-day period. This production was approxi-
mately 3.38 eggs per pullet higher than the production in the 27th Test,
and 14.58 eggs higher than in the 26th Test.
A pen of 13 Single Comb Rhode Island Red pullets entered by I. E.
Norman, Richland, Georgia, was high pen in this test, laying 3,654 eggs
for a value of 3,949.90 points. These pullets laid at a rate of 80.3 percent.
A Single Comb White Leghorn pullet entered by the Foreman Poultry
Farm, Lowell, Michigan, was high bird. It produced 327 eggs for a value
of 352.35 points. This pullet produced eggs at the rate of 93.4 percent.
Average feed consumption per pullet for the test period was 104.9 pounds
of mash and grain. Grain and mash were fed at the ratio of 1 part of
grain to 1.6 parts of mash. These pullets consumed 5.1 pounds of feed for
each dozen eggs produced.
Mortality during this test totalled 103 birds, or 11 percent.
Random Sample Test.-The Random Sample Test covers the period from
March 28, 1953, to September 15, 1954 for the second test and from March
26, 1954, to September 22, 1954, for the brooding and rearing period of the
third test.
The second test year covered 537 days. Nine entries of 50 day-old pullet
chicks each were sent to Chipley March 28, 1953. They were wing-banded,
brooded and reared under uniform conditions for 187 days and then trans-
ferred to the laying house, where they were fed and managed alike for the
next 350 days.
During the growing period mortality ranged from none to 12.00 percent
and averaged 4.44 percent.
Feed consumption per pullet housed varied from 25 to 32 pounds, at a
cost of $1.15 to $1.46.
The chick, feed and medication costs (including vaccination) varied from
$1.52 to $1.86 per pullet housed, with an average of $1.70.
During the laying period of 350 days average production per pullet housed
was 226.9 eggs, varying from 206.82 to 252.50 eggs.
The utilization of housing capacity averaged 95.93 percent for the year,
varying from 89.82 to 99.60 percent. Mortality averaged 7.9 percent for the
year.
Feed consumed per pullet was 106.3 pounds, varying from 89 to 118
pounds. Two-hundred and thirteen eggs were obtained from each 100 pounds
of feed used.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Third Random Sample Test (rearing period 180 days.)-Twenty Florida
hatcherymen and breeders sent entries of 50 pullet chicks each to Chipley
to start the rearing period of 180 days in the third random sample test
on March 26, 1954. During the growing period the number of cockerels
per entry varied from none to four and the number which died varied from
none to 20. The number of pullets housed per entry of 50 day-old chicks
varied from 29 to 50. The cash cost (chick, feed, medication) per pullet
housed varied from $1.41 to $2.07.
Interest in random sample testing is on the increase in Florida, as there
were 7 entries three years ago, 9 entries last year, and 20 entries in the
present test.
Annual Breeders Conference.-The Breeders Conference was held at the
Poultry Laboratory, Gainesville, December 9 and 10. About 30 hatcherymen
and poultrymen attended.
Annual Poultry Institute.-This Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie,
Astor Park, the week of August 23-28, 1954. Approximately 500 people
registered and attended the Institute from all sections of Florida, as well
as from six other states, Washington, D. C., and Cuba. This was the largest
registration of any of the Institutes.
Associations.-The Florida Poultry and Egg Council, Florida State Poul-
try Producers Association, Florida Hatchery and Breeders Association,
Florida Turkey Association, and Florida Feed Dealer's Association have
worked very closely during the year with poultry Extension personnel in
fostering the poultry program in the state. Poultry and egg processors
have assisted materially in the development of a program to process and dis-
tribute poultry products.
Cooperating Agencies.-State Department of Agriculture, including the
State Marketing Bureau and the Poultry and Egg Inspection Division, and
State Livestock Board personnel have worked very closely with poultry Ex-
tension workers in developing and furthering the poultry program.


SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION

Frances C. Cannon and L. T. Nieland

The Extension Forester and the Health Education Specialist again acted
as state farm co-chairmen in 1954. In this capacity they assisted county
agents, home demonstration agents and 4-H Clubs in conducting farm safety
campaigns and programs throughout the year, and especially during Na-
tional Safety Week, Spring Clean Up Week and Fire Prevention Week.
With excellent cooperation from the Extension editorial staff, county and
home demonstration agents were supplied with necessary safety campaign
literature, posters, proclamations, envelope stickers and stamps useful in
conducting local and county-wide farm safety campaigns.
County home demonstration agents devoted 450 days to safety work this
year. Safety information was given to the people through club meetings,
radio programs, news articles, circular letters, 4-H camps and county home
demonstration council meetings.
Subjects covered included: swimming precautions, Christmas tree safety,
fire prevention, safe toys, removing old refrigerator doors, clean-up cam-
paigns, labeling medicine kits, and making and using home first aid kits.
Two classes on safety were taught at State Girls' 4-H Club Short Course.
The safety education trooper of the Florida Highway Patrol worked in five
4-H camps this summer with the girls and boys on safety on the streets,






Annual Report, 1954


walking, riding bicycles and driving. This work is helping to spread interest
in safety. There were 2,639 4-H Club members enrolled in safety this year.
Eleven counties competed in the 1954 state 4-H farm safety awards pro-
gram. In this program, Jack Pleterski of Volusia County was judged the
state winner. He received a gold medal and a free trip to the National 4-H
Club Congress at Chicago. Suwannee County received the 1954 General Mo-
tors Corporation plaque for the best county program for farm safety.


VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AND MERCHANDISING

F. S. Jamison, Vegetable Crop Specialist

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
James Montelaro, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
F. E. Myers, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
J. D. Norton, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist'
All major activities as planned with the Vegetable Advisory Committee
were carried out and expanded to meet the needs of the industry. The
addition of a full-time specialist to handle home vegetable gardening with
adults and youths has served to fill a long-felt need and helped to round out
the program.
Activities carried out as planned include grower meetings, crop produc-
tion guides, field days, agents' training schools, local leader training, agents'
handbook and work with industry groups. With demands for "Vegetarian"
newsletters, press releases, training aids and research reviews continually
increasing, efforts along these lines have been intensified. A special crops
information letter (Vegegram) for distribution by county agents was intro-
duced.
New and pertinent research results continued to flow to agents, growers
and industry groups on a timely basis.
Field Days.-Specialists assisted in planning, publicizing and executing
field days for county agents, growers and industry groups interested in the
latest research results in vegetable production. Vegetable field days were
held at Sanford, Leesburg, Hastings, Gainesville, Homestead (2), Bradenton,
Belle Glade and Fort Pierce.
Grower Meetings.-Twenty-four meetings were conducted in the follow-
ing vegetable-producing areas: Immokalee, Wauchula, Webster, Pompano,
West Palm Beach, Canal Point, Samsula, Zellwood, Ft. Pierce, Plant City
(2), Palmetto, Oxford, Quincy, Trenton, Starke, Balm, Punta Gorda,
Hastings, Homestead (2), Brooker, DeFuniak Springs and Chipley. Experi-
ment Station workers assisted county agents and specialists by presenting
new research data. On the average, increased attendance was noted. These
meetings were used to present new and recommended practices to growers
and agents and served to keep industry, research and Extension workers
aware of developing problems.
"Vegetarian" Newsletters.-Five comprehensive newsletters were re-
leased by the specialists to county agents. They carried recommendations
on insects, diseases, fertilizers, varieties and new fungicides. Our increas-
ing requests for additional copies attest to the popularity of this activity.
Production Guides.-New production guides were published on lettuce,
escarole, celery, and cantaloupe. The sweet corn and tomato production
8 Effective September 1, 1954 (specializing in home vegetable gardening).







Florida Cooperative Extension


guides were revised and republished. Additional guides are nearly completed
for broccoli and cauliflower and strawberries.
"Vegegram" Crop Information Letters.-To complement the existing Ex-
tension vegetable program, a need has been felt for a short but compre-
hensive crop information letter to be distributed directly to growers and
industry representatives by county agents. A survey of county agents indi-
cated a need for the letter and how they could best use the services of such
a project. The vegetable crops selected for trial releases were cabbage,
tomato, celery and snap beans. Four letters giving brief recommendations
on specific phases of vegetable production were prepared for each crop.
Depending on the area of the state and at the discretion of the agent, each
letter was mailed by the county agent to coincide with the need for a
"refresher-type" information letter for the grower to use in planning and
carrying out a good vegetable production program.
Comments from agents were favorable and many asked that this activity
be expanded.
Florida Seedsmen's Association.-The annual short course for field and
store representatives of the seed trade and allied industries was given in
cooperation with the Extension Agronomists, Entomologists and other Ex-
tension Horticulturists. Recent developments in research and current recom-
mendations in vegetable production were stressed at this meeting.
At the annual meeting of the Seedsmen's Association, a vegetable spe-
cialist assisted in planning and acted as moderator for a panel composed
of Extension and research workers discussing new developments in vege-
table production.
Florida Agricultural Research Institute.-Meetings were held in coopera-
tion with the Extension Agronomist and representatives of the Agricultural
Experiment Station and the Florida Agricultural Research Institute in sev-
eral key production areas. Agreements were reached toward standardizing
and reducing the number of grades of fertilizers in the respective areas.
Personnel of Agricultural Experiment Stations, industry and Extension met
at Gainesville to summarize results of the various area meetings. Agree-
ment was reached which will eliminate some confusion in recommendations,
result in fewer grades and in slightly higher analysis of fertilizer being sold.
At the request of the research committee on potatoes, melons, vegetables
and seed liaison of the Florida Agricultural Research Institute, specialists
in vegetable production helped plan and participated in presenting a com-
plete review of Experiment Station research accomplishments over the past
few years and the objectives for the coming year.
Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association.-Frequent contacts with or-
ganization representatives served to foster the interests of the industry as a
whole. Mutual problems were discussed and assistance given on pressing
problems.
Local Leader Training.-Specialists in vegetable production lectured to
outstanding 4-H boys and girls attending short courses at the University
of Florida and Florida State University, respectively. Instruction was given
also to local leaders and home agents at the annual State Council confer-
ence, an organization for women representing leaders from all areas of the
state.
Radio and Press Releases.-Specialists assisted agents with three tape
recordings. About 20 press releases were made on timely topics such as
vegetable production, variety releases and future events of interest to the
industry.
Agents' Training Courses.-Specialists participated in the three area
training meetings held for county agents. Emphasis was placed on new







Annual Report, 1954


developments in the industry in the fields of pesticides, fertilizers, varieties
and cultural practices.
Other Activities.-Specialists were called on to serve on the following
committees: American Society for Horticultural Science, Outlook, Techni-
cal Advisory Committee on Seed Certification, Agents' Annual Conference,
Agents' Handbook, and Soil and Water Conservation. Efforts were con-
tinued in developing training aids and encouraging specific research on
pressing problems.
A breakdown showing the number of farmers assisted by county workers
with various phases of vegetable production is as follows: Use of improved
varieties, 22,296; use of fertilizers, 33,352; control of insects, 18,232; control
of diseases, 14,931; harvesting, storing and curing, 6,408; and efficient
work methods, 5,820.

MERCHANDISING FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Stanley E. Rosenberger, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
The past year turned out to be a period of very heavy vegetable sup-
plies, accompanied by generally low prices and, in some cases, no outlets
for part of the production.
When we realized that vegetable supplies were to be unusually heavy
we shifted emphasis in the vegetable merchandising program from train-
ing retail food handlers to vigorous merchandising campaigns to move some
of the heavy supplies. Normally when vegetable supplies build up at the
terminal end, prices are reduced in the production area. Should terminal
supplies become very burdensome, production prices may be cut to the point
of discouraging further harvest. Under this system of operation the supply
and demand situation as a price indicator works mainly in one direction-to
discourage additional shipments. The price to consumers is not usually low-
ered or is lowered only a small amount. Therefore, consumption is not
increased sufficiently to move heavy supplies.
Knowing that in periods of distressed farm prices consumers do not
usually find much lower retail prices, it was evident that retail prices must
reflect a "good buy" to the consumers if they were to buy larger quantities.
The solution was found in the practice used by many stores of advertising
a special feature. In many cases special features carry price concessions
and can be made very good "consumer buys." The problem then becomes
one of having a commodity, in heavy supply, made a special feature by
large numbers of food stores so that the accumulated increase of sales from
each store will be sufficient to be felt back at the production level.
When the stores were called upon to cooperate in such a venture they
indicated that only commodities of a staple nature, or at least widely used,
could be promoted as special features. Little-used or small-volume items
do not attract customers in large numbers. They also stated that at least
10 days notice would be necessary to make up the newspaper ad cut, dis-
tribute it to all necessary points, and have the food ad break the day before
the sale begins. Predicting supplies of vegetables 10 days in advance is not
easy.
The Agricultural Marketing Service office in Orlando handled the future
supply prediction work and did so with remarkable accuracy. Twelve such
special feature programs were conducted by the Florida food stores at
our suggestion and only once did they have difficulty locating the supplies.
Once the food stores had agreed to promote an item the home demon-
stration agents notified the consuming public that a "good buy" would be
coming up in this commodity and suggested uses for it.







Florida Cooperative Extension


In this type of approach to surpluses it is possible to offer consumers
reduced prices when the commodity is on hand in good fresh condition.
The consumers will take more at lower prices and in turn the production
area can move larger volumes. Otherwise, when the market becomes glutted
farm prices fall, produce rots in the field, and consumers get little if any
advantage on price. With this program the consumer even knows in ad-
vance that a special feature with a price concession is coming and can
make plans for stocking up.
Can such a program be effective? The following is a spot check on one
requested special feature. The Florida food organizations were asked to
feature Pascal celery the week of April 12-18, when farm supplies were
very heavy. Consumers were informed that the promotion was coming.
The size of the food organizations, their advertising activity, and changes
in purchases of celery from the week before the promotion are shown.


Regular Store
Activity
April 5-11


Number of
Stores per i
Retail Food 5
Organization .

Yes

60 Stores No
and up Yes
Yes


Special Feature
and Regular Store
Promotion Activity
April 12-18 April 19-25


S C C

g f a *
11 Il11
-D- .]l.C< -S^


3 to 30 Yes Yes 56 Yes 20
Stores Yes No 11 No -33
Yes No -20 Yes 20
No Yes -22 Yes -35
Number of crates of celery ranged from 40 to 1,207/2.
In all, celery, cabbage and potatoes were featured three times. Corn
features were called for twice and beans were requested once.
The regular vegetable merchandising activities of teaching retailers to
improve their efficiency and effectiveness were carried out on a smaller scale
than planned. Nevertheless, the role of retailer in presenting the entire
fresh fruit and vegetable industry to the public was recognized as being the
critical link in the chain of distribution.







Annual Report, 1954


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Anna Mae Sikes, State Home Demonstration Agent
Eunice Grady, Assistant to State Home Demonstration Agent,
Training Program
Ethyl Holloway, District Home Demonstration Agent
Edith Y. Barrus, District Home Demonstration Agent
Joyce Bevis, District Home Demonstration Agent

Through a cooperative plan with Florida State University, the home
demonstration department has its headquarters on the FSU campus in
Tallahassee.
Insofar as time and facilities permitted, we gave assistance to all fami-
lies who wished help, including farm, part-time farm, rural non-farm and
urban families. We gave increasing recognition to the importance and need
of people thinking and planning as family and community groups. The
problems of home, family and community life were the basic concern of
home demonstration workers.
Organization and Supervision.-One assistant state agent in training pro-
grams, three district agents, eight specialists and two 4-H club agents serve
on the state home demonstration staff.
County offices are located in 50 of Florida's 67 counties. Appropriations
have been made for agents in two additional counties, Lafayette and Hamil-
ton. The state is divided into three districts, with district home demonstra-
tion agents giving supervision to the work in their districts. They also
help with the development of a statewide program of home demonstration
work. A negro district home demonstration agent supervises the work of 12
negro home demonstration agents in 12 counties. Headquarters for negro
work are maintained at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
in Tallahassee.
All home demonstration workers are responsible for adult, youth and
community programs. Junior and senior councils of home demonstration
work aid in developing the statewide educational program. The councils
strengthen home demonstration work and assist the home demonstration
agents in the development of leadership among adults and youth. They
provide opportunity for homemakers and 4-H girls in groups to pool their
judgment and experience for the improvement of Florida home and com-


Fig. 9.-The


banquet was a highlight of the annual meeting of the State
Home Demonstration Council in Gainesville.







Florida Cooperative Extension


munity life. They promote and develop 4-H Club work and other youth
activities and extend the services of home demonstration work to a larger
number of individuals and club groups. They offer a means by which home-
makers and 4-H girls may initiate state, national and international pro-
grams which affect the security and development of American home and
family life.
Community home demonstration clubs are made up of women interested
in planning and carrying through programs to make the most of com-
munity resources. The clubs also develop and encourage leadership for an
expanding program and assist in extending the services of home demonstra-
tion agents to individual families.
Special Interest Groups.-There appears to be a definite need for in-
struction given over a specified period of time on a single subject. During
the past year such "continuity instruction" at club meetings has grown.
Workshops of two or more consecutive days' duration were held in several
counties. A series of leader training workshops, giving continuity instruc-
tion on one subject, were held in several counties.
Farm and home development work was added to the home demonstration
program this year. Eight counties-Columbia, Hamilton, Jefferson, Leon,
Washington, Holmes, Okaloosa, and Santa Rosa-were named as pilot
counties.
Expanded Home Demonstration Program.-Home demonstration work
helped 4-H girls, homemakers and families to help themselves. Its major
focus was on better living and improved human relations. It helped fami-
lies in all phases of family living to improve their health. Home demon-
stration agents helped homemakers to plan home food production, to pre-
serve and store food, to prepare it, and to select properly balanced diets
for health; to get more for their money-to buy wisely and to plan better
their spending and saving; to plan their work so as to use their time and
energy with the utmost efficiency; to learn to make their own clothing or
to get their money's worth when they buy it; to improve and repair their
houses and their house furnishings; to develop creative ability through handi-
craft; to rear their children intelligently and to have healthy, happy fami-
lies; and to promote satisfying communities in which to rear their families.
Financing Home Demonstration Work.-The budget for the mainte-
nance of home demonstration work came from the regular Agricultural
Extension Service budget and a budget at Florida State University. All
items in both budgets were coordinated and operated under the same general
policies.
Florida State University provided housing, part of the salaries of the
Extension Nutritionist, Food Conservationist, Health Education Specialist,
Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist, part of the expense funds for
travel, office equipment, demonstration equipment and supplies for the state
office of home demonstration work, a financial budget which permitted
additional personnel, and a pre-service training program for prospective
home demonstration agents.
During the year plans were drawn by a state staff inter-office committee
for the state home demonstration offices, conference rooms, food labora-
tory, dining area, demonstration kitchen and laundry and storage facilities
in the new home economics building on east campus of Florida State Uni-
versity. Plans are that the state home demonstration office will be moved
from the west campus to the new building by September 1, 1956.
Appropriations were granted for work in four additional counties in
1954, making a total of 52 counties which will have home demonstration
programs. Three new positions for assistant county home demonstration
agents were added.







Annual Report, 1954


Boards of county commissioners and county school boards continued to
cooperate with the Agricultural Extension Service in maintaining home
demonstration work in the counties. Contributions in a majority of the
counties were made by both boards from time to time for such activities
as 4-H Short Course, camp scholarships, demonstration and office supplies,
repairs in workrooms, equipment and community and work centers.
In 1954 there was an increase of $33,955.94 for home demonstration work
through county appropriating boards. This included salary increases, cleri-
cal assistance and funds for other expenses.
Personnel.-Ninety-eight home demonstration workers, exclusive of cleri-
cal assistants, were employed in state and county offices as follows: 50
county home demonstration agents, 20 assistant county home demonstra-
tion agents, 12 negro home demonstration agents, 10 specialists, 4 district
home demonstration agents, and 1 assistant to state home demonstration
agent in training program.
There continued to be a decided shortage of suitably trained home econo-
mists qualified to fill state and county home demonstration positions. The
lack of suitably trained personnel for specialists and county home demon-
stration positions continued to be a major personnel problem. The pre-
service training of prospective workers was continued, making it possible
to appoint home demonstration trainees. Two were employed for a 10-
month period and five for shorter periods. These trainees worked in the
State Home Demonstration Office and in the field with experienced home
demonstration agents. All Florida home demonstration workers continued
the active program of recruiting prospective home demonstration agents.
Effective September 1, the Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent was
awarded a national 4-H scholarship for study at the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. The Lake County assistant home
demonstration agent was appointed acting assistant state girls' 4-H club
agent effective October 1.
The Assistant Food Conservation Specialist resigned September 1 to
accept a position in the field of general nutrition with the Florida Citrus
Commission. A Texas Extension worker with 11 years experience was
appointed to fill this vacancy effective November 1. The clothing and textiles
specialist resigned effective October 1 to accept an Extension appointment
in Mississippi. A former Florida home demonstration agent working on
the state staff in North Carolina was appointed to the clothing and textiles
specialist's position, effective December 1.
The position of assistant state home demonstration agent is vacant be-
cause of the inability to find a well-qualified, interested person to appoint.
The position of garden specialist was assigned to staff at Gainesville, since
a trained home economist for this position could not be located.
Personnel Training.-Recruitment was carried on at several levels. In-
terested high school students were guided in choosing home economics as
their course of study at college. The State Home Demonstration Office
prepared an attractive mimeographed leaflet on home demonstration work as
a career.
In December 1954 recruitment leaflets from other state home demonstra-
tion agents were received. Early in 1955 a committee, composed of the
district agents, the Assistant Editor and the trainer agent, will decide on
a leaflet to be printed in the spring of 1955 as a home demonstration re-
cruitment leaflet for Florida.
Pre-Service.-The State Home Demonstration Agent and staff advise on
suitable courses in preparation for Extension work. The Assistant to State
Home Demonstration Agent in Training Program planned and directed the







60 Florida Cooperative Extension

present training program for home economists who were preparing to enter
home demonstration work.
Junior and senior courses in home demonstration education at both grad-
uate and undergraduate levels were taught at Florida State University. A
four-year curriculum in home demonstration education was approved by the
School of Home Economics. In the State Home Demonstration Office there
were two types of pre-service training: the long-time study plan of six to
eight months for graduate home economists with no job experience, and the
short-time study plan lasting three to eight weeks for graduate home econo-
mists with experience in teaching or some other related field of home
economics.
Induction Training.-The induction training given by the district agents
included policies, regulations, records and reports, extension education phil-
osophy, education and organization, job analysis, program planning, leader-
ship and office and field management. This was done on initial and follow-up
conference, with printed material and personal contacts and by letter. The
district agents served as liaison between the Assistant to the State Home
Demonstration Agent in Training Program and the county home demon-
stration agents.
In-Service Training of Staff and Agents.-Four county home demonstra-
tion agents attended the three weeks' summer session at the University
of Florida. Five home demonstration agents and the home improvement
specialist took courses in home economics subject matter for graduate
credit and two newly appointed agents and five trainees took the course
in home demonstration education at Florida State University.
One home demonstration agent attended the Regional Extension Sum-
mer School at the University of Arkansas and another attended the six-
week workshop in human relations and human development education at
the University of Maryland.
Two home demonstration agents took two general extension courses
offered by Florida State University and the University of Florida.
The state home demonstration office established a long-time plan for in-

Fig. 10.-The State Home Demonstration Chorus organized this year
attracted widespread attention.








Annual Report, 1954


service training of county home demonstration agents and state staff mem-
bers. Area in-service training meetings were held on: (1) use more milk,
(2) farm and home development, (3) home orchards, (4) health education,
(5) pattern alterations (6) recreational leadership, (7) food conservation,
and (8) television.
Activities and Accomplishments.-In 1954 Florida's 81 home demonstra-
tion agents (white and negro) assisted 31,601 people in organized groups
and 63,821 people not in organized groups. A total of 95,422 people were re-
ported as served by home demonstration and girls' 4-H Club work.
A junior and senior home demonstration club program functions in 50
counties in Florida. There are 1,337 clubs with a membership of 12,652
home demonstration members and 18,949 4-H Club girls. In 1954 a total
of 5,486 adult leaders gave demonstrations in home industries and market-
ing, clothing, family life education, food and nutrition, food production
and conservation, health education, home improvement and 4-H girls' club
work.
There were 3,921 voluntary leaders in adult home demonstration work,
1,502 voluntary leaders in girls' 4-H Club work and 63 voluntary leaders
in young men and women's work. Also, 366 training meetings were held
for voluntary leaders in girls' 4-H work, with attendance of 6,970. At the
1,953 meetings conducted by voluntary leaders in adult work 31,735 persons
attended. Local leaders conducted 1,633 4-H meetings, with an attendance
of 25,764.
Families were assisted with immediate income and technical and human
relation-problems of the home. In family living, 46,315 families planned
an adequate and nutritious food supply; 48,816 families were assisted with
clothing needs; 27,363 families built or remodeled homes; 16,031 families
were helped to develop a satisfying family life; 19,391 families improved
their health; and 29,845 benefited from consumer education.
Families were assisted with problems which have to be approached
through action in the community. In community cooperation 209 communi-
ties improved conditions affecting health; 197 communities improved their
educational facilities; 380 communities improved their recreational re-
sources. The home demonstration program included 1,223 educational pro-
grams, projects or activities for the development of community resources.
Families were assisted with problems of adjustments in human relation-
ships; 5,669 families were assisted with child development and guidance;
5,212 families were assisted with developing harmonious family life; 177
communities were assisted with better town-country relationships. Home
demonstration work in urban areas expanded in response to a growing de-
mand from Florida's rapidly increasing population. Some 11,174 urban fami-
lies were assisted by the home demonstration program with agricultural
information; 50,582 urban families were assisted with homemaking informa-
tion; and 5,088 girls from urban homes enrolled in 4-H clubs.
In-citizenship and Public Problems.-One hundred eighty four communi-
ties or groups were assisted with citizenship activities, 215 studies and sur-
veys were made on community problems and 281 communities were assisted
in developing and improving county and community organization.
Today's challenge to the Florida home demonstration program is to base
the educational program on vital needs of families; to keep up with develop-
ments in research and technology which can be applied to those needs; to
interpret research so families can help themselves to achieve a better way
of life and to expand the program to meetthe needs of all families.








Florida Cooperative Extension


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES

Katherine Simpson, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles "
Elizabeth Dickenson, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles 10

In 1954 the clothing and textiles program has continued to receive major
emphasis throughout the state. The main objective of this program has
been to develop standards in clothing and textiles that would improve the
comfort, health and appearance of each family member, as well as to give
satisfaction and poise for a better and happier living within a family budget.
The program was developed with the county home demonstration agents
and members of the state home demonstration staff. The program was
a Resigned September 30, 1954.
o1 Appointed December 1, 1954.


Fig. 11.-The Clothing Specialist (center) helps a home demonstration
club clothing leader adjust the fit of a new spring dress. Florida home
demonstration women made 135,995 new garments in 1954.








Annual Report, 1954


flexible so that additions and adjustments might be made in any community,
club or county.
More than 1,100 homemakers constructed garments for the first time, for
themselves and family members. Some 471 local clothing leaders held work-
shops under the direction of the county home demonstration agents and
assisted the women attending to learn more about home sewing. Emphasis
was placed on selection of materials and patterns for the individual, pattern
alterations, construction of garments, construction of slip covers, hat renova-
tion and finishing garments for children and adults.
The 1954 statistical reports show that home demonstration agents de-
voted 2,996 days to clothing and textiles work. County clothing leaders
attended 191 leader training meetings and held 471 meetings in their local
communities. There were 2,648 demonstrations given by these leaders
to 4-H girls and women.
In order to acquaint the public with the work done following these work-
shops, 995 white women and 162 negro women have reviewed their garments.
Clothing was the main interest of many 4-H Club girls. The table below
shows the results of clothing work during 1954.


White
Girls enrolled ........................................ ...... -----... 10,325
Girls completing projects ...................---.---.--- ------- 6,096
Number of garments made ..-........................-....-- -....... 13,870
Number of articles for the home ...............................--...... 17,763


Negro
1,765
1,321
3,343
3,932


A report from 49 white and 12 negro home demonstration agents gives
the results of some of the clothing work completed in the state during 1954.


White
New garments made ...................... .......-------....... 135,995
Garments remodeled .....................------.......-------- 37,624
Making first time ..........---............-------..------ 844
Household articles made .................................. ...---- 89,634
Receiving help on laundry problems .................................. 6,863
Clothing leaders ..... -----............ ...................... women.... 611
girls........ 582
Clothing leader trained .....................................--- --- women.... 88
girls........ 61
Trained by clothing leaders ................................ women.... 251
girls........ 194
Exhibits, talks, radio programs by ....-........... agent...... 670
women.... 451
Demonstrations given by agents for .-----............... women.... 1,728
girls-....... 765
Demonstrations given by .................................... women.... 1,651
girls........ 776


Negro
12,322
4,108
323
7,164
550
103
149
22
20
13
13
112
47
153
161
26
195


Emphasis will be placed on four main items in the clothing and textiles
program for 1955: importance of planning wisely before spending the cloth-
ing dollar; importance of acquiring skills and knowledge related to con-
struction of clothing; importance of acquiring knowledge of new fabrics
available and the use and care of each for the best service; and learning to
dress appropriately, becomingly, economically and beautifully on a planned
budget for all occasions.







Florida Cooperative Extension


EDITORIAL AND VISUAL AIDS

Alma Warren, Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist

During 1954 the Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist has worked
to use present and potential communications more effectively and efficiently
in reaching the home and farm with helpful and needed information.


Fig. 12.-A home demonstration agent distributes books to club members
from a "bookmobile" which the club helped sponsor.







Annual Report, 1954


Through home demonstration news releases we always try to connect agri-
culture, home and 4-H work, all as parts of the Extension team.
One of the significant developments of 1954 is that many urban women
are receiving the benefits of educational work in home economics.
County home demonstration agents have sent to local newspapers 5,849
news and feature articles, an increase of 123 releases over 1953. The As-
sistant Editor wrote 311 news stories.
Radio news releases and tape recordings by home demonstration spe-
cialists are sent directly from the State Home Demonstration Office to 28 of
Florida's radio stations and to nine television networks. A total of 1,301
radio broadcasts was prepared and aired. There were 399 tape recordings
made and used on the radio. Forty-seven television programs were tele-
cast. One of the top telecasts was a five-minute movie of the 39th Annual
Florida 4-H Club Girls' Short Course. Seven television stations used the
movie.
United States Department of Agriculture and state bulletins numbering
215,082 were distributed.
One hundred forty four magazine articles were published. Five articles
written by home demonstration agents appeared in the Extension Service
Review, an all-time high. The Extension Service Review carried on one
of its covers a picture of the food conservation phase of home demonstration
work in Florida.
Four new home demonstration bulletins and records books were pub-
lished in 1954-Honey in the Home, The Junior Cook, 4-H Frozen Foods
and 4-H Health Record Book.
Special orientation programs helped train incoming home demonstration
agents in the continuing task of spreading home demonstration information
to families and individuals so that they may benefit from the wealth of
homemaking knowledge developed by home economics research.
In the field of audio-visual education, home demonstration clubs main-
tained 35 libraries and assisted with 52. They exchanged 496 books and
magazines and contributed 347 new books to libraries, in addition to sub-
scribing to 159 magazines and papers for libraries. They saw 322 educa-
tional motion pictures and filmstrips. They planned 338 meetings around
such cultural interests as art, music, literature. Ninety-two tours were
taken for cultural or educational purposes.
This year, for the first time, a 4-H Club camp library was maintained
through the summer at each of the five state 4-H camps. Reports show
that 17,674 readers took advantage of reading in the camp libraries.
During 1954 the State Home Demonstration Office has cooperated with
local, state and federal agencies in the preparation and dissemination of
mass media materials.


FOOD AND NUTRITION

Cleo M. Arnett, Extension Nutritionist

The food and nutrition program is designed to teach the value of good
nutrition as a basic factor in health and happiness and to encourage people
to adopt good food habits as a part of their daily living. To help accom-
plish this goal the program has been developed as a part of the total
family-centered home demonstration program. The work of the specialist
and materials developed by her were integrated at the state level to help
solve some of the county problems in accomplishing a family-centered pro-
gram. The work was organized around both adult and junior home demon-








Florida Cooperative Extension


station programs. Included were nutrition and health, food selection and
preparation, and planning and serving meals. We placed special emphasis
on increasing the use of fruits, vegetables and milk to get more vitamin
C, vitamin A and calcium in the diet; on good nutrition in weight control;
and on better breakfasts.
We reached families through radio, television, news articles, pamphlets,
bulletins, exhibits, method demonstrations, meetings, institutes, short
courses and home and office visits. Continued development of local leader-
ship helped to reach many people. There were 1,086 women and girls serv-
ing as voluntary local leaders in this project. They assisted 7,392 families.
White and negro home demonstration agents reported spending 2,896 days
developing the food and nutrition program. They contacted 30,941 persons in-
dividually or through meetings.


Fig. 13.-"You girls made some fine, nutritious kabobs," says their
instructor in the foods and nutrition class at Short Course.

4-H Club Work.-We emphasized in the 4-H program the development of
ability in planning, preparing and serving simple, well-balanced meals and
using home or locally produced foods when possible. We urged club mem-
bers to learn and follow good food habits for their best growth and develop-
ment. The 4-H club dairy foods awards program was accepted and this
encouraged many girls to use more milk. During the year 10,619 girls en-








Annual Report, 1954


rolled in and 6,237 girls completed food preparation projects. Dairy foods
demonstrations were given by 243 teams of two girls each and 1,986 indi-
viduals.

During the year families were assisted with food and nutrition as follows:
Activity Number
Im proving diets ....... .................................. ................................. 15,993
Planning and/or producing the home food supply ............................ 17,261
Food selection, nutritional needs, purchasing, variety and form 17,363
Meal planning and food preparation ....---.......... ...................... 20,232
Food for children .-- .. ....................................... 8,380
Food for older people ---.................................................... 5,160
Good nutrition in weight control ......................... ....................... 6,025
Balanced lunches for school children ---....................................... 3,569
Balanced lunches for adult workers -..----.....................------ ..... 2,190



FOOD CONSERVATION

Alice L. Cromartie, Assistant Economist in Food Conservation 1
Lena E. Sturges, Assistant Economist in Food Conservation 12

This year we have closely integrated our programs in food and nutrition,
production, conservation and consumer buying so that we might better serve
Florida families. Specialists concerned with these programs have worked
together to develop a coordinated program that will tie into family living
as a whole. Recognition of the more common dietary deficiencies in Flor-
ida-calcium and vitamins C and A-has given the program added emphasis.
The food conservation program has stressed conservation practices which
would retain as much of the nutritive value of food as possible after prepa-
ration, processing and storing. We have emphasized the need to increase
the conservation of fruits and vegetables high in calcium and vitamins A
and C.
The number of trained food conservation leaders in 1954 was 595. This
was an increase of 94 over 1953.
We have continued to promote fruit in the diet as we did in 1953. Area
in-service training meetings for agents were held statewide during the
year in the hope of increasing the use of all forms of milk in the family diet.
During 1954 there were 8,258 home freezers in use by home demonstra-
tion families. This shows an increase of 1,681 home freezer owners over
1953. The use of home freezers, plus the use of 5,725 commercial lockers,
accounts for the large increase in meats frozen during the past year. Re-
ports show that there were 182,873 pounds of meats frozen and 847,178
pounds cured. This affected the meat canning program to some extent
because of the flavor changes occurring when meat is canned. A total of
455,573 pounds of vegetables and 167,231 pounds of fruits were frozen
during the year, a decided increase in freezing. Canning of fruits and vege-
tables totaled 706,394 pints.
Home demonstration agents reported that 3,029 families had conserved
their family food supply by a planned budget. This type of planning in-
sured variety in the diet and better balanced meals for the family.
Resigned August 31, 1954.
12 Appointed November 1, 1954.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Food conservation continues to be an important part of total family
food picture. The trend toward use of home freezers has become an es-
tablished pattern and we are finding most home freezer space being used
to freeze meats and poultry. Slight increases in foods canned at home
serve to indicate that the home freezer isn't large enough to hold all the
family food supply. Planning is needed to obtain best use of the home
freezer and to make the most of foods available for canning.
To meet the need for keeping homemakers current on information based
on research, the Specialist has prepared an average of two articles monthly
for press and radio on latest methods in home conservation of food. These
have supplemented five freezer demonstrations given in different areas of
the state. These were open to the public. Four were sponsored by county
home demonstration agents and one by a county health unit.
Two of the six area in-service training meetings for agents were held
in the spring to help agents become better equipped to handle conserva-
tion questions and activities within their counties. In addition, eight leader
training meetings were held for club leaders in canning and freezing.
Five counties requested freezing and canning demonstrations open to all
club members. These were held with good response.
Food conservation guides, materials and program suggestions were re-
quested by 44 of the 50 counties now carrying on a home demonstration
Extension program.
Teaching actual skills in vegetable canning at the Girls' 4-H Short
Course created interest in canning as a project and as an activity de-
signed to help the family secure a better balanced food supply.
Food conservation will continue to be a very important part of the
family food supply as more is known and taught about easier methods of
preparation and use and as more is known about general nutrition and
how it applies to all members of the family.

FOOD PRODUCTION
Helen D. Holstein, Food Production and Conservation Specialist
Throughout the year families have been reminded of the relationship
between home food production and all phases of family living. Emphasis
was placed on planning the production of the family food supply, keeping
in mind family food needs, resources for producing foods, climatic and soil

Fig. 14.-These 4-H girls learn how to conserve foods that are tops.




Elt 4 1


A969__







Annual Report, 1954


conditions and economic factors involved. The entire family was encour-
aged to plan to produce its own food, in line with nutritional needs, resources
and facilities.
Throughout the year families were shown how some home food produc-
tion can supplement family income, provide a more nutritious diet and
develop opportunities for family recreation.
This program was integrated with other subject-matter programs to fit
the interests and needs of Florida families. It was planned and carried out
through the cooperative efforts of the state staffs, county home demonstra-
tion and agricultural agents, volunteer leaders, home demonstration and 4-H
clubs, junior and senior home demonstration councils and individuals. Fifty-
two statistical reports-white and negro-showed that 17,261 families were
assisted by Extension agents in planning or producing the home food supply.
Production of Fruits and Vegetables.-This phase of the program was
approached from the standpoint of home grounds beautification as well as
nutrition, health and economy. We stressed the need for increasing the
varieties planted, the use of recommended varieties and better manage-
ment. Reports from agents showed much interest in this program, as
revealed in the table below.

Work Done Women Girls
Home gardens planted .................................. 9,716 3,793
Fruit trees planted .................................... 16,995 1,153
Garden demonstrators ...................................... 1,965 1,703
Orchard demonstrators .................................. 795 157
4-H vegetable and fruit growing projects .... ...... 3,855
Garden chairmen and leaders ......-........... 399 327
Orchard chairmen ............................................ 268 392

Production of Livestock and Livestock Products.-Agents' reports show
that families produced more meat animals for the family food supply than
in 1953. Low beef prices and an increase in the purchase of home freezers
have no doubt had much to do with more animals being grown out for
home use.
The livestock production program includes poultry, dairy and meat ani-
mals. Reports from agents show that 1,058 4-H girls were poultry dem-
onstrators; that they raised 53,389 chickens; and that 1,530 girls kept
poultry records. Dairy projects were carried by 242 girls and 507 were
enrolled in other livestock projects. Home demonstration club members in
51 counties bought 1,234 milk cows, bringing the total up to 8,299 milk
cows owned by home demonstration and 4-H Club members. It was re-
ported that 9,323 families used a quart of milk daily for each child and a
pint for each adult. This indicated that these families appreciate the value
of milk and milk products in the diet.
Families were urged to use the calves from the family milk cow to sup-
ply additional meat for the family diet. During 1954 17,443 hogs, 4,234
beeves and 3,940 other meat animals were grown and used at home.







Florida Cooperative Extension


GIRLS' 4-H CLUB WORK

Emily King, State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Bronna Mae Elkins, Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent "
Martha Burdine, Acting Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent 1

There were 18,949 girls enrolled in 827 4-H Clubs during 1954. The
girls assumed 4-H Club project responsibilities and passed along 4-H in-
formation to others. The program was designed to help the girls to be
better citizens in their homes, clubs, communities and counties.


Fig. 15-They led the State Girls' 4-H Club Council for 1954. Left to
right: Mary Ann Godbold, Leon; Betty Hanson, Lake; Merriam Simmons,
St. Johns; Esther DeVore, Marion; Martha Mayfield, Volusia; Edna Marie
Doyle, Escambia; and Sandra Dennison, Orange.

3 On leave September 1, 1954, 'to do graduate work as a National 4-H Fellow.
1 Appointed October 1, 1954.







Annual Report, 1954


The 43 county girls' 4-H Club councils served as advisory committees
to the county home demonstration agents. Each council, composed of two
girls from each 4-H Club, met regularly and helped to plan and direct
county 4-H Club events. The councils also interpreted to the agents and
leaders the needs of the girls in the local clubs and helped local groups
to fit into the over-all county and state 4-H Club program. Two repre-
sentatives from each county 4-H council made up the State Girls' 4-H Club
Council. These representatives worked together on committees during the
State Girls' 4-H Club Short Course and members presided at all general
sessions.
The officers of the State Girls' 4-H Club Council held three meetings
during the year, at which they helped plan the annual meeting and the 4-H
exhibits at the State Fair.
The requirements for completing specific projects in subject-matter
phases were met by 12,712 girls. These requirements included making an
exhibit and submitting a project record and story of achievement. County
home demonstration agents, adult 4-H Club leaders and others provided in-
formation and encouragement to the 4-H Club girls in completing their
projects. The adults helped with training meetings, exhibits, news stories,
bulletins, achievement days, tours, camps and rallies, as well as giving- in-
dividual assistance.
The 494 4-H Club girls who gave leadership assistance in their local
and county 4-H Club groups worked closely with adult 4-H Club leaders and
county home demonstration agents in the development of 4-H Club work.
Some 1,089 adults served as volunteer leaders under the direction of home
demonstration agents. A total of 7,030 leaders attended the 375 training
meetings held for them.
Group activities helped provide 4-H Club girls with information they
needed and aided others to have a better understanding of the place of 4-H
in the Extension Service program. Twenty-six weeks of camp were attended
by 1,833 girls. Five hundred clubs and 1,788 4-H Club girls engaged in
community activities, such as improving school grounds and conducting local
achievement programs and fairs.
The public received information on 4-H Club work through the observance
of National 4-H Club Achievement Day, National 4-H Club Week, Rural
Life Sunday, and observing 4-H Club work at local, district and state fairs,
short courses, camps and rallies. These events also provided opportunities
for the girls to develop their individual abilities by assuming responsibilities
in planning and directing of activities.
Girls' 4-H Club work showed growth, strength and expansion during the
year. The number of 4-H Club girls enrolled increased by 1,236. Some
1,340 more 4-H Club meetings were held. Attendance at 4-H Club meetings
increased by 53,538 over 1953 and there were 67 more clubs than in 1953.


HEALTH EDUCATION

Frances C. Cannon, Assistant Health Education Specialist

The county home demonstration agents' reports for 1954 show that much
progress was made in attaining the health education goals they set up at
the beginning of the year. Major points of emphasis in the health program
were overcoming the lack of information and complacency of people in
general concerning health, overweight and health problems of older people.
Health Education.-Continued emphasis was placed on including health
education in all Extension activities. Therefore, county home demonstration







72 Florida Cooperative Extension

agents are beginning to see how health can be brought into their regular
programs.
In addition to including and emphasizing health in all phases of their
county work, agents reported that 920 health programs were held in the
state this year. This is an increase over the 748 health programs held in
1953.
Agents furthered the knowledge of health through the club programs,
news articles, radio talks, home visits and counseling. Some of the sub-
jects covered in these ways were: understanding ourselves as a basis of
understanding our children, cancer, mental health, posture, dental health
and overweight.
Senior council meetings in the counties also were a means of getting
health knowledge across. Medical doctors spoke to these groups on mental
health, heart disease and cancer. Speakers were also scheduled to discuss
topics such as: knowing and using county health departments, services of
the Red Cross, safety and fire prevention.
Emphasis on overweight was continued with seven counties reporting
work in this field. In Alachua, Orange and Taylor counties the Assistant
Health Education Specialist and the Extension Nutritionist held joint train-
ing meetings with the health chairmen and food and nutrition chairmen.
Following these training meetings each chairman held a similar meeting
with her club.
Since our advanced age population is on the increase, nine counties took
a look at the health problems of people over 40 years of age.
4-H Health.-Four-H health education work also is on the increase. There
were 7,415 club members who received definite training in health, nursing,
first aid and good grooming, an increase of 3,414 over last year. This train-
ing was given mostly in 4-H Club meetings and at 4-H camps. For the past
two years the importance of having 4-H girls receive physical examinations
before attending 4-H camp has been stressed. Definite progress is being

Fig. 16.-These 4-H girls and their leaders get first aid instruction.







Annual Report, 1954


made. Nine county home demonstration agents reported that their girls
received physical examinations from either family doctors or the county
health officer. This year 4,096 4-H Club members received physical examina-
tions, 3,598 were enrolled in health improvement projects and 2,438 com-
pleted their work.
Cooperation with Health Agencies.-Cooperation with health agencies is
a big part of the health education program of the Agricultural Extension
Service. One of our responsibilities is to bring to the attention of people the
services and facilities of health organizations and agencies. The table below
shows how the Extension Service aided in acquainting people with other
agencies concerned with health and their activities.

Activity Cooperating Adult Clubs 4-H Clubs
March of Dimes-Infantile Paralysis .. 503 402
Cancer Crusade .....................................--. 347 195
Christmas TB Seal Sales ........................ 344 281
Easter Stamp Sales ................................ 121 168
TB and X-ray Clinics ............................ 436 191

Additional close cooperation was given by county health departments, the
State Board of Health, local physicians, the Florida Medical Association, Red
Cross chapters, veterans' hospitals and blood banks.
A total of 366 adult home demonstration clubs and 261 girls' 4-H Clubs
have health chairmen. There were 38 health training meetings held, with
527 attending. In addition, health education classes were held as parts of
the State Home Demonstration Council Short Course and the Girls' State
4-H Short Course.

HOME IMPROVEMENT

Bonnie J. Carter, Home Improvement Specialist

The home improvement program in Florida is designed to meet the needs
of people for comfortable, convenient, attractive and well-managed homes
which will enable them to live more satisfying lives and become better citi-
zens.
The home improvement program was planned and carried out in 50
counties by white and negro home demonstration agents and assistants.
They were aided by the Specialist and state administrative staff, voluntary
local leaders and senior and junior councils of home demonstration work.
Information was presented through 4-H and women's club meetings, tours,
achievement days and home visits. Work was also carried on with other
organizations and persons, and through the press and radio.
Home demonstration agents and assistants spent 4,383 days working on
all phases of home improvement. Voluntary local leaders numbering 3,236
assisted with the home improvement program. One'hundred sixty-four
training meetings were held for 2,054 voluntary local leaders.
The House and'Surroundings, Furnishings and Equipment.-This phase
of the program is designed to improve housing conditions, create a desire
for a high standard of living, promote good health and help bring about
satisfying home and family life. Activities include: (1) building, remodel-
ing, repairing homes and adding conveniences to meet family needs; (2)
beautifying the home and surroundings; (3) furnishing the home for com-
fort, convenience and beauty.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Family Living.-Activities to help people improve family living include
assistance in: (1) making satisfactory adjustments to living conditions, (2)
adopting good practices in rearing children, (3) improving family relation-
ships, (4) managing the income to meet needs of the family, (5) making
wise use of credit, (6) using human and material resources for bettering
family living, (7) adding to the family income in kind or cash, (8) practic-
ing orderly, systematic and efficient work habits, (9) practicing every-day
good housekeeping, (10) providing security for old age and medical and
dental care, and (11) providing and using opportunities for religious, civic,
educational and recreational activities for all family members.
Consumer Education.-This phase of the program is designed to help
people make better use of their resources. They are assisted in: (1) learn-
ing to make wise decisions when buying household supplies, equipment,
furnishings and building material, (2) developing skills in building and in
repairing and refinishing floors, walls, work surfaces, furniture and wood-
work, (3) reading and understanding labels, specifications, guarantees and
directions for care and use of equipment and materials used at home; and
(4) following recommended practices for use and care of equipment.
Home improvement activities promoted through the Extension program
and some of the results are listed below. These figures represent work of
men, women, girls and boys, both white and negro.
Days spent by agents in all phases of home improvement ........ 4,383
Number voluntary local leaders assisting .....----...................- ..... 3,236
Total number of persons contacted individually or through
meetings ....---------.... ....... ....---... .. ----------............................ 140,960
Estimated total number of different families, homemakers or
other individuals assisted directly or indirectly to adopt
recommended practices ............------..........---... ........................... 85,333
Families, Homemakers and Other Individuals Assisted with:
Building a new home .............................................. 743
Remodeling or repairing the house --................-----................. 3,571
Improving kitchen and laundry ......---. ----......--.................. 1,977
Improving storage space ---- .. .......................................... 3,435
Selecting, installing and care of:
(a) water and/or sewage systems ...................................... 1,415
(b) cooling system s ..-------....................................... 944
Planning electrical systems ...............------------........................ 1,334
Landscaping home grounds .-----.......-- ............. .......................... 14,812
Selecting, using and caring for home equipment (other than
sew ing) .......- ...... -....................... .......................................... 8,185
Selecting, using and constructing home furnishings ................ 6,775
Repairing, reconditioning and caring for home furnishings .... 6,996
Furniture arrangement and use of accessories ........................ 7,517
Color schemes and wall finishes .....-----............... .................. 6,349
Floor finishes .-------....... --------------............................ 2,620
Arriving at management decisions ------..................................... 6,959
Improving housekeeping methods ...-----..............-................... 10,714
Family laundering .---..........------......-.... .......... .................. 7,006
The use of rural family outlook information ........................... 3,601
Family financial planning ...................... .............................. 3,214
Keeping and analyzing home records ....................-.................. 2,450
Family legal matters .......... ........... ---------- ................. 1,566
Legal aspects of farm business ....--------.....-.. ................... ........... 42*
Obtaining and using farm credit -------.................. ......-........... 32*
Home demonstration reports only.








Annual Report, 1954


Families Assisted with:
Child development and guidance ..............................................
Providing recommended play, clothing and equipment suited
to age of children ......... ... ........... ............... ....... .....-
Understanding roles of family members and strengthening
fam ily relationships .................................................. ....
Individual adjustments and personality development .........-...
H om e and fam ily recreation ...........................................................


5,742

5,820

5,319
4,803
7,802


4-H Club Work in Home Improvement.-This program is designed to
stimulate the interest of girls in learning to do simple home tasks well; in
making their homes more beautiful, comfortable and convenient, both inside
and out; and in becoming well-adjusted members of their families and com-
munities.
4-Club members received training in home improvement activities in
1954 as follows:
Enrolled Completing
Beautification of home grounds .......................... 4,671 2,711
Child care ...................... .. ............................ ... ... 2,776 1,529
Home management (good housekeeping) -.......... 1,666 1,174
Electricity --.... --... ..- ..-... ............... ....... ............ 1,087 715
Home furnishings and room improvement ........ 3,926 2,499
Units involved: rooms ..................................... 1,589
articles ...........-....... .... ..-------......... 4,739

Boys and girls, in cooperation with Extension Horticulturists and Farm Electrification
Specialist.


Fig. 17.-This outdoor


recreation center attracted attention
4-H Short Course.


C-;._-:-


during Girls'







Florida Cooperative Extension


Club members receiving training in money management .. 7,403
Exhibits made by 4-H Club members ................................ 955
Meetings held to train 4-H leaders ........................................ 64
Attendance at these training meetings ............................ 622
Special training in several phases of 4-H Club home improvement was
given to the 4-H girls, voluntary local leaders and home demonstration
agents numbering approximately 515 at the annual 4-H short course.
Others were assisted through leader training meetings, 4-H Club and junior
council meetings, camps and home visits.
Requests for help with the several phases of home improvement have
increased during the past few years. Apparently the home demonstration
agents, assisted by the home improvement and other Extension specialists,
will need to train more voluntary local leaders and help provide opportuni-
ties for them to assist in their communities.


HOME INDUSTRIES AND MARKETING

Gladys Kendall, Home Industries and Marketing Specialist

The objective of the home industries and marketing project is to assist
families with ways and means of increasing and/or extending the family
income. Consumer information, management of resources, producing and
marketing quality home-produced products were emphasized in both adult
and youth work during the year.
Consumer Information and Management of Resources.-In the consumer
information phase of the program, we placed major emphasis on buying
foods, house furnishings and equipment, and household textiles. In manage-
ment of resources emphasis was on managing time, energy and money.
Families were assisted with problems of selection, purchasing and "making
versus buying" decisions. All county Extension agents spent 1,068 days
working on home management and family economics. The agents and volun-
teer leaders assisted families in the following lines:
Assistance With Families Assisted
Management decisions ........ --------............... ............... 6,859
Family laundering problems ....-- --..................... ................... 7,006
Use of rural family outlook information ................................ 3,601
Family financial planning .... ---..............-- --.- ......... .......... 3,214
Keeping and analyzing home records ................................... 2,450
Family legal matters ................------ --.......................... 1,566
Selection and buying:
Food .---.. --.... .. -....-..-- ....... .. .................... 15,216
Clothing ......... ---..........-........-............. .......................... 1 ,17,363
Home equipment other than sewing equipment ......... -- 8,185
Home furnishings .............. -...........- ..-- ......-------- ............-..... 6,775
Developing supplemental source of income (h.d. agents) .... 109
Home Industries, Arts and Crafts.-Home industries were encouraged as
a means of supplementing family income. Native materials, food products
and other resources of the farm and home were used. Home demonstration
families received approximately 2.5 percent more cash from the sale of home-
produced products in 1954 than in 1953. Approximately 97 percent of the
cash received was from the sale of food products and the other 3 percent
was from the sale of flowers, plants, handicraft articles and services such
as nursing, baby sitting, catering and sewing. About 73 percent of the total







Annual Report, 1954 77

cash received was from the sale of eggs. In addition to the cash received
for products, many families contributed home-made products to charity and
community drives in place of cash.
Home demonstration and 4-H Club members reported marketing the
following:

Food Products Value
Eggs ...................-................--- ---------- .....-- $576,098.91
Poultry ................................... ....................... 68,509.22
Fresh vegetables ...................--.....-- .. --- .-------. 27,325.25
Dairy products ..................... ........................... 26,023.07
Fresh fruit ............................................................ 49,657.61
Baked foods ....................................................... ...... .............. 10,088.48
Canned foods ............................................................... 6,825.63
Miscellaneous food products ........................- ............... 3,467.10

Total food products ..........................----------.. -.... $767,995.27

Other products ....................-.....-............. ...----- 19,193.83

Total of all products ..................... ................. .... $787,189.10

The demand for teaching craft skills was met by helping people learn
to apply art principles to homemaking and to create and produce inexpen-
sive gifts and articles for family use and sale. All craft activities were a
definite part of a basic family living program. Volunteer leaders actively
assisted with this part of the program. There was a ready market for
quality handicraft articles that were suitable for gifts and souvenirs and
that sold at a reasonable price. The development of profitable hobbies and
leisure time activities was encouraged.
Families were given assistance with the following:
Families Assisted
Developing home industries .................................. ----... --- 2,855
Standarizing products ...................... ------------..... 1,128
Improving quality of products ............................................. 1,668
Practices incident to home arts and crafts ................................ 6,691

Marketing Activities.-The program in marketing and distribution of
agricultural products was carried on by Extension specialists in agricultural
economics, marketing and other agricultural subject matter. However, peo-
ple who worked closely with the home demonstration agents looked to
them for guidance and assistance in marketing farm products.
Home demonstration agents devoted 104 days to assisting with market-
ing agricultural products. They assisted 15 organized cooperatives which
have 2,595 members. In addition, 14 groups with 213 members were organ-
ized informally to market cooperatively. A total of 10,178 persons were
assisted by agents with some phase of marketing, including buyers, sellers
and handlers.
Program Development.-The home industries and marketing program
was integrated with other related subject-matter programs. It was planned
and developed in 50 counties by the Specialist, working with agents and local
leaders and others. Instruction was given in (1) improving consumer buy-
ing practices in the selection of foods, house furnishings and equipment;
(2) managing to best advantage all resources, especially time, energy and
money; (3) making quality products of palmetto, bamboo, coconut fronds,






Florida Cooperative Extension


pine needles, cattail rush and other semi-tropical plants; (4) improving
standards, packaging and labeling of home products; (5) interpreting laws
and regulations concerning the marketing of products; (6) making acces-
sories for the home, such as rugs, flower containers, stools, lamps and lamp
shades; (7) making toys and games from scrap and gifts from inexpensive
materials; (8) recognizing and using art principles; and (9) planning, pre-
paring and arranging educational exhibits for use at fairs, achievement days
and other events. Volunteer leaders assisting with this program included
582 in home management, 411 in family economics, 367 in marketing of home
products and 679 in home arts and crafts.
In 31 training meetings the Specialist assisted with training a total of
620 leaders. Agents conducted nine training meetings in marketing and 142
in home arts and crafts for leaders. Leaders and others held 1,817 meetings,
attended by approximately 28,000 adults and 4-H Club girls. Assistance was
given to agents, leaders, club members and others at seven training meet-
ings for agents, at statewide conference, short courses, institutes and other
special events. In eight counties 184 leaders were trained to plan, prepare,
arrange and judge or evaluate exhibits.
4-H Club Work.-The 4-H Club program emphasized (1) management of
resources, (2) using current information in buying foods, (3) using improved
practices in producing articles for sale or gift, and (4) keeping more ac-

Fig. 18.-"Let's shop for equipment for outdoor meals," says the specialist,
as the girls seem interested.







Annual Report, 1954


curate and complete records. There were 1,666 club members enrolled in
management projects, with 1,172 completing. A total of 7,403 4-H members
in home industries, arts and crafts and 1,248 completed their projects.
Special training in better buying practices, management and arts and
crafts was given to approximately 1,050 4-H Club girls, leaders and home
demonstration agents at short courses and 4-H Club camps.


PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING

Eunice Grady, Assistant to State Home Demonstration Agent
in Training Program
Chief responsibility of the Assistant has been to help plan, supervise and
conduct pre-service and in-service training for county home demonstration
agents.
Pre-Service Training.-The Assistant taught the junior course in home
demonstration education twice in the regular school semesters and once in
a three-week summer session. This course was a part of a curriculum in
the School of Home Economics at Florida State University. During the
summer session she taught the home demonstration education intern course,
and in the fall semester the senior course.
At the State Home Demonstration Office the Assistant planned.and super-
vised the pre-service training of 12 trainees, 10 of whom are now on appoint-
ment as home demonstration agents or assistants. Two were on long-time
training appointments. One young woman resigned to be married; the other
completed her work. Ten women were on short-time training appointments.
Four took the course in home demonstration education offered during the
three-week summer session at Florida State University. Six completed their
training work in the State Home Demonstration Office or in the counties to
which they were later appointed.
In-Service Training.-The Assistant taught two newly appointed home
demonstration agents in the summer school course, as a part of their in-
service training. She assisted all the agents throughout the state by helping
with area training meetings on the responsibilities of home demonstration
agents, the home demonstration chorus program, the "use more milk" pro-
gram and the health education program.
She helped all the agents with in-service training through such state-
wide meetings as Girls' 4-H Club Short Course, State Senior Council meet-
ing and Home Demonstration Short Course and annual agents' conference.
One of the important responsibilities of the Assistant was serving as
co-chairman of the in-service training committee for the State Home Demon-
stration Office. This committee, working on a three-year plan, recommended
area and statewide in-service training to be arranged for county home demon-
stration agents, based on their requests and suggestions from state staff
members. She served also on the joint Extension committee for profes-
sional improvement.
During 1954 an undergraduate (pre-service) curriculum in home demon-
stration education was established in the School of Home Economics at
Florida State University. The basic plan for graduate pre-service training
at the State Home Demonstration Office has been formulated and accepted by
the administrative staff. The in-service training program has been care-
fully determined, on a three-year basis, with the purpose of giving the best
possible help to county home demonstration agents as they work in 50 coun-
ties in Florida.






Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK

J. A. Gresham, Negro District Agent
The Agricultural Extension Service program by negro agents is carried
on principally with negro farm families in 10 counties. These agents have
the help of community and neighborhood leaders, county advisory councils,
specialists and business and civic leaders. Programs and plans are deter-
mined and developed with farm people. Counties served by negro Exten-
sion agents include Alachua, Columbia, Gadsden, Hamilton, Jackson, Jeffer-
son, Leon, Madison, Marion and Sumter.
Additional financial support was secured from five counties for salaries
of county workers: Jackson, Leon, Gadsden, Marion and Columbia. All
counties except Hamilton provided financial help in transporting 4-H club
groups to the State 4-H Club Short Course at Florida A and M University
June 1-5, and to the Doe Lake State 4-H Camp in Marion County June 21
to August 7.
Two county agents attended the three-week special summer school at
Prairie View State College, Prairie View, Texas, June 7-26.
Adult Activities.-One state conference of agricultural and home demon-
stration agents was held at Florida A and M University, November 29 to
December 3. The state director of Agricultural Extension discussed the
future program of Extension in Florida. Other state officials, specialists

Fig. 19.-Governor Collins seems pleased with the demonstrations staged
by negro 4-H members at the Florida State Fair.
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Annual Report, 1954 81

and leaders from other services led discussions on new developments in
planning and conducting programs with rural people.
A state farmers' conference was held jointly with Florida A and M
University. Some 305 negro farmers from many areas attended. Assisting
with the conference were personnel from the local School of Agriculture, the
Leon County Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Committee, Agri-
cultural Experiment Station personnel and the Florida Agricultural Exten-
sion Service staff.
Through arrangements made by the Assistant Director, visits were made
to the Agricultural Experiment Stations at the University of Florida and the
North Florida Station near Quincy. Agents were brought up to date on
research findings in livestock, field crops and pasture.
Five negro Extension agents displayed county exhibits at the State Fair
in Tampa February 3-14. The participating counties were Columbia, Marion,
Madison, Jefferson and Gadsden. Each of these counties also exhibited home-
cured meat in the meat department, taking four of the five prizes.
4-H Club Work.-Six 4-H demonstration teams from Jackson, Leon,
Columbia, Sumter, Alachua and Gadsden counties conducted 12 demonstra-
tions during the State Fair. These demonstrations attracted hundreds of
Fair visitors.
Nine awards were accepted for negro 4-H boys by the State Director's
office. These awards provided watches, pen and pencil sets, savings bonds
and medals for those excelling in various phases of 4-H Club work.
One State 4-H corn improvement show was held at the North Florida
Fair. Prize money amounting to $300.00 was won by 4-H club boys who
displayed winning exhibits. This is an annual event and is one of the causes
for the increased corn yields reported by club boys during the past three
years.
Two 4-H Club fat hog shows were held during November-one at Webster
in Sumter County and the other at Monticello. Both were district shows.
They brought together 91 fine hogs from seven counties.
Four outstanding 4-H Club boys represented Florida at the Regional 4-H
Club Camp at Jackson College, Jackson, Mississippi, August 9-16, where 4-H
members from 17 other Southern states were in attendance.
During 1954 negro county agents carried on the following teaching activi-
ties as reflected in their annual reports:
Extension Teaching Other Activities
Number
Farm or hom e visits .................................................. ...... 6,018
Office calls ..............................--- ------ ---------- 6,519
Telephone calls ......... ...... ............. ........ --- -----...... 2,690
News articles ........................................ ...... --------- 183
Broadcasts ....................... --------- ------------- 3
Bulletins distributed .............................................. ...... 8,579
Adult result demonstrations conducted .......-................................ 91
Training meetings held for local leader:
Number .....................-...--- ----.. ........... 78
Attendance .............................--- .....-............------------. 1,138
All other meetings agents held or participated in:
Number .......................- ..-- ----------.-------- 145
A attendance ............................................... ............ 4,625
Meetings held or attended by local leaders:
Number .........................-..------ ---------............... 77
Attendance ............--------........---------- -- ----- --------- 1,735







Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Floy Britt, District Home Demonstration Agent

Home demonstration work for negro women and girls is established in 12
counties. These are Alachua, Columbia, Dade, Duval, Hillsborough, Gads-
den, Jackson, Leon, Madison, Marion, Putnam and Volusia. With the excep-
tion of Dade, these counties are located in the general farming area of the
northern and central sections of the state.
The state program for negro home demonstration work is directed by the
State Home Demonstration Agent, who in turn is responsible to the State
Extension Director. The Negro District Agent supervises the work and
assists with statewide programs.
In carrying on the Extension program in 1954, negro home demonstration
agents made 4,300 home visits, received 5,788 office calls, had 3,604 tele-
phone calls, published 220 news articles and distributed 13,130 bulletins.
As a result of Extension influence, 2,083 negro families adopted recom-
mended practices in improving their homes and surroundings, 2,177 families
changed practices in providing family clothing and 4,630 families made im-
provemenc in food production, nutrition and health.

Fig. 20.-This Leon County farm family sell produce two days a week on the
Tallahassee city market, sometimes grossing as much as $75 a week.







Annual Report, 1954


Additional assistance from Extension specialists was available during the
year, which helped agents to do better Extension teaching jobs. Two home
demonstration agents took Extension courses at the Regional Summer
School, Prairie View, Texas, during the summer to increase their efficiency
as home demonstration agents.
Adult Program.-The negro Extension program was designed to increase
and conserve food to meet needs for Florida negro families, provide more
convenient and attractive homes and more adequate clothing, improve health
practices and family recreational facilities, and guide families in the wise
spending of their incomes.
Agents reported a total of 92 adult home demonstration clubs organized,
with an enrollment of 1,909 members. They held 684 method demonstration
meetings, with 11,818 attending. They conducted 35 adult training meetings,
with 450 attending, and 43 county-wide meetings, with an attendance of
1,403. Seven adult county councils with 195 members were organized and
406 volunteer leaders assisted in promoting the home demonstration pro-
gram.
Under the guidance of the home demonstration agents and the super-
vision of the District Agent, home-makers from 12 counties set up a credit-
able state home demonstration exhibit at the Florida State Fair. Some 287
families participated in 16 county-wide home improvement and pantry tours.
4-H Club Activities.-Negro home demonstration agents reported a total
of 126 organized 4-H Clubs in 12 counties, with 4,309 members enrolled. The
4-H girls enrolled in 10,475 projects and completed 7,697. In addition, agents
held 50 4-H training meetings, with 693 attending, and 1,147 method demon-
stration meetings, with 35,206 in attendance. Also six garden and poultry
tours with an attendance of 201.
Ten 4-H Club girls won honors in the 1954 awards program, four out-
standing 4-H Club girls won free trips to the 1954 Regional 4-H Club Camp
held at Jackson, Mississippi.
The State 4-H Short Course was attended by 213 girls. Four district
4-H Club girls' camps were attended by 363 girls. A State 4-H council for
negro girls was organized, with 4-H county council officers from nine coun-
ties participating. Eleven demonstrations were given at the State Fair.
Twelve outstanding 4-H Club girls were honored at the fair and were
awarded recognition certificates for meritorius work done in their various
counties.
The Annual Conference for Negro Farm and Home Demonstration Agents
offered an opportunity for agents to improve themselves professionally. The
State Extension Leaders' Regional Conference held in Atlanta gave timely
information and inspiration to the state agents and district supervisors from
the 17 Southern States.







Florida Cooperative Extension


INDEX


Accomplishments, home demon-
stration, 61, 63
Activities, agronomy, 24
citrus, 34
food and nutrition, 67
4-H, 31
health education, 73
home demonstration, 61
home improvement, 74
marketing, 77
negro adult, 80
negro farm demonstration, 81
negro 4-H, 83
ornamental horticulture, 48
Adult negro program, 83
Agencies, poultry, 52
Agents, associates, 10, 14
county, 4, 5, 6, 7
home demonstration, 4, 5, 6, 7
training courses, 42, 54
Agricultural Economics, 15
Agricultural Engineering, 18
Agricultural Marketing Service, 18
Agronomy, 22
activities, 24
demonstrations, 23
group work, 23
results, 24
Animal Husbandry, 25
Apiculture, 26
apiaries, 4-H, 28
apiary awards, 4-H, 28
Arnett, Cleo M., 65
Articles, farm journal, 41
Arts and crafts, 76
Assistance to personal, 18
Associations, Aberdeen Angus, 25
Dairy Herd Improvement, 36
Florida Fruit and Vegetable, 54
Florida Honey Packers, 28
Florida Poultry, 52
Florida Seedsmen's, 54
State Beekeepers, 28
Awards program, 4-H, 31

Barrus, Edith Y., 57
Beale, Clyde, 40
Beef cattle, 25
4-H activities, 26
Beekeeping, 27
state association, 28
Bevis, Joyce, 57
Boys' 4-H work, 29
Breeding, dairy, 37
Britt, Floy, 82


Brogdon, James E., 42
Brooders, chick, 22
pig, 20
Brown, W. W., 29
Burdine, Martha, 70
Burgess, S. L., 40
Business, farm management, 12

Cake, E. W., 17
Camps, 4-H, 29
wildlife, 29
Cannon, Frances, 52, 71
Carter, Bonnie J., 73
Catalpa plantings, 45
Cattle, beef, 25
dairy, 36
Cattlemen's field day, 25
schools, 23
Cedar, red, 45
white, 45
Changes in staff, 9
Chick brooders, 22
Citrus, 32
activities, 33
AIBS tours, 33
clinics, 32
demonstrations, 33
efficient production, 34
4-H work, 33
graduate courses, 33
grove management, 34
institutes, 32
irrigation, 35
nitrogen, 34
nursery stock, 35
other fruits, 33
prices, 36
production, 35
returns, 34
setting grove, 35
schools, 33
tours, 33
training program, 32
Clayton, H. G., 8, 14
Clinics, citrus, 32
Clothing and Textiles, 62
Clubs, 4-H, 29, 70, 80, 82
College credits, 9
Commodity marketing, 18
Community development, 13
Conference, poultry, 52
Conservation food, 67
resources, 11, 12
soil, 11
Consumer information, 76








Annual Report, 1954


Cooper, J. Francis, 40
Cooperation, agronomy, 23
dairying, 39
health agencies, 73
power suppliers, 21
Cooperatives, 13
assistance to, 17
contest, 4-H, 18
Florida Council, 18
new, 17
planning, 12
County agents, 4, 5, 6, 7
animal husbandry activities, 26
supervision, 14
Courses, citrus, 33
4-H, 29
Cromartie, Alice L., 67
Crop production, 12

Dairy cow testing, 37
Dairy Herd Improvement, 36
Dairy Husbandry, 36
Dairy, breeding, 38
cooperation, 39
DHIA, 36
feeding and management, 38
field day, 23
4-H club work, 39
home milk supply, 38
pasture and forage, 38
Development, community, 13
farm and home, 16
Dickenson, Elizabeth, 62
Director, Extension, 14
Director's report, 8
Farm and home development, 10
financial statement, 8
4-H clubs, 10
personnel training, 9
staff changes, 9
statistical, 11
summary, 14
Distribution, foundation seeds, 23
Distribution and marketing, 13
District agents, 14

Economic outlook, 16
Economics, Agricultural, 15
Economics, family, 13
Editorial Department, 40
miscellaneous, 42
news stories, 41
radio and television, 41
visual aids, 42
Editorial and Visual Aids, 64
Education, consumer, 74
health, 71


health and housing, 11
Egg-laying contest, 51
Egg production, 50
Electric chick brooders, 22
fences, 20
4-H program, 21
hotbeds, 20
lighting, 21
power suppliers, 21
Electrification, farm, 18, 20
Elkins, Bronna Mae, 70
Engineering, Agricultural, 18
Enrollments, 4-H clubs, 13, 31, 70
Entomology, 42
cooperation with specialist, 42
4-H program, 42
industry groups, 42
training agents, 42
visual aids, 42
Equipment, farm, 20
home, 21
Exhibits and fairs, 28
Extension programs, 10
personnel assistance, 18
teaching methods, 16
training foreign visitors, 11
workers conference, 10

Fairs and exhibits, 25, 28
Family economics, 13
life, 12, 74
Farm business management, 12
demonstration, 80
electrification, 18, 20
equipment and shows, 19, 20
home development, 10, 16
home planning, 15
journal articles, 41
management, 15
news stories, 41
structures, 18
Feeding dairy cows, 38
Federal funds, 8
Fences, electric, 20
Fern growers, 46
Fertilizer, nitrogen, 34
Field crop guides, 22
seed distribution, 23
yields, 24
Field days, dairy, 38
vegetable, 53
Financial statement, 8, 9
Financing, home demonstration, 5S
Fire, protection, 44
prevention, 52







Florida Cooperative Extension


Florida A and M University, 29
Agricultural Research Institute,
54
Beekeepers Association, 28
Council of Farmer Cooperatives,
18
Fruit and Vegetable Association,
54
Honey Packers Association, 28
Honey Week, 27
National Egg-Laying Contest, 51
Seedsmen's Association, 54
State University, 16, 58
FOA, 11
4-H activities, 30, 31
apiaries, 28
awards programs, 31
beef cattle, 26
boys, 29, 81
camps, 29
Club Congress, 32
citrus, 33
cooperative contest dairying,
39
Danforth leadership camp, 32
electric program, 21
entomology program, 42
enrollment, 8
food and nutrition, 66
forestry, 46
girls, 70, 83
health education, 71
home improvement, 75
home industries, 78
livestock judging, 29
news letter, 30
ornamental horticulture, 47
poultry, 49
projects, 31
promotional techniques, 30
special schools, 29
summary of work, 13
tractor maintenance, 30
wildlife camp, 29
work, 10
Food conservation, 11, 67
Food and Nutrition, 65
Food production, 68, 69
Foreign visitors, 11
Fruit merchandising, 55
Funds, federal, 8
state, 8
Forestry, 43
catalpa plantings, 45
fern growers, 46
fire protection, 44
4-H club work, 46


juniper plantings, 45
red cedar, 45
sand pine, 46
slash pine, 45
shade and shelter, 46
tupelo plantings, 45

Godwin, Grant M., 29
Grady, Eunice, 57, 79
Gresham, J. A., 80
Grove management, 34
returns, 34
setting, 35
Groups, commodity marketing, 18
home demonstration, 58
Gunn, June R., 14

Hamilton, H. G., 15
Hampson, C. M., 15
Haynie, John D., 26
Health Education, 71
4-H, 72
housing, 11
statistical report, 12
Hereford Association, 25
Henderson, J. R., 22
Hogs, 25
Holloway, Ethyl, 57
Holstein, Helen D., 68
Honey exports, 27
fairs and exhibits, 28
Florida Packers Association, 28
week, 27
Home demonstration, 61, 63
agents, 4, 5, 6, 7
citizenship, 61
financing, 58
food conservation, 67
food and nutrition, 65
food production, 68
fruits and vegetables, 69
4-H clubs, 70
health education, 71, 72
home improvement, 73
home industries, 76
induction training, 60
in-service training, 60, 79
negro, 82
organization and supervision, 57
personnel, 59
pre-service training, 59, 78
program, 58
special interest groups, 58
Home development, 16
Home equipment, 21
Home improvement, 73
consumer education, 74







Annual Report, 1954


family living, 74
4-H club, 75
furnishings and equipment, 73
Home Industries and Marketing, 77
arts and crafts, 76
4-H club, 78
program development, 77
Home management, 13
Horticulture, ornamental, 47
Housing, 11

Industry groups, agronomy, 23
Institute, Poultry, 52
Citrus, 32
Florida Agricultural Research, 54
National Honey, 28
Irrigation, 19, 35

Jamison, F. S., 53
Jensen, A. S., 43
Joiner, Jasper N., 32, 47
Judging livestock, 29, 39

Kalch, L. W., 49
Kendall, Gladys, 76
King, Emily, 70

Lawrence, Fred P., 32
Layer management, poultry, 49
Lighting, electric, 21
Livestock, 4-H, 29
production, 69
shade and shelter, 46

Machinery, farm, 19
Maintenance, 4-H tractor, 30
Management, broiler, 49
farm business, 12
home, 13
poultry, 49
turkey, 49
Marketing, 11, 13, 17, 18, 76, 77
McElwee, E. W., 47
McMullen, K. S., 14
Mehrhof, N. R., 49
Meetings, vegetable grower, 53
Merchandising fruits and vege-
tables, 53, 55, 56
Methods of teaching, 16
Milk supply, 38
Mixon, A. C., 22
Montelaro, James, 53
Moore, J. S., 49
Moreland, H. L., Jr., 40
Murphree, Clyde E., 15, 16
Myers, F. E., 53

National Achievement Day, 71


National 4-H Camp, 32
Negro adult activities, 80, 83
Extension activities, 81
farm demonstration, 80
4-H, 81, 83
home demonstration, 82
Nesmith, A. E., 14
New cooperatives, 17
Newsletter, 4-H, 30
News stories, 41
Nieland, L. T., 43, 52
Norton, J. D., 53
Nursery stock, 35
Nutrition, 65

Organization, home demonstration,
57
Ornamental horticulture, 47
4-H, 47
group activities, 48
other activities, 48
regional and national, 48
special county program, 47
O'Steen, A. W., 49
Outlook, economic, 16

Pace, J. E., 25
Parvin, F. W., 8
Pasture and forage, 38
Perry, F. S., 14
Personnel, home demonstration, 59
training, 9
Pettis, A. M., 20
Pig brooders, 20
Planning, farm and home, 15
Planting, catalpa, 45
forestry, shade, 46
red cedar, 45
sand pine, 46
tupelo, 45
Platt, W. J., Jr., 14
Poultry associations, 52
Breeders Conference, 52
broiler management, 49
cooperating agencies, 52
egg production, 50
egg show, 50
4-H, 49
growing pullets, 49
Institute, 52
layer management, 49
National Egg-Laying Test, 51
Random Sample Test, 51, 52
Poultry Husbandry, 49
Planting, farm forest, 11
Press releases, 54
Prices, citrus, 36







88 Florida Coope

Production, citrus, 34, 35
dairy cattle, 37
egg, 50
field crops, 22
food, 68
fruits and vegetables, 69
livestock, 69
pasture and forage, 38
vegetable guides, 53
Program, home demonstration, 58
Projects, 4-H, 30, 31
Promotional technique, 4-H,' 30
Published materials, 40
Pullets, 49

Radio, 41, 54
Reaves, C. W., 36
Resources, home demonstration, 76
Results, agronomy, 24
Rosenberger, Stanley E., 55
Rural telephones, 22

Safety, 12, 52
Savage, Zach, 34
Schools, cattlemen's, 23
citrus, 32
4-H, 29
livestock judging, 29
tractor maintenance, 30
wildlife, 29
Seed distribution, 23
Setting grove, 35
Sheehan, T. J., 47
Short courses, 22, 29
Shows and fairs, 25
Sikes, Anna Mae, 57
Silos, 25
Simpson, Katherine, 62
Skinner, Thomas C., 18
Slash pine, 45
Sorenson, J. A., 14
Sparks, T. W., 36
Staff changes, 9
State Beekeepers Association, 28
State Extension committee, 10
staff changes, 9


rative Extension


Structures, farm, 18
Statistical report, 11
Sturges, Lena E., 67
Sucker control, tobacco, 23
Summary, Extension work, 14
Summer school, 9
Supervision, county agents, 14
home demonstration, 57
Swine, 25

Teaching methods, 16
Telephones, 22
Television, 41
Testing dairy cows, 37
Textiles, 62
Tours, 33, 34
Tractor maintenance, 30
Training agents, 42
citrus program, 32
home demonstration, 59, 60
in-service, 79
personnel, 9
pre-service, 79
Tupelo, 45
Turkey management, 49

UN, 11

Vegetable activities, 53
agent training, 54
field days, 53
4-H leader training, 54
grower meetings, 53
merchandising, 55
other activities, 55
production guides, 53
radio and press releases, 54
Visual aids, 42, 64

Warren, Alma, 64
Watkins, Marshall 0., 8
Wildlife camp, 29
Wildlife management, 11
White cedar, 45
Wiring, electric, 20